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Undergraduate Program Department of English Spring 2017 Volume 17 Issue 2 3 Departmental Prize Winners 3 Hoopes Prize Winners 4 Post Graduation Plans 10 Senior Thesis Excerpts 30 The Lake District 36 The Chair is Recognized 38 Spring Term Scrapbook
Undergraduate Program Department of English  Spring 2017 Volume 17 Issue 2 3    Departmental Prize Winners 3    Hoopes Pri...
2 Concentrators Receive Thomas Temple Hoopes Prize CONGRATULATIONS CLASS OF 2017 Cherline Bazile for her submission entitled This Is War nominated by Professor Claire Messud Matthew Vegari for his submission entitled Don t Go to Strangers Jocelyn Arndt Josh Ascherman Cherline Bazile Claire Benoit Geoffrey Binney Gianna Cacciatore Allegra Caldera Taylor Carol Laila Carter Caden Chase Lena Felton Al Fern ndez Ramon Galvan Jessi Glueck Alexandra Grimm Kathryn Gundersen Rachel Harner Averill Healey Jane Hinsenkamp Reuben Howard Miriam Huettner Gabriel Jandali Appel Emma Kantor Robert Kim Alex Lee Halie LeSavage Joan Li Max Masuda Farkas Michael McGlathery Dan Milaschewski Nicolas O Connor Nancy O Neil Hope Patterson Shelly Preza Catherine Qin Chris Riley Monica de los Reyes Hannah Saal Nina Sapers Sasha Scolnik Brower Obasi Shaw Keenan Shirt Mark Steinbach Zara Sternberg Madi Stine Matthew Vegari Mia Vitale Chloe Volkwein Jarrod Wetzel Brown Karoline Xu Sarah Yeoh Wang Faye Zhang Nancy Zhou nominated by Professor Jamaica Kincaid Departmental Prize Winners Le Baron Russell Briggs Grant for Continued Literary Studies Josh Ascherman 17 Le Baron Russell Briggs Traveling Fellowships Josh Ascherman 17 Gianna Cacciatore 17 Allegra Caldera 17 Robert Kim 17 Max Masudas Farkas 17 Catherine Qin 17 Matthew Vegari 17 Le Baron Russell Briggs Thesis Prize Matthew Vegari 17 Boylston Prize for Elocution Winthrop Sargent Prize Allegra Caldera 17 Academy of American Poets Prize Josh Ascherman 17 Lloyd McKim Garrison Prize Josh Ascherman 17 Roger Conant Hatch Prizes for Lyric Poetry Emmie Atwood 18 Edward Eager Memorial Fund Prize Poetry Sarah Toomey 19 Fiction Emmie Atwood 18 Aisha Bhoori 18 Samantha Neville 19 First place Cherline Bazile 16 Congratulations to them all 2 Photo Credit Enter to grow in wisdom by Mingshuo Courtesy of Flickr Second place Lucas Giveen 17 3
2 Concentrators Receive Thomas Temple Hoopes Prize  CONGRATULATIONS CLASS OF 2017  Cherline Bazile for her submission enti...
2 Concentrators Receive Thomas Temple Hoopes Prize CONGRATULATIONS CLASS OF 2017 Cherline Bazile for her submission entitled This Is War nominated by Professor Claire Messud Matthew Vegari for his submission entitled Don t Go to Strangers Jocelyn Arndt Josh Ascherman Cherline Bazile Claire Benoit Geoffrey Binney Gianna Cacciatore Allegra Caldera Taylor Carol Laila Carter Caden Chase Lena Felton Al Fern ndez Ramon Galvan Jessi Glueck Alexandra Grimm Kathryn Gundersen Rachel Harner Averill Healey Jane Hinsenkamp Reuben Howard Miriam Huettner Gabriel Jandali Appel Emma Kantor Robert Kim Alex Lee Halie LeSavage Joan Li Max Masuda Farkas Michael McGlathery Dan Milaschewski Nicolas O Connor Nancy O Neil Hope Patterson Shelly Preza Catherine Qin Chris Riley Monica de los Reyes Hannah Saal Nina Sapers Sasha Scolnik Brower Obasi Shaw Keenan Shirt Mark Steinbach Zara Sternberg Madi Stine Matthew Vegari Mia Vitale Chloe Volkwein Jarrod Wetzel Brown Karoline Xu Sarah Yeoh Wang Faye Zhang Nancy Zhou nominated by Professor Jamaica Kincaid Departmental Prize Winners Le Baron Russell Briggs Grant for Continued Literary Studies Josh Ascherman 17 Le Baron Russell Briggs Traveling Fellowships Josh Ascherman 17 Gianna Cacciatore 17 Allegra Caldera 17 Robert Kim 17 Max Masudas Farkas 17 Catherine Qin 17 Matthew Vegari 17 Le Baron Russell Briggs Thesis Prize Matthew Vegari 17 Boylston Prize for Elocution Winthrop Sargent Prize Allegra Caldera 17 Academy of American Poets Prize Josh Ascherman 17 Lloyd McKim Garrison Prize Josh Ascherman 17 Roger Conant Hatch Prizes for Lyric Poetry Emmie Atwood 18 Edward Eager Memorial Fund Prize Poetry Sarah Toomey 19 Fiction Emmie Atwood 18 Aisha Bhoori 18 Samantha Neville 19 First place Cherline Bazile 16 Congratulations to them all 2 Photo Credit Enter to grow in wisdom by Mingshuo Courtesy of Flickr Second place Lucas Giveen 17 3
2 Concentrators Receive Thomas Temple Hoopes Prize  CONGRATULATIONS CLASS OF 2017  Cherline Bazile for her submission enti...
Post Graduation Plans Josh Ascherman After graduation I will spend the summer as a proctor with the Harvard Summer School so that I can say goodbye to a place which has taught me so much before I head to the University of Oxford next year to pursue an MSt in the History of Art and Visual Culture My proposed research which earned me Oxford s History of Art department s Inger Lawrence Award concerns the work of F lix Gonz lezTorres known principally for his installations involving piles of candy Gonz lez Torres was a remarkable artist in addition to being famously well read and I look forward to finding the points of intersection between my degree in English and my research in the history of art Gianna Cacciatore Next fall I will be teaching ninth and tenth grade English at a charter school in Dallas Texas I am a member of the second class of the Harvard Teacher Fellows a program offered to Harvard seniors through the Graduate School of Education This summer I will be taking classes and student teaching with the rest of the fellows In August I ll move all the way to Texas and become the dorky high school English teacher I ve always wanted to be 4 Lena Felton will be starting as an Editorial Fellow at The Atlantic in July The program runs for a year and she ll be working with TheAtlantic com Politics team quite an interesting time to be in Washington While her job will definitely include the inevitable grunt work of entry level journalism she ll hopefully have the opportunity to contribute her own articles and learn from some of the best editors in the business Kathryn Gundersen will be moving to Beijing China to work for an education foundation called the Flourish Project as a 2017 18 Princeton in Asia Fellow The foundation partners with the Beijing Ministry of Education to bring a unique and innovative curriculum to public school students featuring subjects that aren t usually prevalent in a Chinese classroom In the mornings she ll be working at the office helping Flourish develop their curriculum which will include contributing to their new textbook and in the afternoons she ll rotate through public middle and high schools teaching lessons that center on creative writing public speaking drama and mindfulness She is excited to spend next year exploring China and finally learning Mandarin 5
Post Graduation Plans Josh Ascherman After graduation, I will spend the summer as a proctor with the Harvard Summer School...
Post Graduation Plans Josh Ascherman After graduation I will spend the summer as a proctor with the Harvard Summer School so that I can say goodbye to a place which has taught me so much before I head to the University of Oxford next year to pursue an MSt in the History of Art and Visual Culture My proposed research which earned me Oxford s History of Art department s Inger Lawrence Award concerns the work of F lix Gonz lezTorres known principally for his installations involving piles of candy Gonz lez Torres was a remarkable artist in addition to being famously well read and I look forward to finding the points of intersection between my degree in English and my research in the history of art Gianna Cacciatore Next fall I will be teaching ninth and tenth grade English at a charter school in Dallas Texas I am a member of the second class of the Harvard Teacher Fellows a program offered to Harvard seniors through the Graduate School of Education This summer I will be taking classes and student teaching with the rest of the fellows In August I ll move all the way to Texas and become the dorky high school English teacher I ve always wanted to be 4 Lena Felton will be starting as an Editorial Fellow at The Atlantic in July The program runs for a year and she ll be working with TheAtlantic com Politics team quite an interesting time to be in Washington While her job will definitely include the inevitable grunt work of entry level journalism she ll hopefully have the opportunity to contribute her own articles and learn from some of the best editors in the business Kathryn Gundersen will be moving to Beijing China to work for an education foundation called the Flourish Project as a 2017 18 Princeton in Asia Fellow The foundation partners with the Beijing Ministry of Education to bring a unique and innovative curriculum to public school students featuring subjects that aren t usually prevalent in a Chinese classroom In the mornings she ll be working at the office helping Flourish develop their curriculum which will include contributing to their new textbook and in the afternoons she ll rotate through public middle and high schools teaching lessons that center on creative writing public speaking drama and mindfulness She is excited to spend next year exploring China and finally learning Mandarin 5
Post Graduation Plans Josh Ascherman After graduation, I will spend the summer as a proctor with the Harvard Summer School...
Rachel Harner will be spending this summer interning in the New York City offices of Creative Artists Agency Afterwards she plans on moving to Los Angeles to pursue a career in television with the ultimate goal of becoming a television writer She also plans to continue writing for the stage and has already started a new project following the completion of her creative thesis Miriam Huettner I ll be traveling to Italy on the Shaw Postgraduate Traveling Fellowship to live with and learn from midwives while writing a collection of poems about the midwifery experience Reuben Howard After graduation I ll continue as a Harvard Teacher Fellow beginning with extensive summer coursework and teaching at summer schools throughout Boston In August I ll finally begin a year long residency at the Community Charter School of Cambridge where I ll be co teaching 7th grade Humanities a blend of English and History but with an intense focus on reading and writing skills I ll also be around Harvard helping the Harvard Teacher Fellows program in our efforts to recruit a diverse group of people who are passionate about teaching and social justice 6 Shelly Preza Next year I ll be returning to my home community on the island of Lanai Hawaii There I ll be working with the culture center to coordinate programs focused on heritage management and cultural preservation A couple of these projects will include a placebased summer education program for youth on the island and also the restoration of an ancient Hawaiian fishpond I m really looking forward to spending time with my family and serving my community in the coming year 7
Rachel Harner will be spending this summer interning in the New York City offices of Creative Artists Agency. Afterwards, ...
