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Tappeh Sialk - the Glory of Ancient Kashan

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TAPPEH SIALK THE GLORY OF ANCIENT KASHAN Edited by Jebrael Nokandeh John Curtis and Marielle Pic

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Iran Heritage Foundation 63 New Cavendish St London W1G 7LP contributing authors First edition published in 2019 All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission in writing of the Iran Heritage Foundation or as expressly permitted by law by licence or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organisation Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Publications Department Iran Heritage Foundation 63 New Cavendish St London W1G 7LP You must not circulate this book in any other form and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Data available Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Data available Typeset by Mach 3 Solutions Ltd Stroud Printed in Great Britain by CPI Anthony Rowe ISBN 978 1 9162538 0 3 Dedicated to Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadi Who founded The Sialk Reconsideration Project Iran Heritage Foundation Special Studies 1

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Contents 1 Editors Foreword vii Preface English viii Preface Persian ix An Introduction to Tappeh Sialk 1 JOHN CURTIS IRAN HERITAGE FOUNDATION 2 The Chronology of Tappeh Sialk from Local Development to Globalisation 5 HASSAN FAZELI NASHLI UNIVERSITY OF TEHRAN JEBRAEL NOKANDEH NATIONAL MUSEUM OF IRAN ROGER MATTHEWS UNIVERSITY OF READING 4 Sialk North Continuity and Change in Pottery Manufacture 16 ARMINEH KASPARI MARGHUSSIAN UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM 5 Proto Elamite Sites in Highland Iran the State of Research at Tappeh Sialk and Arisman 21 BARBARA HELWING UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY 6 Notes on the Connections between Tappeh Sialk and Hasanlu 27 MICHAEL DANTI AMERICAN SCHOOLS OF ORIENTAL RESEARCH BOSTON 7 Decorative Bricks of the Late Iron Age in Eastern Media Some Pieces from Sialk 32 REZA NASERI ZABOL UNIVERSITY MEHRDAD MALEKZADEH IRANIAN CENTRE FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH 8 A Note on the Late Iron Age Double Handled Tankards from Sialk 38 STEPHAN KROLL LUDWIG MAXIMILIANS UNIVERSITY MUNICH 9 Archaeobotanical Report about Tappeh Sialk North Mound First Impressions 40 HENGAMEH ILKHANI ALEXANDRA LIVARDA HASSAN FAZELI NASHLI 10 Tappeh Sialk Human and Animal Osteological Collections at the National Museum of Natural History Paris 45 MARJAN MASHKOUR C LINE BON CNRS PARIS NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM 11 Tappeh Sialk in the Louvre Material and Archives from the Ghirshman Excavations 56 FRAN OIS BRIDEY JULIEN CUNY LOUVRE MUSEUM 12 The Challenges in Preserving Tappeh Sialk 61 MOHSEN JAVERI UNIVERSITY OF KASHAN 13 The Restoration of Historic Buildings in Kashan 63 HOSSEIN MAHLOUJI KASHANICA FOUNDATION Appendix 66 Bibliography 68 v

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Editors Foreword We are very pleased to be able to present in this volume a selection of the papers delivered at the two Tappeh Sialk conferences held at Asia House in London on 31 March 2017 and 2 3 July 2018 respectively A full list of papers delivered at these conferences is given in an appendix at the end of the volume The publication of these papers is in line with the recommendations made in the closing ceremony of the second conference where it was agreed that i selected Johansen of the Iran Heritage Foundation has played a major part in organising the conferences and has helped greatly with the editing of this volume Elizabeth Stone has undertaken the Tappeh Sialk iii there should be further Sialk conferences initially one in Paris and iv a Sialk international advisory committee should be established It should be noted that because of shortage of time there has been no attempt in this volume to standardise the spelling of place names or common Iranian words which UK visas for the Iranian participants in the conferences and to HE Hamid Baedinejad the Iranian Ambassador to the UK who has supported the project throughout In Tehran Fereidoun Biglari has been a helpful point of contact We are grateful to the Trustees of the Iran Heritage Foundation who have generously and enthusiastically supported the Sialk project in particular Alireza Rastegar Ali Rashidian and Vahid Alaghband We are also indebted to the British Institute of Persian Studies which provided a grant towards the cost of the second conference As a mark of his great contribution to furthering knowledge about Tappeh Sialk this volume is dedicated to Professor Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadi is no such thing as a correct transliteration A number of people have helped with the arrangement of the conferences and the preparation of this volume Astrid Jebrael Nokandeh John Curtis Marielle Pic published as soon as possible ii a digital record should vii

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Preface Mohammad Hassan Talebian Deputy Director of the Iranian Ministry for Cultural Heritage Tourism and Handicrafts Behrouz Omrani Head of the Iranian Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and Tourism Tappeh Sialk near Kashan in Isfahan province is one of the most important archaeological sites not just in the Islamic Republic of Iran but in the whole of the Middle East For this reason on 22 May 1997 the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organisation submitted a request to UNESCO for Tappeh Sialk to be listed as a World Heritage Site It remains on Iran s tentative list and it is to be hoped that it will be inscribed as a World Heritage Site in the very near future The site was occupied for about 5 500 years from ca 6000 down to ca 550 and shows the continuous development of human civilisation from early farming communities down to the threshold of the great Achaemenid Persian Empire It provides an unparalleled cultural sequence against which other sites in the region can be measured Amongst the many artefacts found at the site are clay tablets that show the beginning of writing in ca 3200 In addition Tappeh Sialk is a treasure trove of information about diverse subjects such as palaeobotany palaeozoology palaeoanatomy diet climate change and ancient metallurgy Excavations here were conducted by French archaeologists in the 1930s and by Iranian teams after 2000 led by Professor Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadi and Professor Hassan Fazeli Nashli respectively To highlight the importance of this remarkable site the UK based Iran Heritage Foundation in collaboration with the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organisation the Mus e du Louvre and the British Institute of Persian Studies organised two international conferences at Asia House in London on 31 March 2017 and on 2 3 July 2018 respectively The events were attended by scholars France Germany the USA and Australia A selection of the papers delivered at these conferences is presented in this volume This exciting project to promote Tappeh Sialk and introduce it to a wider range of people has been supported throughout by colleagues in Kashan namely the Governor of Kashan Mr Hamid Reza Momenian Mr Hossein Mahlouji of the Kashan Cultural Heritage Foundation Kashanica Dr Mohsen Javeri of the University of Kashan and by HE Hamid Baedinejad Iranian Ambassador to the UK It is hoped that this initiative will lead to the formation of an international steering committee to protect Tappeh Sialk and this historic region of Iran viii

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1 Introduction to Tappeh Sialk JOHN CURTIS Tappeh Sialk in the outskirts of modern Kashan in central Iran is arguably the most important archaeological site in Iran before the Achaemenid period There was occupation at this site from around 6000 until at least 550 and although it was not uninterrupted Sialk has an archaeological sequence against which other sites in Iran can be measured Sialk also provides important evidence for a possible change in material culture and burial traditions that occurred in the Early Iron Age that is in the second half of the 2nd millennium Roman Ghirshman the original excavator of Tappeh Sialk associated this perceived cultural change with what he called the coming can climb to the top of the South Mound via a well constructed wooden walkway Before going further let us try to put Tappeh Sialk into context A glance at the map immediately shows us that Sialk has an important strategic location It is situated by an oasis on the edge of the Dasht e Kavir otherwise known as the Great Salt Desert and lies on an important trade route going towards south east Iran It is on a branch of the so called Great Khorassan Road which splits into two after Hamadan one branch heading towards Tehran and then eastwards to the south of the Caspian Sea and another towards Kashan Isfahan and Kerman It is this location and the abundance of water that also accounts for the later importance of Kashan The availability of water is clearly evidenced at the nearby Fin Garden or Bagh e Fin In its present form the garden dates from the time of Shah Abbas 1571 1629 with an enlargement in the 19th century With the streams of water running through the garden and dividing it into segments and with its many cypress trees it is a typical Persian garden It was here in the baths that the Qajar chancellor Amir Kabir was murdered on the orders of Nasr ed Din Shah in 1852 Bagh e Fin was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on 18 July 2012 Medes and Persians but this is a controversial matter that is still debated today Some scholars e g Fahimi 2013 believe that the grey ware allegedly associated with the newcomers is a development of local Bronze Age forms and that archaeological evidence does not support the case for an Indo European invasion at this time However that may be Tappeh Sialk is of course central to this discussion The ancient site of Tappeh Sialk consists of two large mounds about 5 km to the south west of the centre of Kashan The site has now been swallowed up by the rapidly expanding modern city so that it is presently in the suburbs of Kashan The two mounds of Sialk are about 600 m apart The North Mound measures approximately 320 110 m with a maximum height of 8 38 m Ghirshman 1938 9 I 9 while the South Mound is about 260 m 190 m with a maximum height of 25 5 m Ghirshman 1938 9 I 34 In addition there are two cemeteries Necropolis A to the south of the South Mound and Necropolis B B1 B2 to the west of the South Mound The two mounds of Sialk were registered as Iranian historical and cultural monuments on 15 September 1931 Malek Shahmirzadi 2002 1 and Sialk is currently no 6 on Iran s tentative list of sites for world heritage status Nowadays the site is accessed through a small visitor centre which also sells tickets and visitors were undertaken by the French archaeologist Roman Ghirshman He tells us 1935 229 that in the course of 1933 he was informed by Andr Godard Director of the Iranian Antiquities Service that painted pottery vases from Kashan were appearing on the market in Tehran and this encouraged him to start working at Sialk Only and he used them to dig a series of sondages There were further seasons in 1934 and 1937 The results of the excavations were written up with commendable speed and were published in 1938 9 Roman Mikhailovich Ghirshman 1895 1979 was born in what is now Ukraine and after 1

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studying archaeology and ancient languages in Paris he was appointed Director of the French Archaeological Mission in Persia in 1931 and began an association with Iran that was to last more than 40 years Before the Second World War apart from Sialk he also worked at Tappeh Giyan and Bishapur and after the war at sites including Susa Choga Zanbil Masjid e Suleiman and Bard e Nechandeh Throughout his career he was at pains to write up the results of his researches and for this he deserves much credit He also wrote a number of semi popular books and although some of his theories have been derided by revisionist historians there is no doubt that he made a major contribution to studies of Ancient Iran At the time of the Ghirshman excavations foreign excavators still They investigated the Neolithic settlements in Sialk North Mound and the transition to Early Chalcolithic They also techniques to analyse material found in the excavations Even more recently in 2015 Dr Mohsen Javari of the University of Kashan and the Director of the Kashan Cultural Heritage Organization dug a series of sondages in the plain around the two mounds to determine the extent of ancient settlement This was a very important exercise because in recent years there has been increasing encroachment on the site both by farmers and by developers building new houses A top priority is to establish and enforce an exclusion zone around the site which will probably be a prerequisite for accepting it as a world heritage site Although human settlement in the Kashan region is known to go back to the Palaeolithic period as described by Fereidoun Biglari in the second Sialk conference 1 at Sialk itself occupation begins in the Neolithic period in around 6000 This was in the North Mound and lasted until approximately 4900 early occupation on the North Mound as levels I and II and it extended into the Transitional Chalcolithic period In these early periods there was already painted pottery season so half the objects that Ghirshman found are now in the Louvre while half remained in Tehran found at Sialk after 1972 has remained in Iran Material from Sialk both from Ghirshman s and later excavations is now on display in the National Museum of Iran both upstairs in the new prehistoric galleries arranged since Dr Nokandeh became Director and downstairs Some of the Sialk material in the National Museum also featured in the wonderful Iranian exhibition in Bonn in 2017 Helwing 2017 passim There were also some Sialk ceramics in the exhibition on the human animal bond shown in the National Museum in 2014 Biglari Abdi 2014 passim After the end of Ghirshman s excavations there was to be a hiatus of 65 years before further work was undertaken at the site This was on the initiative of Professor Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadi who in January 2001 with the support of the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organisation founded the Sialk Reconsideration Project In the course bodies of children were found in urns Artefacts were scarce Roger Matthews has set the Neolithic period at Tappeh Sialk in a wider Iranian context and Hassan Fazeli Nashli and Jebrael Nokandeh have reviewed the chronology of the Neolithic and later periods at Sialk Fazeli Nashli together with Hengameh Ilkhani and Alexandra botanical samples from the Neolithic levels There is then a gap of around 800 years until 4100 when occupation resumes on the site of the South Mound and continues through the Bronze and into the Iron Age Particularly characteristic of level III at Sialk and dating from the 4th millennium is pottery painted with a remarkable range of animal designs including birds ibexes stags and goats 2 present as is a wide range of geometric motifs Common forms are beakers footed goblets bowls and jars The highlight of the subsequent level IV occupation is a shortlived phase often known as Proto Elamite dating from the December 2005 Professor Malek Shahmirzadi and his team worked on both the Sound Mound and the North Mound and contributed a great deal of valuable new information This is presented in a series of reports which like those of Ghirshman appeared with commendable promptness Malek Shahmirzadi 2002 2003 2004 2006 2012 Also under the umbrella of the Sialk Reconsideration Project Michael Danti then of Penn Museum undertook an archaeological survey around Sialk in 2005 and found 16 sites mostly of Islamic date It is a matter of great regret that Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadi was not able to attend either of the conferences in London This volume is dedicated to him in recognition of the great contribution he has made to Sialk studies Excavations were resumed in 2008 9 by Professor Hassan Fazeli Nashli of the University of Tehran who worked in collaboration with Professor Robin Coningham 2 1 F Biglari Palaeolithic hunter gatherers at the edge of the central desert archaeological evidence from the Kashan region paper delivered 3 July 2018 2 At the Sialk conference on 2 July 2018 Sima Yadollahi gave a talk entitled Symbols and styles on Sialk III pottery and their roles in understanding cognitive systems

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late 4th or early 3rd millennium This is sometimes Both institutions are part of the National Museum of Natural History of Paris MNHN The Iron Age occupation at Tappeh Sialk has been the subject of a special study by Dr Hamid Fahimi Fahimi 2013 based on the 2001 5 excavations and it is a matter of regret that he was not able to attend either of the two Sialk conferences He demonstrates that occupation on Sialk South continues after Period VI the period represented in Necropolis B and he divides this new period VII into two subphases 1a and 1b Stefan Kroll has compared three double handled pottery tankards Ghirshman 1938 9 II pl IV found in a sondage au sud de la colline sud with Median type pottery from Godin Tappeh Bastam Nush i Jan and elsewhere and concludes that Median culture sophisticated economy at places such as Sialk is demonstrated by the discovery there by Ghirshman of 22 clay tablets written in Proto Elamite script Barbara Helwing reviews this Proto Elamite period on the South Mound and shows that the material culture of this period comprises standard size mudbricks mass produced ceramics such as bevelled rim bowls and cylinder seals in addition to the inscribed clay tablets She demonstrates how Sialk IV is related to a widespread culture that is manifest in Mesopotamia and at other sites in Iran such as Arisman Susa and Ozbaki The ensuing Bronze Age levels at Tappeh Sialk are not well documented but the Early Iron Age covering the end of the 2nd millennium and the early 1st millennium called by Ghirshman Level V is represented by an extensive cemetery known as Necropolis A In this cemetery 15 undisturbed graves were excavated by Ghirshman Contemporary with Necropolis B is a great mass of brickwork on the south side of the top of the Sialk South Mound that Ghirshman described as la grande construction It measures some 56 m 45 m Malek Shahmirzadi 2002 3 and was possibly associated with a fortress wall This gigantic mudbrick structure was interpreted by Dr Malek Shahmirzadi as a Proto Elamite ziggurat but not all scholars agree with this dating and many would prefer to see it as an Iran Age structure In this volume Reza Naseri and Mehrdad Malekzadeh review the stamped bricks found in association with la grande construction and concur with Ghirshman that they date to the Iron Age They also occur at three other sites and in the view of Naseri and Malekzadeh they are a hallmark of the Median period They describe the motifs which are grave goods included some bronze items stone beads and monochrome grey to black and red burnished wares Later in the Iron Age the dead were interred in another cemetery known as Necropolis B This second Iron Age period at Tappeh Sialk is referred to by Ghirshman as Period VI In this very rich cemetery 218 graves were excavated by Ghirshman but not all are described in the publication The graves were sealed by six to eight slabs of stone or terracotta the latter reserved for the very richest graves amount of monochrome burnished ware a larger number of iron artefacts and a large number of beautifully painted beak spouted jugs 3 These are generally red paint on cream and show designs such as horned animals with arched necks It was the discovery of pottery vessels of this type in illegal excavations that had drawn Ghirshman to Tappeh on the painted pottery and glyptic found in Cemetery B Sialk VI period It follows therefore that if the stamped bricks are of this period so is the structure to which they belong For this reason Naseri and Malekzadeh date la grande construction to the Iron II III periods So if they are correct what was this great mass of brickwork In his lecture at the conference Professor Fazeli suggested that la grande construction was a building with a religious purpose that may have had some connection with an early form of Zoroastrianism However there is another possible explanation It could perhaps have been a platform or takht to serve as a substructure for a monumental building or buildings The examples that we are familiar with date mostly from the Achaemenid period but it is certainly conceivable that such platforms could have existed earlier in the pre Achaemenid Median period In the Achaemenid period monumental buildings were sometimes constructed on an elevated platform or takht that might have been adapted from a natural feature as at include bronze and iron horse trappings horse bits and cheek pieces and there is even a terracotta board game of the type known the game of 58 holes Medvedskaya dates the horse harness from Sialk Necropolis B to the 8th century Medvedskaya 2017 178 Some of the human skeletal remains from the two cemeteries collected by Ghirshman are now in Paris in the Mus e de l Homme Marjan Mashkour and C line Bon review this material as well as animal bones from Sialk that are now in the Institut de Pal ontologie Humaine 3 Isolated examples of the distinctive Sialk pottery generally without provenance are to found in a number of museums around the world including the British Museum e g the Tall e Takht or created by levelling and remodelling 3

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an existing mound as at Susa At Persepolis a raised terrace measuring about 455 m 300 m was cut from the mountainside while at Pasargadae a raised platform was created with an outer face of massive stone blocks and a central core of limestone chips Stronach 1978b 11 23 This platform was apparently created by Cyrus as part of a building programme probably for an elevated palace that was aborted when attention switched to Persepolis and Susa At Susa the whole of the top of the Apadana Mound was levelled to create a takht on which to build the Necropolis B ceramics look comparatively late for example the warrior on a beak spouted vessel of Sialk volume Figs 7 5c 7 6a seems to be wearing an akinakes the typically Achaemenid form of short sword in a distinctively shaped scabbard However the form could indeed be pre Achaemenid so this does not prove anything If traces of Achaemenid settlement really are missing at Sialk the only possible explanation is that the Achaemenid city is buried under modern Kashan Although the origins of the city are known to go back only to the early Islamic period it is very likely that occupation levels dating from the pre Islamic Achaemenid Parthian and Sasanian periods 5th century 7th century are all beneath the modern city These early levels at Kashan have not yet been properly investigated but their existence is actually suspected through some clandestine operations The origins of the modern city of Kashan go back to the early Islamic period if not before and a substantial fortress in the middle of the city dates from the Seljuk period As described in a lecture by Professor Oliver Watson 4 in the 12th 13th centuries Kashan was a centre of ceramic innovation famous for its minai enamelled ware lustre pottery and lustre tiles This innovation was made possible through the introduction of fritware or stone paste ware consisting of ground quartz which had been developed in Egypt Kashan wares were widely exported but the sites of the potters workshops in Kashan possible that the terrace at Masjid i Sulaiman Ghirhman takht created in the Achaemenid period There is then good evidence that in the Achaemenid period royal palaces and other buildings were sometimes constructed on elevated platforms Of course if la grande construction at Tappeh Sialk was indeed a platform or takht it would have been on a much smaller scale that the Achaemenid examples we have just looked at but if it dates from the pre Achaemenid period as suggested by Naseri and Malekzadeh this would not be particularly surprising This brings us onto the question of the date Naseri and Malekzadeh point to parallels between the stamped designs on the bricks and motifs on the pottery and glyptic art found in Necropolis B As we have seen Medvedskaya dates the horse harness found in Sialk Necropolis B to the 8th century However we know that some pottery found in the Sialk South Mound post dates Necrolis B and the pottery tankards described by Kroll are presumably 7th century in date This raises the intriguing possibility that la grande construction might date from the 7th century or even later although in this case we would have to assume that Necropolis B was also occupied into the 7th century Lastly is there any possibility that la grande construction might even be of Achaemenid date The absence of material of apparent Achaemenid date at Tappeh Sialk is perplexing It is inconceivable that a site famous for its carpets A disastrous earthquake in 1778 destroyed most of the city and there were apparently 8 000 casualties However the city was rebuilt in the late houses dating from this period Kashan has more examples of traditional Persian architecture than any other city in Iran Particularly famous buildings of this type are the Tabatabaei House the Boroujerdi House and the Manouchehri House which is now a boutique hotel but there are many others Many of the initiatives that have been undertaken to restore historic properties in Kasjan were encouraged by the Kashanica Foundation whose work is described in this volume by Hossein Mahlouji 5 important Achaemenid centre Either there is Achaemenid material at Sialk and we have failed to recognise it or the Achaemenid settlement is elsewhere It is worth remarking in passing however that some of the painted designs on 4 4 Professor Oliver Watson s talk The Early Islamic Period at Kashan was given at the second Sialk conference on 3 July 2018 The lecture is not published in this volume 5 An IHF lecture in Asia House on 25 January 2017 by Seyyed Akbar Helli a master builder also focused on the restoration of historic houses in Kashan

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2 The Chronology of Tappeh Sialk from Local Development to Globalisation HASSAN FAZELI NASHLI JEBRAEL NOKANDEH Introduction 1 2 Late Neolithic I the development of local societies Late Neolithic II the regionalisation of Sialk I societies 3 Transitional Chalcolithic and the globalisation of Sialk II culture 4 Early Chalcolithic period Sialk III1 3 5 Middle Chalcolithic period Sialk III4 5 6 Late Chalcolithic period Sialk III6 7 7 Proto Elamite Uruk period Early Literature period Early Bronze Age Sialk IV 8 Middle and Late Bronze Age 9 Iron Age Sialk VI and VI 10 Achaemenid period From the 1990s onwards numerous chronological studies of the archaeological sites of the central plateau of Iran have provided us with a good understanding of social and cultural developments in this region across time and space This chapter focuses on the chronology of Sialk as a regional example of the early development of human societies from the Neolithic to the Achaemenid period Before the 1930s Iranian archaeology was in its infancy and most of the French teams had focused on Susa But with the gradual internationalisation of the discipline archaeologists began to focus on other parts of Iran such as Tappeh Sialk Figs 2 1 and 2 2 in order to establish an independent chronology for the country Sialk was initially targeted because of the appearance of Iron Age ceramics on the antiquity market in Paris but Roman Ghirshman was clever enough not to limit himself to these antiquities and did valuable work identi The Late Neolithic period Sialk I The north central plateau of Iran lies between the Zagros mountains to the west and the Alburz mountains to the north and the interconnection of people over time and space However parts of the north central plateau are under the shadow of the great Kavir desert which has concentrated the population in fertile lands from the Neolithic onwards In terms of the origin of Neolithic culture in Iran the central Zagros is the heartland of Neolithisation While there are basic questions still unanswered related to the spread of Neolithic farmers across Iran it seems that a fundamentally new lifestyle spread across the region from 8000 onwards from the central Zagros to the other regions of Iran The oldest Pre pottery Neolithic site in the southern Alburz is the site of Sang e Chakhmaq dating to the late 8th millennium Thornton 2013 It is also important to mention a recent paper by Feridoun Biglari close to Damavand which signals pre pottery stone assemblages but this needs further investigation at the Kavir desert His division of the cultural sequences of Sialk South and North into various phases still provides a valuable model today However Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadi s Sialk Reconsideration Project 2001 6 provided a more secure radiocarbon chronology for Sialk South It is pleasing to mention that a new phase of investigation started in 2008 9 on Tappeh Sialk North directed by Hassan Fazeli Nashli from the University of Tehran with the assistance of Robin Coningham from Durham University UK This provided secure information relating to the dating of the site during the Neolithic and Transitional Chalcolithic periods Figs projects mentioned the chronology of Tappeh Sialk can be divided into the following ten periods 5

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Table 2 1 Cultural Period Sialk North Achaemenid Period Iron Age Bronze Age Chalcolithic Transitional Chalcolithic Late Neolithic Sialk South Start 530 Iron Age III Iron Age II Iron Age I Late Bronze Age Middle Bronze Age Early Bronze Age Proto literate 3400 2900 Late LC 3700 3400 Middle MC 4000 3700 Early EC 4300 4000 Late TC II 4600 4300 Early TC I 5200 4600 Start 800 end 530 Start 1200 end 800 Start 1500 end 1200 Start 2000 end 1500 Start 2900 end 2000 Start 3400 end 2900 800 year gap Start 5145 end 4900 Late LN II 5600 5200 Early LN I 6000 5600 Start 5380 end 5250 Start 5715 end 3600 Start 3790 end 3400 Start 3940 end 3790 Start 4100 end 3940 site of Qaleh Asgar Biglari 2012 The 2017 excavations at Tappeh Komishani revealed a mid 9th millennium date at least 1 000 years earlier than the Neolithic site of Sang e Chakhmaq and indicates early management of food production and animal husbandry on the south shoreline of the Caspian Sea Therefore based on current informa south of the Qazvin plain So far three important Late Neolithic sites in the Kashan plain Tappeh Sialk North Ghabristan of Noshabad and Shorabeh Tappeh have revealed Late Neolithic material cultures Tappeh Sialk North with 14 m of Late Neolithic cultural layers represents the best example of a farming society in Iran The site also shows when the earliest such as Kashan where the Neolithic period is not much older than 6000 when the Pottery Neolithic starts The origins of Neolithic pottery are also problematic in the north central plateau While we know that Neolithic on sites such as Tappeh Ali kosh Darabi 2018 Rahmatabad Azizi et al 2013 and Gav Koshi Soleimani Fazeli Nashli 2019 Neolithic ceramics in the North Central region started much later after ca 6200 with a local pottery style Analysis of new information for the 7th millennium shows that the date of sites such as Sialk Cheshmeh Ali Chahar Boneh Ebrabim Abad and Tappeh Pardis goes back to the Late Neolithic period with the two main phases of Late Neolithic 1 and 2 During the Late Neolithic 1 most farming villages had their own local ceramic traditions while during the second phase of the Late Neolithic period there are traces of interconnections and regionalism Within the Qazvin plain sites such as Chahar Boneh date back to the Late Neolithic I 6000 5600 and Late Neolithic II 5600 5200 whilst Ebrahim Abad dates to the Late Neolithic II 5600 5200 However the style of pottery decoration and forms of the two Neolithic sites are quite dissimilar and reveal of the 6th millennium became a regional society during the later periods of the 6th millennium Chronologically the Late Neolithic ceramics of Tappeh Sialk show stylistic change and technology through the period It should also be proposed relative chronology for the Neolithic period He recorded four main pottery types for the Neolithic period 1 Black on Cream 2 Black on Red 3 Coarse Wares and 4 Black Wares Ghirshman 1938 9 11 Fazeli et al 2013 Neolithic sites in the Iranian central region such as the 4 ha Tappeh Sialk village were interconnected to each other in the second half of the 6th millennium and the introduction alisation for this period Figs 2 5 and 2 6 With simple irrigation systems the economy was based on the growing of wheat and barley and the herding of cattle goats sheep and pigs though wild resources continued to be exploited during the Late Neolithic period Among the best evidence for religious thought in this period Roman Ghirshman which is a unique discovery for the Late Neolithic period Fig 2 7 6

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The transitional Chalcolithic period and the globalisation of the Sialk II culture The Early Chalcolithic period and the interconnection of the central plateau with the central Zagros and south western Iran Globalisation is a useful term for understanding the spread of the Sialk II Cheshmeh Ali culture During the Transitional Chalcolithic the Sialk II ceramic style spread across the north central plateau the north east the east and the north of Iran and Turkmenistan Globalisation is a means of understanding how local societies were absorbed into much larger geographic areas The Sialk II culture preserved social inequality during the Late Chalcolithic period The occupation of Sialk North continued into the 5th millennium with the introduction of major new technologies such as the production of smelt copper and innovations in ceramic manufacture Tappeh Sialk South became very important from the last quarter of the 5th millennium until the end of the Iron Age Fig 2 10 The Chalcolithic phases at Sialk are known as Sialk III1 3 The sequence begins in Sialk South between 4288 and 3955 cal 4069 3970 cal at 68 median 4033 cal Pollard et al 2013 The c14 dates from the neighbouring site of Arisman are also very helpful for revising and placing the chronology of Sialk III in a micro regional setting G rsdorf 2011 Helwing 2011 However this sequence is not attested at Sialk North and one of the mysteries of Sialk is that from 4900 to 4100 there is a gap until a new settlement was founded 1 km to the south known as Sialk South Why such a gap occurred is still unknown although we assume this interruption comes from environmental instability during the 5th millennium Kourampas et al 2013 However slight evidence of Sialk II and Sialk III ceramics was found in Trench B in the area around the site of Tepe Sialk Rostaei 2002 Nokandeh 2010 which indicates that further work is probably needed beyond the current mounds of Tepe Sialk to understand the context of occupation during the Sialk II and Sialk III1 3 periods Once Sialk South was founded however it continued to be occupied into the Iron Age The Early Chalcolithic period at Tappeh Sialk South is represented by a very short occupation less than 100 years but from other sites such as Qara Tappeh of Qumroad Tappeh Ghabristan and Cheshmeh Ali we know that there was cultural interregional interaction of the Iranian central plateau with south western Iran Fars and north western Iran The excavation of Qara Tappeh on the Qomrud plain has changed our view of the nature of interactions in the north central plateau with the other societies of Iran during the 5th millennium Kaboli 2005 Qara Tappeh 320X275 8 has and 11 m high is one of the largest sites on the ancient road connecting Qom with the ancient city of Rayy In the whole sequence of the site Bakun pottery from Fars province was found with the typical Sialk II and III1 3 Transitional and Early Chalcolithic periods Kaboli noted the increasing level of contact between Fars and south western Iran with the Iranian central plateau during the last quarter of the 5th millennium while such connection had started in the early 5th millennium Fig 12 No 5 In the other parts of the central plateau Qazvin Eshtehard and the Tehran plain there was a strong relationship with the societies of the central Zagros Godin VII indicating the complex socio economic transformation in the last quarter of the 5th millennium Godin VII is an important period with delicate designs The stratigraphic information from the two important sites of Cheshmeh Ali and Tappeh the Transitional Chalcolithic period It is likely that most Early Transitional Chalcolithic ceramics were independently produced across the villages of north central Iran rather than in one centre Two regional Chalcolithic ceramics were recorded at Tappeh Sialk one is a painted black on red ceramic which is widely distributed across most parts of north central Iran and beyond the second is standard ware to date found in the Qazvin plain Zagheh Shahmirzadi 1977 and was subsequently found in the Transitional Chalcolithic levels at Tappeh Sialk North in the upper layers of Ebrahim Abad and in many settlements of the Qazvin plain Fazeli et al 2013 indicating the interaction of the two most important regions during the Transitional Chalcolithic period The very pale brown of Zagheh standard ware pottery externally covered was mainly used as cooking ware At Sialk the occupation of Sialk II culture is of much shorter duration than at other Transitional Chalcolithic II Cheshmeh Ali ceramics into the following forms cup bowls with narrow concave bases spouted bowls hemispherical and closed bowls shallow and deep bowls on pedestal feet basket handled pots and concave sided cups Dyson 1991 Although most of the ceramics the ceramics Fazeli et al designs were applied on burnished orange to red slip wares Figs 2 8 and 2 9 7

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in the central Zagros of Iran and chronologically covers the last quarter of the 5th millennium BC continuing into the early 4th millennium Also it is necessary to mention that traces of Godin ceramics Plume Ware are visible at sites such as Ghabristan Ozbaki Eshtehard and Tepe Pardis indicating strong relationships between the central Zagros and the central plateau of Iran Fazeli 2011 Majidzadeh 2010 tant stylistic changes in Sialk III period pottery from Tappeh Sialk Fig 2 11 and shown how the Sialk III1 3 ceramic style became more important during the Middle Chalcolithic period Figs 2 12 and 2 13 indicate the main ceramic forms and decorative style of Sialk III phases 1 3 pottery from Tappeh Sialk and other contemporary sites in the central plateau of Iran The main innovation is ceramic beakers Fig 2 13 top right and the emergence of leopards on the Sialk III1 3 ceramics from Tappeh Qara Tappeh Fig 2 12 no 7 and a snake between streams of water with a goat Fig 2 12 nos 6 and 7 There are new ceramic forms with the use of a fast wheel such painting from the Early Chalcolithic period developed during the middle Chalcolithic period Production of large storage jars became predominant during the Middle Chalcolithic period Fazeli et al 2013 and in Sialk two The Middle Chalcolithic period and the parallel developments of Sialk communities string cut bases burnished grey ware Fig 2 22 Uruk trays and bevelled rim bowls Fig 2 23 and seals and seal impressions Nokandeh 2002 2010 Nokandeh of snakes rippling water and geometric designs Figs 2 12 2 13 2 14 and 2 15 Groups of people dancing of the Middle Chalcolithic period at Tappeh Sialk Fig 2 16 Ghirshman reported a variety of stamp seals from the Sialk III period most of which belong to the Middle Chalcolithic period see Figs 2 17 and 2 18 and illustrate administrative practices The Late Chalcolithic Period and the End of Local Culture The Late Chalcolithic period 3700 3400 is characterised by increased interaction between the communities of the Iranian central plateau the Central Zagros north east Iran and Mesopotamia as attested Sialk South has become one of the classic sites of the 4th millennium with a socio cultural development paralleled in other parts of Iran including south western Iran and Fars The transition at the site from Early Chalcolithic to Middle Chalcolithic took place between 4002 and 3853 cal 3976 3911 cal at 68 median 3942 cal The Middle Chalcolithic period 4000 3700 is characterised by increased interaction between the Iranian central plateau south western Iran the central Zagros mountains and Mesopotamia Whereas the Early Chalcolithic period occupation at Tappeh Sialk was short the site was occupied for the whole of the Middle Chalcolithic period Iran generally is rich in metal unlike Mesopotamia so here we can see a development of metallurgy not only in copper but to Late Chalcolithic occurred between 3916 and 3582 cal 3858 3711 cal at 68 median 3786 cal ceramics from Tappeh Sialk have often been found in Late Chalcolithic period deposits at sites such as Tappeh Ghabristan Tappeh Maymoonabad Arisman and Godin indicating that a degree of interaction and communication had been established with the Central Western Zagros during the second half of the 4th millennium Fazeli et al 2013 Rothman Badler 2011 120 Common forms include vertical and inverted rim hemispherical bowls of shallow to medium depth some with a pedestal base and usually a thin wash applied on both surfaces Most motifs consist of geometric designs but stylised animals such as goats leopards cattle and birds were found in abundance not only at Sialk but also at the many contemporary sites in the central plateau of Iran At Sialk as at other contemporary Late Chalcolithic sites string cut bases were recorded Potter s wheels were silver ornament in the world A major feature of the recent excavations has been the excavation of a metal worker s shop and early metal working hearths have been discovered at Sialk and also Arisman Malek Shahmirzadi 2012 Nokandeh 2003 2004 2010 Nokandeh Fahimi 2003 Nokandeh Nezafati 2003 Helwing 2006a 2011 Fig 2 11 shows the characteristic geometric depictions of animals plants geometric designs and human shapes of the Middle Chalcolithic period of Tappeh Sialk which of time spent on ceramic production Bevelled rim bowls provide another example of supra regional interconnections between the Iranian central plateau with its neighbours as found in Sialk Ghabristan Maymoonabad and Cheshmeh Ali 8

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Nokandeh s study of Tappeh Sialk south Nokandeh 2010 indicates that from the last phase of Sialk III6 7 we have new forms of ceramics popularly known as Uruk pottery Based on this discovery we believe there was a mixture of local of ceramics of the Sialk III period with newly found Uruk pottery in the latest Late Chalcolithic levels This means that we have not only a transitional layer at Sialk but also evidence of an interaction of the Sialk communities with south western Iran wares including bevelled rim bowls BRBs Uruk trays and string cut base SCB wares occur alongside the a standard architectural layout a 5 37 m long wall place was constructed found at many late 4th millennium sites including Tappeh Yahya Potts 1977 Godin Tappeh VI Rothman Badler 2011 Malyan and Sialk IV1 Ghirshman 1938 9 Between 3400 and 2900 horizons appear in north central Iran the so called ProtoElamite protoliterate and the Kura Araxes cultures mostly in the Qazvin plain Fazeli et al 2013 So far there is no Kura Araxes culture in the Kashan plain but there were strong connections between the community of Sialk and south western Iran and Mesopotamia cant disruption across the length and breadth of Iran characterised archaeologically by the abandonment of rural settlements and urban social and economic developments Helwing 2013 Houses of late Chalcolithic western Mesopotamian side The production of grey ware ceramics in the north central plateau has a long history and goes back to the Sialk III4 5 period of the 4th millennium Sites such as Tappeh Sialk Tepe Ghabristan and Tepe Ozbaki show that grey ware ceramics were made in the context of Sialk III local traditions This tradition was continued at Sofalin during the Pro Elamite period with wheel made burnished grey ware and is the best example of how the grey ware ceramic tradition developed during the 4th millennium that in the late fourth and early 3rd millennium C the burnished grey ware of Sofalin can be compared with that of Hissar in north eastern Iran and Narges Tepe in the Gorgan plain This reveals the extent of the interaction between the central plateau and north eastern Iran during the Late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Nokandeh 2010 Fazeli et al 2013 Majidzadeh 2010 et al 2019 in press by a new architectural layout which in 1934 Ghirshman saw as representing a brutal conquest by incomers from were mainly painted with a dark colour sometimes over The Early Bronze Age Sialk IV period Proto Elamite pottery into various categories from tall cylindrical jars to bowls on pedestal bases The two types of shallow and deep bevelled rim bowls from Sialk are comparable with Ghabristan IV Godin Tappeh V VI and Susa II According to Dahl 2009 2012 Proto Elamite was inspired by proto cuneiform from neighbouring Mesopotamia but Fran ois Desset 2016 disagrees that Proto Elamite was a secondary script suggesting it was not inspired by proto cuneiform It is certainly true that Proto Elamite and proto cuneiform are contemporary as they were sister societies in the highlands of Iran and Mesopotamia However a writing system The transition from Late Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age I took place between 3682 and 3324 cal 3632 3385 cal at 68 median 3503 cal and according to current data there is a short gap between the end of the Late Chalcolithic and the beginning of the Bronze Age at Tappeh Sialk With the end of the Sialk III 7b ceramic tradition in most settlements of the north central plateau of Iran the new ceramics of Sialk IV appeared with a number of innovations Figs 2 24 2 25 and 2 26 Barbara Helwing believes this was a rapid and disruptive cultural change Helwing 2013 but some archaeologists believe that some traditions of Sialk et al 2015 As we mentioned above Tappeh Sialk south provides evidence for a transitional layer from Sialk III to Sialk IV without any interruption The results of excavation at Tepe Maymoonabad show the same as Sialk a mixing of old ceramic tradition with the new ceramic north eastward direction from Susa to Sialk to Ozbaki to Sofalin However the c14 dates show that the beginning of Proto Elamite is 3200 3100 and that Sialk was abandoned at the end of the 4th millennium As there is a gap between 3400 and 3200 on the Sialk South Mound we can assume Tappeh Sialk was only occupied for 100 years during the Proto Elamite period 9

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The Kashan plain during the Middle Bronze Age and Iron Age 2 There is no history of occupation in the 3rd millennium and for most parts of the 2nd millennium at Tappeh Sialk but here we would like to point out that during the 2nd millennium the central plateau again became important and emerged as a crossroads of culture and the Kashan plain was populated from 2000 onwards The settlement history of the 2nd millennium in the vast area of the Iranian central plateau the north and northeast of Iran is very diverse demonstrating inconsistency of settlement patterns One of the big issues is the relationship between sites abandoned in north eastern Iran and Khorasan from the early 2nd millennium onwards and the emergence of Bronze Age sites on the Iranian central plateau Sites such as Tepe Qoli Darvish and Tepe Sagzabad with a size of 12 ha were reoccupied from the early 2nd millennium BC and grey ware ceramics continued from Bronze Age to Iron Age levels without any interruption Sarlak Hessari 2018 Both Tepe Shizar and Sagzabad were occupied around 1882 cal Qoli Darvish in Qum is another site where occupation started ca 2088 cal and ended ca 1857 cal Pollard et al 2013 According to Ali Mousavi 2008 110 in the Late Bronze Age in north eastern Iran there was an urban crisis which forced the population to reorganise themselves economically He pointed out that due to population pressure and environmental problems most major centres were abandoned before 1550 ibid 113 and 117 During the early 3rd millennium Gohar Tappeh was an urban centre extending over about 30 ha Mahfroozi et al 2010 27 but the site shrank from the second half of the 3rd millennium and this 3 As we mentioned above the central plateau was the core region for the production of grey ware ceramics during the 4th millennium but due to the lack of reliable data between the communities of the 4th and 2nd millennia in the central plateau of Iran It is also interesting to point out that the burnished grey ware of the 2nd millennium was previously linked with ethnic identity and a group of people who migrated from the eastern part of Iran to central Iran It is important to note here that before the new chronological studies and the use of c14 date dates archaenium BC sites as Iron Age while most of the Iron Age sites date back to the second half of the 2nd millennium At Estark Joshaqan the shape and form of Middle Bronze Age grey ware ceramics is similar to Iron Age ceramics and indicates 800 years of stylistic continuity from Bronze to Iron Age The decorative techniques especially the burnished grey and black pottery wares of Qoli Darvish are another example of such a cultural dynamic in the 2nd millennium in the north central plateau of Iran Sarlak Hessari 2018 This means that most Bronze Age ceramic tradition and technological innovation started in the early 2nd millennium with the production of dark grey ware and developed into light burnished grey ware in the Iron Age late 2nd millennium Hosseinzadeh et al 2019 in press Another thing to bear in mind is the cycle of population movements and the interaction between Central Asia Oxus civilisation and Andronovo culture and Iran during the 2nd millennium Luneau 2019 Ancient cattle genome studies imply population movements and migration from Central Asia to Iran from 4 000 years of the 2nd millennium ca 1600 Other sites such as Tureng Tappeh Shah Tappeh Yarim Tappeh Narges Tappeh and Tappeh Hissar IIIC were abandoned suddenly during the Bronze Age 2nd millennium One of the main problems of north eastern Iran is that there is no precise data to show when these sites were abandoned so we cannot interconnect the cycle of collapse Regardless of this collapse we can see here successive phases of intercommunication within the central plateau based on the ceramic and non ceramic data The ceramics data consists of 1 The reappearance of burnished grey ware demonstrates a strong intercultural connection between north eastern and northern Iran and the central plateau during the 2nd millennium and also reveals how the Early Bronze Age ceramic industry of the early 2nd millennium became more advanced technologically during the later phase of the 2nd millennium Techno cultural similarities with Central Asia appeared in the central plateau with the introduction of steppe coarse ware This light reddish pottery is hand made with punch or comb designs which are similar to Central Asian Andronovo ceramics Luneau 2017 Hossainzadeh et al 2019 We should also note that there is some new archaeological evidence both from pottery decoration and style and from mortuary practices that shows some similarity with those steppe cultures Polychrome pottery ware from sites such as Tepe Sagzabad and Tepe Shizar in the Qazvin plain and Qoli Darvish indicates the relationship between Haftvan VIb in north western Iran and the central plateau 10

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ago onwards the movement of cattle being dependent on human agency Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows that hybrid cattle appeared in the vast region from Central Asia to the Near East indicating cultural contact between these communities during the 2nd millennium BC This provides evidence for how and when the population of Central Asia met with the central plateau societies Verdugo et al 2019 The ceramic assemblage of Estark Joshaqan consists of grey ware pottery and light reddish pottery which is hand made with punch or comb decoration similar to the Central Asian Andronovo group Javad Hosseinzadeh s preliminary studies indicate that traces of Andronovo ceramics are visible not only in Estark Joshaqan but also in Saram and Qoli Darvish Therefore it is meaningful to assume movements of population and interaction of populations in all parts of the central plateau with those in Central Asia north east Iran north Iran and north west Iran during the 2nd millennium However we need more archeogenetic studies to be able to link archaeological data with DNA results The emergence of cemetery sites is one of the characteristic features of the 2nd millennium in north central Iran at sites such as Estark Joshaqan Sialk cemetery A and Tepe Pardis Khorvin and Qetariyeh had very rich grave At the beginning of the Iron Age in the later 2nd millennium there is a marked cultural shift at Sialk as well as at other sites with the introduction of new pottery types and burial of the dead in extramural cemeteries These changes are often associated with the arrival of new peoples speaking Indo European or more accurately Indo Iranian languages of which modern Persian is a descendant How many people were involved in these migrations and their ethnic identity are issues that are frequently debated by archaeologists and linguists Archaeological evidence for Iron Age Tappeh Sialk comes primarily from the excavation of the two important cemeteries A and B and residential areas around the monumental buildings of Sialk South Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadi s Reconsideration Project has provided much valuable evidence for occupation in the Iron Age period Fahimi 2003 There is no c14 date available for Iron Age Tappeh Sialk but based on comparative studies and c14 dates from Tappeh Qoli Darvish Tappeh Pardis and Sagzabad it seems that Sialk was reoccupied from 1500 until the dawn of the Achaemenid Empire Pollard et al 2013 The major glories of Iron Age Sialk are the two cemeteries that Ghirshman excavated and which have provided a of the very odd but impressive beak shaped jugs with long spouts which presumably played an important role in some unknown ritual Figs 2 27 2 28 2 29 and 2 30 Edith Porada s 1993 comparative studies and Mehrdad Malekzadeh s recent work Malekzadeh Naseri 2013 indicate the connections between Sialk B pottery cylinder seals and bricks with impressions The motifs include a lion a serpent a rider attacked by a feline horned animals and a large bird It should be mentioned that that Tappeh Sialk has no Assyrianising seals and it seems that an Iranian or local style appeared in the Iranian world in the 1st millennium semi precious stone beads shell and so on The burial mation At Estark Joshaqan 15 cremated skeletons were et al 2017 In the cemetery at Tepe Pardis more than 36 individual Bronze Age graves were found and in two graves there were horse and cattle skeletons Dates for the Iron Age cemetery at Tepe Pardis are ca 1603 and ca 1298 Kambakhsh Fard excavated a total of 148 trenches 5 5 m at Qeytariyeh and recorded 350 individual graves with more than 2 000 objects Kambakhsh Fard 1991 11

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3 Key Issues in the Neolithic Period of Iran and the ROGER MATTHEWS Introduction Iran in the Neolithic The Neolithic transition ca 10 000 6000 from mobile hunter forager to settled farmer herder is one of the great episodes of change in the human condition underpinning the development of villages towns cities and empires including those of our modern world How and where did this episode begin One of the core zones of earliest change is the Fertile Crescent a broad swathe of upland territory across the Middle East comprising a rich mix of ecotones ideal for the development of mixed hunting and farming life ways as undertaken by smallscale human societies in the Early Holocene as the Younger Dryas climate ameliorated through increased temperatures and precipitation across the region from approximately 9600 onwards Kehl 2009 sulated in Gordon Childe s phrase Neolithic Revolution is immense and increasingly recognised as such by the community of scholars who research this critical episode of human history Matthews and Fazeli Nashli 2013 Weeks 2013 Helwing 2014 Within the Neolithic transition Iran is a vital region in two major respects Firstly Iran hosts a well established core region of early Neolithic development in the Central Zagros region of western Iran where some of the earliest steps towards settled farming life were taken Matthews et al 2013 Secondly farming spread eastwards along the great natural highways either side of Iran s Central Desert to the north east into Central Asia and to the south east into South Asia as demonstrated by the distribution of Neolithic sites across Iran Fig 3 1 Major issues in the Neolithic transition include transitions from seasonal mobility to year round sedentism elaboration of social and ritual activity including human burial practices ways across the land of Iran and beyond and networks of material engagement The excavated evidence from Iran is of relevance to all these issues which require integrated interdisciplinary approaches such as we are conducting in our work in the Central Zagros region of western Iran and eastern Iraq Matthews et al 2013 The start of the Neolithic in the Middle East coincides with the end of the Younger Dryas at ca 9600 For the Iranian Neolithic we can apply the term Early Neolithic to the span 9600 7000 and Later Neolithic to the span 7000 5200 Early Neolithic roughly corresponds to Aceramic or Pre Pottery Neolithic and Later Neolithic to Ceramic or Pottery Neolithic We urgently need a programme of intensive systematic dating of Neolithic sites across Iran expanding on the work already undertaken Zeder 2006 Human environment interactions There is good evidence for variation in climate and environment through the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene with the easing of the Late Glacial Maximum Kehl 2009 Lake core records from Hashilan Zeribar Mirabad and Urmia loess soil sequences from northern Iran and alluvial fan deposits in eastern Iran agree in indicating a shift from ca 15 000 to a warmer wetter climate facilitating the spread of grasses and trees into steppe and desert steppe regions This long term warmer wetter trend was interrupted by the climatic episode known as the Younger Dryas ca 10 600 9600 human interactions with climatic and environmental changes through the Early Holocene animal leading in due course to full domestication 12

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Neolithic transition and dispersal 11 000 6000 which saw a return to cold and dry conditions across the region The conditions of the Younger Dryas would have In the present state of our knowledge the Zagros zone continues to stake a claim to primacy as a core region or formative zone for the Early Neolithic so that many scholars envisage practices such as the herding and penning Zagros suitable for human habitation even if it is now clear that the region was not deserted for the duration of the Younger Dryas From ca 10 000 lake sediment core evidence indicates the expansion of grasses across the Zagros peaking at ca 8500 followed by a much slower spread of oak forest not peaking until ca 4000 Roberts 2002 Following the end of the Younger Dryas the global in that zone and spreading outwards A key point here is that sites such as Sheikh e Abad and Asiab are located in the native habitat zones of the wild precursors of the plants and animals that became domesticated during the Neolithic goats sheep barley emmer lentils an essential attribute for pristine domestication Matthews et al 2013 Darabi et al 2018 But new evidence is continually being generated by ongoing surveys and excavations and it may be that in due course we view the origins and early dispersal of a Neolithic way of life in the eastern Fertile Crescent as a multi core process within and across Iran and adjacent regions Outside the Central Zagros region explorations of cave sites in the Bolaghi valley and the Arsanjan region in the southern Zagros provide convincing evidence for occupation spanning much of the Epipalaeolithic Neolithic transition Tsuneki 2013 Excavations in Haji Bahrami Cave also called TB75 revealed levels of Late Upper Palaeolithic and Proto Neolithic date spanning approximately 15 000 to 7500 Phases 3 and 4 are dated to ca 10 000 7400 thus including occupation during the late Younger Dryas The nearby cave site of TB130 also contained levels dated to ca 10 000 7400 Large numbers of animal bones from Haji Bahrami Cave indi meltwater pulses the sudden and massive release of cold freshwater from glacial lakes into the North Atlantic There appear to have been at least 14 of these events in the Early Holocene One of these pulses is detectable in ca 7200 and lasting for 150 200 years with the Flohr et al 2016 This event coincides at least approximately with a break in the Neolithic occupation of Iran which is not to suggest direct causality Very few sites show occupation spanning the Early to Later Neolithic and many sites were abandoned in the later 8th millennium including Sheikh e Abad Ganj Dareh Abdul Hosein East Chia Sabz and possibly Guran all in the Iranian Zagros and also Bestansur and Shimshara in the lower Iraqi Zagros At about the same time occupation started at a host of new sites on the lower plains as well as Jarmo in the foothills of the Iraqi Zagros One interpretation is that the 9 2 kya event was severe enough to lead to the collapse of agricultural and social systems in the high Zagros while encouraging the spread of Neolithic communities into lowland zones where the cooler drier conditions had less impact but this interpretation needs more input from detailed local climate records to bear it out A further climatic change of potentially major importance to the Neolithic of Iran is the so called 8 2 kya event which lasted from ca 6400 to 6000 and as with the Younger Dryas and the 9 2 kya event was marked by abrupt cooling and aridity across much of the world Flohr et al 2016 The Neolithic in Iran was highly developed by the later 7th millennium by which time human communities had been herding animals and cultivating crops for several millennia From ca 4000 the climate of the Zagros region and indeed across Iran has been Proto Neolithic in the proportions of sheep and goat from ca 17 to ca 46 This evidence may suggest a trend towards herding of animals that were still morphologically wild but which were in fact under human management and well on the way to domestication Beyond the intensifying exploitation of animals in this region plant use in the Early Neolithic focused on wild legumes and nuts with little evidence for cereals and no traces of sickle sheen on the chipped stone tools Close to the north west the small site of Rahmatabad Neolithic mound occupation in Fars with 2 5 m of aceramic deposits directly underlying Later Neolithic levels Azizi Kharanaghi et al 2013 As with the Central Zagros sites the earliest levels at Rahmatabad radiocarbon dated to the mid late 8th millennium consist of tectural evidence While the early dates for Rahmatabad taken alongside the Tang e Bolaghi dates allow the possibility of indigenous neolithisation in Fars the alternative temperature rainfall and wind regimes 13

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scenario of a dispersal of Early Neolithic practices to Fars from the Central Zagros is still not ruled out by the earlier dates and evidence for goat herding in particular from sites of the Central Zagros Looking south east from Fars the Neolithic arrives in the Kerman region of south eastern Iran late and is poorly understood The earliest traces of early 6th millennium date have been found at several sites in the Shah MaranDaulatabad valleys Meadow 1986 The Neolithic of north west Iran begins at about 6200 Voigt 1983 once more contemporary with the 8 2 kya event but our knowledge of the region is limited A major issue is a lack of spindle whorls and hook shaped bone sickles Other artefacts such as alabaster vessels biconical spindle whorls and straight handled bone sickles compare well to material from Neolithic Sialk to the west This janiform attribute of Sang e Chakhmaq material culture strongly suggests that the occupants of the site were indeed agents of transmission of Neolithic life ways from west to east across northern Iran and into Turkmenistan Petrographic analysis of pottery Thornton 2013 reveals manufacture from purely local clays even though stylistically the sampled good awareness of a range of regional styles even if there was limited movement of the vessels themselves The transmission or development of Neolithic lifeways across northern Iran at sites such as Sang e Chakhmaq and across southern Iran at sites such as Tell e Atashi is poorly understood Detailed study of bio archaeological and cultural remains from both regions and from yet to be discovered sites in intermediate regions is necessary and 6200 we have little or no convincing evidence for human presence across the regions of the north Zagros the Lake Urmia basin and Iranian Azerbaijan In north eastern Iran cave sites close to the southern shores of the Caspian Sea provide evidence of occupation through the Younger Dryas including Komishan Cave in Mazandaran and Hotu and Ali Tappeh Caves Voigt and Dyson 1992 New work at Komishani Tappeh near Komishan Cave is revealing a deep sequence of Epipalaeolithic and Early Neolithic occupation with radiocarbon dates from the late 10th and through the 9th millennia Fazeli Nashli pers comm Aceramic Neolithic occupation is attested at a few locations in north eastern Iran Prime amongst these is the west mound of Sang e Chakhmaq near Shahrud Thornton 2013 Previously dates of ca 7000 were suggested by two radiocarbon determinations and the most recently against imported factors in determining the trajectories of transition from hunter forager to farmer herder in these regions of Iran and beyond The Neolithic arrived late and fully formed on the central and northern plateaux of Iran as far as present understanding goes The earliest known Neolithic site on the Kashan plain hard against the foothills of the Karkas mountains may be the site of Tappeh Shurabeh which has sherds of primitive soft ware possibly dating to the late 7th millennium plus a few other sites located in the Arisman surveys Malek Shahmirzadi 2006 The north mound of Tappeh Sialk on the Kashan plain is especially important Ghirshman s 1938 9 excavations in level I at Sialk North recovered traces of light structures of reeds and mud succeeded by structures of chineh by ca 7000 The west mound was abandoned as Late Neolithic occupation moved to the east mound which commenced at ca 6100 Sang e Chakhmaq thus has a rich long sequence of Neolithic occupation for this region of Iran The sophisticated nature of the architecture in the earliest levels of the west mound at Sang e Chakhmaq does not suggest an experimental engagement with sedentarisation by local hunter forager communities but rather the introduction from outside of an already well developed Neolithic lifestyle But we so far lack information on the plant and animal remains that might enlighten us as to whether sheep and goat and cereals for example red pigment with infants buried in pots Domesticated goats along with cereals and agricultural tools suggest the full scale practice of farming from the earliest occupation of the site alongside hunting of gazelle wild sheep and cattle Micromorphological analysis shows the presence in the earliest levels of trampled and burnt dung deposits from stabling of domesticated animals There are some basic artefacts of cold worked native copper and diet in the Early Neolithic It is notable that occupation shifts from the west mound to the east mound at Sang e Chakhmaq approximately at the time of the 8 2 kya event In addition to the ceramic parallels from Sang e Chakhmaq east mound there are many points of connection with sites of the Jeitun culture of the Neolithic of southern Turkmenistan 200 km to the north east including North has established the chronology of occupation with multiple radiocarbon dates Pollard et al 2013 These dates suggest a duration of 800 years for the Neolithic at Sialk North starting from ca 6000 with abandonment at the end of the 6th millennium Renewed occupation at Sialk South then starts from ca 4100 after a 14

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Iran domesticated tempered and through time show increasing connections with other Late Neolithic communities of the broad region Settlement on the plain south of Tehran does not appear to pre date ca 5600 The mound of Cheshmeh Ali has an unbroken sequence of occupation from Late Neolithic through Transitional Chalcolithic and Early Chalcolithic with ceramics comparable to those from Sialk North level I Fazeli Nashli et al 2013 Late Neolithic ceramics have been excavated at Tappeh Pardis also on the Tehran plain and again appear to date to the later 6th millennium Neolithic settlement on the fertile Qazvin plain has been investigated at several sites in particular Chahar Boneh and Tappeh Ebrahimabad Occupation at Chahar Boneh commences with ashy layers containing bones lithics and ceramics inter bedded with natural deposits suggestive of seasonal short lived presence Domesticated cereals and sheep goat dominate the economic evidence at Chahar Boneh These ashy layers are radiocarbon dated to ca 6000 suggesting Neolithic occupation of the Qazvin plain some 400 years before that of the Tehran plain to the east Soundings at Tappeh Ebrahimabad recovered scant architecture and a single human burial with further evidence for cereals and legumes along with domesticated sheep goat The Neolithic at Ebrahimabad is dated to ca 5600 5200 In sum across the plains of central and northern Iran there is as yet no convincing sign of local precursors to the well adapted Neolithic farmers and herders who spread into the region from ca 6000 bringing their domesticated herds and grains with them The likeliest hypothesis is that they moved into central and northern Iran from the west steadily advancing across the Zagros ranges and foothills from areas where farming had already been practised for up to 2 000 years Why did they move To what extent their movement was stimulated by climatic adversity attendant upon the 8 2 kya event remains unclear but there is no doubting an at least approximate contemporaneity A concerted country wide programme of radiocarbon dating and statistical analysis of samples from all relevant sites across Iran in concert with renewed investigation of palaeoclimatic proxy records would yield some exciting results By 5200 the vast majority of Iran s human population which in total is unlikely to have numbered more than a few tens of thousands were farmers and herders living in small mudbrick villages perhaps an average of 100 200 people per settlement Their villages tended to cluster in areas favourable to a mixed economy of farming herding and hunting The Neolithic farmers of Iran sowed their seeds and goat and sheep leading them on movements to pastures high and low according to season They stored their foodfelt a strong attachment to place building their homes that dotted the landscape They made their own pottery and were increasingly adept at a range of craft activities including the production of textiles basketry and tools of chert stone bone antler and wood They were involved in long distance networks of material movement involving obsidian from Lake Van sources for example They liked to keep their dead close by burying them covering them over and carrying on with daily life directly above them Many of their children died young doubtless as a result of the increased risks from zoonotic diseases newly virulent diseases on local hunter forager communities as they encountered incoming farmer herders may have been devastating They appear to have treated each other as equals in from the hunter forager ways that had persisted for thousands of years before but what they had in common with their hunter ancestors was an intimate familiarity with the physical worlds around them the worlds of plants animals sun water wind rain and the spirits of nature Their life like that of the hunter foragers was shaped by the rhythms of day and night and of winter and summer But without knowing it they were establishing the agricultural foundation upon which the achievements of all future generations of Iran would be constructed 15