Rachel Harner will be spending this summer interning in the New York City offices of Creative Artists Agency Afterwards she plans on moving to Los Angeles to pursue a career in television with the ultimate goal of becoming a television writer She also plans to continue writing for the stage and has already started a new project following the completion of her creative thesis Miriam Huettner I ll be traveling to Italy on the Shaw Postgraduate Traveling Fellowship to live with and learn from midwives while writing a collection of poems about the midwifery experience Reuben Howard After graduation I ll continue as a Harvard Teacher Fellow beginning with extensive summer coursework and teaching at summer schools throughout Boston In August I ll finally begin a year long residency at the Community Charter School of Cambridge where I ll be co teaching 7th grade Humanities a blend of English and History but with an intense focus on reading and writing skills I ll also be around Harvard helping the Harvard Teacher Fellows program in our efforts to recruit a diverse group of people who are passionate about teaching and social justice 6 Shelly Preza Next year I ll be returning to my home community on the island of Lanai Hawaii There I ll be working with the culture center to coordinate programs focused on heritage management and cultural preservation A couple of these projects will include a placebased summer education program for youth on the island and also the restoration of an ancient Hawaiian fishpond I m really looking forward to spending time with my family and serving my community in the coming year 7
Rachel Harner will be spending this summer interning in the New York City offices of Creative Artists Agency. Afterwards, ...
Hannah Saal will be moving to the Boston area officially after college She will be working as an Administrative Assistant at a law firm in downtown Boston She plans on continuing her creative writing and reading in her spare time Mia Vitale will be attending the Columbia Publishing Course at Columbia University immediately following graduation Afterwards she plans to remain in New York City to pursue a career in publishing and to attend as much theater as possible Catherine Qin After graduating I will be taking a month long trip across Europe with two of my close friends from Harvard and spending quality time with family and friends before leaving my hometown of Lexington Massachusetts to begin my full time job across the country in Seattle Washington In Seattle I will be working as a Product Marketing Manager at Microsoft as part of its accelerated marketing program for recent university grads Although I will miss dearly the incredible community and intellectual opportunities that the English Department has given me over my four years at Harvard I am excited to see what the next chapter of my life holds in store with all of the new faces and places just waiting to be experienced and explored 8 Jarrod Wetzel Brown will be headed back to his dear Kalamazoo MI to work for a year and to hopefully learn a few lessons outside of the classroom He will be going through the application and interview processes on his road to medical school and after that all ends he will be headed to the Big Island of Hawai i with Teach For America for the following two years Jarrod is looking forward to teaching elementarylevel Special Education and he is grateful for the opportunity to meander a bit from strict academia before returning to a graduate school setting He wishes success and every form of happiness to both his classmates and the College 9
Hannah Saal will be moving to the Boston area officially after college. She will be working as an Administrative Assistant...
Hannah Saal will be moving to the Boston area officially after college She will be working as an Administrative Assistant at a law firm in downtown Boston She plans on continuing her creative writing and reading in her spare time Mia Vitale will be attending the Columbia Publishing Course at Columbia University immediately following graduation Afterwards she plans to remain in New York City to pursue a career in publishing and to attend as much theater as possible Catherine Qin After graduating I will be taking a month long trip across Europe with two of my close friends from Harvard and spending quality time with family and friends before leaving my hometown of Lexington Massachusetts to begin my full time job across the country in Seattle Washington In Seattle I will be working as a Product Marketing Manager at Microsoft as part of its accelerated marketing program for recent university grads Although I will miss dearly the incredible community and intellectual opportunities that the English Department has given me over my four years at Harvard I am excited to see what the next chapter of my life holds in store with all of the new faces and places just waiting to be experienced and explored 8 Jarrod Wetzel Brown will be headed back to his dear Kalamazoo MI to work for a year and to hopefully learn a few lessons outside of the classroom He will be going through the application and interview processes on his road to medical school and after that all ends he will be headed to the Big Island of Hawai i with Teach For America for the following two years Jarrod is looking forward to teaching elementarylevel Special Education and he is grateful for the opportunity to meander a bit from strict academia before returning to a graduate school setting He wishes success and every form of happiness to both his classmates and the College 9
Hannah Saal will be moving to the Boston area officially after college. She will be working as an Administrative Assistant...
Senior Thesis Excerpts Our Undergraduate Honors Program supports students who want to do ambitious scholarly critical or creative work involving literature in English Here are a few excerpts from this year s submitted senior theses From The Cruelest of All Pains Birth Compassion and the Female Body in The Book of Margery Kempe Critical Thesis by Gianna Cacciatore At the beginning of a Passion vision late in the Book the text narrates what Margery sees Mary doing as her son prepares to die Its initial focus echoing the devotional poem discussed earlier is on Mary s pain After blessing Jesus Mary says Alas my der Sone how schal I suffyr this sorwe and have no joy in al this werlde but the alone yyf thu wilt algatys dey late me deye befor the and late me nevyr suffyr this day of sorwe for I may nevyr beryn this sorwe that I schal han for thi deth I wolde Sone that I myth suffir deth for the so that thu schuldist not deyin yyf mannys sowle myth so be savyd 4444 48 In this vision Margery successfully shares in Mary s pain As it begins it stresses Mary s compassion for Jesus but as the vision continues Margery herself steps into the primary compassionate role First she begins feel the pain Mary is feeling beside her Throughout the vision s progression she and Mary engage in dual sorrowing as Jesus suffers equally on the Cross Margery and Mary together wept and syhyd ful sor 4508 9 as Jesus was berated and sorwyd and mornyd and syhyd ful sor 4558 59 when he was pressed with nails In fact their crying together is so emblematic of this vision that the Book even explains owr Lady and sche wer alwey togedyr to se owr Lordys peynys 4519 20 Margery has such access to Mary s compassion that she is alwey on hand for it At times the text even suggests that Margery performs Mary s pain alone while Mary falls to the background Twice there are moments where 10 Mary swoons and Margery takes over as the primary pained body The first is after Mary s compassionate supplications at the start of the vision where she falls down to the grownde 4475 and remains stille as sche had ben ded 4476 While Mary lies unconscious Margery takes over her compassionate position grabbing owr Lord Jhesu Crist be the clothys falling down at hys feet herself crying and weeping ful lowed and asking Jesus in Mary s stead what she might do to lessen his pains 4476 78 Performing Mary s tears Margery is effectively speaking the language of Mary s pain The second occurs in a similar fashion when Margery sees owr Lady swownyn and fallyn down and lyn stille as sche had ben ded 4587 88 after Jesus has died In response Margery takes over as the sorrowing body running al abowte the place as she had ben a mad woman crying and roryng 4588 89 Margery not only feels the pain of compassion like Mary she feels the pain of compassion as Mary Miraculously connected Mary and Margery are speaking the same language of pain and are thus able to perform their compassion for Jesus interchangeably Interspersed with these compassionate sorrows are details and phrases that explicitly liken them to childbirth pulling Mary s displaced labor paradigm into play The Book describes Jesus in response to Mary s compassion referencing directly back to his birth as he begs his mother to accept his death He beseeches her my derworthy modyr I pray yow blissyth me and late me go do my fadrys wille for therfor I cam into this worlde and toke flesch and blood of yow 4471 72 pairing in his argument his fadrys wille which is the rebirth and the moment when he cam into this worlde of yow Compassion is thus decisively linked to the pains of labor Later when Jesus is stripped of his clothes by his aggressors the text describes him as al modyr nakyd as he was born 4513 The curious compound here perhaps the only one in the Book plainly coalesces Jesus s rebirth and physical childbirth in the image of him on the verge of death standing naked as a new born babe A second childbirth image comes soon after when Jesus who at some unclear point has been reclothed has his clothes once again ripped from him His body has already been abused so when the blood soaked wound clotting garments are torn away his skin is torn off as well The Book draws this image Than that precyows body aperyd to hir syght as rawe as a thyng that wer newe flayn owt of the skyn ful petows and rewful to beholdyn 4551 52 This perversely recalls a newly born baby Christ is rawe and newe flayn owt of the skyn much as a newborn might emerge from rent skin covered in bloody afterbirth Though it primarily engages with Mary s compassion this vision is filled with evocations of birth Following the paradigm offered in Mary s birth story childbirth pain and the pain of compassion Margery s two labowrys throughout are united Pilgrims Editor s Note from Liminal Minds Poem by Obasi Shaw How beautiful the feet that walk the trail of tears Bare soled and bloodstained on display for their peers Do you know how it feels To have your history erased Your founding fathers all convicted and evicted from their place No trace of fair trial they were all forced to plea There s even more hidden figures than America believes So I m searching for my roots cause Haley had to make his up It s tragic when we fabricating basic stuff Like I ain t got no history that ain t based in fluff Or placed in cuffs Rough And so I journey for the truth go wherever spirit call me And when it led me to the booth I picked up a new hobby Relating the fate of our greatest national crime Illustrating the weight being hated has on the mind Forever waiting in line but never fed So we subsist on our rhymes put faith in wisdom divine We raise our fist in defiance we re never dead How beautiful the feet of those who bring good news I m not a prophet nor do I profit from the word play I m simply telling tales of pilgrims fasting till the third day We re passing over Thursday no muse to invoke Just the music of my kinfolk and pivotal rhymes What if the Liminal Minds were given space to speak When would they say We re free I guess we still gotta walk Million Mile March to freedom time to let the pilgrims talk 11
Senior Thesis Excerpts Our Undergraduate Honors Program supports students who want to do ambitious scholarly, critical or ...
Senior Thesis Excerpts Our Undergraduate Honors Program supports students who want to do ambitious scholarly critical or creative work involving literature in English Here are a few excerpts from this year s submitted senior theses From The Cruelest of All Pains Birth Compassion and the Female Body in The Book of Margery Kempe Critical Thesis by Gianna Cacciatore At the beginning of a Passion vision late in the Book the text narrates what Margery sees Mary doing as her son prepares to die Its initial focus echoing the devotional poem discussed earlier is on Mary s pain After blessing Jesus Mary says Alas my der Sone how schal I suffyr this sorwe and have no joy in al this werlde but the alone yyf thu wilt algatys dey late me deye befor the and late me nevyr suffyr this day of sorwe for I may nevyr beryn this sorwe that I schal han for thi deth I wolde Sone that I myth suffir deth for the so that thu schuldist not deyin yyf mannys sowle myth so be savyd 4444 48 In this vision Margery successfully shares in Mary s pain As it begins it stresses Mary s compassion for Jesus but as the vision continues Margery herself steps into the primary compassionate role First she begins feel the pain Mary is feeling beside her Throughout the vision s progression she and Mary engage in dual sorrowing as Jesus suffers equally on the Cross Margery and Mary together wept and syhyd ful sor 4508 9 as Jesus was berated and sorwyd and mornyd and syhyd ful sor 4558 59 when he was pressed with nails In fact their crying together is so emblematic of this vision that the Book even explains owr Lady and sche wer alwey togedyr to se owr Lordys peynys 4519 20 Margery has such access to Mary s compassion that she is alwey on hand for it At times the text even suggests that Margery performs Mary s pain alone while Mary falls to the background Twice there are moments where 10 Mary swoons and Margery takes over as the primary pained body The first is after Mary s compassionate supplications at the start of the vision where she falls down to the grownde 4475 and remains stille as sche had ben ded 4476 While Mary lies unconscious Margery takes over her compassionate position grabbing owr Lord Jhesu Crist be the clothys falling down at hys feet herself crying and weeping ful lowed and asking Jesus in Mary s stead what she might do to lessen his pains 4476 78 Performing Mary s tears Margery is effectively speaking the language of Mary s pain The second occurs in a similar fashion when Margery sees owr Lady swownyn and fallyn down and lyn stille as sche had ben ded 4587 88 after Jesus has died In response Margery takes over as the sorrowing body running al abowte the place as she had ben a mad woman crying and roryng 4588 89 Margery not only feels the pain of compassion like Mary she feels the pain of compassion as Mary Miraculously connected Mary and Margery are speaking the same language of pain and are thus able to perform their compassion for Jesus interchangeably Interspersed with these compassionate sorrows are details and phrases that explicitly liken them to childbirth pulling Mary s displaced labor paradigm into play The Book describes Jesus in response to Mary s compassion referencing directly back to his birth as he begs his mother to accept his death He beseeches her my derworthy modyr I pray yow blissyth me and late me go do my fadrys wille for therfor I cam into this worlde and toke flesch and blood of yow 4471 72 pairing in his argument his fadrys wille which is the rebirth and the moment when he cam into this worlde of yow Compassion is thus decisively linked to the pains of labor Later when Jesus is stripped of his clothes by his aggressors the text describes him as al modyr nakyd as he was born 4513 The curious compound here perhaps the only one in the Book plainly coalesces Jesus s rebirth and physical childbirth in the image of him on the verge of death standing naked as a new born babe A second childbirth image comes soon after when Jesus who at some unclear point has been reclothed has his clothes once again ripped from him His body has already been abused so when the blood soaked wound clotting garments are torn away his skin is torn off as well The Book draws this image Than that precyows body aperyd to hir syght as rawe as a thyng that wer newe flayn owt of the skyn ful petows and rewful to beholdyn 4551 52 This perversely recalls a newly born baby Christ is rawe and newe flayn owt of the skyn much as a newborn might emerge from rent skin covered in bloody afterbirth Though it primarily engages with Mary s compassion this vision is filled with evocations of birth Following the paradigm offered in Mary s birth story childbirth pain and the pain of compassion Margery s two labowrys throughout are united Pilgrims Editor s Note from Liminal Minds Poem by Obasi Shaw How beautiful the feet that walk the trail of tears Bare soled and bloodstained on display for their peers Do you know how it feels To have your history erased Your founding fathers all convicted and evicted from their place No trace of fair trial they were all forced to plea There s even more hidden figures than America believes So I m searching for my roots cause Haley had to make his up It s tragic when we fabricating basic stuff Like I ain t got no history that ain t based in fluff Or placed in cuffs Rough And so I journey for the truth go wherever spirit call me And when it led me to the booth I picked up a new hobby Relating the fate of our greatest national crime Illustrating the weight being hated has on the mind Forever waiting in line but never fed So we subsist on our rhymes put faith in wisdom divine We raise our fist in defiance we re never dead How beautiful the feet of those who bring good news I m not a prophet nor do I profit from the word play I m simply telling tales of pilgrims fasting till the third day We re passing over Thursday no muse to invoke Just the music of my kinfolk and pivotal rhymes What if the Liminal Minds were given space to speak When would they say We re free I guess we still gotta walk Million Mile March to freedom time to let the pilgrims talk 11
Senior Thesis Excerpts Our Undergraduate Honors Program supports students who want to do ambitious scholarly, critical or ...
From To Expose and To Expel Virtuous Rudeness from More to Milton Critical Thesis by Emma Kantor Thomas More 1478 1535 had disparaged invective or abusive language in his early work of literature Utopia 1516 However as More became increasingly frustrated with his opponent Martin Luther he came to embrace the rude language that he had rejected in his earlier work In Responsio ad Lutherum 1523 More claims moral superiority over Luther and he attempts to use allegedly true virtuous rudeness to expose Luther s false virtue In Responsio ad Lutherum More focuses on the inappropriateness of Luther s aggressive rhetoric More implores his readers to dismiss Luther Judge good Christian reader whether it be possible that he be any better than a beast out of whose brutish beastly mouth commeth such a filthy foam of blasphemies Responsio ad Lutherum 135 For More Luther is the epitome of immorality in the world He is not only spouting lies and heresy but he is doing it in language that is brutish inhumane and ungodly More characterizes Luther s writing as boastful bombast 41 He further elaborates on this point reading this language as evidence that Luther has taken on the most monstrous pride the most cruel hatred the most virulent spite 77 More saw Luther s vitriolic rhetoric as reflective of his pride hatred and spite all sins in the eyes of Christian doctrine and classical rhetoric Substance and style are inseparable for More More also disparages the zeal with which Luther speaks He writes By heaven frenzy itself would have been exhausted from giving birth incessantly to so much crazy nonsense 57 More calls Luther s zealous rhetoric absurd Who would not laugh at the most wretched scoundrel blasting out such frenzied boasts 77 He calls Luther s rhetoric the words of a madman and writes that all the internal furies after knocking out the fellow s brains have taken up residence in his empty noggin in uacuo sedem sibi capite 79 More believes that Luther s internal fury his religious zeal has overtaken his rationality and has left his brain senseless This image reaffirms the dichotomy between reason and zeal that More establishes in Utopia More believes Luther s heretical zealous senseless rhetoric demands refutation More laments a 12 most vile man was falsely using the pretext of holiness and the name of Christian religion while in fact being led on by a foolish conceit 3 More tells us that Luther s rhetoric is hypocritical Luther professes to be godly but his criticism of the Church is just heresy disguised More writes that his purpose in Responsio ad Lutherum is to expos e the wretch before all the world in such a way that no mirror can give a clearer image this work enables one to perceive the execrable soul of Luther 5 More believed his own shocking language would reveal the dangerous and misleading nature of these heretical Protestant writings For More invective is a tool to expose the truth Remarkably Luther defended his own virtuous rudeness against More and his supporters in precisely the same way Luther wrote it is God s will to have the inventions of men thus laid open seeing that matters quietly handled were quickly forgot Milton 901 More and Luther use the same language of exposure and perception in their justification of invective against one another This represents a real shift for More in Utopia he had argued that emotions were the enemy He believed indignation could spoil good arguments and that truth is best served by rational discourse Here he has completely reversed his position More adopts the Protestant argument that invective is a means to truth More acknowledges this irony for his readers but he attempts to incorporate self awareness into his argument In Responsio Ad Lutherum More quotes an angry passage of Luther s and responds Come do not rage so violently good father but if you have raved wildly enough listen now you pimp As long as your reverend paternity will be determined to tell these shameless lies others will be permitted on behalf of his English majesty to throw back into your paternity s shitty mouth truly the shit pool of all shit all the muck and shit which your damnable rottenness has vomited up and to empty out all the sewers and privies onto your crown divested of the dignity of the priestly crown 311 More does not ignore the fact that he uses the same tactics he decries in Luther Instead this symmetry serves as his rationale for this language More justifies this language by saying that Luther set the tone the age old he started it argument As long as Luther rage s so violently More says he will return the favor More believes he is justified in this because he alone has the truth on his side Luther spouts lies and heresy and More argues he will throw back the same tone in service of virtue truth and his English majesty More believes Luther s rudeness is false and un virtuous while his own justly reveals Luther s hypocrisy However More knows that his argument is not hermetically sealed By condemning rudeness and using it at the same time More opens himself up for criticism To preempt this More acknowledges the corrupting danger of invective He writes I am ashamed even of this necessity that while I clean out the fellow s shitfilled mouth I see my own fingers covered with shit Responsio ad Lutherum 313 More conceives of himself as cleaning up this religious debate wiping away Luther s heretical rudeness with his own virtuous rudeness Nevertheless More admits that his own character has been tainted by his involvement in the acerbic debates He has become a fool by arguing with a fool to use the Cardinal s language from More s earlier work There is an important difference however in 1516 More had argued that religious debates could be had in rational terms Now religious debates demand invective and the consequences this necessity are unavoidable From What We Can See Fiction by Hannah Saal The ascent is the result of twirling It s a slow dance observed by a giant ball of fire miles away Spin fast spin slow twirl and rise Copernicus made his proposal about the earth and the sun in the sixteenth century Proposals do very little for the perceptions of insignificant inhabitants Spin fast spin slow twirl and fall To the insignificant the sun seems to be the dancer gliding across the sky and earth the observer standing still How wrong everything may seem The descent is the result of twirling 13
From To Expose and To Expel  Virtuous Rudeness from More to Milton Critical Thesis by Emma Kantor Thomas More  1478-1535  ...