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4 Sialk North Continuity and Change in Pottery Manufacture ARMINEH KASPARI MARGHUSSIAN Introduction and Abbasnejad 2005 Majidzadeh 1976 1981 2008 Malek Shahmirzadi 1977 1979 1995 Mashkour et al 1999 McCown 1954 Negahban 1977 Schmidt 1935 1936 1937 Voigt and Dyson 1992 and Wong 2008 Iran bordering the Caspian Sea the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea is characterised by high mountain ranges that enclose several broad basins or plateaux on which major agricultural and urban settlements are located The centre of the country consists of several closed basins that are collectively referred to as the central plateau of Iran In the last four decades a number of scholars such as Majidzadeh 1976 Voigt and Dyson 1992 and Malek Shahmirzadi 1995 have made the term central plateau a popular description for this region as both a cultural zone and geographical area The central plateau of Iran has played a prominent role in Iranian cultural technological and political development as well as functioning as an important trade route connecting Mesopotamia northern Iran and Central Asia with a number of settlements dating from the Neolithic to the historic period Hence the central plateau is one of the most important regions in Iran for studying the prehistory of the region and that of its neighbours more widely The societies of this region have been at the centre of at least three millennia of sustained and continuous change from the 6th millennium onwards playing an active role in cultural and technical economic development through their intraregional and interregional interactions The deep cultural deposits of archaeological remains over 10 m deep at some sites along with the sustained progress and advancement in technology and innovation make this region very attractive for prehistoric studies Systematic archaeological research in the central plateau began in 1931 with Erich Schmidt s excavation of Tappeh Hissar Schmidt 1937 Since then many archaeologists have also been engaged in the study of the historical cultural technological and sociopolitical development of the central plateau for example Dyson 1965 Fazeli 2001 2004 2007 2010 2013 Fazeli Tappeh Sialk Tappeh Sialk is located in the Kashan plain in the middle of an extensive accumulation glacis sloping from the southern heights towards the salt lake The spring of Fin is exposed in the upper part of this glacis and visible from Tappeh Sialk The Tappeh itself consists of two mounds North and South Roman Ghirshman in 1933 Ghirshman opened three large trenches I II and III on the North Mound Ghirshman 1938 9 and divided it chronologically into two main phases Sialk I and Sialk II The lowest level of the North Mound called Sialk I ca 6000 5200 Late Neolithic body with black painted decoration Fig 4 2a while Sialk II ca 5200 4600 Transitional Chalcolithic represented the upper part of the Sialk North Mound and comprised red pottery painted in black Fig 4 2b He also demonstrated that there was a gradual development at the site from the Late Neolithic period with cultural continuity demonstrated through ceramics and architecture ibid the prehistoric chronology of the central plateau of Iran partially due to the 14 m deep Late Neolithic and Transitional Chalcolithic deposits along with mudbrick structures and objects of copper and marine shell Furthermore the two major types of Sialk pottery Sialk I and II excavated from the North Mound are regionally distributed over the whole central Iranian plateau and the prehistoric chronology of the central plateau has been based almost entirely on these types of pottery 16

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Aims and objectives Experimental procedure This paper aims to introduce new insights and approaches into the study of the socioeconomic transformation of the Late Neolithic and the Transitional Chalcolithic settlements within the central plateau of Iran This will be done through the study of pottery development and associated changes in ceramic production and craft specialisation from the Late Neolithic through to the Transitional Chalcolithic ca 5700 4800 period in Sialk as one of the most prominent prehistoric sites of the central plateau It is proposed that providing additional information will help to give us a better understanding of the chronology and cultural technological development of this region as well as the economic and cultural connections and interactions between prehistoric communities living in the central plateau during that period In most of the previous excavations colour and deco Sample selection In this study 36 samples comprising 20 and 16 sherds of the Sialk I and II type respectively were selected from the collection of C14 dated pottery sherds which were recovand Coningham at the North Mound of Sialk in 2008 9 The Sialk I and II samples were selected randomly from earlier to later sherds according to their chronological information among two separate pottery collections each containing one type of the aforementioned pottery Chemical analysis In this research the collection of 36 pottery sherds from Sialk 20 samples from Sialk I and 16 samples from Sialk characterisation and comparison of the varied pottery of the region which has never been studied in terms of technology of production as rightly stressed by Dyson Dyson 1965 221 Thus pottery of similar colour and decoration has Mineralogical analysis In this study 20 sherds from Sialk 10 samples each from Sialk I and II were selected randomly and were analysed name sometimes called tradition for example Sialk I or II Hence the exact cause of similarities between action or technology transfer could never be discovered This approach could also result in some confusion and misunderstanding regarding the exact nature of socioeconomic exchanges between various prehistoric societies such as the assumption of the existence of an intrusive element from outside that brought about social changes abandonment of settlements in some areas of the central plateau Majidzadeh 1981 2008 or migration of some people into the central plateau who imported ceramic manufacture to the region Malek Shahmirzadi 1995 ence cards were used to interpret the patterns Microstructural examinations In this study some typical samples were subjected to SEM examination Hitachi TM 3000 and phase compositions of certain zones in the microstructures were determined by an EDX Swift ED attached to the SEM For this kind of SEM analysis no preparation of samples was needed decoration in comparison with existing pottery In order to shed more light on the socioeconomic transformation of the Late Neolithic and the Transitional Chalcolithic periods in Sialk in this study the pottery sherds recovered from the North Mound of Sialk by Fazeli cally utilising XRF XRD and SEM EDX techniques This study also introduces a more reliable criterion for comparison of the Sialk pottery with other pottery of the central Iranian plateau and for clarifying the nature of existing interactions between Sialk and other prehistoric communities of the region Results and discussion Chemical compositions The chemical compositions of Sialk I and II pottery specimens showed the existence of relatively uniform compositions in each group According to the results of chemical analysis the Sialk I pottery showed a relatively high value for CaO 22 31 3 22 wt but the chemical composition of the Sialk II type specimens indicated the 17

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deduced that the Sialk I pottery studied was manufactured using a single resource of clay raw material or clays from very similar resources and the relatively high content of CaO in most specimens indicates the use of calcareous clays possibly illite clays as the source of raw material to make most of these pottery samples PXRD analysis and SEM microstructural studies indicated that apart from very few old specimens of Sialk I pottery revealing the presence of the faint trace of CaCO3 calcite there was no evidence for the presence of CaCO3 or CaO phases in the samples of Sialk sherds On the other hand calcium iron aluminium silicate minerals namely esseneite was clearly detected in Sialk I pottery Therefore it can be deduced that the iron oxide liberated from the decomposition of the clay minerals possibly illite has mainly been incorporated into the esseneite crystal structure which could accommodate high amounts of iron 43 3 wt and no hematite crystals were detected in the sherd specimens Meanwhile esseneite owing to its very low SiO2 content 23 2 wt and high Fe2O3 43 3 wt and CaO 21 65 wt content is a low melting point mineral which gives it the capability of formation at relatively lower temperatures On the other hand the hematite crystals are responsible for the generation of the red colour of the pottery but calcareous lumps present in calcium rich clay may have prevented the formation of hematite crys group of Sialk II specimens calcium rich which have almost similar compositions to the Sialk I specimens apparently have been made using the same clay raw materials as the Sialk I pottery whereas the second group of Sialk II pottery sherds low calcium are the product of Mineralogical analysis The mineralogical analyses of Sialk I and II specimens showed that besides signs of the presence of CaCO3 calcite in some specimens especially the older specimens quartz and esseneite JCPDS card number 25 0143 were the major crystalline phases of Sialk I and calcium rich Sialk II specimens whereas the low calcium Sialk II specimens were mainly composed of quartz hematite JCPDS number 01 1053 and augite JCPDS number 24 0202 phases calcareous silicate and aluminosilicate minerals and consequently inhibited the generation of red colour in Microstructures of previous studies concerning the decomposition and distraction temperatures of calcium carbonate and clay Fig 4 3 shows the typical SEM micrographs of a Sialk I and b Sialk II pottery samples respectively The relatively uniform microstructures and the absence of large and angular particles indicate that the raw materials used were most probably sedimentary clays and that no inorganic tempers have deliberately been added to the starting clays However traces of plant tempers such as formation temperatures of the silicate and aluminosilicate phases Rice 1987 92 8 El Didamony et al 1998 Tite Maniatis 1975a 1975b Segnit Anderson 1972 and temperature of the Sialk pottery could be estimated at the both pottery samples According to electron microscopy while each group of the Sialk I and II types of pottery exhibited quite homogeneous microstructures within themselves marked Considering the higher refractoriness of the raw materials used in the production of the low calcium Sialk II pottery owing to their higher content of SiO2 and Al2O3 and much lower content of CaO as discussed above a much higher of pottery for example an earlier Sialk I sample Fig 4 3a and a latest Sialk II sample Fig 4 3b The latter pottery sample which is red both on the external surface and at samples in comparison to the Sialk I pottery Meanwhile tion of red colour in pottery CaO poor samples were of red colour both on surface and core see the discussion microstructure Fig 4 3b in comparison with the Sialk properties of the pottery such as mechanical strength and permeability involved in construction and handling of high temperature 18

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kilns in prehistoric times and the absence of high temperature phases such as mullite anorthite and hedenbergite in the sherds studied here the use of temperatures in excess formation of hematite crystals and the appearance of red colour by incorporation of iron in the crystal structure of the newly forming calcareous silicate and aluminosilicate minerals as mentioned above However in calcium poor Sialk II pottery which is red both on the surface and at the core the major calcium aluminium iron magnesium silicate mineral augite accommodates far lower amounts of iron oxide 7 54 wt Moreover owing to the low content of calcium in the clay raw materials the volume of the augite mineral would be lower in comparison to the esseneite mineral in Sialk I and calcium rich Sialk II pottery Hence a greater proportion of iron oxide present in the raw materials of this group appeared as the iron oxide mineral hematite in Therefore on the basis of the above facts and observa investigated It should be noted that the other type of Sialk II type pottery with a red coating owing to its similarity in chemical and mineralogical composition to the Sialk I lower temperature ranges perhaps the midway between the Sialk I and II pottery low calcium Sialk II pottery as stated above and the good careful control of the atmosphere is also essential for the formation of hematite crystals which require an oxidising deformation indicate that the early potters of the region had remarkable skill and experience in the selection of raw order to produce the dense and strong pottery The origin of red colour in Sialk II type pottery Development of pottery making at Sialk compositions The group one specimens calcium rich are distinguished by the strong red colour of their surface and On the basis of the archaeological data obtained from the excavations at Sialk and the experimental results discussed above it can be deduced that a gradual development at the site took place from the Late Neolithic with cultural and technological continuity demonstrated through the gradual evolution of the pottery making industry This is the second group were of red colour both on the core and the surface The SEM elemental map Fig 4 4 showed who showed that there was a gradual development at the Sialk site from the Late Neolithic with cultural continuity demonstrated through ceramics and architecture The surfaces of the latter Sialk II sherds contained pigments rich in iron oxide The aforementioned sherds with the exception of the red coating possessed similar phases as the sherds of Sialk I pottery namely quartz and esseneite It is interesting to note that there are also a few Sialk I sherds that were covered with a red coating Hence it can be concluded that the technique of applying red coatings on the Sialk pottery was an ancient technique that continued from Sialk I to Sialk II periods Fig 4 5 depicts the typical elemental spectra of some Sialk II samples It can be seen that the sample having a red coating on its exterior and very sluggish In fact it seems that there is no substantial proved by the mineralogical composition and microstructural study from the beginning of the Sialk I period to the end of red coated Sialk II pottery During this period in fact no distinct change occurred in the process of making However the pottery industry witnessed a very distinct shift between the Sialk I and Sialk II periods in the production of bulk red pottery This change did not necessarily coincide with a fundamental alteration in pottery decoration since the use of new decoration known as the Sialk II black painted motifs consisting of simple or composite geometric designs began in the early Transitional Chalcolithic period with the production of some apparently red pottery which was actually the previous Sialk in iron content between its surface and core Figs 4 5a and 4 5b whereas the other sample which is red both on the surface and core represents an almost similar iron content on surface and core Figs 4 6a and 4 6b On the other hand although a faint trace of hematite was observed in some red coated pottery a relatively of the second group of Sialk II specimens which were red both on surface and core This can be explained by the fact that calcareous lumps in calcium rich clay prevented the in decoration did not involve substantial alteration in 19

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technology other than requiring more control of the atmosphere of kilns which of course was an advancement in been discovered that many features of the pottery making tradition in Sialk such as the form and decoration of the pottery continued unchanged during the gradual evolution of process and techniques commencing from the coarse changes in technology concerning the selection of raw essential for the production of bulk red pottery which were realised in the later stages of the Sialk II period The production of the latter pottery can be heralded as a breakthrough in the evolution of pottery making in Sialk It is suggested that the commencement of the production of such high quality pottery should be considered as a marker for the beginning of the Transitional Chalcolithic era vation 1938 9 of a gradual development at the site of Sialk from the Late Neolithic period is also in accordance with Malek Shahmirzadi s 1995 suggestion that Periods I and II should be considered as one since many of the features of Period I continue into Period II as well as Wong s 2008 proposal that the ceramic industry of Period II is essentially a continuation of Period I which quite strong bulk red pottery Conclusions Chemical and mineralogical analyses and microstructural studies of Sialk pottery demonstrated the relatively homogeneous nature of the sherds both chemically and mineralogically and revealed the occurrence of a gradual evolution and development in pottery making at the site to stronger bodies covered with a red slip and eventually pottery in the later stage of the Sialk II period The later development of Sialk II can be seen as a breakthrough in the evolution of pottery making at Sialk and should be considered as the critical point of entry into the Transitional Chalcolithic era It has also been shown that the chemical compounds present in the sherds were the products of reactions occur However it should be noted that none of the previous researchers recognised the prominence of the aforemenmentally in technology and quality of the ware Sialk I and II respectively These results revealed the existence of a high degree of skill and experience amongst the Sialk potters in the later phase of the Sialk II period with regard both to techniques in the selection of raw pottery While the change of decoration is quite common amongst prehistoric pottery makers and can usually be attributed to the cultural connections and interactions of the prehistoric communities the change in raw material existence of this high degree of specialisation in Sialk II pottery making developed over several centuries in this resistance and hence were less common However it has red pottery could not have been achieved in this period 20

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5 Proto Elamite Sites in Highland Iran The State of Research in Tappeh Sialk and Arisman BARBARA HELWING The appearance of urban style sites in highland Iran during the last third of the 4th millennium is understood as an western plateau of central Iran To provide a framework for the interpretation of these Proto Elamite sites the most current theoretical models on lowland highland relations will be inspected before introducing the relevant archaeological evidence from the highland sites including chronometric dating and settlement patterns I will then return to the theoretical models and discuss if and how they account for the archaeological evidence found in highland Iran Mesopotamia during the so called Uruk period as exemof secondary state formation or as outposts and trading the neighbouring regions the sites in highland Iran Fig tions through their innovative organisation of settlement space and layout as well as in material culture In the academic debate on the proper understanding of vated site in the highlands has played a pre eminent role Roman Ghirshman pointed out the similarities between Early states in south Mesopotamia the Uruk model and beyond In the 4th millennium a major transformation in the lowlands of southern Mesopotamia led to the rise of the on the South Mound of Tappeh Sialk with the couche interm diare in Susa and in particular with Uruk the type site of the emerging lowland states Ghirshman 1938 9 82 6 Sialk level IV was characterised by regular architecture made from standardised mudbricks by mass produced ceramics cylinder seals and inscribed clay tablets Ghirshman called the script Anzanite using the name originally given to the early script discovered in Susa that was subsequently considered a potential predecessor of Elamite and hence renamed Proto Elamite Scheil 1905 spelled out in the famous Uruk vase van Ess et al 2013 ture and herding and culminates in the service to higher beings that is the responsibility of the so called priestking variously EN and or Nameshda see Selz 1998 292 295 fn 53 325 6 Archaeological excavations in Uruk targeted two areas of public buildings and revealed a focus on monumental architecture of tripartite layout possibly temples Cylinder seals and script were introduced as tools of authority and administration and among the administered things are goods animals and humans Massproduced and standardised pottery served to cater for large workforces and the hallmark of the period are the moulded bevelled rim bowls BRB interpreted as ration bowls for the dependent labour force BRBs had an extremely wide geographical distribution from Afghanistan to eastern on a life of its own when archaeologists began to use it to denominate archaeological sites and material culture assemblages McCown 1949 and remains today the major denominator for the archaeological culture of Iran from the last centuries of the 4th and into the early 3rd millennium This contribution reviews the evidence currently available for Tappeh Sialk in the Proto Elamite period augmented by additional materials from Arisman a major metal producing site about 60 km from Sialk and model Potts 2009 Helwing 2014 The recognition of the wide dissemination of Urukrelated ceramics over Greater Mesopotamia and Iran led 21

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and the north Perkins 1949 Three decades later Uruk Uruk and Susa paint a rather bleak picture of the sociopolitical reality of that time as they show prisoners with their hands bound behind their bodies These prisoners of war or slaves taken from their homelands might be the source of the workforce behind the ambitious construction programmes for which Uruk is famous A similar was most recently evident in the more radical economic theory by James Scott Scott 2017 who models Uruk as a predatory state and sees the mountainous highlands east of Susiana as a refuge not as a cultural backwater In Iran excavations on the acropolis in Susa had bled observations from Uruk although on a smaller scale Pittman 1992 for a summary Pittman 2013 Early attempts to stylistically order the materials unearthed in Susa had overlooked the rather nondescript and non decorative materials that are characteristic of the Uruk period These were subsequently amalgamated together with the following Proto Elamite period in what was couche interm diare intercalated between projects over a wide geographical range resulting in the construction of various theoretical models to explain the apparent success of the Uruk model by the 1980s Thereafter perspectives on the sites in Iran and other are rooted in divergent histories of research and the fact provide fresh input after an intellectually stimulating and sound beginning From the late 1960s rescue work on the Syrian Middle Euphrates brought large settlements to light that fully embraced the Uruk model architecture temples seals and numerical tablets these were interpreted straightaway as Uruk colonies Heinrich et al 1969 van Driel 1977 Such discoveries sparked the development Uruk expansion later Uruk World System approach by Guillermo Algaze Algaze 1989 1993 The Uruk World System model was inspired by the much later styles Susa II and III and recognised only belatedly as a distinct and important development Systematic new data available from Susa since the late 1960s when Jean Perrot took over the directorship of the D l gation Fran aise provided a stratigraphical sequence from the Ubaid and Uruk levels to the subsequent Proto Elamite for a summary see Le Brun 1978 The chronological succession could be illustrated in ceramic shapes clearly derived from the Uruk repertoire but also visibly distinct It also comprised one of script as the Proto Elamite Mesopotamia that recognised a prehistory of imperialism in the Uruk colonies Algaze 2001 A major premise of the Uruk World System was the quest for raw materials not available to the lowland cultures that required trade stations and outposts in the wider neighbourhood The only Iranian sites considered in Algaze s model were Godin Tappeh and Tappeh Sialk as outposts of Uruk culture in the Iranian highlands the Iranian highlands had by then fallen into the obscurity that prevailed since 1979 Subsequent scholarship emphasised the logistical problems in such an endeavour of largescale territorial expansion and called for more balanced views in a distance parity model Stein 1999 but did not substantially challenge the notion of a pre eminent Uruk state in the lowlands Algaze in the meantime adjusted and updated his model which initially had been compromised by a lack of chronological control Algaze 2013 but maintained the notion that it was southern Mesopotamia that had taken the lead in the development of complex administration and used this to subdue neighbouring areas The notion that the Uruk state often from the Uruk tablets Dahl 2009 Based on these observations and chronological succession the interpretation of Proto Elamite highland sites was from the beginning Uruk impact in Susiana and the spread of Proto Elamite sites in the highlands Levels comparable with Sialk IV and with Uruk and Proto Elamite Susa were excavated from the late 1960s in Godin Tappeh in the Kangavar valley Cuyler Young 1969 Cuyler Young Jr Levine 1974 in the Kur River Basin around Tal e Malyan Sumner 1974a 1974b in Tappeh Yahya south of Kerman Lamberg Karlovsky 1969 1971 and in the lowermost level at Shahr e Sokhte Tosi 1968 Lamberg Karlovsky Tosi 1973 Most early interpretations of this Iranian evidence noted that the sites were apparently established from scratch in places previously unoccupied or occupied have functioned through coercion and violence to despotic character of the Uruk ruler see van Selz 1998 293 4 Liverani 2006 45 6 Englund 2009 Pollock 2013 with regard to Uruk and Susiana but excluding the highlands Images of authority sanctioning violence emphasised the role of trade relations in the formation of 22

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Archaeological evidence from highland Iran Tappeh Sialk and Arisman at the end of the 4th millennium a wide Proto Elamite network The Godin VI V materials were linked to the potential impact and possible installation of Uruk merchants possibly out of Susa Weiss and Cuyler Young 1975 The Kur River sequence proved to be a drawn out local development of the so called Banesh period summarised in Sumner 1986 but also had ample evidence for long distance contact and enough written records to prove a central place function for Malyan Sumner 2003 Further east both Tappeh Yahya IVC and the lowermost level 10 in Shahr e Sokhte were considered colonies of settlers from Mesopotamia LambergKarlovsky Tosi 1973 triggered by the necessity to ensure trade into the lowlands Alden 1982 Pierre Amiet based on unpublished documentation from Ghirshman s Sialk excavations recognised that cultural relations between Sialk and the lowland Uruk culture preceded the Proto Elamite Sialk IV level Amiet 1985 occupation in highland Iran but one of the least understood Ghirshman s excavations on the South Mound of Sialk Fig 5 2 had uncovered one major architectural layer Sialk IV1 built with standardised bricks and with walls standing more than 1 5 m high Ghirshman 1938 9 pl LIX for the section showing the standing walls pl of rubble and ashy debris and no continuity from the preceding occupation can be established The next layer VI2 is badly disturbed by the foundations of level VI A few rich burials in jars were found in this layer Ghirshman of jar burial but they cannot be connected to the layer above from which they were sunk since that was razed The ceramic material associated with Sialk IV1 comprised plain and painted Proto Elamite types including high conical bevelled rim bowls Ghirshman 1938 9 pl XC S 557 Inscribed tablets consisted of numerical notations in IV1 Ghirshman 1938 9 pls XCII XCIII and of one Proto Elamite tablet in IV2 Ghirshman 1938 9 pl XCII S 28 Fragments of sealed containers and jar stoppers bore seal impressions and a few cylinder seals were among the excavated materials as well Ghirshman 1938 9 pl XCIV Pierre Amiet s re examination of level IV Amiet 1985 allowed us to more clearly distinguish the materials from the foreign researchers shifted their attention to other regions of south west Asia the state of research into the ProtoElamite period in Iran remained frozen for the next two evidence from Yahya Potts 2001 and Godin Rothman and Badler 2011 New perspectives however begin to tion of new methodology on materials from the pre 1979 The ceramics from Godin Tappeh famous for its oval compound whose Uruk akin pottery led Harvey Weiss to formulate his merchants of Susa hypothesis were recently investigated by neutron activation analysis NAA to understand if this pottery was indeed imported material Gopnik et al 2016 Interestingly most of it was not both the local shapes and also most of the Uruk shapes were made from local clays Looking at Tal e Malyan a comparable result for NAA on ceramics made John Alden and team propose an alternative explanation for the high degree of standardisation evident in the ceramic production Alden and Minc 2016 could itinerant potters have contributed to the spreading of standardised ceramic shapes And in Yahya shapes of the Proto Elamite spectrum were also largely produced from local clays Mutin et al 2016 although imported materials are attested as well The currently available combined evidence can thus be read as follows the Proto Elamite sites in the highlands of Iran existed over a longer time span they used material culture inspired by Uruk models but adapted and developed this further as is most evident from the adoption of a unique writing system And they ceased existence during without signs of continuity in most areas that may have contributed to the cultural remodelling of the Proto Elamite period ought to be traced to the last subphases of level III thus predating Sialk IV He also observed a few elements of continuity in ceramic shapes and seal use From 2001 to 2005 new investigations were instigated by the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organisation under the umbrella of the Sialk Reconsideration Project Malek Shahmirzadi 2006 Under the direction of Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadi the sections of the old Ghirshman trenches were cleaned and re documented allowing Jebrael Nokandeh to obtain a series of radiocarbon samples from layers of Sialk III and IV Nokandeh 2002 2010 75 7 for radiocarbon dates This investigation also showed the appearance of bevelled rim bowls in the last phases of Sialk III and yielded a cylinder seal from a level III context another good indicator of Uruk contact In the following years excavations in the so called Industrial Area Nokandeh 2003 and at the foot of the Iron Age mudbrick construction yielded interesting observations on the scale of industrial metal production at the site 23

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In 2003 Dr Malek invited me to join the Sialk Reconsideration Project to open a new excavation area immediately adjacent to Ghirshman s old trench with the aim of uncovering Sialk IV material on a larger scale constructed from standardised mudbrick Fig 5 8 These houses were abandoned after a while and the ruins reused dug into the ground at the beginning of the 3rd millennium The workshop phase yielded interesting installations pit furnaces were dug into the ground and large hearth platforms with residues of copper casting blocked the doors inside the former rooms Three large slag heaps areas A D E extended over the site Slagheap D yielded an uninterrupted sequence of slag deposition beginning in the mid 4th millennium and extending into the ProtoElamite period but no metallurgical installation was preserved intact However a furnace was uncovered in slagheap A dating to the beginning of the 3rd millennium Fig 5 9 and area E yielded a pit furnace similar to installations observed also in the area C workshops The material culture of Arisman closely resembles the Sialk III6 7 and IV1 2 assemblages in particular with lurgical processing A comparison of radiocarbon dates also evident that there should be a continuity of the Sialk IV1 architecture extending northwards We began by cleaning away the backdirt from Ghirshman s excavations until the original contour of the mound became visible This immediately raised one major problem of site preservation in Sialk dating from before Ghirshman s work deep apparently used by the local population to store materials and animals We proceeded subsequently by cleaning the upper layers and there encountered massive Iron Age architecture that apparently had collapsed rapidly possibly during an earthquake and was later covered by a second Iron Age building layer Fig 5 5 Helwing 2006a The we only reached the very surface of the Sialk IV level where in situ ceramics consisted of a band painted jar and a set of conical bevelled rim bowls Fig 5 6 The new work thus contributed only minimally to our knowledge of the Sialk IV Proto Elamite occupation in Tappeh Sialk however the new radiocarbon dates and the for the Proto Elamite occupation in Arisman are conical BRBs band painted ceramics with pitchers and beakers tear shaped trays and a few painted nose lugged jars Fig 5 10 Some of the more sophisticated metal implements and the three Proto Elamite seals from Arisman were discovered close to the surface and probably derive from destroyed burials of the late Proto Elamite occupation phase Metallurgical remnants comprise mostly cruci approaching other sites in the vicinity such as Arisman The site of Arisman Fig 5 7 is only 60 km southeast of Sialk and located in the same fertile corridor that lines the interface of the Karkas mountains with the Great Desert It was excavated by a joint Iranian German research team in the years 2000 to 2004 as it was an important location of large scale copper and silver working in the 4th millennium equivalent to Sialk III and IV Most primary data from Arisman has been published Vatandoust et al 2011 but as thinking and interpretation continues I will next present a brief overview of the site together with some new thoughts on interpretation Arisman was occupied from the mid 4th to the early 3rd millennium The site extends over more than 2 1 km on a gravel fan at the foot of the Karkas mountains the result of a horizontal shifting of the settlement probably in relation to a northward move of the main water outlets The excavated horizontal sequence mirrors Sialk III6 7 to Sialk IV1 2 spread over a wide area comparable to an exploded assembly drawing The earlier occupation is documented in area B with a rectangular one room house with a cooking installation built from pis this area was later used as a workshop with ceramic kilns dug into the lower layers The Proto Elamite settlement in area C 500 m north of area B consisted of a planned area of rectangular multi room houses arranged along a lane and change from Sialk III to the Proto Elamite period The earlier copper production was carried out in crucibles with a massive pierced foot and used single valve moulds for casting shaft hole axes and multiple ingots the Protodouble ingot mould Fig 5 11 The Arisman excavations paid close attention to metallurgical production as the three large slag heaps identiEarly Bronze Age Sialk probably equalled Arisman as a production site but this only became evident when installations and slag heaps were recognised during the Sialk Reconsideration Project Nokandeh 2003 Nezafati and Pernicka 2006 This comes as no surprise as Sialk and Arisman are both located in the immediate vicinity of copper bearing deposits in highland inner Iran Both sites can also be compared with regard to the regional settlement pattern in which they are located Tappeh Sialk was probably a local central place and a massive settlement during the Chalcolithic period or Sialk III with an accumulation of 8 x m of occupation levels It was probably not the only site but the initial survey of 24