From To Expose and To Expel Virtuous Rudeness from More to Milton Critical Thesis by Emma Kantor Thomas More 1478 1535 had disparaged invective or abusive language in his early work of literature Utopia 1516 However as More became increasingly frustrated with his opponent Martin Luther he came to embrace the rude language that he had rejected in his earlier work In Responsio ad Lutherum 1523 More claims moral superiority over Luther and he attempts to use allegedly true virtuous rudeness to expose Luther s false virtue In Responsio ad Lutherum More focuses on the inappropriateness of Luther s aggressive rhetoric More implores his readers to dismiss Luther Judge good Christian reader whether it be possible that he be any better than a beast out of whose brutish beastly mouth commeth such a filthy foam of blasphemies Responsio ad Lutherum 135 For More Luther is the epitome of immorality in the world He is not only spouting lies and heresy but he is doing it in language that is brutish inhumane and ungodly More characterizes Luther s writing as boastful bombast 41 He further elaborates on this point reading this language as evidence that Luther has taken on the most monstrous pride the most cruel hatred the most virulent spite 77 More saw Luther s vitriolic rhetoric as reflective of his pride hatred and spite all sins in the eyes of Christian doctrine and classical rhetoric Substance and style are inseparable for More More also disparages the zeal with which Luther speaks He writes By heaven frenzy itself would have been exhausted from giving birth incessantly to so much crazy nonsense 57 More calls Luther s zealous rhetoric absurd Who would not laugh at the most wretched scoundrel blasting out such frenzied boasts 77 He calls Luther s rhetoric the words of a madman and writes that all the internal furies after knocking out the fellow s brains have taken up residence in his empty noggin in uacuo sedem sibi capite 79 More believes that Luther s internal fury his religious zeal has overtaken his rationality and has left his brain senseless This image reaffirms the dichotomy between reason and zeal that More establishes in Utopia More believes Luther s heretical zealous senseless rhetoric demands refutation More laments a 12 most vile man was falsely using the pretext of holiness and the name of Christian religion while in fact being led on by a foolish conceit 3 More tells us that Luther s rhetoric is hypocritical Luther professes to be godly but his criticism of the Church is just heresy disguised More writes that his purpose in Responsio ad Lutherum is to expos e the wretch before all the world in such a way that no mirror can give a clearer image this work enables one to perceive the execrable soul of Luther 5 More believed his own shocking language would reveal the dangerous and misleading nature of these heretical Protestant writings For More invective is a tool to expose the truth Remarkably Luther defended his own virtuous rudeness against More and his supporters in precisely the same way Luther wrote it is God s will to have the inventions of men thus laid open seeing that matters quietly handled were quickly forgot Milton 901 More and Luther use the same language of exposure and perception in their justification of invective against one another This represents a real shift for More in Utopia he had argued that emotions were the enemy He believed indignation could spoil good arguments and that truth is best served by rational discourse Here he has completely reversed his position More adopts the Protestant argument that invective is a means to truth More acknowledges this irony for his readers but he attempts to incorporate self awareness into his argument In Responsio Ad Lutherum More quotes an angry passage of Luther s and responds Come do not rage so violently good father but if you have raved wildly enough listen now you pimp As long as your reverend paternity will be determined to tell these shameless lies others will be permitted on behalf of his English majesty to throw back into your paternity s shitty mouth truly the shit pool of all shit all the muck and shit which your damnable rottenness has vomited up and to empty out all the sewers and privies onto your crown divested of the dignity of the priestly crown 311 More does not ignore the fact that he uses the same tactics he decries in Luther Instead this symmetry serves as his rationale for this language More justifies this language by saying that Luther set the tone the age old he started it argument As long as Luther rage s so violently More says he will return the favor More believes he is justified in this because he alone has the truth on his side Luther spouts lies and heresy and More argues he will throw back the same tone in service of virtue truth and his English majesty More believes Luther s rudeness is false and un virtuous while his own justly reveals Luther s hypocrisy However More knows that his argument is not hermetically sealed By condemning rudeness and using it at the same time More opens himself up for criticism To preempt this More acknowledges the corrupting danger of invective He writes I am ashamed even of this necessity that while I clean out the fellow s shitfilled mouth I see my own fingers covered with shit Responsio ad Lutherum 313 More conceives of himself as cleaning up this religious debate wiping away Luther s heretical rudeness with his own virtuous rudeness Nevertheless More admits that his own character has been tainted by his involvement in the acerbic debates He has become a fool by arguing with a fool to use the Cardinal s language from More s earlier work There is an important difference however in 1516 More had argued that religious debates could be had in rational terms Now religious debates demand invective and the consequences this necessity are unavoidable From What We Can See Fiction by Hannah Saal The ascent is the result of twirling It s a slow dance observed by a giant ball of fire miles away Spin fast spin slow twirl and rise Copernicus made his proposal about the earth and the sun in the sixteenth century Proposals do very little for the perceptions of insignificant inhabitants Spin fast spin slow twirl and fall To the insignificant the sun seems to be the dancer gliding across the sky and earth the observer standing still How wrong everything may seem The descent is the result of twirling 13
From To Expose and To Expel  Virtuous Rudeness from More to Milton Critical Thesis by Emma Kantor Thomas More  1478-1535  ...
From Midwives and Women s Spirituality in Medieval England and France Critical Thesis by Miriam Huettner During the Middle Ages midwives had a unique and powerful role in medieval society as caretakers of life as well as legal negotiators There is evidence that medieval midwives came from many different backgrounds and stages of life We know of unmarried midwives of teenage midwives and of midwives in their eighties of rich midwives and of poor Wilson 30 Within this range of women however Adrian Wilson notes that the majority of midwives were probably of middling social status and of mature years and had already had children 30 In any case the role of a midwife was not an elitist one yet her influence was pronounced in what Wilson calls the ceremony of childbirth 25 30 In middle to upper class society of especially the later medieval period midwives and female attendants would create a birthing chamber for the mother four to six weeks before her due date During this time no male could enter the chamber only the women who were directly involved with the birth or close female friends of the mother There was therefore typically no male physician or male of any profession except occasionally a priest present at the birth Gibson 9 This practice created one of the only exclusively female and female dominated spaces in medieval society With high mortality rates during childbirth the midwife maintained power at this delicate transition between new life and possible death The mother the Church and society at large trusted the midwife in a very real way with the life and soul of both mother and child In fact midwives were the only professional group that was actively taught how to perform emergency infant baptisms by the Church Ryan 436 Alongside this spiritual role the midwife occupied a legislative position serving as the primary witness to the legitimacy of a child s birth before a court especially in cases of disputed noble lineage Ryan 437 Denise Ryan elucidates In her role as baptizer of newborn children in danger of dying and as monitor of sexual propriety the midwife occupied a quasi clerical as well as quasi legal status Ryan 437 Midwives were simultaneously trusted and suspected for the power they held Some men suspected and debased midwives This was in part because they were fearful of women s secrets the tips and tricks 14 of childbirth and the knowledge of the female body to which men excluded from the birthing chamber were not permitted access Ryan 435 48 The reputation of midwives for not only being witches but also proponents of debauchery existed in the fifteenth century Stephens 495 Despite this reputation the texts and images we will examine interestingly reject a negative portrayal of these women On the contrary they are more concerned with the positive spiritual aspects of midwifery Undoubtedly midwives were less important in literature and art than they were in reality Almost any woman could and might be called upon to perform the duties of a midwife or at least to help her friends in their times of labor just as they likely helped her As a social ritual the ceremony of childbirth included many women in addition to the midwife These other women were called gossips originally derived from the word god sib or god sibling a person called to be present at the birth and later witness the child s baptism Wilson 25 Therefore it was not just the woman titled midwife who was familiar with birthing practices and the birthing chamber but it was nearly every woman who lived in the Middle Ages In this essay I will examine three different examples of midwives at the Nativity In the first chapter we will consider a poem of devotion to the Virgin Mary written in the fifteenth century by the English poet John Lydgate This poem draws directly from the Nativity scene in the Golden Legend where two midwives appear after Mary has given birth incredulous at her claim of virginity They do not perform any midwifing activities per se Instead they draw attention to the physicality humanity and paradox of the virgin birth In the second chapter we will compare five pieces of art depicting midwives at the birth of Christ all dating from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries from England and France The midwives in these images clearly assist the Holy Family in some way whether they prepare a bath for Jesus or they comfort Mary The artists who have created these images are not concerned with Mary s experience of childbirth from a theological perspective namely that she would not have needed a midwife because she was without sin and therefore gave birth without pain They are interested in the human aspects of the birth creating their work to inspire devotion In the third chapter we will read Margery Kempe a fifteenth century English mystic who visualizes herself as a midwife at the birth of Christ We will consider what this act of envisioning says about medieval female devotion and spirituality I argue that this method of placing herself as a midwife at the Nativity allows her to accept the physicality of her female body enabling her to grow in her sense of self as connected to the life of Jesus By examining the why of midwives in medieval depictions of the Nativity we gain insight into women s societal roles and spirituality in the Middle Ages And in doing this we will see the Nativity from a new perspective not from a shepherd s eye not as if we were magi not even as a mother or a father but as a female servant entering the scene with all her knowledge of the female body either in incredulity or humble attendance From The Anatomy of the Soul Poetry by Jarrod Wetzel Brown Queen Pam s Lace And when my world ends because You have left among a sea of wings And milkweed dreams I will cut my Finger on the letters of your name and Watch the blood flow as my tears must To remind me of where you will always be As frost blackens the lilacs you loved so much To Love an Elm Leaf And so he held that golden Leaf and kissed it like his Mother s cheek and she put Her hand on her stomach and Remembered when the trees Were green with dreams before She loved her changing child And her husband sat down Beside the water s edge and Grabbed his son and kissed Him on his head and willow Leaves rained from their hair 15
From Midwives and Women   s Spirituality in Medieval England and France Critical Thesis by Miriam Huettner During the Midd...
From Midwives and Women s Spirituality in Medieval England and France Critical Thesis by Miriam Huettner During the Middle Ages midwives had a unique and powerful role in medieval society as caretakers of life as well as legal negotiators There is evidence that medieval midwives came from many different backgrounds and stages of life We know of unmarried midwives of teenage midwives and of midwives in their eighties of rich midwives and of poor Wilson 30 Within this range of women however Adrian Wilson notes that the majority of midwives were probably of middling social status and of mature years and had already had children 30 In any case the role of a midwife was not an elitist one yet her influence was pronounced in what Wilson calls the ceremony of childbirth 25 30 In middle to upper class society of especially the later medieval period midwives and female attendants would create a birthing chamber for the mother four to six weeks before her due date During this time no male could enter the chamber only the women who were directly involved with the birth or close female friends of the mother There was therefore typically no male physician or male of any profession except occasionally a priest present at the birth Gibson 9 This practice created one of the only exclusively female and female dominated spaces in medieval society With high mortality rates during childbirth the midwife maintained power at this delicate transition between new life and possible death The mother the Church and society at large trusted the midwife in a very real way with the life and soul of both mother and child In fact midwives were the only professional group that was actively taught how to perform emergency infant baptisms by the Church Ryan 436 Alongside this spiritual role the midwife occupied a legislative position serving as the primary witness to the legitimacy of a child s birth before a court especially in cases of disputed noble lineage Ryan 437 Denise Ryan elucidates In her role as baptizer of newborn children in danger of dying and as monitor of sexual propriety the midwife occupied a quasi clerical as well as quasi legal status Ryan 437 Midwives were simultaneously trusted and suspected for the power they held Some men suspected and debased midwives This was in part because they were fearful of women s secrets the tips and tricks 14 of childbirth and the knowledge of the female body to which men excluded from the birthing chamber were not permitted access Ryan 435 48 The reputation of midwives for not only being witches but also proponents of debauchery existed in the fifteenth century Stephens 495 Despite this reputation the texts and images we will examine interestingly reject a negative portrayal of these women On the contrary they are more concerned with the positive spiritual aspects of midwifery Undoubtedly midwives were less important in literature and art than they were in reality Almost any woman could and might be called upon to perform the duties of a midwife or at least to help her friends in their times of labor just as they likely helped her As a social ritual the ceremony of childbirth included many women in addition to the midwife These other women were called gossips originally derived from the word god sib or god sibling a person called to be present at the birth and later witness the child s baptism Wilson 25 Therefore it was not just the woman titled midwife who was familiar with birthing practices and the birthing chamber but it was nearly every woman who lived in the Middle Ages In this essay I will examine three different examples of midwives at the Nativity In the first chapter we will consider a poem of devotion to the Virgin Mary written in the fifteenth century by the English poet John Lydgate This poem draws directly from the Nativity scene in the Golden Legend where two midwives appear after Mary has given birth incredulous at her claim of virginity They do not perform any midwifing activities per se Instead they draw attention to the physicality humanity and paradox of the virgin birth In the second chapter we will compare five pieces of art depicting midwives at the birth of Christ all dating from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries from England and France The midwives in these images clearly assist the Holy Family in some way whether they prepare a bath for Jesus or they comfort Mary The artists who have created these images are not concerned with Mary s experience of childbirth from a theological perspective namely that she would not have needed a midwife because she was without sin and therefore gave birth without pain They are interested in the human aspects of the birth creating their work to inspire devotion In the third chapter we will read Margery Kempe a fifteenth century English mystic who visualizes herself as a midwife at the birth of Christ We will consider what this act of envisioning says about medieval female devotion and spirituality I argue that this method of placing herself as a midwife at the Nativity allows her to accept the physicality of her female body enabling her to grow in her sense of self as connected to the life of Jesus By examining the why of midwives in medieval depictions of the Nativity we gain insight into women s societal roles and spirituality in the Middle Ages And in doing this we will see the Nativity from a new perspective not from a shepherd s eye not as if we were magi not even as a mother or a father but as a female servant entering the scene with all her knowledge of the female body either in incredulity or humble attendance From The Anatomy of the Soul Poetry by Jarrod Wetzel Brown Queen Pam s Lace And when my world ends because You have left among a sea of wings And milkweed dreams I will cut my Finger on the letters of your name and Watch the blood flow as my tears must To remind me of where you will always be As frost blackens the lilacs you loved so much To Love an Elm Leaf And so he held that golden Leaf and kissed it like his Mother s cheek and she put Her hand on her stomach and Remembered when the trees Were green with dreams before She loved her changing child And her husband sat down Beside the water s edge and Grabbed his son and kissed Him on his head and willow Leaves rained from their hair 15
From Midwives and Women   s Spirituality in Medieval England and France Critical Thesis by Miriam Huettner During the Midd...
If the Pacific Gets in Our Way Three Words I For W B I Wish For You Please know that I ll carve a boat with these Two arms a photograph and Some string Have always hated Rum but I Did not believe That I could Ever loathe you The goddess wearing Her bindi and Gushing multitudes and Unknown universes for Me to wade Through half blind By choice and Holding my breath To ward off My worries We Used to hold Each other like The stars do Dark matter and The cosmos you Drank in that Dank little bar On JFK always Spilled onto your Dress and MaryJane shoes the Ones with the Sunflowers on them And I recall You saying I Love you more Than once while Cigarettes burned on In the darkness When the fleeting rot Is finally gone and its residue Baked into the desk I shall see A woman standing there on Mount Meru away from time Until my quill flies a barb made Free through her chest and Back to the back to the downy Skin of that swan that bled upon the water In the night when blankets Aren t warm enough and In the day when the curtains Always seem closed And I miss your eyes Brilliant blue divine Like you and the supple Ribbons in your cheeks when You smile even as a man I yearn to be held by You knowing how tender Your embrace has been Since I was a boy and The world is just as frightening As it was back then and I Cannot do this without you And on this plane my heart Falls to the Earth to be with yours Why has life abandoned us I ll buy a bus that floats on Water and washes away The sands of time in hourglasses And I ll slip a penny in between The treads for luck And I ll wear the sweater You bought me with Sleeves too short to hide The tattoo I got for you And I ll ask the moon to Let me borrow her map And she ll say I won t need It and I won t because you ll Be glittering and glowing as you Always have and I ll find my way Back to you with wet feet 16 And let us be Swift and sure When watching the golden bird Sing itself hoarse and we curse Ourselves when speaking Of mummies burning in boats and Avalanches or of beauties made halfAlive with toils from years not long enough In being denounced dethroned deboned I melt among the reeds and their hollow Thoughts and the ink bleeds upon the water And the dull eyed murder the Doe eyed and the dancers Ankles confess their love below Two broken knees and I ll bleed Upon the water beneath the Mountains I have painted and The words I never believed To the One Who Houses Half My Soul Water the monkeyfaces and dry your eyes Buy Band Aids and don t forget the Tea again Please put the plastic on the windows It is so cold this time of year Aubade Haiku It is you and me Against this hazy world Always forever You loved honeybees And I adored white roses And the pollen fell In sheets of sunbeams Where the mist fled fading low Beneath our damp shoes To cover the ground In frost and fireflies I Did not know their light But I had you and I was blessed and comforted To hear your voice there 17
If the Pacific Gets in Our Way  Three Words I  For W.B.  I Wish  For  You,  Please know that I   ll carve a boat with thes...
If the Pacific Gets in Our Way Three Words I For W B I Wish For You Please know that I ll carve a boat with these Two arms a photograph and Some string Have always hated Rum but I Did not believe That I could Ever loathe you The goddess wearing Her bindi and Gushing multitudes and Unknown universes for Me to wade Through half blind By choice and Holding my breath To ward off My worries We Used to hold Each other like The stars do Dark matter and The cosmos you Drank in that Dank little bar On JFK always Spilled onto your Dress and MaryJane shoes the Ones with the Sunflowers on them And I recall You saying I Love you more Than once while Cigarettes burned on In the darkness When the fleeting rot Is finally gone and its residue Baked into the desk I shall see A woman standing there on Mount Meru away from time Until my quill flies a barb made Free through her chest and Back to the back to the downy Skin of that swan that bled upon the water In the night when blankets Aren t warm enough and In the day when the curtains Always seem closed And I miss your eyes Brilliant blue divine Like you and the supple Ribbons in your cheeks when You smile even as a man I yearn to be held by You knowing how tender Your embrace has been Since I was a boy and The world is just as frightening As it was back then and I Cannot do this without you And on this plane my heart Falls to the Earth to be with yours Why has life abandoned us I ll buy a bus that floats on Water and washes away The sands of time in hourglasses And I ll slip a penny in between The treads for luck And I ll wear the sweater You bought me with Sleeves too short to hide The tattoo I got for you And I ll ask the moon to Let me borrow her map And she ll say I won t need It and I won t because you ll Be glittering and glowing as you Always have and I ll find my way Back to you with wet feet 16 And let us be Swift and sure When watching the golden bird Sing itself hoarse and we curse Ourselves when speaking Of mummies burning in boats and Avalanches or of beauties made halfAlive with toils from years not long enough In being denounced dethroned deboned I melt among the reeds and their hollow Thoughts and the ink bleeds upon the water And the dull eyed murder the Doe eyed and the dancers Ankles confess their love below Two broken knees and I ll bleed Upon the water beneath the Mountains I have painted and The words I never believed To the One Who Houses Half My Soul Water the monkeyfaces and dry your eyes Buy Band Aids and don t forget the Tea again Please put the plastic on the windows It is so cold this time of year Aubade Haiku It is you and me Against this hazy world Always forever You loved honeybees And I adored white roses And the pollen fell In sheets of sunbeams Where the mist fled fading low Beneath our damp shoes To cover the ground In frost and fireflies I Did not know their light But I had you and I was blessed and comforted To hear your voice there 17
If the Pacific Gets in Our Way  Three Words I  For W.B.  I Wish  For  You,  Please know that I   ll carve a boat with thes...