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the Sialk hinterland remained inconclusive with regard to early periods Danti 2006 The Arisman survey data indicates a strong centralisation with eight recorded sites in the Sialk III period but not a single Proto Elamite occupation in the area besides Arisman Chegini Helwing 2011 The radical shift from a landscape with a scaled settlement system with one central place and surrounding sites during the Late Chalcolithic towards one with a unique central place without hinterland sites seems to be characteristic for the Proto Elamite period in the highlands and to a lesser degree for the lowlands In lowland Susiana a drop in settlement activity during the Proto Elamite period is interpreted by Abbas Alizadeh as representing a shift towards a more mobile pastoralist lifestyle Alizadeh 2018 76 7 In the Kur River Basin around Tal e Malyan the shift towards centralisation is less radical than in the highlands but the number of sites also decreased significantly during the Banesh period Sumner 2003 and a comparable development was observed in the neighbouring Mamasani region McCall 2009 222 6 The complete abandonment of all sites prior to a Proto Elamite settlement constructed on the old mound is recorded for Tappeh Yahya Prickett 1986 237 in Qoli Darvish II5 include a stone stamp seal and some numerical and one numero ideographical tablets all indirials comprise geometric sealings on doors and box lids as well as one cylinder seal of the Piedmont Jemdet Nasr style also attested in Arisman Fig 5 12 A most interesting small square building with massive walls and internal semi columns Alizadeh et al recognised in the highlands Proto Elamite clay tablets were also found in Tappeh Sofalin Dahl et al 2012 and a single tablet is known from Tappeh Ozbaki Vallat 2003 however the wider archaeological context remains poorly known Interpreting the highland sites to contextualise the Proto Elamite occupation in the highlands more comprehensively Now based on much broader Iran over the last two decades has yielded more important new evidence for Late Chalcolithic and Proto Elamite occupation from places such as Tappeh Qoli Darvish summarised in Alizadeh et al 2013 the neighbouring mounds of Sofalin and Shogali Dahl et al 2012 Hessari during the mid 4th millennium contemporary with Sialk III6 7 in the highlands As discussed above these record mainly in administrative devices and in some ceramic shapes Subsequently sites situated in strategic locations transformed into local centres probably also absorbing some population from the smaller surrounding sites Examples for such early central places are the sites of Sialk in level III6 7 Qoli Darvish II5 and Maimanatabad Following a stratigraphic gap or a spatial shift in some sites attested in Sialk with the shift to level IV1 and in Arisman with the settlement area C a new organisation of built space can be recognised In Qoli Darvish level II2 marks this stage and includes a major non domestic building The new use of settlement space correlates with Zoshk et al 2015 in addition to earlier work in Qabrestan Majidzadeh 1996 and Ozbaki Majidzadeh 1389a 1389b Vallat 2003 altogether considerably enlarging the data for interpretation of highland lowland relations during the period of emerging states in the lowlands chronological framework for highland lowland relations and provide robust evidence for complex architecture and administration during the Proto Elamite period Architectural remains of considerable scale are recorded in Maimanatabad and Qoli Darvish Excavations at Maimanatabad proceeded on a small scale but yielded a clear stratigraphic superposition of a building with major walls more than 1 m wide over a more diverse architectural layer of the mid 4th millennium et al 2015 In Qoli Darvish four layers of architecture cover the subphases 5 2 of the Proto Elamite occupation in level II capped by a level of Kura Araxes related round buildings II1 Alizadeh et al 2013 Qoli Darvish subphases II5 2 seem to cover the development from the mid 4th to the early 3rd millennium While the ceramic record is not yet available in detail administrative devices found mudbrick was introduced as a building material ceramic production shifted from painted to plain wares built copper smelting furnaces replaced the former crucible smelting and new forms of copper artefacts were introduced ProtoElamite script was then brought in during the later phase in Sialk IV2 Ozbaki and Sofalin With the chronological resolution now available it is obvious that the contacts with the lowlands preceded the cultural transformation just described These early contacts occurred during a time when highland metallurgists had started a major production of copper artefacts including heavy copper axes used in funerary rituals in Susa Axe 25

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moulds from Sialk Arisman and Ghabrestan match well with the types used in Susa and material analyses support a highland origin of the copper summarised in Helwing 2011 This said it is plausible to see the quest for raw materials in general and for copper in particular as a major driving force behind the contacts as Roger Matthews and Hassan Fazeli Nashli posited in their Copper and complexity Matthews Fazeli 2004 Opinions are more divided regarding the question of what followed and the establishment of the Proto Elamite highland sites is variably understood to be the result of colonisation secondary state formation local development or a local emulation of the lowland model As the recent ceramic analyses discussed earlier have shown the bulk of material is of local production including shapes that originate from an Uruk repertoire whereas some select vessels may also represent imports The ingenious invention of a new Proto Elamite script also points to the local adoption of cultural models learned from lowland prototypes And the Proto Elamite highland copper production which rose to industrial scale towards the end of the 4th millennium catered for a wide area throughout the Zagros foothills Taking all this evidence together the network of ProtoElamite sites in western Central Iran most probably represents the local adoption and emulation of a new model of social organisation and control developed previously in the early lowland states of the Uruk period Flourishing for possibly two or three centuries only the transposition of the lowland model to the more sparsely inhabited highlands was not sustainable in the long run and ended in the beginning of the 3rd millennium In Godin and Qoli Darvish external factors may have contributed to the end of the Proto Elamite occupation as intrusive elements of South Caucasian origin show Sites such as Sialk and Arisman were abandoned without visible external interference and remained deserted for more than a millennium south eastern Iran Acknowledgements I warmly thank the organisers of the Sialk Conferences in London for this opportunity to present my thoughts and to catch up with colleagues Work in Arisman from 2000 to 2004 was conducted by a joint Iranian German research team under the umbrella of the interdisciplinary project Early Mining and Metallurgy on the Western Central Iranian Plateau supported jointly by the Iranian Centre for Archaeological Research and the Research Centre for the Restoration of Cultural Relics both under the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organisation the German Archaeological Institute the Geological Survey of Iran the German Mining Museum Bochum and the TU Mining Academy Freiberg I also wish to express my gratitude to Dr Malek Shahmirzadi who invited me to participate for Project 26

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6 Notes on the Connections between Tappeh Sialk and Hasanlu MICHAEL DANTI Introduction during the Islamic era as a centre of secular power and artistic talent and the region s remarkable environmental diversity In addition for many of us the name Sialk evokes the site s contributions to our understanding of the origins of the Early Iron Age and theories on Indo European or I was fortunate enough to conduct a short archaeological survey in the Sialk area in January 2005 as part of the third season of the Sialk Reconsideration Project directed by Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadeh Malek Shahmirzadeh 2004 Danti 2005a 2005b The principal investigators had rooted in the pioneering excavations and seminal writings of Roman Ghirshman Ghirshman 1935 1938 9 Ghirshman s work at Sialk in 1933 4 and 1937 followed close on his and Contenau s earlier excavations at Giyan Tappeh in Luristan Province in 1931 2 Contenau Ghirshman 1935 After the Sialk excavations Ghirshman sought to synthesise archaeological knowledge of eastern and western Iranian cultural developments in his popular writings paving the way for decades of theorising on ancient migrations see esp Ghirshman 1954 1964 1977 I have spent the last several years following in Ghirshman s tracks re analysing some of the evidence drawn upon by later scholars to explore these theories mainly from the perspective of north western Iran and north eastern Iraqi Kurdistan Just as the Sialk excavations were a watershed moment Sialk within Esfahan Province Fig 6 1 The research area contained portions of the Karkas mountains the eastern piedmont zone of the Karkas range and the intermontane valleys of the Qamsar Barzok Azvar Naber Maragh Nuyasar and Nashalji areas In the north east the survey area included an expanse of the arid clay and salt survey was discontinued in 2006 this research experience nitions of the early Iron Age and how such constructs have been applied by researchers in northern and western Iran over the last 60 years see especially Dyson 1964 1965 1977 Young 1965 1967 1985 Muscarella 1974 1994 and more recently Danti 2013a 2013b Age so too were the later excavations at Hasanlu Tepe by a joint expedition of the University of Pennsylvania the Iranian Antiquities Service and the Metropolitan Museum of Art from 1956 to 1977 Dyson Voigt 1989 Muscarella our work at Sialk and the environmental zones surrounding modern Kashan I then examine how excavations at Sialk archaeological endeavour the Hasanlu Project conducted at Hasanlu Tepe in Iran s western Azerbaijan Province just south of Lake Urmia Both Sialk and Hasanlu have played major roles in setting the course of Iranian archaeology for decades as it pertains to investigating and interpreting the so called Early Iron Age ological palimpsest for manifold reasons including the area s prehistoric archaeological sequence its prominence this line of research along with Negahban s discoveries at Marlik Negahban 1964 1996 The explorations and interpretations of Hasanlu and neighbouring sites such as Dinkha Tepe and Agrab Tepe Muscarella 1968 1973 tations of the late 2nd and early 1st millennia cemeteries of Sialk known as Necropolis A and Necropolis B or Sialk V and VI More recently this contribution has been reas 27

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across northern and western Iran see esp Tourovetz 1989 Piller 2003 4 Medvedskaya 1977 1982 Dasht e Kavir an area known locally as the Rig Boland or High Sands Fig 6 9 Here we found evidence for prehistoric hunter gatherer exploitation of steppe resources as well as caravanserais and watchtowers of the medieval and early modern periods In 2005 we were frustrated in our attempts to identify new Bronze and Early Iron Age sites in the Sialk region Conditions during our short survey season were not always ideal given the frequent rain and snowfall during The Sialk region As with Hasanlu ancient Sialk stands as a testament to the dynamics of highland lowland interactions The site s location controlling multiple ecological zones within a tightly bound site catchment provides a rich dataset on cultural responses to verticality and aridity Our surveys in 2005 included the Karkas mountains just west of the Kashan plain Fig 6 2 to investigate the role of pastoralism in the regional subsistence economy over time Our short survey revealed abundant evidence of pastoral production in the narrow valleys west of Sialk over many millennia Fig 6 3 Here narrow well watered tracts of arable land are used to produce fruit crops as well as timber Mining is also conducted in this area today as was also the the Islamic era mirroring the occupational sequence of Kashan rather than the mounds of Sialk From the perspective of cultural heritage protection and preservation the survey results revealed widespread threats damage and destruction to cultural assets Many vandalism and neglect As previously mentioned urban development on the outskirts of Kashan had already destroyed some small sites and threatened to engulf others The extensive historic landscape of Old Kashan with its outlying settlements gardens rural hinterland and qanat system coupled with the large area covered by the mounds of Sialk and their surrounding lower settlements and cemeteries presents the greatest challenges to future heritage safeguarding Under the UNESCO system I would envision the need for an archaeological park akin to those encompassing the ancient villages of northern Syria i e the Dead Cities to adequately safeguard the Sialk Kashan area the contribution this region makes to the arid Kashan plain in the form of irrigation water Intricate water harvesting systems composed of surface and subterranean channels direct rainfall and snowmelt eastward towards vast subterranean qanat systems that water the arid Kashan plain and the famous Baq e Fin gardens Fig 6 4 These qanats have traditionally provided a reliable water supply to the city of Kashan and its precursors The Sialk Survey 2005 followed these irrigation networks down from the mountains into the neighbouring piedmont zone Fig 6 5 and Sialk and Hasanlu into the subterranean channels here in some locations Fig 6 6 Ceramic sherds from the lower channels generally provided dates from the 12 13th centuries and later Local tradition suggested at least Sasanian dates for the early or upper most use phase of these qanat systems We documented abundant evidence of settlement in the piedmont zone east of the Karkas dating from the 12 13th centuries to the early modern era as well as prehistoric Following the Sialk Survey I resumed my duties on the Hasanlu Publication Project at the University of Pennsylvania working with Robert H Dyson Jr and eventually taking on the task of producing the Hasanlu Excavation Reports series covering the University Museum s ten seasons of excavation at Hasanlu Tepe directed by Dyson between 1956 and 1977 In many ways this repeatedly brought me back to Tappeh Sialk particu Early Iron Age sites in this area In this regard the Sialk Basin which exhibits relatively dense permanent settlement in the later Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Danti to reassess the period known as Hasanlu V of the mid tolate 2nd millennium Danti 2013a 2013b This period was initially dubbed the Iron I of the late 2nd millennium but the relevant data remained largely unpublished Hasanlu V was known to be roughly contemporary to Sialk V and closely connected to it in terms of the predominant archaeological cultures as well as the history of research Like other pioneering scholars of ancient Iran in the 1950s and early 1960s Dyson drew heavily on the work of Ghirshman at Tepe Sialk Ghirshman 1938 9 of Kashan where new urban development had damaged or destroyed some archaeological sites Fig 6 8 In a single day s survey we could start our morning in the Karkas mountains working our way down through the hilly piedmont to the plain of Kashan and end up in 28

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Dyson also relied on Giyan Tepe Contenau Ghirshman 1935 Tureng Tepe 1931 Wulsin 1932 Hissar IIIc 1931 Schmidt 1933 1937 Shah Tepe 1933 Arne 1935 1945 Ghirshman s renewal of work at Susa begun in 1946 Ghirshman 1954 Geoy Tepe B A Burton Brown 1951 and later Khurvin Chandar Vanden Berghe 1964 but especially the mortuary assemblages of Sialk A B and Giyan Tepe I Our comprehensive analysis of the entire Hasanlu V dataset recovered by the Hasanlu Project Danti 2013a 2013b demonstrates that the cross sequence compari rim Ghirshman 1938 9 223 pl XXXIX These iron objects stood out from the ubiquitous bronze implements in the graves of Necropolis A With regard to dating in the bases cf Danti 2013a 215 Cup Type 4 exhibit a great deal of variation but are well attested in the later LBA Iron I i e the late 2nd millennium at Geoy Tepe Burton Graves 1 63 had already yielded burnished grey and dark red ceramics like those recovered from Sialk A and Hasanlu The Giyan I graves contained copper bronze artefacts and three iron daggers from Tombs 3 5 and 23 Fig 6 11 Ghirshman reasoned that the scarcity of of Iron I which drew heavily on Sialk V were tenuous at best As work progressed at Hasanlu and related sites this problematic interpretive foundation ultimately resulted in ical gap dividing the so called terminal Bronze Age from the earliest Iron Age of western Iran This archaeological gap conceptualised as a punctuated break in settlement patterns mortuary practices urban form and architectural styles and styles of material culture especially ceramic wares was interpreted as the result of a mass migration s of newcomers to northern and western Iran in the mid tolate 2nd millennium Indo Iranian and Iranian populations Nonetheless I assert lematic methodology the paucity of published and scien Monochrome Burnished Ware dated to the end of the Bronze Age Ghirshman 1935 245 and that this archaeobelow Sialk Cemetery B Sialk Period VI located some distance from Cemetery A and possibly separated temporally by a hiatus of unknown duration provided evidence painted ceramics little Monochrome Burnished Ware and a higher incidence of iron artefacts To Ghirshman this indicated a new culture and another wave of migration Ghirshman originally dated Sialk A to 1400 1200 and Sialk B to no earlier than 1200 1100 Ghirshman 1935 245 This was certainly not inaccurate given the available evidence but he later revised his dating of Sialk A to 1200 1000 linking the phase to the graves of Giyan I I4 and I3 superscript subperiod designations sensu Young 1965 which in turn were compared to graves at Babylon dated to the 12th 11th centuries Ghirshman 1938 9 20 1 1964 277 8 Ghirshman also noted similarities between Sialk A grey black burnished vessels Ghirshman and other pioneering scholars on the development of Iranian archaeology in the 20th century For Dyson and other Hasanlu Project researchers in the 1950s and 1960s investigating the Bronze Age Iron Age transition of western Iran Sialk and Giyan Tepe provided rare published grave groups of the later 2nd and early 1st millennia but taken in isolation these assemIron Age were the graves of Sialk A Sialk Period V Ghirshman had excavated 15 intact tombs in Necropolis A containing monochrome grey to black and red burnished wares Necropolis A Tombs I XV Ghirshman 1938 9 3 22 209 11 222 8 pls I V XXXVI XLVII Sialk A Tomb IV is perhaps the most important or more aptly wares from the Caucasus where such material was at that time erroneously dated to around 1000 Ghirshman 1938 9 222 3 pl XXXVIII s 431 s 432 1964 277 8 reinforcing his inaccurate dating Based on the occurrence of similar ceramic wares and forms Incised and Impressed Ware at Dinkha Tepe in the Southern Lake Urmia Basin and at sites in the Caucasus I would date the Sialk grave to the early Late Bronze Age of the mid 2nd millennium archaeological chronology of Iran Fig 6 10 This grave contained an iron dagger and an iron punch respectively Ghirshman 1938 9 pl V 1 right pls XXXIX S 458 V 1 and XXXIX S 459 associated with a distinctive mug in yellowish undecorated fabric and a burnished grey black carafe or jar with loop handle and thickened band at the provide links to the Mitanni occupations of Tell el Rimah Tell Brak and Nuzi ibid Ghirshman accordingly revised the start of Sialk B to 1000 1964 280 in view of 1 the dating of the earlier Sialk A 2 a Neo Assyrian cylinder seal found in one Sialk B grave and 3 his belief that the Sialk B 29

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archaeological culture represented the Medes who are Ghirshman therefore asserted that the start of Sialk B must as well as northern migration routes to the western Zagros nated by theories attempting to connect the dots of Iranian migrations the primary data often consisted of material salvaged from looted or commercially excavated ceme in his monumental Compar e et Chronologie had ques469 70 477 preferring a range from 1400 1200 for Sialk A and 1250 1100 for Sialk B This early date for Sialk B however was rejected by Dyson Young and Medvedskaya see Young 1963 Dyson 1965 200 1 Medvedskaya 1983 The association of grey to black monochrome burnished pottery with early iron objects as well as Ghirshman s grouping of the Sialk A graves into Rad 1950 Vanden Berghe 1964 The area of the Elburz and southern Caspian littoral proved sparse territory for archaeologists in search of Grey Ware Horizon resulting in a stubborn spatiotemporal gap for those attempting to link eastern Grey Ware to its supposed western cousin In The Hasanlu Project published in Science in 1962 Dyson explicitly laid out his criteria for the relative and absolute dating of the earliest Iron Age or as he called it the Button Base Phase or Hasanlu Period V Dyson 1962 639 He chose a Hasanlu Period V Grey Ware button base goblet or tankard as a primary example to illustrate the technique of cross sequence dating Fig 6 13 which he compared to similar button base tankards from Sialk A Giyan I and Geoy Tepe B Dyson 1962 would his theories of culture change driven by multiple 1964 3 277 8 Ghirshman building on the work of Arne issued a Iranian archaeology for decades to come What are the reasons that caused the displacement of the civilization represented by necropolis A and its appearance at Sialk at Rey and at Giyan Arne believes it is the Indo European invasion which ended the age of grey Grave SK29 which I have redated to Hasanlu Period VIa or the Middle Bronze III of the 16th early 15th century which is possible but with the condition of lowering the date that he gives to the layer of Shah Tepe At Tureng Tepe the most recent level III shows a radical change in burial practices on Mound C at the end of its occupation the dead were no longer buried under the dwellings but as at Sialk Necropolis A in a necropolis apart from the houses Two of these tombs contained small iron objects which makes it possible to believe they are contemporary to necropolis A At Damghan Hissar one does not note similar changes but level IIIB there underwent a violent destruction and the most recent installation IIIC presents several characteristics that link it to the civilization of the Ciscaucasus and southern Russia Ghirshman 1938 9 103 4 SK29 mortuary assemblage to illustrate Hasanlu V Iron I 8 nos 7 9 10 However this MBIII grave was disturbed by an immediately overlying burial SK15 of the Iron II period 1050 800 which resulted in the mixing of Iron II material with the Middle Bronze III grave assemblage ibid including a pedestal based carinated cup HAS57 188 typical of the Iron I 1250 1050 and early Iron II 1050 800 and most crucially an iron iron in Hasanlu Period V Dyson s Iron I Hasanlu V dating the similarity of the Monochrome Burnished Ware buttonbase tankard to Sialk A and Giyan I where a few iron objects were found in graves with Monochrome Burnished Ware Nevertheless Ghirshman apparently and under Ghirshman also noted strong similarities between Sialk A and commercially excavated material from the so called Solduz Necropolis aka Hasanlu Low Mound discovered between 1933 and 1935 Fig 6 12 Ghirshman 1938 9 78 9 253 4 pl C This put a spotlight on Hasanlu for further testing migrationist theories and set the stage for the future investigations by Stein Hakemi and Rad and Dyson Stein 1940 Hakemi and Rad 1950 In summary Ghirshman highlighted certain archaeological correlates of putative Early Iron Age migrations whether directly or indirectly linked Grey Ware small amounts of iron and extramural cemeteries He drew attention to the presence of similar Monochrome Burnished Ware in north western Iran at sites such as Hasanlu and also drew links to 2nd millennium sites in the Caucasus belong to the mid 2nd millennium with iron objects in Sialk A graves The Sialk tankard chosen by Dyson for the chart is almost certainly a drawing of S656 Ghirshman 1938 9 pl IV no 4 which does not come from a documented intact Sialk grave but rather was probably found in one of the looted graves mentioned by Ghirshman 1939 3 4 The Giyan button base tankard illustrated by Dyson appears to be from Grave 27 Contenau Ghirshman 1935 22 pl 13 and has no other associated ceramics and is not associated with iron objects The three 30

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graves of Giyan I with iron daggers see Fig 6 11 do not contain button base drinking vessels At this juncture Dyson was gradually shifting to an Iranian focus for comparanda as opposed to Mesopotamia foreshadowing Young s more detailed cross sequence comparisons published in 1963 and 1965 Young 1963 1965 and the eventual addition of a range of ceramic forms in Monochrome Burnished Ware thought to be typical of the earliest Iron Age as well as columned hall architecture Dyson writes east west migration of Iranian populations in the 2nd millennium although chronological and spatial gaps between Hissar III and the EWGW Horizon would prove the archaeological periodisation and embedded migrationist theories developed by the Hasanlu Project for the later 2nd and early 1st millennia would become the prevailing viewpoint for decades After an exhaustive review of the evidence from Hasanlu Danti 2013a 2013b I contend that the prolonged and dogged adherence to EWGW migration theories or the slightly watered down notion of punctu Such similarities relate the ceramics of this phase Hasanlu V or the Button base Phase to the general tradition of central and western Iran in the late 2nd millennium B C This correlation is supported by the presence of a few sciences in his critique of historicism Popper 1957 These forms belong to a tradition found in Mesopotamia during the latter part of the second millennium B C at the sites of Nuzi Assur and elsewhere The pottery of this phase thus relates the local culture to cultures in the two predicted I would trace this back to Ghirshman s early grappling with Sialk A in which he popularised a list of putative culture traits and a multi wave migration model that promised to explicate the arrival of Iranian populations onto being 1200 1000 B C Dyson 1962 641 Ware Sialk A culture westward and their eventual arrival in the west was heralded by Sialk B As western Iran was This dating neatly aligned with Ghirshman s estimate for Sialk A Dyson continued to develop this idea further eventually designating an archaeological Grey Ware Horizon in western Iran that arrived suddenly in the later 2nd millennium rapidly replacing the Bronze Age cultures there data collection and interpretation Herein rests the reasoning to my mind for the origin of and adherence to the unconventional use of the term Iron Age which in its earliest applications using Dyson and Young s concepts of Hasanlu V or Iron I heavily based on Sialk A lumped together Middle Bronze III the Late Bronze Age and the Iron I period or minimally the period from 1600 to 1050 The so called Western Grey Ware Horizon or culture Early Western Grey Ware EWGW Horizon which was supported by an exhaustive review of the available archaeological evidence and included Hasanlu V Giyan I 4 3 Sialk V Geoy Tepe B A and Khurvin Chandar Young 1963 133 Young wrote that all of these sites share three general features they have essentially a painted ware occurs only very rarely they display a similar burial tradition in regard to extramural burials and they only rarely yield objects of iron ibid 133 He later added columned hall architecture to this assessment of culture traits for the earliest Iron Age in earliest Iron Age which was in turn linked directly and indirectly to Indo Iranian migrations la Young and Ghirshman and for a time it seemed that Persians Medes and Scythians might have had an earlier and much more easily discernible presence in Iran Sites such as Sialk and Hasanlu are key to our understanding of Iran s past and new exploration and re analysis of older archaeological I clearly originated from and expanded on Ghirshman s description of Sialk A 1939 103 4 As Ghirshman before him Young rather precariously linked this horizon to Hissar III in north eastern Iran where a type of grey ware was well known This became the basis for Young s theory of Iron Age origins centred on an contributions of trailblazing scholars such as Ghirshman and Dyson The outstanding universal value of these archaeological sites and their surrounding areas are manifest and we must do all we can to preserve this cultural legacy for future generations 31

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7 Decorative Bricks of the Late Iron Age in Eastern Media Some Pieces from Sialk REZA NASERI MEHRDAD MALEKZADEH The men who adorned the wall of the Susa palace those were Medes and Egyptians Darius I DSf Introduction well as new examples from Sialk 62 examples Naseri 2011 shows that such architectural decorations were a common tradition for ornamenting brick monuments and sometimes stone monuments in the centre of the Iranian plateau in the Iron Age II and Iron Age III periods Fig 7 1 The Iron Age culture of the central Iranian plateau is relatively well known Among the important sites are Tappeh Sialk Malek Shahmirzadi 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2012 2017 Ghirshman 1938 9 Shamshirgah Fahimi 2003 Malekzadeh Naseri 2005 Fahimi 2010 Malekzadeh Naseri 2013 Qoli Darvish Sarlak 2020 2011 Kleiss 1983 Sarm Sarlak 2003 Zar Bolagh Malekzadeh 2003 Malekzadeh et al 2014 Vasun Malekzadeh 2004 Malekzadeh et al 2014 Sagz Abad Malek Shahmirzadi 1977 Uzbaki Majidzadeh 2010a 2010b and others But it should be mentioned that our knowledge of this period especially the second half the Median period across the entire central part of the Iranian plateau is on the whole restricted to pottery types and cultural horizons The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse 80 examples of a little known type of decoration associated with the architecture of the Late Iron Age namely the stamped bricks found at Sialk These bricks can be described as the most prominent artistic feature of the centre of the Iranian plateau before the advent of the universal art of the Achaemenid period Limited examples 18 specimens of such stamped bricks were found during the excavations at Tappeh Sialk in the 1930s Ghirshman 1938 9 pls XXI XCVIII XCIX But for many years because of the lack of similar examples any comparative discussion and comparative chronological research was practically impossible Now however the discovery of such bricks at three other sites namely Qoli Darvish 7 examples Sarlak 2011 500 and 557 Sarlak n d 2 Shamshirgah 74 examples Malekzadeh Naseri 2005 and Qolam Tappe ye Ja farabad 19 examples Golmohammadi et al 2014 as Decorative bricks from Sialk Decorative bricks of the Late Iron Age is the suggested description for these brick decorations of the Late Iron Age in eastern Media which were already known through 18 examples found associated with large structures in the Ghirshman excavations at Sialk Ghirshman called them briques de rev tement and related them to the Iron Age Ghirshman 1938 9 pl XXI nos 5 6 pls XCVIII XCIX In the recent excavations and surveys at Sialk 62 more examples were recovered Of these 16 examples Project of which 6 examples were published in a paper by Nowruzzadeh Chegini 2002 171 5 6 examples were found in the third season of the Sialk Reconsideration Project Fahimi 2004 87 9 examples in the fourth season Fahimi 2005 137 2 examples from Mr Moradi s sounding and 29 pieces in the 2006 survey by the authors Naseri 2011 Apart from the wide disagreement about the dating of these decorative bricks 1 their function and artistic aspects have not been much discussed 1 32 Nowruzzadeh Chegini astutely refused to date the bricks Nowruzzadeh Chegini 2002 but his brief article gave Malek Shahmirzadi the latitude to date them to the Proto Elamite period Malek Shahmirzadi 2002 25 Malekzadeh 2004b 18 21 showed that the bricks must belong to the Iron Age III period and cannot be earlier

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The various motifs on the bricks are human animal This scene is stamped on four pieces of brick one piece from the Ghirshman excavations Ghirshman 1938 9 pl XCVIII S 304b and three pieces from the Sialk Reconsideration Project Nowruzzadeh Chegini These motifs are combined together to create separate scenes The size and nature of the designs the constituent elements and the production methods are similar in all respects In total 10 scenes can be distinguished and we will describe them in turn Scene 3 Scene 1 upside down in the upper part The motifs in this scene Scene 1 shows a man among beasts His torso is trapezoidal in shape and shown frontally while his head is shown in hand side This creature is shown with a human body and the head and wings of a bird The head is shown in upraised He has a peak of hair or a hat at the front of his the design include in the upper row a roaring lion with open mouth with one paw raised the mane indicated by a jagged line and with a tail touching the mane In front of pendants are attached to his waist This creature faces a design which is probably the sacred tree He stretches out one hand to the tree which has spherical fruits pattern In the upper left hand corner of the scene is a horned animal deer ram goat apparently with a wing In the lower row opposite the sitting man are two hoofed animals one with a ridged horn and the other resembling a horse The whole decoration is contained within a frame which in parts has closely spaced horizontal grooves Fig 7 2a N 1 6 This scene is stamped on six pieces of brick one piece from the Ghirshman excavations Ghirshman 1938 9 pl XCVIII S 98 four pieces from the Sialk Reconsideration Project Nowruzzadeh Chegini 2002 pl moon and the sun In the upper part of the scene is a lion with a raised tail and dentate mane and three hoofed of animal species In the lower row in addition to the but judging from the dentate mane the raised tail and the position of the two hind legs is probably a roaring squares and diamonds are visible Fig 7 2a N 11 15 The whole scene is decorated above and below with the edges of hanging triangles Fig 7 2a N 12 13 and 15 and horizontal ridges Fig 7 2a N 11 The important thing about this scene is that the motifs in some pieces are drawn facing right Fig 7 2a N 11 14 and 15 and in some pieces are drawn facing left Fig 7 2a N 12 and 13 so that they are mirror images On some larger pieces of brick there is an arch shaped hollow that is perhaps a place for a peg or stud Fig 7 2a N 11 The motif of the sacred tree is well known from Mesopotamian monumental art particularly Neo Assyrian piece from surface surveys by the authors Naseri 2011 Scene 2 This scene features a man in the company of three small designs on it The man is sitting or standing on the back of one of the animals He has a trapezoidal shaped upper body shown frontally Vertical grooves on the chest may be a design of clothing His face is not clear due to the raw material and artistic style In Neo Assyrian art the design was carved in stone to the highest artistic stand the largest of the three animals which is facing right All the pieces of brick that have this design are broken on the right side but it is clear that the animal has a long body a long tail an elongated head and is probably a horse It has a wing with a lattice pattern The other two animals are both horses one apparently winged but the decoration is very eroded On some pieces the scene has a frame at the top on the left and at the bottom Fig 7 2a N 7 10 iconography Nevertheless this scene demonstrates the familiarity of the artists of the central Iranian plateau East Media with the common themes of contemporary the region with Mesopotamia in the Late Iron Age the Median period four pieces from the Sialk Reconsideration Project 33