On the Ordering of Poems And the fragility of things Of dry things dense things And things more foul than a Door shutting loudly and the Doors all look old and their Hinges creak and the windows On either side sigh and moan cry And weep they crack like jade earrings And my earlobes are attached tied To me laced with soft flesh and ribbons Flower and roll down your shoulders like Wet hair wet leaves wet streets and hands So many hands with bent thumbs and broken Palms with life lines too short and love letters Pressed in them and the text this verse the School talk that banter those speeches made in Anger sit beside your nightstand hoping you ll Hear them echo as you turn off the lamp The lights go out the stars leave and the moon Eclipses like tired eyelids irises at night Eyesores and swollen tear ducts and the swans Swim past taped up memory books scrapbooks Books with addresses diaries drawings we made As kids and I am pacing through the pages and up The stairs down through mazes why must I care About any of this when my world my sphere my Heart is being quartered by white horses driving Chevies and they re honking braying praying it will be Over soon and that the silent movie s fin will swim past My lips like a breath made of emerald shiners and Petoskey stones pebbles pieces of earth packed with lives Past footprints spent footfalls wasted days moment made to Die in dust we fragment I lose an arm there goes her Leg he sold his lungs my brain rots and these words fester Age like cheap wine or good extract good autopsies Turvies turned arounds and forgotten phrases like I love you I need you and please don t leave 18 Kona Hawaii from Postcards from Home Creative Nonfiction Thesis by Lena Felton The maroon and black pick up trucks go whoosh as they speed along Kealakekua s main road Dogs bark and frogs chirp ko kee into the night and roosters crow at dawn The smells like the sounds are relentless You can smell everything the dogs and the dewy plants and the heat Together they create the thick island air which is bodily and ripe The sky and the sea melt together to create an endless uncertain backdrop at the faraway horizon the island s beaches belong to a different world You can see the outline of the volcano Mauna Loa a sloping brown mass from the main road but getting there would take hours Kilauea is a 32 mile drive in the opposite direction There are too the random cafes the tracts of decrepit coffee land the hospital the main stoplight and the McDonald s But there is not much else because Kealakekua Kona is a very small place Still life is abundant it makes you feel rich Some quiet kind of magic runs down that mile long stretch of road something ancient something sacred something as extraordinary as the lava and the legends and the land itself We visited Hawaii every summer when I was a child but they were not vacations in the traditional sense We spent most of our time visiting Grandma up mauka in the hills instead of down on the coast where virtually all the tourists stay My parents knew there was not much for us to do in Kealakekua so they would drive us to Kona s popular beaches during the day where my brother Peter and I would snorkel and kayak and bob in the silk sea for hours We liked to spend time in Kailua the second largest town on the Big Island where we d eat heaping mounds of rainbow shaved ice and go out to nice dinners We d sit at tables right on the water where we could watch the sherbert colored Kona sunset For many years I did not particularly enjoy going back to Grandma s at the end of a long day in paradise The TV with its grainy reception never got the channels I wanted and my brother once woke up to a cockroach bite in the middle of the night It was a small house and the living room was carpeted in orange shag and the graying curtains on the windows had been eaten away at their edges by moths or maybe just by time My grandmother reused McDonald s styrofoam coffee cups for everything to drink out of to place flowers from her garden into The driveway buzzed with mosquitoes and smelled like the dogs next door Some years my parents would book a few nights at one of the resort hotels up along the Kohala coast Those felt like vacations we could walk to the beach from our rooms and swim in large infinity pools and eat sprawling breakfasts from a buffet not papayas from Grandma s garden My grandmother enjoyed these excursions too She loved getting massages at the spa and dipping her feet into the hot tubs things she would never have dreamed of as a child because resorts didn t even exist on the Big Island then One year my dad wondered aloud why we didn t spend all our time in Hawaii at the resorts We all knew it was because my mother had obligations when she was home Unlike her mother she had not moved back to Kealakekua Her parents had worked hard so that she could attend a private high school on Oahu and then college on the distant mainland She lived in New York City for several years moved to California and was throughout it all fully immersed in mainland life a fast life a tiring life a life of eventual luxury No one would guess she was a local girl from Kealakekua So when she did visit the island there were the many aunties and uncles and old friends to see there was the house to help clean We d occasionally go to the Hongwanji to visit my great grandparents graves or to see a Sunday service Of course we visited the coffee land my grandmother grew up on two of her brothers still lived there and ran the farm I did enjoy certain aspects of Kealakekua and of Grandma s house the chatter of the birds in the morning the way the days unfolded like slow waves At dinnertime my grandmother would give me a scoop of white rice to place next to the shrine for my late grandfather She taught me how to press my hands together with beads to pray Namu amida butsu I would whisper bowing my head and secretly enjoying the foreign weightiness of those words in my mouth And she would cook me my favorite Japanese dish kinako mochi fried pounded rice balls smothered in a mixture of bean powder and sugar every time I visited The edges were crispy and sweet the innards chewy I savored how the goo stuck to my teeth afterwards the musky bean taste that lingered in my mouth 19
On the Ordering of Poems And the fragility of things, Of dry things, dense things, And things more foul than a Door shutti...
On the Ordering of Poems And the fragility of things Of dry things dense things And things more foul than a Door shutting loudly and the Doors all look old and their Hinges creak and the windows On either side sigh and moan cry And weep they crack like jade earrings And my earlobes are attached tied To me laced with soft flesh and ribbons Flower and roll down your shoulders like Wet hair wet leaves wet streets and hands So many hands with bent thumbs and broken Palms with life lines too short and love letters Pressed in them and the text this verse the School talk that banter those speeches made in Anger sit beside your nightstand hoping you ll Hear them echo as you turn off the lamp The lights go out the stars leave and the moon Eclipses like tired eyelids irises at night Eyesores and swollen tear ducts and the swans Swim past taped up memory books scrapbooks Books with addresses diaries drawings we made As kids and I am pacing through the pages and up The stairs down through mazes why must I care About any of this when my world my sphere my Heart is being quartered by white horses driving Chevies and they re honking braying praying it will be Over soon and that the silent movie s fin will swim past My lips like a breath made of emerald shiners and Petoskey stones pebbles pieces of earth packed with lives Past footprints spent footfalls wasted days moment made to Die in dust we fragment I lose an arm there goes her Leg he sold his lungs my brain rots and these words fester Age like cheap wine or good extract good autopsies Turvies turned arounds and forgotten phrases like I love you I need you and please don t leave 18 Kona Hawaii from Postcards from Home Creative Nonfiction Thesis by Lena Felton The maroon and black pick up trucks go whoosh as they speed along Kealakekua s main road Dogs bark and frogs chirp ko kee into the night and roosters crow at dawn The smells like the sounds are relentless You can smell everything the dogs and the dewy plants and the heat Together they create the thick island air which is bodily and ripe The sky and the sea melt together to create an endless uncertain backdrop at the faraway horizon the island s beaches belong to a different world You can see the outline of the volcano Mauna Loa a sloping brown mass from the main road but getting there would take hours Kilauea is a 32 mile drive in the opposite direction There are too the random cafes the tracts of decrepit coffee land the hospital the main stoplight and the McDonald s But there is not much else because Kealakekua Kona is a very small place Still life is abundant it makes you feel rich Some quiet kind of magic runs down that mile long stretch of road something ancient something sacred something as extraordinary as the lava and the legends and the land itself We visited Hawaii every summer when I was a child but they were not vacations in the traditional sense We spent most of our time visiting Grandma up mauka in the hills instead of down on the coast where virtually all the tourists stay My parents knew there was not much for us to do in Kealakekua so they would drive us to Kona s popular beaches during the day where my brother Peter and I would snorkel and kayak and bob in the silk sea for hours We liked to spend time in Kailua the second largest town on the Big Island where we d eat heaping mounds of rainbow shaved ice and go out to nice dinners We d sit at tables right on the water where we could watch the sherbert colored Kona sunset For many years I did not particularly enjoy going back to Grandma s at the end of a long day in paradise The TV with its grainy reception never got the channels I wanted and my brother once woke up to a cockroach bite in the middle of the night It was a small house and the living room was carpeted in orange shag and the graying curtains on the windows had been eaten away at their edges by moths or maybe just by time My grandmother reused McDonald s styrofoam coffee cups for everything to drink out of to place flowers from her garden into The driveway buzzed with mosquitoes and smelled like the dogs next door Some years my parents would book a few nights at one of the resort hotels up along the Kohala coast Those felt like vacations we could walk to the beach from our rooms and swim in large infinity pools and eat sprawling breakfasts from a buffet not papayas from Grandma s garden My grandmother enjoyed these excursions too She loved getting massages at the spa and dipping her feet into the hot tubs things she would never have dreamed of as a child because resorts didn t even exist on the Big Island then One year my dad wondered aloud why we didn t spend all our time in Hawaii at the resorts We all knew it was because my mother had obligations when she was home Unlike her mother she had not moved back to Kealakekua Her parents had worked hard so that she could attend a private high school on Oahu and then college on the distant mainland She lived in New York City for several years moved to California and was throughout it all fully immersed in mainland life a fast life a tiring life a life of eventual luxury No one would guess she was a local girl from Kealakekua So when she did visit the island there were the many aunties and uncles and old friends to see there was the house to help clean We d occasionally go to the Hongwanji to visit my great grandparents graves or to see a Sunday service Of course we visited the coffee land my grandmother grew up on two of her brothers still lived there and ran the farm I did enjoy certain aspects of Kealakekua and of Grandma s house the chatter of the birds in the morning the way the days unfolded like slow waves At dinnertime my grandmother would give me a scoop of white rice to place next to the shrine for my late grandfather She taught me how to press my hands together with beads to pray Namu amida butsu I would whisper bowing my head and secretly enjoying the foreign weightiness of those words in my mouth And she would cook me my favorite Japanese dish kinako mochi fried pounded rice balls smothered in a mixture of bean powder and sugar every time I visited The edges were crispy and sweet the innards chewy I savored how the goo stuck to my teeth afterwards the musky bean taste that lingered in my mouth 19
On the Ordering of Poems And the fragility of things, Of dry things, dense things, And things more foul than a Door shutti...