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patterns inside two vertical lines on the left side of the image There is a deep groove on the far left hand side of the scene Fig 7 2b N 23 This scene is preserved on one fragment of brick found Scene 4 This scene shows a hoofed animal with horns and wings a winged bull amidst geometric designs such as chequered Scene 7 winged bull are curved inwards with an ear behind them The eye is formed of concentric circles and the animal s tail hangs down and ends in a lump The whole scene is surrounded by a thin frame with a triangular appendage attached to it The remarkable thing about the scene is that in one piece Fig 7 2a N 16 22 the scene on the left In the lower part of this scene two horned animals confront between them The animal on the right is represented only by its head eye muzzle and ridged horn The animal on the left a winged bull is shown by two legs wings large diamond shaped eyes a rectangular shaped muzzle and incurving horns that are depicted as seen from the front In the upper part of this scene which is much eroded only geometric patterns with chequerboard decoration are visible Fig 7 2c N 25 This scene is preserved on one fragment of brick found completed Fig 7 2a N 20 This scene is stamped on seven bricks one piece from the Ghirshman excavations Ghirshman 1938 9 pl XCVIII S 134 four pieces from the Sialk 4 12 and 4 14 and two pieces from the Sialk surface Scene 8 In this can be seen an animal with incurving horns a bull and to the right of it a geometric design with chequered squares The scene is bordered at the top by a narrow rib Fig 7 2d N 26 This scene is preserved on one fragment of brick found in the Ghirshman excavations Ghirshman 1938 9 pl XCVIII S 1299 Scene 5 The main motif in this scene is a horned animal with long neck the head of the animal is not clear because of erosion open wings and bent front legs that are hoofed Although the brick is not broken on the right hand side continued and completed on the adjacent brick Other motifs in this scene include a curved line with dentate decoration that is probably part of another animal s horn All the motifs in this scene are contained within a simple frame Fig 7 2a N 23 and Fig 7 7a This scene is preserved on one brick found during the Scene 9 entire design is framed at top and bottom At the bottom there are ribs and deep grooves This scene is preserved on two pieces of brick Fig 7 2e N 27 One piece was found in the Ghirshman excavations Ghirshman 1938 9 pl XCVIII S 304a and the other comes from the Sialk Reconsideration Project Nowruzzadeh Chegini 2002 Scene 6 This shows an elegant horned animal with a long curved neck narrow waist and muscular limbs The head is long and slender with prominent circular eyes The horns are incurving with the ears of the animal beside them A circular object probably a decorative tassel is suspended beneath the neck A remarkable feature about this motif Scene 10 The nine scenes above were recognisably human animal body have been created as separate features and they are not actually joined together Other motifs in this scene are or individually but with the case of geometric decoration or brick frames incised or stamped on bricks the issue is petals are missing because of the fracture an enigmatic motif in the top right hand corner and geometric zigzag we will call Scene 10 Fig 7 3 34

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Iconography Animal motifs were previously recognised amongst the decorative bricks of la grande construction Ghirshman 1938 9 pl XCVII S 98 S 134 S 304b S 1299 but two ibid S 98 S 304b We now know that these bricks have the same familiar designs as the hoofed animals of the Sialk 6 culture S 98 is a piece of Scene 1 and S 304b is a piece of Scene 2 Can the stamped designs on these bricks be matched by the known designs from the Iron Age culture in terms of iconography The stamped designs on the bricks of la grande construction show exactly the same motifs as are traditionally found in Cemetery B Sialk 6 Culture presented in this paper with traditional motifs on the ceramics and seals of Cemetery B and following that we will compare them with the common motifs of the Iron Age of Iran and neighbouring regions As previously mentioned the motifs on these bricks are human animal motifs namely an animal like a deer or goat with two crescent horns Scene 8 ibid S 1299 and on another an animal like a winged horse with two horns Scene 4 ibid S 134 In recent excavations decorative bricks have been obtained with similar animal motifs hoofed animals for example Scene 1 winged horses or similar for example Scene 2 and horned animals for example Scene 6 Fig 7 2 Motifs of this kind are commonly found in the decorative schemes on the ceramics of Sialk Cemetery B from animals like winged horses ibid pls LXXX XC 1 and horned bulls ibid XC 7 to deer and goats with crescentic horns ibid LXXXII LXXXIV Fig 7 4 Amongst the most important geometric decorations on the decorative bricks of la grande construction are triangles and squares The triangle motif is one of the most common motifs in the Late Iron Age and such motifs whether festoon or triangle on the ceramics are often considered as part of a cultural tradition Festoon Ware and Triangle Ware see Dyson 1965 200 1 pl XLI Dyson 1999 Earlier this kind of motif was known from the ceramics of Cemetery B at Sialk for example Ghirshman 1938 9 pls LIV LXIV XC and also from the cylinder seals of the There was no human motif amongst the decorative bricks that Ghirshman found around la grande construction ibid pl XCVII XCVIII but in recent excavations and surveys a number of bricks with human motifs for example Scenes 1 and 2 Fig 7 2 have been found The main features of this human motif are the trapezoidal upper festoon and triangle motifs have been noted on the decorative bricks from Sialk Fig 7 4 The square motif is also a very popular one in the Iron Age and motifs similar to the squares on the decorative bricks of the la grande construction Ghirshman 1938 9 pls XCVIII S 134 S 1299 can be seen on the decorative bricks of Baba Jan Henrickson 1983 Uniquely similar squares are also commonly found on Sialk 6 pottery from Cemetery B for example Ghirshman 1938 9 pls wide shoulders the wide chest the position of the arms the appearance of head and face long beard and chin with curved nose although some details of the eyes are not very clear the stature and most important of all the peak of hair at the front of the head We are familiar with all these details from the illustrative culture of Sialk 6 Fig 7 4 animal motifs on the decorative pottery of Sialk 6 a few human motifs are also observable including on two incomplete pottery fragments from Ghirshman s excavations Ghirshman 1938 9 col pl 1 pl 90 2 1 The photographs and drawings of these two pieces of pottery have been repeatedly published in Ghirshman s writings The most prominent decorative motif of the Sialk 6 rative pottery of Cemetery B at Sialk Ghirshman 1938 9 pl LIV S 814 pl LXXXVII S 1548 pl XCI A 18 This motif is also observed on the decorative bricks of la grande construction Ghirshman 1938 9 pl XCVIII S 304a and they are clearly related in terms of artistic style Fig 7 8 4 7 5b with a rider on its back Unfortunately most of the rider 35

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and a long beard and chin The shape of the head and face the hairstyle with a lock of hair at the front decorated with This way of showing the human body can also be seen in other seals from Cemetery B ibid 62 5 pls XXX LVI XCIV cf Malekzadeh 2002 21 Fig 7 4 As we have seen the motifs on these decorative bricks are exactly the same as the motifs of the Cemetery B decorative tradition Sialk 6 culture and the similarity of the iconography is such that both can be considered to belong to the same tradition Fig 7 4 It should be said that the decoration on the stamped bricks and the ceramics of Sialk 6 is exactly the same In one case the artist painted the motifs onto the clay vessels found in Cemetery B before placing them in the kiln and in the other the potter stamped sitting on the horse are all very important for our comparisons Fig 5a The second motif the danseur shows a man who has a sword at his waist In front of him there is another standing he is holding something in his raised right hand or it is the left hand of the other man and he puts his left hand on his sword His upper body is trapezoidal in for la grande construction If we accept the comparisons we have discussed then the stamped bricks should be of the same date as Cemetery B at Sialk Therefore the decorative bricks from the la grande construction and the architecture with which they are associated should be dated to the end of the Iron Age Such stamped bricks are decorations for mudbrick platforms and large structures and if these bricks according to the motifs are related to the Late Iron Age the structures can be dated to the same era a curved nose long beard and chin The long neck the wide shoulders and chest the sturdy arms the posture with the gentle curvature of the knee the composition of the head and face and the hairstyle with long hair swept back decorated with hatched lines maybe it is a headband or turban are again all very important for our comparisons Fig 7 5b There is also a warrior motif on a pottery vessel of Sialk 6 type in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston Ghirshman Brick manufacture and function body is shown frontally but his head and his legs are in curved nose long chin with beard extended neck wide shoulders and chest sturdy arms the posture with gentle curvature of the knee the composition of head and face the hairstyle with long braided hair behind him maybe it is a headband are all familiar Malekzadeh 2002 The most important thing is a short sword with a round hilt in the sheath at his waist This is the type of short sword ware The surface was coated with a thin layer of clay in was tempered with various mineral inclusions including grains of sand and sometimes pottery sherds Fig 7 7 In our opinion judging from the size of the motifs and the lack of repetition of motifs in individual scenes they were impressed on each brick with a stamp The motifs on the bricks were part of larger scenes like a seven colour haft rang tile Fig 7 8 The central scenes were probably rical Figs 7 8a 7 8b while around them were simple geometric frames Fig 7 8c In some bricks of Sialk holes are seen in the middle which may indicate they were millennium and known as an akinakes Fig 7 6 In addition to the ceramics human bodies are also depicted on a few Sialk 6 cylinder seals from Cemetery B Ghirshman 1938 9 pls XXX XCIV Among them a seal artistic tradition It shows a rider with a trapezoidal shaped an extended neck wide shoulders wide chest and sturdy arms and the hairstyle with long hair at the back of the of Sialk correctly believed that the decorative bricks were related to the mudbrick grande construction He believed that they were decorations for the exterior of the mudbrick walls of the grande construction Ghirshman 1938 9 pl XXI nos 5 6 pls XCVIII XCIX It should be noted that the bricks belong to a long tradition of architectural decoration in Western Asia Let us review this starting with later decorative bricks from the Achaemenid era and then considering older examples The Achaemenid examples include glazed bricks from Susa decorated with hatched lines are all similar to the two ibid 63 pls XXX 5 LVI XCIV S 810 It should also be noted that another seal from Sialk has a motif of a man sitting on a throne ibid 62 3 pls XXX 7 LVI XCIV S 1327 The trapezoidal shaped upper body shown frontally and 36

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Vanden Berghe 1959 pl CIV Persepolis Schmidt 1953 191 and Achaemenid Babylon Seidl 1976 Such bricks are probably rooted in the tradition of the bricks of the Ishtar Gate at Babylon Koldewey 1918 and the Mannaean bricks of Ziwiye Mo tamedi 1997 and Qalaychi Mousavi and therefore in terms of colour they are similar Conclusions Baba Jan bricks belong to an older and more independent tradition Henrickson 1983 such as the Hasanlu bricks Winter 1977 The Neo Elamite bricks of Susa Porada 1965 pl XIV show another tradition The oldest bricks of this kind are those of the Middle Elamite period at Chogha Zanbil dating from the middle of the 2nd millennium Ghirshman 1966 Examples comparable to the Sialk bricks belong to monuments of the Iron Age They have been found in the central Iranian plateau such as at Qoli Darvish in connection with a monumental mudbrick platform of Iron Age 2 at the Khorabad stone fortress of Shamshirgah probably related to a monumental gate and at Ghulam Tape of Jafar Abad related to a palace near Sialk According to 1 The tradition of stamped brick decoration is evidenced on the central Iranian plateau as early as the Iron Age II III periods and must be a hallmark of Median art rative bricks can be explained by the distance between contemporary Mesopotamian sites such as Babylon and Assur where there are glazed bricks also at Qalaichi and sites such as Shamshirgah Qolam Tappe ye Ja farabad Tappeh Sialk and Gholi Darvish Tappeh where there are unglazed bricks 3 Examples of bricks from Tappeh Sialk especially clear that the stamped bricks were a decorative architectural element used to adorn the exterior of mudbrick monuments at the end of the Iron Age Although the decorative bricks of the expeditions to distant Median areas made ruqute located next to the Salt Lake Bit Tabti Daryache Qom like Shikrakki Tappeh Sialk The lack of Median art in the Zagros region is due to the heavy impact of Assyrian military expeditions and subsequent destruction The eastern area of the Median land probably saw less destruction due to relatively minor Assyrian activities in this region However we should remember that the central Iranian plateau is still not well known from an archaeological point of view 4 The decorated Median bricks from the central Median plateau that are presented here are probably the best examples of pre Achaemenid art in Iran These motifs are also apparent in the subsequent Achaemenid in terms of manufacturing technology from the examples before and after them and particularly from the later glazed and painted bricks of the Achaemenid period it is clear that this culture of decorating monuments existed in the centre of the Iranian plateau and evolved to produce the more familiar examples of Western Iran ings in Cemetery B at Sialk has a very rich iconography Until the new research took place at Sarm Qoli Darvish Shamshirgah and Qolam Tappe ye Ja farabad this culture was known exclusively from Sialk but today we know that in the middle of the Late Iron Age in the centre of the Iranian plateau this culture was dominant and stamped bricks also belong to this artistic culture Moreover from a technological point of view we can bricks and their stamped decoration are perhaps testiwho adorned the wall of the Susa palace those were Medes and Egyptians 37

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8 A Note on the Late Iron Age Double Handled Tankards from Sialk STEPHAN KROLL The results of the excavations by Roman Ghirshman at Tappeh Sialk in 1934 and 1937 were overwhelming Hardly anyone could handle the abundance of material Ghirshman published in the two volumes Sialk I and II Subsequently some 80 years passed by and while numerous studies on Sialk appeared three small ceramic vessels published in volume II were never referred to The tankards are to be found in plate IV in Sialk II Fig 8 1 Possibly by mistake the whole plate is labelled N cropole A This may be the reason that nobody took any notice of them Looking up the description on page 210 of plate IV it is clear they do not belong to N cropole A All three vessels were found in a Sondage au Sud de la Colline Sud which is to my knowledge not mentioned elsewhere in the text Double handled tankards were not abundant The sample shown here from Godin was the only piece ever found Fig 8 3 Between 1969 and 1978 a German expedition under the direction of Wolfram Kleiss excavated the Urartian fortress of Bastam in Western Azerbaijan province The fortress had been heavily burnt and destroyed around 650 Kleiss 1989 In 1974 we made a surprise discovery outside the fortress we found on an area of about 20 m2 post Urartian level situated above a destroyed storage Fig 8 5 were no longer Urartian but in the Median from Nush i Jan At that time David Stronach was not convinced though we only could show him the drawings and a photo ware At least one of these tankards is on display in the Louvre It has taken many years of research to put these vessels from Sialk into their archaeological context And the journey did not start at Sialk itself In the late 1960s David Stronach started excavating the Late Iron Age site of Nush i Jan Tappeh near Hamadan Stronach 1978a Nearby Cuyler Young began excavations at the multi period mound of Godin Tappeh where he also encountered a Late Iron Age level Gopnik 2011 Both sites yielded rather similar architecture a columned hall and several rows of oblong storerooms Moreover while in Munich working on the Nush i Jan publication with Michael Roaf David was shown by the curator of the Munich Archaeological State Collection some original sherds from the Bastam post Urartian level Fig 8 6 Without prior knowledge of where the sherds came from David said that these were typical Median sherds specially inal Median homeland In the same way Hilary Gopnik commented on the photo Fig 8 6 After I had republished the bowl some years later bowls with single handled and double handled tankards Fig 8 2 From the very beginning of the excavations On that subject by the way the color photo of the bowl with horizontal handle that you included in your article on the post Urartian levels at Bastam was startlingly like the Godin bowls Complete with the streaked burnishing If you had showed it to me without telling me where it came from I would have sworn it was from Godin personal communication to the author 2 April 2012 of Median culture Curtis 2005 But the story did not develop as smoothly as hindJan or Godin were limited to the greater Hamadan area 38

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shown was typically of Median culture Curtis 2005 This was another newly found Median site Of course the speaker denied this attribution and later published it as Urartian Tiratsyan 2010 At a conference in Paris late in 2015 Joanna Lhuillier read a paper about Bronze and Iron Age sites or recorded but limited to Eastern Anatolia and Armenia Herles Piller 2013 Some new sites were disccovered and excavated in the Median heartland itself Naseri Malekzadeh 2016 including sites such as Ozbaki Moush But historians continued to cast doubt on the existence of ancient Media In 1988 Sancisi Weerdenburg and later in 2001 at a conference in Padua had contested the existence of a larger Median empire Medes were nothing more than bands of nomads roaming freely over an extensive area Roaf 2008 9 Michael Roaf did not agree with this view So in 2008 he published an overview and a map of possible Median sites inside and outside Iran Fig 8 8 Roaf 2008 Surprisingly a rather distant site in Turkmenistan Ulug Depe was on the map too as the main building was built in a tradition close known Median assemblages in Iran like the tankard from Godin But she compared it to three tankards Ghirshman had excavated at Tappeh Sialk I must concede nobody they had never been mentioned in any discussion on the Medes So we are deeply grateful to Joanna Lhuillier for introducing us to the Sialk tankards Given their similarity to the tankard from Nor Armavir I am sure David Stronach would claim them as Median These three vessels from Sialk do not prove much in the current climate But I think we can say at least that Median culture was present at Sialk at some time in the Late Iron Age An exact date for the Sialk tankards is still a matter of debate Stylistically the tankards are close to those from Nush i Jan The Ulug Depe tankard is closer to Godin and the tankards depicted on the Persepolis reliefs Median sites covered an area now much larger than ever considered before As this paper was published in an Iranian journal it remained almost unknown to interested experts including myself However my interest in the Media topic arose again when in 2009 David Stronach and I attended a conference on Urartu in Yerevan One afternoon a paper was given by Nvard Tiratsyan on a recently excavated Urartian jar burial near Nor Armavir When the data were presented both David and I got excited This was no Urartian burial at all we claimed Fig 8 9 The pottery Roaf can extend his map of Median sites to include Sialk And it is our hope that new research at Sialk will in due course add more information 39

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9 Archaeobotanical Report about Tappeh Sialk North Mound First Impressions HENGAMEH ILKHANI ALEXANDRA LIVARDA HASSAN FAZELI NASHLI Introduction and economy land use patterns subsistence practices and food production of this region based on primary evidence is very limited Therefore as part of the recent archaeological excavations at the Sialk North Mound Fazeli et al extensive archaeobotanical assemblage of the region The results of this study provide a valuable contribution to our understanding of early use of plant resources and vegeta north part of the central plateau of Iran are attested only after 6300 and to date no pre ceramic Early Neolithic sites have been recorded in the three plains of Kashan Tehran and Qazvin Coningham et al 2004 2006 Fazeli et al 2004 2005 2007 2009 2013 Malek Shahmirzadi 2002 6 Availability and management of permanent water resources are regarded as important factors in the appearance of early farming settlements in the region and permanent occupation sites are situated near local water sources Fazeli et al 2004 Simpson Nejad 2008 Gillmore et al 2009 2011 Kourampas et al 2013 Schmidt et al 2011 Tappeh Sialk is located on the edge of alluvial stands near a riverbank that could have been used in a simple irrigation system Traces of human tracks and indirect evidence of in the archaeobotanical evidence for this region Materials and methods Soil samples for archaeobotanical analysis were collected by the excavators of the site based on a judgment sampling strategy A variety of archaeological deposits and features in the oldest occupational deposits of Sialk Kourampas et al 2013 Tappeh Sialk is one of the earliest recorded settlements of the region containing a long cultural sequence that can play an important role in our understanding of the fundamental sociocultural developments in the prehistory of this region The site consists of two mounds the North Neolithic and the South Bronze and Iron Age and has a long history of archaeological cantly contributed to our understanding of the chronological cultural and technological developments of the Sialk inhabitants from the late Neolithic period to the Iron Age Ghirshman 1938 9 Malek Shahmirzadi 2002 5 Fazeli et al 2009a Due to the importance of the north mound of Sialk containing more than 14 m of Neolithic occupational deposits it was re excavated in 2008 9 by the universities of Tehran Durham and Stirling ICHHTO and ICAR Overall our knowledge of the prehistoric society were sampled Due to time constraints it was not possible to analyse the entire charred plant assemblage and this report is based on the study of macrobotanical material excluding wood charcoal of 24 samples from the Transitional Chalcolithic deposits and 9 samples from the Late Neolithic deposits of the North Mound Five samples collected from the disturbed upper layers were excluded from the analysis Processing of samples was carried out processed soil samples ranged between 10 and 245 litres samples were measured by weight g and volume ml and were fully sorted under a stereoscope Sorting of have not been fully sorted yet and have been retained for future study Heavy residues have not been sorted 40

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yet and therefore more plant material might be added to the current dataset in the future Plant remains were of glume wheat Fig 9 1 Barley rachises were present in low quantities and most of them seemed to belong to the 6 row type There were no free threshing grains or rachis segments present and no cultivated pulses among the samples In two samples some nutshell fragments were Prunus The wild herbaceous taxa were composed of the following genera and families Cruciferae Galium sp Aegilops sp Eremopyrum Astragalus type Trigonella sp cf Medicago and Ajuga sp Some medium sized grass type seeds were classi made according to morphological characteristics surface manuals and archaeobotanical reports e g Cappers et al 2006 Cappers et al 2009 Jacomet 2006 Willcox 2002 Nesbitt 2006 van Zeist et al 1984 van Zeist BakkerHeeres 1982 1984 1985 Ghahreman et al 1975 2007 modern seed reference collection at the Archaeobotanical Laboratory of the University of Nottingham UK All the plant remains were preserved by charring and the overall state of preservation was relatively good although in some cases the condition of the items did not allow their iden further due to poor preservation Context 5107 plant items per litres of soil processed Archaeobotanical One of the ash layer samples was of particular interest as it was found in the vicinity of three human burials in jars These vessels were located in a domestic space Neolithic and Transitional Chalcolithic and the results are presented accordingly cremated and uncremated human bones Evidence of the frequent use of red ochre with no recognisable pattern in 2010 2016 The archaeobotanical samples of this context were recovered from ashy deposits in a small hole located near these human burials and contained a few emmer glume bases and spikelet forks and only a single uniden Plant remains from the Late Neolithic deposits In total nine samples containing charred plant remains were analysed from this phase including contexts 5093 5095 5105 5107 5121 5126 6014 6015 and 6035 5095 and 6014 the rest of the samples derived from ash midden deposits where high quantities of other archaeological materials such as animal bone remains charcoal and pottery fragments were also present Fazeli et al 2009b Therefore the samples are more likely to represent domestic refuse accumulated over time This phase produced the lowest density of plant remains with a maximum of 3 2 seeds per litre and a minimum of 0 12 seeds per litre across samples Most of the samples the real absence of grains rather than their invisibility to the possibility that some crop processing activities were taking place near these burials although it is more likely that some mixing of the burial deposits with those from domestic areas may have taken place Plant remains from the Transitional Chalcolithic deposits the composition of these nine samples was relatively similar containing rather low numbers of cereal grains Hordeum vulgare seemed to be the most common component in the cereal group Few emmer grains Triticum dicoccum Twenty four samples in total were analysed from this phase and were recovered from various contexts such as ison with the Late Neolithic assemblage samples from this phase had relatively higher density of plant remains with a maximum of 9 9 items per litre and a minimum of 0 1 However it must be noted that only one sample wheat grains were also present in most of the contexts that were impossible to identify to species level because of poor preservation Emmer spikelet forks and glume bases were present in relatively large quantities in almost all samples In addition small numbers of spikelet forks and of samples had low quantities of plant material The cereal component of these samples was a mixture of 41

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glume wheat and barley both in the form of grain and Contexts 5073 and 5079 all samples collected from the Transitional Chalcolithic phase In addition to barley several emmer glume bases and spikelet forks as well as the New Type occurred in most of the samples As with the Late Neolithic assemblage free threshing wheat and cultivated pulses were absent across the Transitional Chalcolithic samples The Most samples had a low quantity of charred plant material and no obvious relationship was observed between the archaeological contexts and the content of archaeobotanical samples in both chronological phases For instance comparison of plant material recovered from the in situ the Transitional Chalcolithic phase did not show a clear patterning Samples from both contexts yielded cereal from the Late Neolithic assemblage and overall the samples presented a relatively similar picture of archaeobotanical data to the previous phase It is important to mention that remains of charred sheep goat dung pellets numbers of wild taxa from grasses legumes and sedges The content of the in situ domestic hearth 5079 seemed recovered from contexts 5020 and 5023 reported as room were also observed among the content of the dung pellets Fig 9 2 The frequent presence of domesticated sheep and goat was also attested in the faunal remains of this site Mashkour 2004 Grezak 2018 Both these samples The Sialk assemblage analysed to date comprises a total some wild species dominated by Leguminosae small the Late Neolithic and Transitional Chalcolithic samples Table 9 1 Low numbers of nutshell remains tentatively Prunus sp occurred among two samples in the Late Neolithic phase In the wild species group both small legumes and grasses were the most ubiquitous taxa throughout time Other wild taxa such as Cruciferae Polygnum sp A triplex sp A juga sp and Galium were also attested among the samples in lower frequency Table 9 1 In terms of species composition and quantity no signif most abundant taxon among the cereals in the assemblage Aegilops Goat face grass glume base and Aegilops seed were also recovered from these two contexts Based on the presence of charred animal dung among the samples it can be suggested that dung was used for fuel at the site during this phase The micromorphological study of the Early Neolithic deposits of Sialk also points to lenses of trampled herbivore dung stabling enclosures and to fuel Kourampas et al 2013 Livestock dung burned as fuel has been considered as a major source of plant remains recovered from archaeological sites particularly in arid and semi arid regions Dung derived archaeobotanical material can provide important information in the investigation of animal dietary and prehistoric agro pastoral economies Miller Smart 1984 Charles 1998 Valamoti Charles 2005 Miller 1996 Miller Kimiaie 2006 The presence of dung derived material in archaeobotanical assemblages has been reported from other prehistoric sites in Iran Helbaek 1969 Miller Smart 1984 Miller Kimiaie 2006 Fazeli et al 2009 In this and the Transitional Chalcolithic assemblages The state of preservation was relatively uniform in samples from conditions and taphonomic processes Archaeobotanical samples from both periods had a relatively low density of material and are more likely to represent the waste from multiple activities sources crop processing food preparation consumption and fuel that might have been dispersed across the domestic area Discussion integrated system of agriculture and animal farming The This study was based on the assessment of 33 archaeobological sequences of the Sialk North Mound The results should be treated with caution at this stage as they may be subject to change after the completion of the study of the anticipated to add more information on potential plant resources that may have been used as animal feed and in extension provide information on land use and farming strategies 42

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the botanical remains from Sialk indicate the exploitation threshing wheat grows better on irrigated and more fertile soils Overall several environmental and social factors could have contributed to the choice of glume wheat over free threshing wheat during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic vated pulses frequently occurred at the Neolithic sites in the south and south west of Iran they were not found in this study The absence of cultivated pulses in the Sialk archaeobotanical assemblage might be the result of a number of factors including taphonomic biases and no glume wheats possibly some nuts and other wild taxa during the Late Neolithic and Transitional Chalcolithic periods The previous study of limited number of samples from upper layers of the Sialk North Mound demonstrated the presence of relatively similar cultigens including barley six row and glume wheat emmer possibly einkorn grass species No evidence of cultivated pulses or freethreshing wheats was reported from the Neolithic botanical remains from the site see also Tengberg 2003 2004 Based on the consistent presence of glume wheats in the tial areas of both periods it can be suggested that some food preparation activities would have taken place inside the buildings Glume wheats are usually stored in their spikelets and require rigorous de husking which would normally take place piecemeal based on the individual needs Jones et al 1986 The discovery of grinding stones and sickle blades at Sialk North Mound also indicates that harvesting and processing activities were being study For instance due to processing requirements of and therefore they have lower preservation and archaeological recovery potential than for instance glume wheats Nevertheless the absence of cultivated pulses has also been reported from the archaeobotanical assemblage of Sang e Chakhmaq an early Neolithic site in north east Iran Roustaei et al 2015 The dominant wild plant families in both plant assemblages were grasses small seeded legumes and sedges Usually the presence of small legumes such as Astragalus Trigonella and Medicago are regarded as evidence of forage plants for grazing that arrived in prehistoric sites through animal dung burnt as fuel Miller 1982 1985 2003 Miller may have also been used as fodder as in two samples dung pellets were found in association with emmer grains and and the absence of bread wheat in the Sialk Neolithic assemblage can be an indicator of cultural choices If we assume that the remains of cereal grains barley glume wheat grains and other edible plants were used also for human consumption in terms of human subsistence and assemblages such as Atriplex and Galium could represent arable or ruderal weeds Eremopyrum is an arable weed that might have been harvested with cereals Overall the wild plants present seem to have derived from a variety of habitats including arable land roadsides grasslands wet environments and other places where ruderals are found Some of these wild species might have been burnt as fuel or used as fodder and brought to the site through livestock dung For example some small seeded legumes and grasses Astragalus Aegilops that were found in association with sheep goat dung pellets could represent fodder However further evidence is required to verify the use of wild species as food or fodder in the Sialk assemblage Completing the study of the Sialk plant assemblage would allow more accurate interpretation of the past environmental and socioeconomic settings of the region time According to the available archaeobotanical studies of this region it appears that glume wheat grains emmer new type einkorn were the main wheat crop during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods while the exploitation of free threshing wheat was attested among the archaeobotanical samples of later periods Tengberg 2003 2004 Ilkhani in press Fazeli et al 2009 The presence of freearid environments was attributed to the practice of irrigation Helbaek 1969 Miller 1999 2003 In general glume wheats are more resistant to drought and poor soils 43

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Table 9 1 Ubiquity of each plant taxon and type within the Neolithic and Transitional Chalcolithic assemblage Total number of samples 33 Group Cereals Fruit Nut Late Neolithic N 9 Transitional Chalcolithic N 24 Ubiquity Ubiquity Taxon Plant part Triticum dicoccum Triticum sp Triticum dicoccum Triticum dicoccum Triticum sp New Type Triticum sp New Type grain grain spikelet fork glume base spikelet fork glume base 33 80 70 12 41 75 55 22 58 58 11 20 Hordeum vulgare grain 90 91 Hordeum vulgare rachis 44 66 Cerealia Cf Prunus Salsola sp Atriplex Cruciferae Leguminosae Small Cf Medicago Trigonella sp Astragalus type Gramineae Aegilops sp Aegilops sp Bromus sp grain nutshell seed seed seed seed seed seed seed seed seed glume base seed 44 22 0 0 11 1 1 1 33 33 11 11 58 0 4 29 4 25 8 20 12 33 4 0 0 4 Eremopyrum sp seed 11 17 Polygonum sp seed 0 17 Ajuga sp Galium sp seed seed 1 2 0 33 44

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10 Tappeh Sialk Human and Animal Osteological Collections at the National Museum of Natural History of Paris MARJAN MASHKOUR C LINE BON FABRICE DEMETER MARTIN FRIESS SHIVA SHEIKHI LILIANA HUET ALINE THOMAS Introduction have been documented all belonging to the same cultural complex that shows a gradual evolution in pottery decoration and an increase in the use of metal Period II shows This paper presents the osteological material from Tappeh Sialk that was collected on site by Roman Ghirshman during three excavation campaigns in Iran before the Second World War The treatment of this type of material in particular the human remains should be viewed within the general political social and ideological context that prevailed between the two world wars Quigley 2001 In fact the Iranian collection from Sialk was one of a number of collections that were made by scholars in this period Our aim in this paper is to review the present state of the collection of human remains in the Mus e de l Homme and the animal remains in the Institute of Human Palaeontology both under the umbrella of the National Museum of Natural History of Paris This is motivated by the fact that during the last two decades major advances in archaeological science and analytical techniques including biochemistry and statistics have underlined the importance of studying biological remains It is thus vital to document properly museum collections that in any case need to be regularly curated and updated tools and alabaster items Period III is mainly found on the South Mound After what appeared to Ghirshman as a violent destruction of the settlement evidenced by a thick Elam thanks to 22 tablets written in Proto Elamite script pation Level V was recorded and associated with a vast necropolis to the south east of the tepe Necropolis A The last occupation of Tappeh Sialk VI is mainly represented by a huge masonry construction that on the south of the mound was associated with a fortress wall Ghirshman associated a second necropolis Necropolis B with this Level VI Human remains found during the Ghirshman excavations of human remains Fig 10 1 Funerary practices and traditions evolved through time During the most ancient periods Periods I and II tombs were situated in houses Roman Ghirshman excavations In 1933 Roman Ghirshman s attention was drawn to pottery sold on the Tehran market that came from unof ochre while children have been found in urns No arte three seasons of excavation in 1933 1934 and 1937 at Tappeh Sialk 7 km south of Kashan Isfahan district The archaeological site of Tappeh Sialk is divided between two mounds Ghirshman 1935 1938 9 a northern smaller mound and a southern higher mound The North Mound contained the most ancient occupation In Necropolis A contemporary with Level V corpses mainly pottery bronze items and stone beads The orientation of the corpses appears to have been random as well as the side on which the body was laid down Sometimes tombs were rearranged to bury new corpses In these cases the other skeletons were piled up on one side 45

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In Necropolis B the graves were covered with six to eight slabs of stone or terracotta No stone walls were built inside the graves Terracotta was used only for the richest graves Children s tombs were also covered but being already observed by Henri Victor Vallois in the early 1940s and is surely due to post mortem taphonomic processes Analyses of Tappeh Sialk human remains by Henri Victor Vallois the right or left side in a north south or east west orientation Rarely two or three bodies were buried in the same tomb remains of the oldest skeletons were moved to a corner of the tomb or placed in a bronze cauldron Such graves were interpreted by Ghirshman as family vaults In his craniometrical analyses of the reconstructed skulls four groups following the typological categorisation of his time 1 an hyperdolichocephalic group hyper longheaded that he found only in the most ancient periods I III 2 a dolichocephalic group long headed found during all periods except the fourth 3 a brachycephalic short headed ancient group found in Periods II IV and 4 a modern brachycephalic group found only during Period VI Iron Age that he linked to a potential Median migration Vallois also investigated state of health He found a number of incidents of dental damage caries in the population with the prevalence increasing through time from 3 5 for Period I to 9 5 for Periods V and VI Of course the limited number of individuals prevents us from drawing any conclusions These lesions were mainly excavations of Tappeh Sialk It appears that a number of human skeletons of children and adults were recovered by Ghirshman and his team For example in Necropolis B 218 graves were excavated of which 71 were intact in Necropolis A 15 graves were excavated However only 39 skulls and a few long bones from Tappeh Sialk are preserved in the anthropological collection in the Mus e de l Homme Five skulls belong to juveniles Table 10 1 During the excavation Ghirshman deliberately chose to avoid sampling children yses were done on adult skulls This is the reason why Ghirshman deliberately chose not to remove children s skulls from the burials The disappearance of the postcranial remains of other adult and child skeletons remains a mystery sample on display at the Mus e de l Homme Fig 10 5 He also observed that the teeth were worn out mainly the the ancient periods and the Iron Age Vallois suggests that teeth were used for gnawing leather during the Iron Age Vallois 1940 For the Iron Age samples the teeth colour was bluish an observation he interpreted as the result of consuming tectorial substances The Tappeh Sialk Collection in the Mus e de l Homme There are 39 skulls in the Sialk Collection at the Mus e de l Homme Figs 10 2a and 10 2b Table 10 1 These skulls were excavated during the 3 excavation campaigns but Treatments of the Tappeh Sialk Collection in the anthropological collection of the Mus e de l Homme all represented but not with the same coverage Fig 10 3 Only two skulls belong to the Late Bronze Age whereas half of the collection is from the Iron Age Necropolis B Two skulls from the Tappeh Sialk Collection are now on display in the Mus e de l Homme Fig 10 5 Before the reopening of the Mus e de l Homme these two skulls were carefully restored This work revealed the various treatments that had been applied to the skulls from Tappeh Sialk According to three restorers and one palaeontologist the skulls were fragmented when originally found and so were reconstructed This reconstruction must have taken place shortly after the excavation as they were already complete when Vallois studied the collection before 1940 A brown waxy material was used to reas skulls for each Most of the individuals were buried in separate graves except two pairs According to Vallois 1940 child 27277 was buried in the arms of an adult 27276 two adults 27283 and 27284 were buried together The state of preservation is very variable from one set of remains to another Some skulls are complete and include the cranium and the mandible Other skulls are fragmentary sometimes the mandible is absent sometimes the cranium is only represented by the calva Fig 10 4 This discrepancy in the condition of the skulls was 46

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distortion to the skull The skulls from the most ancient sheep Ovis aries and cattle Bos taurus This collection is summarised in a plate by Vaufrey and reproduced here Fig 10 6 The specimens are all marked annotated with Sialk and often the period and a serial number We list in the white columns of Table 10 2 the bone specimens as they are recorded in the database of the IPH from this treatment than the skulls from Period VI The surface of the bones is dirty Some reddish sediment remains on the surface stuck to the bone by animal glue This glue may have been applied to consolidate the surface of the bone After that a varnish was deposited on the surface Because this varnish is sticky dirt and dust has been gathering for 80 years on the surface of the bones Luckily varnish and glue are easily dissolved in water which allowed successful cleaning of the two exhibited skulls The same treatment should be possible for the remaining 36 Review of the collection years ago it was necessary to go back to the material and check them At the time when Vaufrey studied this material faunal assemblages where not commonly studied and he refers to Anau in Turkmenistan the one site that had been studied in the area by Johann Ulrich Duerst in 1908 Duerst 1908 Molecular preservation of the Tappeh Sialk Collection Molecular analyses have been attempted on a number of samples from this collection The collagen is usually well preserved allowing for C14 dating and isotope analyses On the other hand human DNA was not preserved in most of the samples studied Lack of preservation may be due to the warm temperature on the Iranian plateau which is detrimental to DNA preservation or the various treatments applied to the samples since they were excavated Human contamination has been observed on these samples because of the carefree manipulation of them by the excavators and several generations of anthropologists 10 7a and 10 7b Vaufrey concluded with no hesitation that the equid teeth from Sialk belonged to a horse Equus caballus Pumpellii Duerst on the basis of comparisons with Anau Wild equid species present in south west Asia during prehistory are hemiones half asses and horses The hemiones are represented by several subspecies among which Persian onagers Equus hemionus onager are distributed on the Iranian plateau and kulan Equus hemionus kulan in nearby Turkmenistan The situation for the horse is more complex because of the history of its domestication In Iran the presence has been recently recorded of a horse in the Zagros near Hamedan during the 6th millennium but nothing can be said of its wild or domestic status Amiri et al 2019 Recent paleogenetic studies on horse remains point to the northern parts of Central Asia Kazakhstan or even more northerly regions for a possible origin of the domestic horse Fages et al 2019 A recent review by Ann Forsten of the fauna of Anau and in particular the equid remains 2000 demonstrates that those remains attributed to Equus pumpellii are not horse but kulan one of the subspecies of hemione Our review of the Sialk specimens shows characteristics of Animal remains The animal osteological remains from Sialk are represented by a handful of specimens kept at the Institut de Pal ontologie Humaine IPH Initially studied by R Vaufrey 1939 195 7 a professor of Palaeontology at MNHN these few specimens were selected from what was a much larger collection recovered during the excavations The faunal remains are attributed to Levels I and II It is stated by Vaufrey that Period I corresponds to the end of the Neolithic and the beginning of the Eneolithic 5th to beginning of 4th millennium and Level II corresponds to the Eneolithic 4th millennium These would then correspond to the Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic as we would understand it now His chapter then lists the idenEquus caballus Pumpellii Duerst dog Canis familiaris boar pig Sus sp gazelle Gazella sp wild goat Capra aegagrus wild sheep Ovis vignei domestic goat logically Capra hircus although in this see better image in Fig 10 7b Specimen 22 is more problematic because of the morphology of the double knot that is intermediary between hemione and horse Fig 10 7a We have measured these two specimens for the record 47

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Table 10 3 It is important here to stress the fact that discriminating factors do not always work and errors of The cattle remains were represented by some dental remains Figs 10 7c and 10 7d Finally the remnant of a fragmented suid swine cranium does not allow for any decision on its wild or domestic status We can add here that the study of the Sialk faunal assemblages from recent excavations Mashkour 2002 2004a 2004b unpublished report including several thousand animal bone remains indicates the mass presence of domestic sheep and goat and very little domestic cattle Fig 10 10 In terms of wild herbivores the presence of wild sheep and goats is attested in very low numbers as opposed to gazelle that seem to be the major hunted herbivore Equids in general and suids contributed very little to the diet Some of the diagnostic equid analysed genetically although sampling is not always easy on museum collections and is often restricted The other very successful method we recently tested on lower jaw teeth from modern comparative collections is geometric morphometric analysis that considers the overall shape this case Cucchi et al 2017 In conclusion for the equids the presence of hemione is attested in the material while the presence of horse is not certain Caprini sheep goat For caprini only cranial samples were brought to France They are mostly horncores which are in fact among the most diagnostic elements of the skeleton In the catalogue Ovibos or Ovis vignei mens that are reported in the grey part of Table 10 2 We think that Vaufrey used the term Ovibos to refer to domestic sheep Ovis vignei was used to refer to the earliest periods of occupation in Sialk Other species also found in the excavations included dog fox hyena leopard birds and turtles Lastly we can conclude that the collections of the Natural History Museum of Paris remain an important be undertaken including radiocarbon dating geometric morphometrics stable isotope analyses and paleogenetics Some of these have been performed on the human remains and will be published in the near future errors see Ovis aries in Wilson Reeders online third edition The horncores show the presence of wild goat Capra aegagrus Figs 10 8a and 10 8b and sheep Ovis orientalis Fig 10 9 as well as domestic forms of both Capra hircus and Ovis aries Figs 10 8c and 10 8d Some of these horncores could also be measured and we have included those measures in Table 10 3 Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the administration of the National Museum of Natural History of Paris for access to the human material and Professor Henri de Lumley and his collaborators at the Institut de Pal ontologie Humaine for access to the animal remains 48

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109 27271 110 27272 111 27273 1 27274 Age HV Vallois 27270 Excavation year 108 IVth millennium Inscription on the skull 27269 fragmented cranium mandible 9 teeth and axis vertebra fragmented cranium and mandible cranium and mandible Occupation 107 Archaeological dating Archaeological Number 27268 Bones Number Table 10 1 List of Human remains in the National Museum of Natural History of Paris housed at the Mus e de l Homme 1937 Adult 40 50 years old Adult 25 30 years old Adult around 50 years old Adult 20 25 years old 4th millennium Occupation 2 1937 4th millennium Occupation 2 1937 fragmented cranium incomplete mandible and two isolated teeth fragmented cranium and fragmented mandible cranium and fragmented mandible bone fragments 4th millennium Occupation 2 1937 4th millennium Occupation 2 1937 4th millennium Occupation 3 III me ou IV me 2 calva mandible teeth and bone fragments 4th millennium Occupation 3 III me ou IV me 1933 mill naire Sialk Iran 1934 27275 3 4th millennium Occupation 3 1933 1934 Adult 30 40 years old 27276 112 4th millennium Occupation 3 1937 27277 113 4th millennium Occupation 3 1937 27278 114 fragmented cranium fragmented mandible and bones cranium and mandible fragmented vertebra cranium and mandible bone fragments fragmented cranium 4th millennium Occupation 4 1937 27279 27280 115 116 fragmented cranium cranium and mandible No information 4th millennium Occupation 4 Occupation 4 1937 1937 27281 101 5th millennium Occupation 1 1937 Adult 25 30 years old Child 8 10 years old Child 9 13 years old Child Adult around 40 years old Probably Adult 30 40 years old 27282 102 5th millennium Occupation 1 1937 Probably Adult around 30 years old 27283 103 5th millennium Occupation 1 1937 Adult around 40 years old Adult 20 30 years old 10th 9th century Occupation 6 27286 106 fragmented cranium and fragmented mandible three phalanx fragmented cranium and mandible fragmented mandible from a second individual fragmented cranium and fragmented mandible 16 teeth fragmented cranium and mandible three phalanx and four teeth cranium mandible and one axis vertebra fragmented cranium from a second individual fragmented cranium 27287 6 fragmented cranium 27284 104 27285 105 1933 1934 fouilles Ghirshman 1937 5th millennium Occupation 1 1937 5th millennium Occupation 1 38 6 Sialk Kachan 1937 Adult 20 25 years old Child 8 10 years old Child 6 8 years old Adult 30 40 years old p riode I 5th millennium Occupation 1 49 1937 38 6 Kachan fouilles Ghirshman 1933 1934 old Adult 20 30 years old

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8 27290 9 27291 10 Inscription on the skull Occupation Archaeological dating 10th 9th century Occupation 6 Xe IXe avant notre 10th 9th century Occupation 6 Kachan 38 6 fouilles Ghirshman cr ne cranium mandible atlas and axis vertebrae one tooth and bone fragments 10th 9th century Occupation 6 Xe IXe avant notre fragmented cranium 10th 9th century Occupation 6 27292 11 calva 10th 9th century Occupation 6 27293 12 cranium and mandible 10th 9th century Occupation 6 n cropole B tombe CXXV fouille Ghirshman Xe IXe avant notre re Sialk n cropole B tombe CXXX fouille Ghirshman Xe IXe avant notre re Sialk Iran tombe C XIII fouille Ghirshman n cropole B 38 6 Sialk Iran fouille Ghirshman 1937 n cropole B Age HV Vallois 27289 cranium mandible and one tooth cranium and mandible Excavation year 7 Bones Archaeological Number Number 27288 1933 1934 1933 1934 Adult 50 60 years old Adult 30 40 years old 1933 1934 Adult 50 60 years old 1933 1934 Adult 60 70 years old 1933 1934 1933 1934 Adult 30 40 years old Adult 30 40 years old 1937 Adult 40 50 years old 27294 117 cranium and bone fragments 10th 9th century Occupation 6 27295 118 cranium and mandible axis vertebra and four teeth 10th 9th century Occupation 6 38 6 Sialk Iran fouille Ghirshman 1937 n cropole B 1937 Adult 15 18 years old 27296 119 cranium and mandible 10th 9th century Occupation 6 38 6 Sialk Iran fouille Ghirshman 1937 n cropole B 1937 Adult 20 25 years old 27297 120 cranium 10th 9th century Occupation 6 38 6 Sialk Iran fouille Ghirshman 1937 Adult around 40 years old 27298 121 10th 9th century Occupation 6 Kachan fouilles Ghirshman 1937 Adult 50 60 years old 27299 122 fragmented cranium fragmented mandible and fragmented axis vertebra cranium 10th 9th century Occupation 6 38 6 Sialk Iran fouille Ghirshman 1937 Adult 60 70 years old 27300 123 fragmented cranium 10th 9th century Occupation 6 38 6 Sialk Iran fouille Ghirshman 1937 Adult 20 25 years old 27301 124 cranium 10th 9th century Occupation 6 38 6 Sialk Iran fouilles Ghirshman 1937 Adult 30 40 years old 27302 125 fragmented cranium 10th 9th century Occupation 6 38 6 Sialk Iran fouilles Ghirshman 1937 Adult 20 30 years old 27303 126 fragmented cranium and fragmented mandible 10th 9th century Occupation 6 38 6 Kachan fouilles Ghirshman 1937 Adult around 50 years old 50

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38 6 Sialk Iran fouille Ghirshman 1937 Adult 30 40 years old 37305 4 fragmented cranium fragmented mandible and fragmented vertebra 12th 11th century Occupation 5 1933 1934 Adult 30 40 years old 37306 5 cranium and mandible 12th 11th century Occupation 5 site de Kachan necropole A tombe V Xe IXe avant notre re 38 6 Kachan fouilles Ghirshman 1933 1934 Adult around 30 years old tombe 6 No number No number cranium 3 phalanx One left tibia two femurs right and left one left humerus Occupation 5 51 Age HV Vallois Archaeological dating 10th 9th century Occupation 6 Excavation year Bones cranium and mandible Inscription on the skull Archaeological Number 127 Occupation Number 27304

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I I I I I Exacation Sector I I Excavation Level I Cheville osseuse Cheville osseuse Cheville osseuse Cheville osseuse Cheville osseuse Cheville osseuse Cheville osseuse Anatomic part Cheville osseuse Cheville osseuse Maxillaire Bovidae Ovis vignei Sialq II F1189 Gauche Gauche Gauche Bovidae Bovidae Bovidae Bovidae Bovidae Bovidae Bovidae Bovidae Ovis sp or Capra sp Ovis sp or Capra sp Ovis sp or Capra sp Ovis vignei Ovis vignei Ovis aries Sialq I F4192 Sialq I F4191 Sialq I F4190 Sialq I Capra aegagrus F4193 Ovis sp or Capra sp Ovis vignei Written on the bones Bovidae Bovidae Species Sialq I F4188 Gauche Family Droite Laterality R Capra hircus or C aegagrus female Capra hircus or C aegagrus female Capra aegagrus Capra aegagrus L G Ovis cf orienalis n a Ovis cf orienalis Ovis cf orienalis R n a Capra hircus n a The bone is very thin No n a n a Polished for marking Chemical treatment Cut marks around around the old fractured basal part large specimen Very large specimen Old break on proximal part like in 4188 Fresh break on the basal part Very large specimen Fresh and old break Very large specimen Fresh and old break Matches 4192 Very large specimen Fresh and old break Matches 4191 Not seen Was not on the list Polished for marking Polished for marking The bone is very thin Polished for single deep sinus marking Observations Yes Biometry Revision by M Mashkour Horncore Horncore Horncore Horncore Maxilary R Horncore Side Horncore 6 Anatomic part 10 No on the plate IPH Collection Information Sialk Sialk Sialk Sialk Sialk Sialk Sialk Sialk Sialk Sialk 1189 27T5 4141 27V 4128 27V 1186 27T5 4192 27T4 4191 27T4 4190 27T4 4193 27T4 4188 27T4 1198 27T5 Site 4130 52 Drawer IPH Code

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II I I I I III III Excavation Level Laterality Cheville osseuse Cheville osseuse Cheville osseuse Cheville osseuse Cheville osseuse Cheville osseuse Gauche Molaire Droite sup rieure 2 Molaire Droite inf rieure 2 Anatomic part Equidae Bovidae Bovidae Bovidae Bovidae Bovidae Bovidae Ovis vignei Ovis vignei Ovis vignei Ovibos sp Ovibos sp Ovibos sp Species Sialq II F1188 Sialq I F1187 Sialq I F1184 Sialq I F1185 Equidae No on the plate Family Equus sp Sialq III 12 F21 M2 A P S 2 3 Equus sp Sialq III 11 F21 M2 A P S 5 Written on the bones L R R Capra Ovis n a domestique vers la partie terminale de la cheville CF Capra hircus Yes Equus sp Equus hemionus Done R Ovis sp Yes Yes Done L Ovis aries Ovis aries R R Side Polished for marking Polished for marking Polished for marking Polished for marking and some glue Chemical treatment The bone is very thin Polished for single short sinus marking with a treated spot for conservation Large spec Presence of multiple deep sinuses Oval section marked crest presence of multiple deep sinuses could match 4129 in showcase possibly juvenile Matches 1187 Higly Twisted Twisted Dental calculus absence of pli caballin Presence of pli caballinid Observations Revision by M Mashkour Horncore Horncore Horncore Horncore Horncore Lower Molar 2 Upper Molar 2 Anatomic part Horncore Biometry Table 10 2 List in the animal remains of the National Museum of Natural History of Paris housed at the Institute of Palaeontology Sialk I Exacation Sector IPH Collection Information 23T1 Sialk Sialk Sialk Sialk Sialk Sialk Sialk 21 4129 27V 1187 27T5 1185 27T5 1184 27T5 1183 27T5 23T1 Site 22 Drawer 1188 27T5 Capra hircus or C aegagrus female 53 IPH Code

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I II Excavation Level II Pr molaire inf rieure ou Molaire inf rieure Pr molaire inf rieure ou Molaire inf rieure Bo te cr nienne Anatomic part Cr ne Suidae Bovidae Bovidae Family Canidae Sus scrofa ssp Species Sialq II F1239 Sialk I illisible Sialk I F6031 P S 7 1 2m Written on the bones Canis sp Sialq II F4291 3 No on the plate 1 D Bos Bos Sus scrofa G Side Yes Yes Yes Biometry Polished for marking Juvenile Chemical treatment Presence of Polished for percussion impacts on marking also the parietal bone writen with a pencil Sialq II Observations Revision by M Mashkour Cranium occipital and parietal bones Cranium occipital and parietal bones Lower Molar Upper Molar Anatomic part IPH Collection Information Sialk Sialk Sialk I 6031 33T6 1239 30T6 Sialk Exacation Sector 6039 33T6 Site 4291 28T2 C38T3 written on the tag 54 Drawer IPH Code Laterality

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Table 10 3 Measurements of animal remains in the IPH collection Measurements after Ducos 1963 Code IPH Species 21 Hemionus Persian Upper Molar 1 or 2 23 6 Onager Intermediate Hemionus Lower Premolar 3 25 64 caballus or 4 Molar 1 or 2 21 Tooth Lo lo LPt 24 5 12 8 14 66 LF H LDK 86 8 Cabalin fold N 11 26 15 17 N Measurements for Hemionus Persian Onager after Eisenmann 1981 Code IPH Species Tooth Age H 6039 6031 Bos Cattle Bos Cattle Molar Inf 1 2 Molare Sup 1 2 Adulte Juvenile 60 00 IPH Number Bone 4188 1188 1184 1198 1185 1187 Horncore Horncore Horncore Horncore Horncore Horncore 4291 Capra aegagrus Capra hircus Capra hircus Capra hircus Ovis sp Ovis aries Skull 23 24 69 55 28 29 17 9 DT cervix DT mes DT occ DAP cervix DAP mes DAP occ 26 3 30 7 27 5 32 0 28 3 34 5 16 0 20 9 13 4 19 1 APD1 in bold 57 26 8 41 036 16 45 23 3 16 88 31 3 23 8 28 4 42 8 37 External Length2 Measurement codes in bold4 25 26 61 12 40 02 38 39 56 1 56 1 Notes 1 Antero Posterior Diameter 2 Transverse Diameter 3 Measured with a thread 4 Von den Driesch 1976 55 15 9 23 8 Internal Length3 164 134 165 134 27 51 29 19 4 40 52 2 49 9

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11 Tappeh Sialk in the Louvre Material and Archives from the Ghirshman Excavations FRAN OIS BRIDEY JULIEN CUNY Because of the Louvre s involvement in the Sialk excavations led by Roman Ghirshman in 1933 1934 and 1937 the Department of Near Eastern Antiquities of the mus e du Louvre houses a representative collection of artefacts from the site and also an important archive of the excavations The archive consists of about 400 photographs including glass plate negatives some of them were used to create an Iranian Archaeological Service The French and assumed this position from 1928 to 1953 and again from 1956 to 1960 As part of his work at the head of the Iranian Archaeological Service Godard drafted a new Antiquities Law which was eventually passed in 1930 This cancelled France s archaeological monopoly and provided a framework for authorising excavations The policy of half sharing discoveries between Iran and foreign excavation was also introduced As soon as the 1930 law was promulgated many foreign expeditions mainly French and American began sion of Ghirshman s expedition and also deal with daily documents from the archive are gradually being inventoried digitised and currently studied in the Department of Near Eastern Antiquities Ernst Herzfeld followed by Erich Schmidt began his research in 1931 at Persepolis and Frederick Wulsin led excavations in Tureng Tappeh In 1931 and 1932 Schmidt From Tappeh Giyan to Tappeh Sialk in search of a new project started working in 1932 at Tall i Bakun As Iranian archaeology opened up Georges Contenau curator in charge of the Department of Near Eastern Antiquities at the mus e du Louvre decided in 1931 to support a new expedition to the site of Tappeh Giyan near Nehavend Two campaigns were organised and Roman Ghirshman oversaw the It is interesting to clarify the context of Roman Ghirshman s arrival in Sialk France had played a key role in the development of archaeology in Iran from the end of the 19th century In 1895 the convention signed by Naser ed Din Shah Qajar granted France a monopoly on excavations across the entire territory of the Persian Empire Such The French Ministry of Public Education funded Contenau and Ghirshman s expedition with the help of the French National Council of Museums dedicating to the excavations part of its acquisitions budget In 1932 the Ministry and the mus e du Louvre renewed their funding for a third campaign in Tappeh Giyan but this never took place because of the insecure situation in the area The 1933 minutes of the Artistic Council of the National Museums show that Contenau and Ghirshman were then looking for a new site to explore The Sasanian site of Holvan near Sar i Pol was shortlisted for a time In August 1933 the decades of the 20th century French archaeologists focused almost exclusively on Susa in Khuzestan a site explored in 1884 6 by Marcel and Jane Dieulafoy then from 1897 by Jacques de Morgan and his successor Roland de Mecquenem For this reason this monopoly was questioned by Iranians as well as by international scholars as early as the 1920s After the fall of the Qajar dynasty in 1927 Reza Pahlavi Shah revoked the 1895 convention and decided 56

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Iranian government gave the mus e du Louvre permission to explore the sites of Darab and Kulik Tappeh but French archaeologists did not take advantage of these authorisations On the contrary Ghirshman who was then fully in charge of the expedition became increasingly interested in the site of Bad Hora located south of Asadabad a few kilometres west of Hamadan but the exploration of the site in September 1933 yielded only disappointing results His intention was probably to work as close as possible Giyan and indeed was his closest assistant and support throughout his career She was born in Constantinople to a French family and she grew up in Baku in present day Azerbaijan where her father was a tradesman as a consequence she learnt French as well as Russian She came to Paris with her family when she was six years old In her memoirs Arch ologue malgr moi An archaeologist in spite of myself published in 1979 she described her life with her husband at various archaeological sites giving a wealth of information on the origin of the bronzes the art market had been bringing to Europe for some time In fact after leaving Bad Hora Ghirshman came back to the region of Giyan Continuing further south he made test trenches in Tappeh Jamshidi east of the Nurabad plain but he abandoned the site after three weeks of work due to the lack of interesting in Ghirshman s view material but there were probably also participated in On site Tania was primarily in charge of logistics but she also helped with documentation drawing the discoveries and in conservation of certain artefacts as in the 1950s during the Susa and Tchoga Zanbil excavations led by her husband A trained dental surgeon Tania also served occasionally as a doctor for members and workers of the expeditions as a document from the Sialk archive attests The other members of the expedition are known thanks to archival documents and photographs Fig 11 2 Georges Contenau may have visited Sialk during a study suitable site for research was urgently sought From early 1933 several vases of a very particular shape with long spouts and red on cream decoration arrived on the art market in Tehran and in Europe Some of which refused to acquire them Andr Godard quickly established that this new material was coming from the region of Kashan and particularly from Sialk He therefore asked the Louvre to express its interest in this site Sialk of the team Gustave Tellier 1899 1974 also a member of the French archaeological expeditions led by Andr Parrot in Tello Iraq and Mari Syria took part in excavations at Sialk in 1933 and 1934 During these years the architect was Maxime Siroux 1907 1975 but his work was cut short since in 1934 he accepted work with Andr Godard at Tehran where he was to help with the construction of the Iran Bastan Museum and to work on the master plan for the University of Tehran in collaboration both with Godard and the Iranian architect Mohsen Foroughi During the last campaign 1937 Andr Hardy 1909 2005 took over from Maxime Siroux as the architect of the excavations He had previously collaborated with Ghirshman during the excavations at Bishapur from 1935 to 1937 His archaeological career was short lived however after the Second World War he devoted the rest of his career to architecture participating in the rebuilding of Marseille in southern France Two men who had been hired in Iran have still to be mentioned Azad Gregorian was the expedition photographer and Souren Malhossian was the site foreman Both played a key role According to Tania s testimony a repairer conservator was also hired in Tehran to restore objects on site Ghirshman 1979 47 other sites hitherto explored The French National Council excavate the site this was obtained from the Iranian authorities in October 1933 Consequently at the beginning of November Ghirshman and his team moved from Luristan to Kashan and began to work at Sialk in November 1933 There were two further campaigns in 1934 and 1937 Ghirshman and his team in Sialk Roman Ghirshman 1895 1979 was born in Kharkov in present day Ukraine at the time part of the Russian in Paris in 1923 and began to study archaeology at the Sorbonne the cole du Louvre and the cole pratique des Hautes tudes Although he spoke and wrote French perfectly Ghirshman retained throughout his life a profound attachment to Russian his mother tongue Some of his Sialk notebooks are written in Russian perhaps because it was easier for him to write quick notes in the The publications Ghirshman s wife Tania a nickname for Antoinette n e Levienne 1900 1984 accompanied him to Tappeh Syria a peer reviewed journal after two seasons of excavation 57