My mother and father would sleep in the bedroom that my mother had shared with her sister growing up My brother slept in the next smaller room over and I shared a bed with my grandmother We would all fall asleep to the chorus of chirping frogs and buzzing bugs and the occasional whoosh of the cars on the main road I still sleep next to my grandmother when I stay in Kealakekua She ll reach for my hand before we fall asleep and croak I love you Lena always too loudly because by then she s already taken out her hearing aids From She Fiction by Kathryn Gundersen Axel and I are assigned to search Zone Four at the far western side of the city behind the hills and set on a grid of perfectly crisscrossing streets The buildings here or what s left of them are short like New Eden s not like the towering ones distant in the eastern part of Southtown But although New Eden s structures are often a strange patchwork of different materials they re all well cared for If something breaks in our city builders will quickly be there to fix it Here things have broken roofs have collapsed walls have caved in and fires have started and it s been far too long since any people were alive here to put the scattered pieces back together I do my best to keep up with Axel though he moves fast quick on his feet and with endless stamina like the scavenger he is Sometimes we slow and he prowls around peering into the dust on the ground to search for footprints or poking around in overgrown bushes to look for any trash that appears recently discarded I mirror his movements and keep my head on a swivel alert though much of my attention is devoted to processing my new surroundings As we make our way westward we soon pass a house that s more intact than the others with walls and a roof that are mostly in one piece The door is missing and the windows have shattered but it would still make 20 a sound hiding place if someone were so inclined Hey Axel I hiss at a whisper even though there are surely no other people for miles It s the only volume that seems to suit this eerie empty place Can we check inside this one Someone may have used it as shelter He furrows his brow and nods Worth a shot As soon as we cross the threshold I shiver I ve never been in a house that isn t lived in in New Eden every place is occupied fresh with traces of lives lived by mothers and their daughters There s a certain warmth in the air they breathe in the space they take up a reassurance that the physical rooms they walk are alive with them This house here in Southtown is as dead as its former occupants Gray silent tree branches snake in through the empty windows and thick dust coats every surface Nearly all of the furniture is gone looted either by our own scavengers or by the mysterious people we seek But Axel s face doesn t mimic my discomfort Instead he looks excited eager and I wonder if the strangeness of raiding an abandoned home wears off when you ve done it for so many years of your life Let me show you what we d do if we were scavenging he says and beckons me to follow him He moves to the back of the house and into a room that was clearly once the kitchen The counters and cabinets are still there but there s an empty space where the refrigerator would ve been I know we d probably taken that for our own sometime long before Every appliance in a New Eden kitchen is refurbished snatched from before era homes and fixed up by tinkers to function on our power networks Always start in the kitchen cause we look for food first Axel explains pulling open some of the cabinets I cough as clouds of dust and dirt puff out at us and they clear to reveal nothing but emptiness This place is picked clean but you d be surprised how many others still got cans and stuff We explore the rest of the first floor before heading upstairs which is a precarious venture since some of the steps have splintered off and caved in Axel explains a scavenger s process on the way and I keep my eyes peeled for any signs of recent inhabitance but with little luck With every room we search I get the sense that this place hasn t been touched since it was last scavenged The last room we check is a small one in the corner of the uppermost floor the door so unassuming we almost miss it We push it open to reveal a room its stagnant air thick with dust A closer inspection reveals some objects I recognize things that weren t taken by scavengers The little body of a doll missing its head A plastic rattle the handle inexplicably melted Over underneath the window a pile of wood so distinctly shaped that I can see it was once a child s crib I reach over to brush my hands across the wall clearing away some dust and uncover a mural Its once bright colors are now dull and peeled but the scene is unmistakable animals all different sorts with big soft eyes and fur painted with such detail it appears to have texture I turn to look at Axel my face ashen It was a nursery He doesn t respond instead standing quietly in the doorway face expressionless I wonder what he d even know of a room like this infant scraps are raised in a huge communal baby center by nameless caregivers sleeping in impersonal wooden boxes propped on tables and playing with only a few toys that are passed from scrap to scrap before any can develop an attachment He wouldn t know the comfort of a private nursery where a little girl spends the earliest years of her life sleeping and playing and giggling under the watchful adoring gaze of her mother He wouldn t know those memories I suddenly realize I can t talk to him about this place about how it makes me feel Let s go I say quickly closing my eyes to stop my brain from rewinding to a time when a child would ve lived in this room There s nothing here for us 21
My mother and father would sleep in the bedroom that my mother had shared with her sister growing up. My brother slept in ...
My mother and father would sleep in the bedroom that my mother had shared with her sister growing up My brother slept in the next smaller room over and I shared a bed with my grandmother We would all fall asleep to the chorus of chirping frogs and buzzing bugs and the occasional whoosh of the cars on the main road I still sleep next to my grandmother when I stay in Kealakekua She ll reach for my hand before we fall asleep and croak I love you Lena always too loudly because by then she s already taken out her hearing aids From She Fiction by Kathryn Gundersen Axel and I are assigned to search Zone Four at the far western side of the city behind the hills and set on a grid of perfectly crisscrossing streets The buildings here or what s left of them are short like New Eden s not like the towering ones distant in the eastern part of Southtown But although New Eden s structures are often a strange patchwork of different materials they re all well cared for If something breaks in our city builders will quickly be there to fix it Here things have broken roofs have collapsed walls have caved in and fires have started and it s been far too long since any people were alive here to put the scattered pieces back together I do my best to keep up with Axel though he moves fast quick on his feet and with endless stamina like the scavenger he is Sometimes we slow and he prowls around peering into the dust on the ground to search for footprints or poking around in overgrown bushes to look for any trash that appears recently discarded I mirror his movements and keep my head on a swivel alert though much of my attention is devoted to processing my new surroundings As we make our way westward we soon pass a house that s more intact than the others with walls and a roof that are mostly in one piece The door is missing and the windows have shattered but it would still make 20 a sound hiding place if someone were so inclined Hey Axel I hiss at a whisper even though there are surely no other people for miles It s the only volume that seems to suit this eerie empty place Can we check inside this one Someone may have used it as shelter He furrows his brow and nods Worth a shot As soon as we cross the threshold I shiver I ve never been in a house that isn t lived in in New Eden every place is occupied fresh with traces of lives lived by mothers and their daughters There s a certain warmth in the air they breathe in the space they take up a reassurance that the physical rooms they walk are alive with them This house here in Southtown is as dead as its former occupants Gray silent tree branches snake in through the empty windows and thick dust coats every surface Nearly all of the furniture is gone looted either by our own scavengers or by the mysterious people we seek But Axel s face doesn t mimic my discomfort Instead he looks excited eager and I wonder if the strangeness of raiding an abandoned home wears off when you ve done it for so many years of your life Let me show you what we d do if we were scavenging he says and beckons me to follow him He moves to the back of the house and into a room that was clearly once the kitchen The counters and cabinets are still there but there s an empty space where the refrigerator would ve been I know we d probably taken that for our own sometime long before Every appliance in a New Eden kitchen is refurbished snatched from before era homes and fixed up by tinkers to function on our power networks Always start in the kitchen cause we look for food first Axel explains pulling open some of the cabinets I cough as clouds of dust and dirt puff out at us and they clear to reveal nothing but emptiness This place is picked clean but you d be surprised how many others still got cans and stuff We explore the rest of the first floor before heading upstairs which is a precarious venture since some of the steps have splintered off and caved in Axel explains a scavenger s process on the way and I keep my eyes peeled for any signs of recent inhabitance but with little luck With every room we search I get the sense that this place hasn t been touched since it was last scavenged The last room we check is a small one in the corner of the uppermost floor the door so unassuming we almost miss it We push it open to reveal a room its stagnant air thick with dust A closer inspection reveals some objects I recognize things that weren t taken by scavengers The little body of a doll missing its head A plastic rattle the handle inexplicably melted Over underneath the window a pile of wood so distinctly shaped that I can see it was once a child s crib I reach over to brush my hands across the wall clearing away some dust and uncover a mural Its once bright colors are now dull and peeled but the scene is unmistakable animals all different sorts with big soft eyes and fur painted with such detail it appears to have texture I turn to look at Axel my face ashen It was a nursery He doesn t respond instead standing quietly in the doorway face expressionless I wonder what he d even know of a room like this infant scraps are raised in a huge communal baby center by nameless caregivers sleeping in impersonal wooden boxes propped on tables and playing with only a few toys that are passed from scrap to scrap before any can develop an attachment He wouldn t know the comfort of a private nursery where a little girl spends the earliest years of her life sleeping and playing and giggling under the watchful adoring gaze of her mother He wouldn t know those memories I suddenly realize I can t talk to him about this place about how it makes me feel Let s go I say quickly closing my eyes to stop my brain from rewinding to a time when a child would ve lived in this room There s nothing here for us 21
My mother and father would sleep in the bedroom that my mother had shared with her sister growing up. My brother slept in ...