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Ghirshman 1935 At that time Ghirshman only distinguished three main periods of occupation compared with On the South Mound Ghirshman did not continue in Trench 2 but instead chose to proceed with a 500 m extension of Trench 1 towards the east labelled Trench 1P for 1 prolong see plan Fig 11 3 Nonetheless he abandoned it after two weeks so that he could concentrate to the fact that the North Mound which contained the earliest levels was explored only in 1937 on the south of the mound and the excavation of the two necropolises The mudbrick structure referred to as la grande construction by Ghirshman was excavated under the supervision of the architect Maxime Siroux beginning on the south eastern side This building was quickly inter Age occupation and its two necropolises Nevertheless the latter volume was incomplete in the sense that it dealt only with a small number 18 of the excavated 218 tombs Ghirshman 1938 9 Period VI during the Iron Age He also began to examine the surrounding plain in search of the previous illegal diggings In several places he noticed concentrations of sherds similar to the ceramics On site three seasons of excavation 1933 a spot near the village of Diz Tch south of the Tappeh where he excavated 15 tombs between 23 October and 22 November later to be designated as Necropolis A Fig 11 6 The stratigraphic situation of the tombs whose dating has been a matter of debate was unclear and no As stated above authorisation to excavate Sialk was campaign began on 19 November 1933 and lasted only until 30 December as cold weather made it impossible to work after that date In barely six weeks the purpose was just to dig test trenches looking for the origin of the purple red ceramic that had been previously proposed to the Louvre for acquisition Ghirshman decided to open three trenches in the South Mound Sialk South that he called le Grand Sialk which quickly revealed remains of the Proto Elamite period Period IV under much eroded Iron Age layers Periods V and VI The famous tablet Fig 11 4 was actually found on 25 November in Trench 1 1 m beneath ground level described as being situated on three levels each separated from the other by a 35 cm layer of deposit as is shown for 11 of them in a rather naive and imprecise drawing At the end of October a team making sondages to the west of the mound discovered built tombs in the plain near the purple red on cream painted pottery and he designated the spot as Necropolis B Digging in this area was a priority for the last month of the season About 100 tombs the mound allowed him to quickly dig a 10 m deep stratigraphic section before the end of the season Fig 11 5 But the Iron Age purple red painted vessels were still to be found and it was not until the very end of the season that Ghirshman learned from the workers the location of not all opened and excavated Ghirshman gave priority to the built tombs by which he meant burials dug in the soil and covered by terracotta or stone slabs in the shape of a roof Fig 11 7 1937 to light He consequently opened small test trenches in the plain south of the mound in order to identify the precise location of the necropolis However after a couple of days he had to stop and wait until the next season to make further progress Ghirshman did not return to Sialk until 1937 In the meantime he excavated the Sasanian city of Bishapur in Fars and made a quick sojourn in Afghanistan where he explored on 12 September and lasted until 31 December Ghirshman extended the cleaning of constructions on the top of the South Mound east of the previous Trench 1 He apparently did not dig deeper than the levels he attributed to Period V that he considered to be contemporary with Necropolis A see Trench VI in Fig 10 3 He also went on excavating the expanded Trench 1 Trench 1P started in 1934 Special attention was paid to the 1934 The short season of 1933 had made it clear that the site was of great interest and it was easy to convince the French Council of National Museums to go on supporting the mission and to resume research at the site The 1934 season began on 12 September and lasted until the end of December 58

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Proto Elamite remains whose architectural features were drawn by Hardy Fig 11 8 as well as to the seven underlying levels corresponding to Period III until at the end of December he brought to light a pottery kiln at the bottom of the sequence Figs 11 9 and 11 10 The cleaning of la grande construction was completed and a specialist qanatdigger was used to dig three test wells to the east of the main mound Necropolis B provided again about 100 new tombs giving a total of 218 burials as shown on the published map Ghirshman 1939 pl XXXVI Most of them were documented by Ghirshman in 1934 and Hardy in 1937 through sketches of the architecture of the funerary structure the position of the corpse or corpses and the relative position of each object Fig 11 11 A simple registering system was used where objects were given a shares numbered 1 and 2 displayed on tables Fig 11 13 more or less possible to assess the context of origin for each of them Fig 11 12 Yet for Ghirshman many of the tombs were disappointing Actually many of them had been pillaged during antiquity or in more recent times and unfortunately no clear description was ever made of for Sialk The S numbers are linked to the documenta As soon as the objects reached Paris in line with a decree of the Ministry of Public Education the collection was attributed to the Department of Near Eastern Antiquities of the mus e du Louvre since it had partially ately registered in the general AO inventory book of the department Antiquit s orientales But as the material from the 1937 campaign arrived just before the Second and was not resumed after the war as a consequence some of the Sialk objects remain unregistered today Nevertheless as is the case for objects that remained in Iran all artefacts from Ghirshman s excavations at Sialk after their discovery According to the current state of documentation the Sialk collection in the Louvre comprises 1 151 items Of these almost half of the collection 551 objects are from the two graveyards Ceramic and metal objects are by far the most numerous with 430 and 514 items respectively The collection also contains objects made of stone bitumen organic material bone or shell and vitreous material glass faience or Egyptian blue but in smaller proportions Fig 11 14 The collection of material preserved in the National Museum of Iran is certainly comparable and he had to dig several test trenches which led him on 22 October to open a new extension farther to the north This second sector of the Necropolis about 100 m opened nine test wells to the west of the graveyard to establish the limits of its extent in that direction see plan Fig 11 3 1937 was also the occasion to explore the North Mound Sialk North le Petit Sialk Already in December 1934 Ghirshman had recognised that the earliest remains of occupation were probably to be found in this area but he was too busy at the time with his other soundings to begin in that year The three trenches which he staked out Tappeh Sialk in the mus e du Louvre museographic aspects his intuition to be true in 1935 a small selection was exhibited in Room X dedicated to Ancient Persia in a showcase showing the new discoveries made by French archaeologists in Iran They were displayed beside objects from Tappeh Giyan When the collection hidden during the Second World War returned to the museum the galleries of the department were then completely rearranged by Andr Parrot who was at the time curator in charge of the Department of Near Eastern Antiquities The new rooms opened in 1947 a century after the opening of the Louvre s Assyrian Museum in 1847 A small selection of Sialk artefacts from the Prehistoric period to the Iron Age was then presented in a showcase in Room V just in front of the showcases exhibiting painted ceramics of the Susa I period so that comparisons between these two traditions could be made The Sialk material in the Louvre collections an overview The Law of 1930 established that discoveries of the Sialk material and material from all other sites excavated by foreign expeditions after this date should be shared half the material should be granted to the excavators of the site while the other half remained the property of the Iranian government At the end of each campaign two shares equal attributed to each party The procedure is illustrated by photographs included in the Sialk archive they depict two 59

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Fig 11 15 This humble display of the Sialk material remained unchanged until the early 1990s despite some minor rearrangements in the 1970s Thanks to the Grand Louvre project launched in the 1980s a collection of up to 200 objects from Sialk shown in chronological order is now on display This is the Neolithic Chalcolithic and Proto Elamite periods are exhibited together with material from Susa the Susiana Tappeh Giyan and Luristan A second selection of artefacts is exhibited in the room dedicated to the Iron Age in Iran Due to its importance for the archaeology of the Iranian plateau Tappeh Sialk now occupies the place it deserves in the galleries of the Louvre 60

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12 The Challenges in Preserving Tappeh Sialk MOHSEN JAVERI The site of Tappeh Sialk site in Kashan is acknowledged to Despite this fact many historical and cultural monuments have faced demolition because of urban development and the increase in urban populations and the Sialk site is no exception In fact this site has been the victim of constant encroachment and destruction for some decades As described by Ghirshman 1938 5 6 the site was Iranian central plateau There is evidence of human activity at the site from the 7th millennium Neolithic period up until the Iron Age III the Median period a feature which has appealed to many researchers and has thus guaranteed that this ancient site would have an elevated status in the literature on the archeology of Iran For these reasons part of Cemetery B and exposed the objects buried inside conducted on the site until now the results of which have led to the publication of numerous books and articles The ancient site of Sialk is situated in the southwest of Kashan to the west of the Amirkabir road which connects downtown Kashan with the Fin district in which the famous Fin Garden is located According to the aerial photograph Fig 12 1 and the map published by Roman who started excavations at this site for non commercial purposes He excavated relatively large areas in both Sialk South and Sialk North and fortunately published Such reports have enabled us to know much about the cultural and cognitive development of human societies in the Kashan region in particular and in the central Iranian 1938 9 pls I XXXIII XXXIV the site lies completely outside the city of Kashan and no signs of construction are this site and the early commencement of archeological investigations which had the potential to shed light on many archeological and historical issues regarding the central Iranian plateau the heyday of Sialk studies came to an end very soon and the Sialk site was so badly neglected that for long it was a refuge for vagrants and addicts or a place for motorcyclists to practice their stunts Such neglect prepared the ground for some dishonest people to take advantage of the situation and claim ownership of the lands After a long interval new archaeological investigations were conducted under the supervision of Dr Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadi with the intention of revising the esting new discoveries including cultural objects and architectural remains which have been published in numerous articles and books The archeological research programme was then discontinued again until 2007 8 when Dr Hassan Fazeli Nashli began investigations in Sialk North in order to review the chronology Needless to say such research projects are not only mounds Sialk South and Sialk North There are signs of agricultural activity only to the north east of Sialk South and in the eastern half of the area between Sialk South and Sialk North It is also noteworthy that the map shows two qanats underground aqueducts to the west of both Sialk South and Sialk North of which no traces remain today The existence of these qanats until the 1940s disproves the claim that these lands were private properties that have been encroached upon and shows that their acquisition has no historical basis and is a contemporary issue This some land in the southern and western areas that they have inherited it from their ancestors The mounds of Sialk North and Sialk South were the National Heritage list under registration number 38 Fig 12 2 on 16 September 1931 thus proving their value and highlighting the importance of protecting them 61

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protection of the area against encroachment and damages by various people due to the presence of archeologists on the site creating a dynamic and lively atmosphere However no professional research project has ever managed to systematically calculate and determine the area of the Sialk site This lack of accurate zoning has caused devastating irreparable damage such as through construction activities in the immediate vicinity and even inside the area of the site by North and South Mounds Figs 12 4 and 12 5 It should be noted that both mounds possess the same cultural and material identities and cannot be separated that is these two mounds plus the land between them are considered one integrated site In other words all this land was already considered to be within the boundaries of the Sialk site For this reason the excavation team refrained from making sondages in the land between two mounds which has currently been encroached upon by farmers Construction of modern buildings on the one hand and encroachment upon the land by farmers on the other Figs 12 6 12 11 are so worrying that it is feared the recognised boundary will completely disappear logical study and the particular conditions of the Sialk site tions were introduced for each zone The newly proposed regulations introduce stricter limits for construction activities within the boundaries 1 3 of the Sialk site to ensure its survival According to these new regulations any construction within boundary 1 is subject to prosecution In addition by introducing new regulations clarifying building height and distance from the mounds the construction of high density multistorey urban blocks will be prevented Fig 12 12 To sum up the following recommendations are proposed in order to ensure the survival of Sialk are not only entirely without remorse for what they have done but they claim to legally own the lands and in some cases have even disrupted the sondage work making the intervention of the police and the court necessary It is also worth noting that the Sialk site is located in the centre of a valuable area of land where there is increasing urban and agricultural development therefore it is subject to encroachment by local farmers and residents Construction activities and agriculture have had a negative impact on the landscape of this ancient site and there has been severe damage to the historical remains that existing in this national centre of historic heritage Thus considering all the issues mentioned the need for systematic archeological sondages to determine the area of the Sialk site is felt now more than ever In order to control the rising value of the properties surrounding the Sialk site the Cultural Heritage Organization of Kashan enforces a pulling levers strategy by not granting water electricity gas telephone and wastewater permits to applicants and prohibiting any paving methods whether asphalt concrete gravel and so on for the roads within the Sialk zone The Organization also exerts pressure on local residents to prevent indiscrim 1 2 for illegal construction within the main part of the Sialk site and its boundary 1 However measures taken to tackle this 3 zone of the Sialk site A new study programme authorised by the Institute of Archaeology was designed to improve the former state of knowledge and determine the limits of the Sialk site in order to prevent further damage to the remains and encroachment upon it This programme was conducted under the supervision of the author with the assistance of Majid Montazer Zohuri and Javad Hoseinzadeh between 9 July 2015 and 6 August 2015 fortunately the desired intention of determining the main area of the Sialk site was successfully achieved Fig 12 3 The Sialk site embraces two mounds Sialk North and Sialk South which are 600 m apart The sonding process was conducted so as to determine the extent of both mounds A total of 11 sondages each measuring 2 2 m were exca 4 5 Continuing to organise archeological excavations within the context of a long term plan because the presence of archeologists on the site slows down construction activities and weakens the incentives of land speculators Turning the Sialk site into a site museum with organised programmes and encouraging visitors The ence on this issue and discourage development Taking possession by the government of the entire main part of the site in order to eliminate multiple ownership Annexing lands within boundary 1 as this is a construction prohibited area and the annexation would enable further land to be annexed in the future and the core part of the site thus expanded Adding Sialk to the list of world heritage sites on the grounds that it is an important archaeological site on the Iranian plateau This would ensure its future maintenance Finally as an archaeologist and the head of the Cultural Heritage Organization of Kashan I should say that the only way to prevent further damage in Sialk is to purchase the zone 1 and to clear it If that is done we can save Sialk 62

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13 The Restoration of Historic Buildings in Kashan HOSSEIN MAHLOUJI Launched in 1993 the Kashanica Foundation is a privately funded organisation Its principal aim is to preserve the rich heritage of Iran in particular by reconstructing the history of Kashan and to pave the way for other cities to follow this example Many examples could be given to support this claim been done cave system in Kashan and a number of historical houses These include the following The Ameri House Fig 13 1 The Tabatabaei House Fig 13 2 Sultan Amir Ahmad Bathhouse Fig 13 3 The Al Yassin House Fig 13 4 The Hosseini House The Benikazemi House The Abbasian House Fig 13 5 idea of preserving the cultural heritage of Iran through the restoration and reconstruction of historical houses After 25 years of hard work private entities have begun to adopt the Foundation s practices There are now over 300 historical building restoration projects in progress in Kashan and its neighbouring cities towns and villages Some of these sites have been purchased come to this later Tourists who once recognised Kashan only as the city around 4 million a year both from Iran and other countries The seed that was planted in 1993 has now grown into a massive tree which stands high and spreads its foliage across the whole country A considerable number of people have realised the cultural artistic and economic value of Kashan s cultural heritage 63 The derelict house beside the Aqa Bozorg Mosque is now the theatre of Kashan The historical house that belonged to the renowned singer Taj is now a music school An old and derelict house has been turned into a doll and puppet museum The House of Pottery an exhibition of potterymaking and tiling has become an academy for training artists and is now responsible for restoring the Mir Emad Mosque The Sa adat House has been transformed into a Research and Training Centre for Handicrafts The Ab Bakhsh House has become a community centre for architects The Attarha House has become the House of Photography and is the centre for a collection of historical pictures and photographic apparatus Numerous weaving brocade a traditional Kashanian form of weaving with a hand loom and velvet weaving shops in Kashan have been revived Fig 13 6 The Isfahani House has been converted into the House of Handicrafts of the Blind Fig 13 7 The trustee of the Noghli House is the founder of Iranian eco tourism and the secretary of the Eco tourism Society of Iran he hosts eco tourists from all over the world Modern guest houses inspired by the traditional and historical ambience of Kashan have become popular with tourists New houses inspired by traditional architecture have been built in Natanz and Kashan

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Houses with central courtyards which were popular in the past are being constructed again Houses are being built which combine certain aspects of Kashani and Isfahani art the Rezaei House in Qamsar is a good example Some people have built houses using a combination become the owners of buildings that will be historically important in the future After the restoration and reopening of the Rais Cave in Niasar the underground city of Noushabad and the natural Nakhjir Cave were discovered Traditional Kashani cuisine is being taught in cookery classes The Ehsan House contains a library and also exhibits the paintings of Manouchehr Sheybani The Haji Qorban House is dedicated to people handicapped during the eight year Iran Iraq war The Rezapour House has been transformed into a House of Traditional Medicine and a pharmacy for medicinal herbs The Al e Yassin House has become the House of Nations The Taj Meshki and Pakouchi houses have been repurposed as the Anthropology Museum The Razzaqian House is now dedicated to the Kashan Artistic Circle and is used for cultural activities The Abrishamchi House has been transformed into the Kashan Museum of Rituals The Rezazadeh dyer s shop has become an Arts Library The Ketabchi House is now the Museum of Education The Serepereh dyer s shop is now the Daneshpour Zoorkhaneh gymnasium The Qa raati House has been transformed into Khane ye Me raj the House of Ascension The Aminabad Garden in Noushabad and Aliabad has and mental handicaps Darolekram or the House of Generosity has been founded to supervise talented but needy students Private entities as well as enthusiasts for Iran from all over the world have provided money towards these activities The idea of compiling and recording the ancient history of the city was initiated by the Kashanica Foundation in aim the Kashanica Foundation has chosen the following publishing scheme People nowadays restore renovate and utilise their cultural heritage instead of damaging it The governmental sector that once impeded restoration attempts has changed its attitude and is now a facilitator of such work The cities towns and villages of Kashan are now immigrant friendly Kashan has become an important centre for research into the architecture of the Qajar period The number of books published about Kashan has increased dramatically Traditional artistic shops specialising in carpentry ziloo weaving special carpet weaving with cotton threads carpet weaving using natural dyes and traditional patterns and making shoes have become active and widespread niques of traditional architecture such as fretwork muqarnas stalactite work yazdibandi a special way of decorating the inner part of domes rasmibandi tile decorating ahakbori relief decoration on limestone stucco mirrorwork painting simgel and kahgel a special kind of mortar for walls and the covering of arches and brickwork Negin House has been founded to take care of and supervise orphans Cultural Heritage The Maranjab Desert and Abuzeydabad have become tourist attractions The universities and higher educational institutions in Kashan have become active in teaching traditional architecture and restoration methods The research centre for Kashanology has been founded at Kashan University People s perceptions of cultural heritage have developed For instance some fundamentalist clergy who once considered tourists a threat to their values now realise they represent an opportunity for the area 64 Volumes 3 and 4 of Encyclopaedia Kashanica argue that the Aryans were originally settled in Iran despite the old hypothesis that states that they migrated to this land Volume 5 is entitled Notables of Kashan according to the Golestan Palace Albums This volume draws on some 35 000 pictures of the Qajar period especially from the reign of Naser al Din Shah These pictures were found among the pictures of the Album House Albomkhaneh in the Golestan Palace Volume 6 is devoted to coins minted in Kashan This volume is in the last stages of layout and artistic

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preparation These coins are now kept in the collections of the National Museum of Iran the Museum of Sepah Bank and the Reza Abbasi Museum Volume 7 is also about coins minted in Kashan These coins are currently in the private collections of Mr Nayyer Mr Ala eddini Mr Kalantarizadeh and Ms Dalvi Volume 8 is again devoted to the coins minted in Kashan that are currently in UK museums and elsewhere Volume 9 is devoted to pottery dating from before the Islamic Conquest This collection was found at Tappeh Sialk in Kashan and is currently kept in the is being prepared in collaboration with the Louvre Museum Paris Volumes 11 and 12 are devoted to the pottery of Kashan dating from after the Islamic Conquest Volumes 13 14 and 15 are focused on the dialects of Abuzeydabad the Jewish people of Kashan and Volumes 16 17 and 18 are devoted to about 2 700 notables of Kashan drawn from the city s long history Other volumes of Encyclopaedia Kashanica are devoted to architecture carpets copper work the Nayyebians the groups of researchers are still working on these projects The Foundation s vision has taken root in certain other cities and towns of Iran such as Gorgan Darreh Gaz Quchan and Sabzevar stages of editing Volume 10 is also devoted to the pottery of Kashan dating from before the Islamic Conquest This volume 65

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Appendix Papers delivered at the 2017 2018 Tappeh Sialk Conferences Tappeh Sialk the Glory of Ancient Kashan 31 March 2017 Asia House London Dr John Curtis CEO IHF Introduction to Tappeh Sialk Sialk North and South Dr Fereidoun Biglari National Museum of Iran Pleistocene human occupation of the Kashan region western edge of the central desert Dr Jebrael Nokandeh Director National Museum of Iran Chalcolithic occupation on the western fringe of the Iranian central plateau a review of Sialk III culture Dr Nima Nezafati Islamic Azad University Tehran Ancient Metallurgy at Tappeh Sialk a Review Prof Margareta Tengberg Dr Marjan Mashkour Dr C line Bon Dr Morteza Djamali National Museum of Natural Dr Michael D Danti American Schools of Oriental Research Boston The connections between Tappeh Sialk and Hasanlu Prof Robin Coningham Dr Hassan Fazeli Nashli Armineh Marghussian University of Durham University of Tehran Sialk North continuity and contrast on the fringe Mr Hossein Mahlouji Bonyad e Farhang e Kashan The work of the Kashan Cultural Heritage Foundation Kashanica Mr Mohsen Javeri University of Kashan The present state of Tappeh Sialk and proposals for its maintenance and preservation 66

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Revisiting Tappeh Sialk and Ancient Kashan 2 3 July 2018 Asia House London Dr John Curtis An introduction to Tappeh Sialk Dr Toby Wilkinson University of Cambridge Tappeh Sialk in time and space ecology and connectivity Dr Michael Danti American Schools of Oriental Research Boston The connections between Tappeh Sialk and Hasanlu Prof Stephan Kroll Ludwig Maximilians University Munich A note on the late Iron Age double handled tankards from Sialk Dr Armineh Kaspari Marghussian University of Durham Sialk North Continuity and change in pottery manufacture Sima Yadollahi independent scholar Symbols and styles on Sialk III Pottery and their roles in understanding cognitive systems Dr Francois Bridey Dr Julien Cuny Louvre Museum Tappeh Sialk in the Louvre material and archives from the Ghirshman excavations Prof Barbara Helwing University of Sydney Proto Elamite sites in highland Iran the state of research in Tappeh Sialk and Arisman Dr Fereidoun Biglari National Museum of Iran Dr Sonia Shidrang University of Bordeaux Paleolithic hunter gatherers at the edge of the central desert archaeological evidence from the Kashan region Prof Hassan Fazeli Nashli University of Tehran Dr Jebrael Nokandeh Director National Museum of Iran The chronology of Sialk North and Sialk South Dr Nima Nezafati Islamic Azad University Ancient Mining and Archaeometallurgical Studies at Sialk a comparison with Arisman Prof Oliver Watson Oxford University The early Islamic period at Kashan Dr Jebrael Nokandeh Prof Hassan Fazeli Nashli Director National Museum of Iran and University of Tehran A strategy for future excavation at Tappeh Sialk Mehrdad Malekzadeh Iranian Centre for Archaeological Research A Median prototype for Persian style architecture translated by Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis Reza Naseri Zabol University Decorative Bricks of the Late Iron Age in Eastern Media some pieces from Sialk translated by Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis Hamid Reza Momenian Governor of Kashan General observations on cultural heritage in Kashan translated by Vahid Alaghband Dr Mohsen Javeri University of Kashan The challenges and limitations of preserving Tappeh Sialk Kashanica 67

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Malekzadeh M 2004a A stone structure of Vasun a structure of Median period Report on primary visit and survey winter 1382 Iranian Journal of History and Archaeology XVIII 2 42 51 Malekzadeh M 2004b La Grande construction Sialk Construction from the Median Period or the Ziggurat of the Sun Bastan Pazhuhi XII Malekzadeh M 2004c Sialk adobe platform a Median structure or a Ziggurat Iranian Journal of Archaeology and History 18 2 60 82 in Persian Malekzadeh M 2014 Zar Bolagh a late Iron Age site in central Iran Iranica Antiqua 49 159 91 Malekzadeh M Naseri R 2005 Decorative bricks of the late Iron Age of the Eastern Media another Archaeology I 1 Tehran University and Iran National Museum 84 82 Matthews R Matthews W Mohammadifar Y eds 2013 The Earliest Neolithic of Iran 2008 Excavations at Sheikh e Abad and Jani Oxford Meadow R H 1986 Animal Exploitation in Prehistoric South Eastern Iran Faunal Remains from Tepe Yahya and Tepe Gaz Tavila R37 5500 3000 BC Ann Arbor of the grey ceramics of the early iron age Vestnik Drevnej Istorii 2 93 105 in Russian Medvedskaya I N 1982 Iran Iron Age I BAR International Series 126 Oxford Medvedskaya I N 1983 Horse harness from Sialk B cemetery Iranica Antiqua 17 59 79 in Russian Medvedskaya I N 2017 The ancient Iranian horse bridle questions of chronology origins and development Iranica Antiqua 52 159 95 Miller F N 1982 Economy and environment of Malyan a third millennium urban center in southern Iran PhD dissertation University of Michigan Miller F N 1984 The use of dung as fuel an ethnographic example and an archaeological application Pal orient 10 2 71 9 Miller F N 1985 Paleoethnobotanical evidence for deforestation in ancient Iran a case study of urban Malyan Journal of Ethnobiology 5 1 1 19 Miller F N 1990 Godin Tepe Iran plant remains from period V the late fourth millennium University Museum MASCA Ethnobotanical Reports 6 1 12 Miller F N 1996 Seed eaters of the ancient near east human or herbivore Current Anthropology 37 521 8 Miller F N 1999 Agricultural development in western central Asia in the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 8 13 19 Miller F N 2003 Archaeobotany in Iran past and future in Miller F N Abdi K eds Yeki bud Yeki nabud Essay on the archaeology of Iran in honour of William M Sumner Los Angeles 9 17 Miller F N Kimiaie M 2006 Some plant remains from the 2004 excavations at Tall e Mushki Tall e Jari A and B Tall e Bakun A and B in Alizadeh A ed The Origins of State Formations in Prehistoric Highland Fars Southern Iran Excavations at Tall e Bakun Oriental Institute Publications vol 128 Chicago 107 18 Miller F N Smart T L 1984 Intentional burning of dung as fuel a mechanism of the incorporation of charred seeds into the archaeological reports Journal of Ethnobiology 4 15 28 Mo tamedi N 1997 Ziwiyeh excavations of 1374 architecture and pottery Tehran Iranian Center for Archaeological Research Archaeological Reports I 143 70 Sialk bricks with impressions Antiquity 87 Issue 335 Malekzadeh M Safedyan S Naseri R 2014 Zar Bolagh a Late Iron Age site in Central Iran Iranica Antiqua 49 159 91 Mashkour M 2002 An introduction to the Archaeozoology of Sialk a preliminary report of at Tepe Sialk of Kashan in Malek Shahmirzadi S ed The Ziggurat of Sialk Report N 1 ICHTO 135 42 Mashkour M 2003 Equids in the northern part of the Iranian Central Plateau from the Neolithic to Iron Age new zoogeographic evidence in Levine M Renfrew C Boyle K eds Prehistoric Steppe Adaptation and the Horse Cambridge 129 38 Mashkour M 2004a 1382 Paleo environmental studies in Sialk Kashan in Malek Shahmirzadi S ed The Silversmiths of Sialk Report N 2 Tehran 189 94 in Persian Mashkour M 2004b 1383 Preliminary report of the archaeozoological studies of the third season of the Sialk reconsideration project in Malek Shahmirzadi S ed The Potters of Sialk Tehran 95 108 in Persian Mashkour M Fontugne M Hatte C 1999 Investigation on the evolution of subsistence economy in the Qazvin plain Iran from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age Antiquity 73 65 76 Matthews R Fazeli H 2004 Copper and complexity Iran and Mesopotamia in the fourth millennium Iran 42 61 75 Matthews R Fazeli Nashli H eds 2013 The Neolithisation of Iran the Formation of New Societies Oxford 74

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Mousavi A 1994 Une brique decor polychrome de l Iran occidental viii vii s av J C Studia Iranica 33 1 7 18 A Dictionary of Iranian Plant Names Tehran Muscarella O 1968 Excavations at Dinkha Tepe 1966 Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 27 187 96 Muscarella O 1973 Excavations at Agrab Tepe Iran Metropolitan Museum Journal 8 47 76 Muscarella O 1974 The iron age at Dinkha Tepe Iran Metropolitan Museum Journal 9 35 90 Muscarella O 1994 North western Iran bronze age Reconsideration Project Report no 2 Tehran 49 64 in Persian Nokandeh J Fahimi H 2003 Gozaresh e kavosh dar Bakhsh e sanati ye Tappeh e jonubi ye Sialk in Malek Shahmirzadi S ed The Silversmiths of Sialk Tehran 31 48 in Persian Nokandeh J Nezafati N 2003 Noghrekaran e Sialk shavahd e felezkari e felezat e kamyab dar tappeh e jonubi ye Sialk in Malek Shahmirzadi S ed The Silversmiths of of Sialk Tehran 19 30 in Persian Nokandeh J 2004 Gozaresh e dovumin fasl e kavosh dar Bakhsh e Maskuni ye Tappeh e jonubi ye Sialk in Malek Shahmirzadi S ed The Potters of Sialk Tehran 31 47 in Persian Anatolian Iron Ages 3 Ankara 139 54 Muscarella O 2006 The excavations of Hasanlu an archaeological evaluation Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 342 69 94 Mutin B Lamberg Karlovsky C C Minc L 2016 Investigating ceramic production during the ProtoElamite period at Tepe Yahya southeastern Iran results of instrumental neutron activation analysis of periods IVC and IVB ceramics Journal of Archaeological Science Reports 7 849 62 Naseri R 2011 Analysis of morphology and typology of brick decorations in the Iron Age architecture MA thesis University of Tehran sevom Sialk gozaresh teranshe e L15 in Malek Shahmirzadi S ed The Fishermen of Sialk Tehran 65 106 in Persian Nokandeh J 2010 Neue Untersuchungen zur Sialk III Periode im zentraliranischen Hochland auf der Grundlage der Ergebnisse des Sialk Reconsideration Project Berlin Orlando L Mashkour M Burke A Douady C J Eisenmann V Hanni C 2006 Geographic distribution of an extinct equid Equus hydruntinus Mammalia Equidae revealed by morphological and genetical analyses of fossils Molecular Ecology 15 8 2083 93 Perkins A L 1949 The Comparative Archaeology of Early Mesopotamia Chicago Perrot J ed 2013 The Palace of Darius at Susa London Piller C 2003 2004 Zur Mittelbronzezeit im n rdlichen Zentraliran Die Zentraliranische Graue Ware Central Grey Ware als m gliche Verbindung zwischen Eastern und Western Grey Ware Arch ologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan 35 6 143 73 Pittman H 1992 The Proto Elamite period in Harper P O Aruz J Tallon F eds The Royal City of Susa Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre New York 68 77 Pittman H 2013 Imagery in administrative context Susiana and the west in the fourth millennium in Petrie C A ed Ancient Iran and its Neighbours Local Developments and Long Range Interactions in the Fourth Millennium Oxford and Oakville CT 293 336 Pollard M A Fazeli H Davoudi H Sarlak S Helwing B Saeeidi Anaraki F 2013 A new radiocarbon chronology for the North Central Plateau of Iran from the Late Neolithic to the Iron Age Arch ologische Mitteilungen aus Iran und Turan 45 27 50 a late Iron Age site in the Median heartland Iranica Antiqua 51 103 39 Negahban E 1964 A Preliminary Report on Marlik Excavation Gohar Rud Expedition Rudbar 1961 1962 Tehran Negahban E 1977 Preliminary report on the Qazvin expedition excavations at Zagheh Qabrestan Sagzabad 1971 1972 Marlik 2 26 44 in Persian Negahban E 1996 Marlik the Complete Excavation Report Philadelphia PA Nesbitt M 2006 Grass Seeds London Nezafati N Pernicka E 2006 The smelters of Sialk researches at Tappeh Sialk in Malek Shahmirzadi S ed The Fishermen of Sialk Sialk Reconsideration Project Report no 4 Tehran 79 102 Nokandeh J 2002 Gozaresh e layeh negari e boresh e alef dar tappeh e jonoubi ye Sialk in Malek Shahmirzadi S ed The Ziggurat of Sialk Sialk Reconsideration Project Report no 1 Tehran 55 84 in Persian Nokandeh J 2003 Gozaresh e kawosh dar bakhsh e maskouni ye tappeh ye jonoubi e Sialk in Malek Shahmirzadi S ed The Silversmiths of Sialk Sialk 75

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Popper K 1957 The Poverty of Historicism 2nd edn London Popper K 1976 Unended Quest an Intellectual Biography LaSalle IL Porada E 1965 Ancient Iran the Art of Pre Islamic Times London Porada E 1993 Cylindrical seals Encyclopedia Iranica 6 479 505 Pollock S 2013 The Eden that never was work gender political economy in Uruk Mesopotamia in Uruk Altorientalische Metropole und Kulturzentrum Berlin Potts D T 1977 Tepe Yahya and the end of the 4th millennium on the Iranian plateau in Deshayes J ed Le Plateau Iranien et l Asie central des origines la conqu te Islmique Colloques 567 Paris 23 31 Potts D T 2001 Excavations at Tepe Yahya Iran 1967 1975 the Third Millennium Cambridge MA Potts D T 2009 Bevel rim bowls in Iran and the IndoIranian borderlands Journal of Cuneiform Studies 61 1 23 Prickett M E 1986 Settlement during the early period in Beale T W Lamberg Karlovsky C C eds Excavations at Tepe Yahya Iran 1967 1975 the Early Periods Bulletin of the American School of Prehistoric Research 215 46 Quigley C 2001 Skulls and Skeletons Human Bone Collections and Accumulations Rice P M 1987 Pottery Analysis a Source Book Chicago Roaf M 2008 Medes beyond the borders of modern Iran 3 6 9 11 Roaf M Stronach D 1973 Tepe Nush i Jan 1970 second interim report Iran 11 129 40 Roberts N 2002 Did prehistoric landscape management retard the post glacial spread of woodland in southwest Asia Antiquity 76 1002 10 Rothman M S Badler V R 2011 Contact and development in Godin period VI in Gopnik H Rothman M S eds On the High Road History of Godin Tepe Costa Mesa CA 67 138 Sarlak S 2010 Seven Thousand year old culture of Qom city Archaeological excavations of Qoli Darvish site Jamkaran Qom Qom Sarlak S 2011 Archeology and History of Qom the Results of Archaeological Excavation and stratigraphy of the Qoli Darvish and Shadqoli Khan sites Archaeological sounding and Surveys in the Historical Cultural and Religious Axis of Qom Qom Sarlak S n d Ancient site of Qoli Darvish Qom the Seven Thousand Year Old City Qom Sarlak S Hessari M 2018 The Qom Plain at the end of the Bronze and the beginning of the Iron Age Iranian Journal of Archaeological Studies 1 16 Stratigraphie Compar e et Chronologie de l Asie Occidentale London Scheil V 1905 Documents archaiques en criture proto lamite Paris Schmidt A Quigley M Fattahi M Azizi G Maghsoudi M Fazeli H 2011 Holocene settlement shifts and palaeoenvironments on the central Iranian plateau investigating linked systems The Holocene 21 4 583 95 Schmidt E 1933 The Tepe Hissar excavations 1931 Museum Journal of Philadelphia 23 322 485 Schmidt E 1935 The Persian expedition University Museum Bulletin 5 5 41 9 Schmidt E 1936 Rayy research 1935 part I University Museum Bulletin 6 3 79 87 Schmidt E 1937 Excavations at Tepe Hissar Damghan Philadelphia PA Schmidt E 1953 Persepolis I Structures Reliefs Inscriptions Chicago Scott J C 2017 Against the Grain a Deep History of the Earliest States New Haven CT and London Segnit E R Anderson C A 1972 Scanning electron Transactions of the British Ceramic Society 71 85 8 Seidl U 1976 Ein Relief Dareios I in Babylon Arch ologische Mitteilungen aus Iran n f IX 125 30 Selz G J 1998 ber mesopotamische Herrschaftskonzepte Zu den Urspr ngen mesopotamischer Herrscherideologie im 3 Jahrtausend in Dietrich M Loretz O eds Dubsar anta men Festschrift f r Willem H Ph R mer zur Vollendung seines 70 Lebensjahres M nster 283 344 Simpson I A Nejad M G 2008 Field based geoarchaeological investigations Sialk Plain of Kashan Iran unpublished report Soleimani N A Fazeli Nashli H 2019 in press The re evaluation of Kerman Neolithic chronology based on the excavation of Tepe Gav B Grabungsbericht ber Area B in Malek Shahmirzadi S ed The Ziggurat of Sialk Tehran 113 34 in Persian Roustaei K Mashkour M Tenberg M 2015 Tappeh Sang e Chakhmaq and the beginning of the Neolithic in north east Iran Antiquity 89 345 573 95 types of graveyard architectures and burial methods at the cemetery of the Iron Age of the Sarm mound Kahak Qom Archaeological Reports 2 Tehran 163 27 76

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Koshi Esfandagheh Jiroft Journal of Research on Archaeometry 4 2 61 79 Neolithic cremation at Tappeh Sialk Iran Iranica Antiqua 51 1 19 Stein A 1940 Old Routes of Western Iran London Stein G J 1999 Rethinking World Systems Diasporas Colonies Interaction in Uruk Mesopotamia Tuscon AZ Tosi M 1968 Excavations at Shahr i Sokhta a Chalcolithic settlement in the Iranian Sistan East and West 18 9 66 Tourovetz A 1989 Observations concernant le mat riel arch ologique des n cropoles A et B de Sialk Iranica Antiqua 24 209 44 Tsuneki A 2013 Proto Neolithic caves and neolithisation in the southern Zagros in Matthews R Fazeli Nashli H eds The Neolithisation of Iran the Formation of New Societies Oxford 84 96 Valamoti S M Charles M 2005 Distinguishing food from fodder through the study of charred plant remains in the fort Iran 16 11 24 Stronach D 1978b Pasargadae Oxford Stronach D Roaf M Stronach R B k nyi S 1978 Excavations at Tepe Nush i Jan Iran 16 1 28 Sumner W M 1974a Excavations at Tall i Malyan 1971 72 Iran 12 155 75 Sumner W M 1974b Tall i Malyan and the chronology of the Kur River Basin Iran American Journal of Archaeology 77 3 288 90 Sumner W M 1986 Proto Elamite civilization in Fars in Finkbeiner U R llig W eds Gamdat Nasr Period or Regional Style Beihefte zum T binger Atlas des Vorderen Orients Reihe B Geisteswissenschaften Wiesbaden 199 211 Sumner W M 2003 Early Urban Life in the Land of Anshan Excavations at Tal e Malyan in the Highlands of Iran Philadelphia PA Tengberg M 2003 The archaeobotanical project at Tepe Sialk a preliminary report in Malek Shahmirzadi S ed The Silversmiths of Sialk Tehran 9 11 Tengberg M 2004 Archaeobotanical analysis at Tepe Sialk results from the 2003 4 season in Malek Shahmirzadi S ed The Potters of Sialk Tehran 25 32 Thornton C P 2013 Tappeh Sang e Chakhmaq a new look in Matthews R Fazeli Nashli H eds The Neolithisation of Iran the Formation of New Societies Oxford 241 55 Tiratsyan N 2010 An Urartian jar burial from Nor Armavir in Kosyan A Petrosyan A Grekyan Y eds Urartu and Its Neighbors Festschrift in Honor of Nicolay Harutyunyan in Occasion of his 90th Birthday vol 2 Yerevan 134 46 Tite M S Maniatis Y 1975a Examination of ancient pottery using scanning electron microscope Nature 257 122 3 Tite M S Maniatis Y 1975b Scanning electron Transactions of the British Ceramic Society 74 19 22 Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 14 4 528 33 Vallat F 2003 Un fragment de tablette proto lamite d couvert Ozbaki au nord ouest de T h ran Akkadica 124 229 31 Vallois H V 1940 Les ossements humains de Sialk contribution l tude de l histoire raciale de l Iran ancien Paris Vanden Berghe L 1959 Arch ologie de l Iran ancien Leiden Vanden Berghe L 1964 La N cropole de Khurvin Leiden Van Driel G 1977 De Uruk Nederzetting op de Jebel Aruda een voorlopig Bericht Stand Eind 1976 Phoenix 23 42 64 Van Ess M Cr semann N Hilgert M eds 2013 Uruk 5000 Jahre Megacity Exhibition Catalogue Berlin 2013 Van Zeist W Bakker Heeres J A H 1982 Archaeobotanical studies in the Levant 1 Neolithic sites in the Damascus basin Aswad Ghoraif Ramad Palaeohistoria 24 165 256 Van Zeist W Bakker Heeres J A H 1984 Archaeobotanical studies in the Levant 3 LatePalaeolithic Mureybit Palaeohistoria 26 171 99 Van Zeist W Bakker Heeres J A H 1985 Archaeobotanical studies in the Levant 4 Bronze Age sites on the north Syrian Euphrates Palaeohistoria 27 247 316 Van Zeist W Smith P E L Palfenier Vegter R M Suwijn M Casparie W A 1986 An archaeobotanical study of Ganj Dareh Tepe Iran Palaeohistoria 26 201 24 Vatandoust A Parzinger H Helwing B eds 2011 Early Mining and Metallurgy on the Western Central Iranian Plateau Report on the First Five Years of Research of the Joint Iranian German Research Project Mainz am Rhein Vaufrey R 1939 Faune de Sialk in Ghirshman 1938 9 Verdugo P M et al 2019 Ancient cattle genomics origins and rapid turnover in the fertile crescent Science 365 173 6 report Tappeh Sialk Iran seasons 2008 2009 Bioarchaeology of the Near East 4 69 73 77

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Voigt M M 1983 Hajji Firuz Tepe Iran the Neolithic Settlement Philadelphia PA Voigt M M Dyson R H J 1992 Chronology of Iran ca 8000 2000 B C in Ehrich R W ed Chronologies of Old World Archaeology Chicago vol 1 122 178 vol 2 25 53 Von den Driesch A 1976 A Guide to the Measurement of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites Cambridge MA Wulsin F 1932 Excavations at Tureng Tappeh near Asterabad Supplement to the Bulletin of the American Institute for Persian Art and Archaeology 2 New York Young T C 1963 Proto historic western Iran an archaeological and historical review problems and possible interpretations PhD Dissertation University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia Young T C 1965 A Comparative Ceramic Chronology for Western Iran 1500 500 B C Iran 3 53 85 Young T C 1967 The Iranian migrations into the Zagros Iran 5 11 34 Young T C 1985 Early iron age Iran revisited preliminary suggestions for the re analysis of old constructs in Huot J L Yon M Calvet Y eds De l Indus aux Balkans Recueil la M moire de Jean Deshayes Paris 361 78 N eds A Millennium of History Berlin 333 41 Weeks L 2013 The development and expansion of a Neolithic way of life in Potts D T ed The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Iran Oxford 49 75 Weiss H Cuyler Young T 1975 The merchants of Susa Godin V and plateau lowland relations in the late fourth millennium Iran 13 1 17 Willcox G 2002 Charred plant remains from a 10th millennium B P kitchen at Jerf el Ahmar Syria Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 11 55 60 Wilson D E Reeder D A eds 2005 Mammal Species of the World A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd edn Baltimore MD Baghizadeh S Golcheh M Ahmadpour H Miri J Nezhad M G Nezari N Mohammadi N B Alimadadi E Sadeghi M Hamivand M 2015 Meymanat Abad Tepe an important site in late fourth millennium in Iranian central plateau Archaeology 4 1 13 21 Hananlu IV B a study in Receptivity in Levine L D Young Jr T C eds Mountains and Lowlands Essays in the Archaeology of Greater Mesopotamia Bibliotheca Mesopotamica VII Malibu CA 371 86 Wong E H Y 2008 Ceramic characterization and inter site relationships in the northwestern Central Plateau Iran in the Late Neolithic to the Bronze Age unpublished PhD dissertation University of Sydney press Meymanatabad Tepe An important Site of the Late Fourth Millennium BC on the Iranian Central Plateau in memory of Yousef Majidzadeh Zeder M A 2006 A critical assessment of markers of initial domestication in goats Capra hircus in Zeder M A Bradley D G Emshwiller E Smith B D eds Documenting Domestication New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms Berkeley 181 208 78

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2 Hassan Fazeli Nashli Jebrael Nokandeh Fig 2 1 Aerial photograph of Tappeh Sialk North and South Fig 2 2 Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadi and Jebrael Nokandeh of the Sialk Reconsideration Project 79

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Fig 2 3 Aerial photograph of Tappeh Sialk North 80

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Fig 2 4 Section drawings from Tappeh Sialk North and c14 dates Late Neolithic and Transitional Chalcolithic periods 81

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Fig 2 5 Ceramic forms and decoration Tappeh Sialk North Late Neolithic period Ghirshman 1938 9 I pls XXXVIII and XXXIX National Museum of Iran Fig 2 7 Ceramics Tappeh Sialk North Transitional Chalcolithic period Ghirshman 1938 9 I pl XLV Fig 2 8 Sialk II style ceramics Tappeh Pardis 82

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Fig 2 9 Aerial view of Tappeh Sialk South Fig 2 10 Typical Qara Tappeh ceramics Kaboli 2005 Nos 1 2 3 and 4 represent the Sialk II style but the form is Qara Tappeh style No 5 represents Bakun style and nos 6 and 7 show the Early Chalcolithic style of north central Iran Fig 2 11 Typical ceramic designs of Tappeh Sialk Early Middle and Late Chalcolithic period Nokandeh 2010 Fig 2 12 Typical ceramic designs of Tappeh Sialk South Early and Middle Chalcolithic period Ghirshman 1938 9 I pls XII XIII and XIV 83

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Fig 2 14 Middle Chalcolithic ceramics from Tappeh Sialk South Sialk Reconsideration Project The top picture shows Mr Abbas Etemad Fini who worked on the Sialk excavations with Roman Ghirshman Malek Shahmirzadi and Hassan Fazeli Nashli He is still very active at Tappeh Sialk Fig 2 13 Typical ceramic designs of the Middle Chalcolithic of Tappeh Sialk South Ghirshman 1938 9 I pls XIV and XV Fig 2 15 Large storage jar Tappeh Sialk South Sialk Reconsideration Project lithic and Late Chalcolithic period Ghirshman 1938 9 I pl LXXV 84

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Fig 2 17 Stamp seals from Tappeh Sialk Ghirshman 1938 9 I pl LXXXVI Fig 2 18 Two Middle Chalcolithic stamp seals National Museum of Iran Fig 2 19 Late Chalcolithic pottery goblet showing leopards and goats Tappeh Sialk South National Museum of Iran Fig 2 20 Late Chalcolithic pottery beaker showing male goats Tappeh Sialk South National Museum of Iran 85

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Fig 2 21 Late Chalcolithic pottery beaker Tappeh Sialk South National Museum of Iran Fig 2 22 Late Chalcolithic pottery bowl Tappeh Sialk South National Museum of Iran Fig 2 23 Burnished grey ware bowl Late Chalcolithic period Sialk Reconsideration Project Fig 2 24 Bevelled rim bowl Tappeh Sialk South Late Chalcolithic period Sialk Reconsideration Project 86

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Fig 2 25 Sialk IV ceramics Uruk style Ghirshman 1938 9 I pl LXXXIX Fig 2 26 Sialk IV ceramics Ghirshman 1938 9 I pl XC Fig 2 27 Sialk IV ceramics Ghirshman 1938 9 I pl LXXXVIII Fig 2 28 Iron Age ceramics Tappeh Sialk Cemetery B 1st millennium National Museum of Iran 87

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Fig 2 29 Iron Age ceramics Tappeh Sialk Cemetery B 1st millennium National Museum of Iran Fig 2 30 Iron Age ceramics Tappeh Sialk Cemetery B 1st millennium National Museum of Iran Fig 2 31 Iron Age pestle Sialk Reconsideration Project 88

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Fig 2 32 Radiocarbon dating of the south part of the Sialk ziggurat 89

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90 Fig 3 1 Map of Neolithic sites in Iran and surrounding area 3 Roger Matthews

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4 Armineh Kaspari Marghussian Fig 4 1 Map of the central plateau of Iran showing the location of the prominent prehistoric sites in the region Fig 4 2a Sialk pottery sherd Fig 4 2b Sialk pottery sherd Sialk II Red Ware 91

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Fig 4 3a SEM microstructure of a Sialk I pottery sherd Fig 4 3b SEM microstructure of a Sialk II pottery sherd 92

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Fig 4 4 SEM microstructure and an elemental map showing the surface of a Sialk II specimen covered with a red coating rich in iron oxide Mixed map calcium red silicon green iron blue 93

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Fig 4 5 A typical elemental spectrum of a Sialk II Sample with a red coating a core 4 782 wt Fe b exterior surface 24 810 wt Fe Fig 4 6 A typical elemental spectrum of a Sialk II Sample which is in red colour both on exterior and core a exterior surface 5 109 wt Fe b core 4 823 wt Fe 94

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5 Barbara Helwing Fig 5 1 Map of Iran indicating Proto Elamite sites and select reference sites for Uruk period map made with Natural Earth and QGIS 2 12 Fig 5 2 Contour map of Sialk South indicating location of Ghirshman s trenches and location of new excavation area immediately to the north in blue the irregular shape is the result of the area following the topography of the site map prepared on the basis of plan from Ghirshman 1938 9 I pl XXXIII 95

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Fig 5 3 Tappeh Sialk view over Ghirshman s trench 1 towards the new excavated area photograph taken at the very beginning of the new work the section cleaned 2002 is visible on the right below the new excavation area photograph by B Helwing for SRP Fig 5 4 Tappeh Sialk the excavation area after removal of Ghirshman s Fig 5 5 Tappeh Sialk Iron Age architecture photograph by B Helwing for SRP Fig 5 6 Tappeh Sialk nested deposit of BRBs in upper preserved ProtoElamite layer photograph by B Helwing for SRP Fig 5 7 Arisman overview of the site from north with the Karkas mountains in the background photograph by B Helwing for DAI Fig 5 8 Arisman area C Proto Elamite architecture photograph by B Helwing for DAI the Proto Elamite layers photograph by B Helwing for SRP 96

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Fig 5 9 Arisman copper smelting furnace in area A photograph by B Helwing for DAI Fig 5 10 Arisman proto Elamite ceramic types band painted wares band painted pitcher painted nose lugged jar photographs by B Helwing for DAI Fig 5 11 Arisman moulds for the casting of copper axes left ProtoElamite from area A right Sialk III period from area B photographs by B Helwing for DAI Fig 5 12 Arisman Proto Elamite cylinder seals from area C photographs by B Helwing for DAI 97

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6 Michael Danti Fig 6 1 The mound of Sialk South from the North Mound with the Karkas mountains in the distance Fig 6 2 Archaeological survey in the Karkas mountains in 2005 Fig 6 3 The intermontane valleys of the Karkas mountains provide seasonal pastures for pastoral production Fig 6 4 Water harvesting in the Karkas mountains to irrigate local gardens and orchards and channel water eastward to feed the qanat system of Kashan Fig 6 5 The eastern piedmont of the Karkas mountains Fig 6 6 The interior of a subterranean water channel qanat Ab used to distribute water collected near the Karkas mountains to the arid plain around Kashan 98

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Fig 6 7 The remains of an early modern mill located in the rural hinterland of Old Kashan Fig 6 8 Urban development in the western outskirts of Kashan in 2005 was damaging and destroying archaeological sites in the piedmont zone Fig 6 9 The dunes of the Rig Boland or high sands east of Kashan forming the western fringes of the Dasht e Kavir 99

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Fig 6 10 Sialk A Tomb IV adapted from Ghirshman 1938 9 II Fig 6 11 Giyan I Tombs 3 5 and 23 adapted from Contenau and Ghirshman 1935 100

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Fig 6 12 Finds from the Solduz Necropolis adapted from Ghirshman 1938 9 II Fig 6 13 Dyson Chart adapted from Dyson 1963 101

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7 Reza Naseri Mehrdad Malekzadeh 102

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Fig 7 2 Table of motifs on decorated bricks from Sialk 103

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104 Fig 7 3 Geometric motifs on Sialk bricks

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Fig 7 4 Comparison of decorative brick motifs from the Sialk platform with the motifs on pottery and seals from Cemetery B 105

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Fig 7 5 Sialk painted pottery with anthropomorphic motifs Fig 7 6a Median akinakes 106

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Fig 7 8 Decorative bricks found on the central plateau of Iran a example discovered in Qolam Tappe ye Ja farabad Naseri 1390 b example of a zoomorphic pattern from Sialk Naseri 1390 c a zoomorphic pattern from Shamshirgah Naseri 1390 107

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Fig 7 9 Examples of decorated bricks with zoomorphic anthropomorphic and geometric patterns from Qoli Darwish d p 2 Fig 7 10 Examples of decorated bricks with zoomorphic anthropomorphic and geometric patterns from Shamshirgah Naseri 1390 108

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Fig 7 11 Lion attacking a bull comparison of motifs on bricks pottery and seals from Sialk with Qoli Darwish a Photo and sketch of a 109

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8 Stephan Kroll Fig 8 1 The double handled tankards from Sialk Ghirshman 1938 9 II pl IV Fig 8 2 Typical Median pottery from Tappeh Nush i Jan compiled from Stronach 1978 Fig 8 3 Double handled tankard from Godin Tappeh period II Gopnik Fig 8 4 Bastam east west section through the post Urartian level at 110

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Fig 8 9 Nor Armavir Armenia post Urartian burial photo courtesy of Nvard Tiratsyan Fig 8 10 One of several tankards found in the citadel of Ulug Fig 8 11 Roaf s map with Tappeh Sialk now added 113

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9 Hassan Fazeli Nashli Hengameh Ilkhani Alexandra Livarda Fig 9 1 The location of a domestic hearth within the residential area in the Transitional Chalcolithic phase Fazeli et al 2010 Fig 9 2 A Atriplex sp B cf New Type glume wheat spikelet bases C Emmer wheat spikelet bases D Astragalus type E sheep goat dung pellets 114

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10 Marjan Mashkour C line Bon Fig 10 1 Grave excavated by Roman Ghirshman from Ghirshman 1935 Fig 10 2a Skull 27290 from Tappeh Sialk in the anthropological collection of the Mus e de l Homme anthropological collection of the Mus e de l Homme Fig 10 2b 3D surface scan of Fig 10 2a MNHN HA 27290 in right lateral view Fig 10 5 Two skulls from Tappeh Sialk exhibited in the Mus e de l Homme 115

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Fig 10 6 Faunal remains from Sialk published in Vaufrey 1940 pl 32 Fig 10 7 Equid and cattle teeth and bones from Tappeh Sialk in the IPH collection Occlusal views of a Equus sp lower 2nd molar same as Vaufrey 1940 pl 32 no 11 and no 22 of IPH catalogue b Equus cf hemionus upper 2nd molar no 12 in idem no 21 idem c d Vestibular and lingual views of Bos taurus 1st 2nd lower Molar no 21 of IPH catalogue Marjan Mashkour Fig 10 8 Wild and domestic goat horncores from Tappeh Sialk in the IPH collection Capra cf aegagrus a medial and b lateral views specimen Vaufrey 1940 pl 32 no 6 Capra hircus c d lateral and medial views no 1198 and no 1184 e Ovis aries lateral view no 1185 Marjan Mashkour 116

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Fig 10 9 Wild sheep horncore from Tappeh Sialk in the IPH collection Ovis orientalis a medial and b lateral views and c basal section same as Vaufrey 1940 pl 32 no 7 Marjan Mashkour Fig 10 10 The faunal spectrum of the Neolithic level of the Tappeh Sialk Reconsideration Project 117

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11 Fran ois Bridey Julien Cuny Fig 11 1 Ghirshman s 1934 sketchbook Necropolis A tomb V Written in Russian Sialk expedition archive D partement des Antiquit s orientales mus e du Louvre 118

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Fig 11 2 Members of the 1934 expedition in Kashan Standing left to right Souren Malhossian Roman Ghirshman Georges Contenau Azad Gregorian Sitting left to right Gustave Tellier Tania Ghirshman Maxime Siroux Sialk expedition archive photograph DAO 600 004 0144 D partement des Antiquit s orientales mus e du Louvre 119

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Fig 11 4 Proto Elamite tablet found on 25 November 1933 now housed in the Louvre inv AO 18173 Sialk expedition archive photograph DAO 600 004 0093 D partement des Antiquit s orientales mus e du Louvre Fig 11 5 South Mound Trench 1 and Trench 2 during excavation seen from the north west 1933 Sialk expedition archive photograph DAO 600004 0011 D partement des Antiquit s orientales mus e du Louvre 120

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Fig 11 6 Necropolis A sketched by Ghirshman written in Russian Sialk expedition archive D partement des Antiquit s orientales mus e du Louvre Fig 11 7 Necropolis B during excavation with Souren Malhossian standing at the centre wearing a hat undated 1934 or 1937 Sialk expedition archive photograph DAO 600 004 0095 D partement des Antiquit s orientales mus e du Louvre 121

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Fig 11 8 South Mound Trench 1P plan of the remains of Period IV 1 see Ghirshman 1938 9 I pl LX drawn by Hardy December 1937 Sialk expedition archive D partement des Antiquit s orientales mus e du Louvre Fig 11 9 South Mound Trench 1P remains of Period III 3 during excavation December 1937 see Ghirshman 1938 9 I pl LX Trench I is visible to the right Sialk expedition archive photograph DAO 600004 0442 D partement des Antiquit s orientales mus e du Louvre Fig 11 10 South Mound Trench 1P after excavation showing the centre the kiln of Period III 1 at the foot of the bench see Ghirshman 1938 9 I pl LX end December 1937 Sialk expedition archive photograph DAO 600 004 0042 D partement des Antiquit s orientales mus e du Louvre 122

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Fig 11 11 Hardy s 1937 sketchbook Necropolis B tombs 136 and 135 October 1937 Sialk expedition archive D partement des Antiquit s orientales mus e du Louvre Fig 11 12 Registration card of a long spouted vessel from Necropolis B tomb 13 now on display in the National Museum of Iran in Tehran object number S 1472 drawings by Tania Ghirshman Sialk expedition archive D partement des Antiquit s orientales mus e du Louvre 123

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of the collection The black band separates two equal selections of objects The numbers 1 and 2 are visible in the background Sialk expedition archive photograph DAO 600 004 0336 D partement des Antiquit s orientales mus e du Louvre Fig 11 14 Distribution diagrams of the Sialk collection in the Louvre a intra site distribution b material distribution 124

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Fig 11 15 Showcase with objects from Sialk in the Louvre Room V undated 1950s Archives du d partement des Antiquit s orientales mus e du Louvre 125

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12 Mohsen Javeri Fig 12 1 Aerial photograph of the Sialk site from Ghirshman 1938 9 I pl I Fig 12 2 Registration of Sialk on Iranian National Heritage list Fig 12 3 Members of the 2015 excavation team Fig 12 4 Section drawings from Sondage 3 2015 126

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Fig 12 5 Location of 2015 sondages TT test trench Fig 12 6 Aerial photograph showing the Sialk site surrounded by buildings 127

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Fig 12 7 Encroachment of agricultural land and new buildings at Sialk Fig 12 8 Construction of an illegal building 2011 Fig 12 9 Construction of an illegal building Fig 12 10 View to the south from Sialk Fig 12 11 View to the north from Sialk 128

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129 Fig 12 12 New proposition for the boundaries of the Sialk site

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13 Hossein Mahlouji Fig 13 1 The Ameri House before and after restoration Fig 13 2 The Tabatabaei House before and after restoration Fig 13 3 Sultan Amir Ahmad Bathhouse before and after restoration 130

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Fig 13 4 The Al Yassin House before and after restoration Fig 13 5a The Abbasian House before and after restoration Fig 13 5b The Abbasian House restored courtyard 131

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Fig 13 6 Traditional loom technique Fig 13 7 Women creating handicrafts at the House of Handicrafts of the Blind 132

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Appendix Participants in the 2017 Tappeh Sialk conference Back row from left Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis Nima Nezafati Robin Coningham Armineh Kaspari Marghussian Hassan Fazeli Nashli Michael Danti Astrid Johansen Massoumeh Parker Front row from left Hossein Entezar John Curtis Alireza Rastegar Iradj Bagherzadeh Jebrael Nokandeh Fereidoun Biglari 133

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Participants in the 2018 Tappeh Sialk conference Back row from left Astrid Johansen Vahid Alaghband Barbara Helwing Mohsen Javari Nima Nezafati Hamid Reza Momenian Jebrael Nokandeh Fereidoun Biglari Roger Matthews Fran ois Bridey Julien Cuny Front row from left Massoumeh Parker Ali Rashidian John Curtis Stefan Kroll Hossein Mahlouji Hassan Fazeli Nashli Mehrdad Malekzadeh Reza Naseri Armineh Kaspari Marghussian Sima Yadollahi 134

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