Introduction from Whilte Palaces and Blue Paint The Phenomenology of Color and Time in Fitzgerald and Woolf Critical Thesis by Catherine Qin Color and Time in the Modern Mind In 1897 in his Preface to The Nigger of the Narcissus Joseph Conrad famously wrote My task which I am trying to achieve is before all to make you see 14 emphasis original The aim of his sensory approach to prose was two fold To snatch in a moment of courage from the remorseless rush of time a passing phase of life was the first step of his grand task but the higher goal of his literary project was to hold up unquestioningly the rescued fragment before all eyes in the light of a sincere mood 14 By show ing its vibration its colour its form Conrad believed that the writer could reveal the substance of each moment s truth 14 5 Through language aspiring to the plasticity of sculpture and the colour of painting he hoped to awaken in his readers a feeling of solidarity in mysterious origin which binds men to each other and all mankind to the visible world 14 5 With its emphasis on both the challenge of time and the force of color in the writer s moral endeavor the sensory based philosophy that Conrad laid out in his Preface would become a hallmark of literary Modernism Both a product and catalyst of fin de si cle changes in visual culture his example would usher in a new generation of hyper perceptual writers who in an increasingly time conscious era Levenson 197 turned to color as a means of navigating the problems of time It was out of this contemporary ethos that the two Modernists who form the central subjects of this study F Scott Fitzgerald and Virginia Woolf arose While belonging to vastly different artistic geographic and social worlds Fitzgerald and Woolf both represent offshoots of Conrad s early appeal to vision each a pioneer of using color as a phenomenological device through which to reimagine the representation and experience of narrative time As only the second joint study of Fitzgerald and Woolf to my knowledge1 this thesis will examine the different ways in which these Modernists took a perceptual phenomenon and turned it into a formal tool with which to redirect the remorseless rush of time While countless scholars have written separately about Fitzgerald or Woolf positioning themselves strictly within either the theoretical field of color or time none have until this point examined in a sustained fashion the juncture of the two phenomena in either of these writers novels My investigation aims to fill this critical gap Drawing upon the substantial but distinct bodies of literature on color and time respectively in Fitzgerald and Woolf I will consider the powerful yet heretofore unrecognized connection between our perception of color and our experience of temporality in two of these writers most representative and celebrated works In tracing the temporal trajectories and relational interactions of the major hues of The Great Gatsby 1925 and To the Lighthouse 1927 I hope to show how their authors reinvented verbal color taking it from the plane of pure description to the realm of metatextual meaning In the chapters that follow I argue that while both writers use color as a fundamental mediator of temporal experience their approach is differentiated by the directionality of their effects on time I begin in Chapter One by showing how Fitzgerald creates a semblance of backward temporal continuity in The Great Gatsby with a recursive current of symbolic color then in Chapter Two I discuss Woolf s facilitation of a forward continuity in To the Lighthouse that preserves a collection of memories across individual and generational boundaries Although color manifests itself in different forms and in the service of different ends in each novel Fitzgerald and Woolf share their unique fusion of the sensation of color with the experience of time From Like Cold Butter The Sublime and the Free Body in The Prelude Sula and Beloved Critical Thesis by Claire Benoit In his chapter in The Aesthetics of Toni Morrison Marc C Conner argues that Beloved demonstrates a progression in Toni Morrison s aesthetics from the sublime to the beautiful and that the novel s conclusion is antisublime the individual self is restored the individual is reconciled with the community the community itself is regenerated and the concluding tone is one of peace hope survival and love 1 Beloved s near ending is like the sublime ending Conner grants Morrison s earlier novels Milkman leaps towards transcendence at the end of Song of Solomon 2 and in Beloved s near end Sethe leaps too She flies 3 But two chapters follow Sethe s leap and ultimately Beloved concludes by consigning the sublime figure to oblivion 4 Conner points to a passage in the novel s final chapter By and by all trace is gone and what is forgotten is not only the footprints but the water too and what it is down there 5 Not only what walked out of the water but the breach Through which the homeless voice of waters rose too and what the closed place in the water closed over all forgotten Beloved s characters forget the waters that bore them When Sethe crawls into Baby Suggs s bed Paul D is reminded of something of Baby Suggs but maybe also of Sula and determines to get her out 6 Beloved s characters do not crawl back into the womb that bore them Nor do they aspire to reach into an invisible world where the bodily senses are mere food for the 1 Marc C Conner From the Sublime to the Beautiful The Aesthetic Progression of Toni Morrison in The Aesthetics of Toni Morrison ed Marc C Conner Jackson University Press of Mississippi 2000 71 1 The first being Alexander Fobes s 2013 essay F Scott Fitzgerald Virginia Woolf and the Watch for Spots of Time which discusses the similar Paterian treatment of time and the epiphanic moment in The Great Gatsby and To the Lighthouse 2 Ibid 72 Morrison Song of Solomon New York Vintage International 2004 337 3 Morrison Beloved 309 4 Conner From the Sublime to the Beautiful 72 5 Morrison Beloved 324 6 Ibid 320 22 23
   Introduction    from Whilte Palaces and Blue Paint  The Phenomenology of Color and Time in Fitzgerald and Woolf Critica...
Introduction from Whilte Palaces and Blue Paint The Phenomenology of Color and Time in Fitzgerald and Woolf Critical Thesis by Catherine Qin Color and Time in the Modern Mind In 1897 in his Preface to The Nigger of the Narcissus Joseph Conrad famously wrote My task which I am trying to achieve is before all to make you see 14 emphasis original The aim of his sensory approach to prose was two fold To snatch in a moment of courage from the remorseless rush of time a passing phase of life was the first step of his grand task but the higher goal of his literary project was to hold up unquestioningly the rescued fragment before all eyes in the light of a sincere mood 14 By show ing its vibration its colour its form Conrad believed that the writer could reveal the substance of each moment s truth 14 5 Through language aspiring to the plasticity of sculpture and the colour of painting he hoped to awaken in his readers a feeling of solidarity in mysterious origin which binds men to each other and all mankind to the visible world 14 5 With its emphasis on both the challenge of time and the force of color in the writer s moral endeavor the sensory based philosophy that Conrad laid out in his Preface would become a hallmark of literary Modernism Both a product and catalyst of fin de si cle changes in visual culture his example would usher in a new generation of hyper perceptual writers who in an increasingly time conscious era Levenson 197 turned to color as a means of navigating the problems of time It was out of this contemporary ethos that the two Modernists who form the central subjects of this study F Scott Fitzgerald and Virginia Woolf arose While belonging to vastly different artistic geographic and social worlds Fitzgerald and Woolf both represent offshoots of Conrad s early appeal to vision each a pioneer of using color as a phenomenological device through which to reimagine the representation and experience of narrative time As only the second joint study of Fitzgerald and Woolf to my knowledge1 this thesis will examine the different ways in which these Modernists took a perceptual phenomenon and turned it into a formal tool with which to redirect the remorseless rush of time While countless scholars have written separately about Fitzgerald or Woolf positioning themselves strictly within either the theoretical field of color or time none have until this point examined in a sustained fashion the juncture of the two phenomena in either of these writers novels My investigation aims to fill this critical gap Drawing upon the substantial but distinct bodies of literature on color and time respectively in Fitzgerald and Woolf I will consider the powerful yet heretofore unrecognized connection between our perception of color and our experience of temporality in two of these writers most representative and celebrated works In tracing the temporal trajectories and relational interactions of the major hues of The Great Gatsby 1925 and To the Lighthouse 1927 I hope to show how their authors reinvented verbal color taking it from the plane of pure description to the realm of metatextual meaning In the chapters that follow I argue that while both writers use color as a fundamental mediator of temporal experience their approach is differentiated by the directionality of their effects on time I begin in Chapter One by showing how Fitzgerald creates a semblance of backward temporal continuity in The Great Gatsby with a recursive current of symbolic color then in Chapter Two I discuss Woolf s facilitation of a forward continuity in To the Lighthouse that preserves a collection of memories across individual and generational boundaries Although color manifests itself in different forms and in the service of different ends in each novel Fitzgerald and Woolf share their unique fusion of the sensation of color with the experience of time From Like Cold Butter The Sublime and the Free Body in The Prelude Sula and Beloved Critical Thesis by Claire Benoit In his chapter in The Aesthetics of Toni Morrison Marc C Conner argues that Beloved demonstrates a progression in Toni Morrison s aesthetics from the sublime to the beautiful and that the novel s conclusion is antisublime the individual self is restored the individual is reconciled with the community the community itself is regenerated and the concluding tone is one of peace hope survival and love 1 Beloved s near ending is like the sublime ending Conner grants Morrison s earlier novels Milkman leaps towards transcendence at the end of Song of Solomon 2 and in Beloved s near end Sethe leaps too She flies 3 But two chapters follow Sethe s leap and ultimately Beloved concludes by consigning the sublime figure to oblivion 4 Conner points to a passage in the novel s final chapter By and by all trace is gone and what is forgotten is not only the footprints but the water too and what it is down there 5 Not only what walked out of the water but the breach Through which the homeless voice of waters rose too and what the closed place in the water closed over all forgotten Beloved s characters forget the waters that bore them When Sethe crawls into Baby Suggs s bed Paul D is reminded of something of Baby Suggs but maybe also of Sula and determines to get her out 6 Beloved s characters do not crawl back into the womb that bore them Nor do they aspire to reach into an invisible world where the bodily senses are mere food for the 1 Marc C Conner From the Sublime to the Beautiful The Aesthetic Progression of Toni Morrison in The Aesthetics of Toni Morrison ed Marc C Conner Jackson University Press of Mississippi 2000 71 1 The first being Alexander Fobes s 2013 essay F Scott Fitzgerald Virginia Woolf and the Watch for Spots of Time which discusses the similar Paterian treatment of time and the epiphanic moment in The Great Gatsby and To the Lighthouse 2 Ibid 72 Morrison Song of Solomon New York Vintage International 2004 337 3 Morrison Beloved 309 4 Conner From the Sublime to the Beautiful 72 5 Morrison Beloved 324 6 Ibid 320 22 23
   Introduction    from Whilte Palaces and Blue Paint  The Phenomenology of Color and Time in Fitzgerald and Woolf Critica...
spirit Sethe and Paul D s bodies surpass the body s supposed limits and Sethe and Paul D hold communion not with the incarnation of the invisible world but with each other each other s bodies here now in the visible world The women s voices or maybe Sethe s changed act send the invisible back to its invisible place and the narrator moves into the present tense 7 Though Paul D says to Sethe We need some kind of tomorrow 8 though Paul D looks towards the future and intends for their stories his story next to hers 9 to continue into the future Sethe s best thing is neither gone nor anticipated It is here now hers her black and indisputably present You your best thing Sethe You are emphasis added 10 His holding fingers are holding hers 11 The reader can easily imagine the sentence flipped Her holding fingers are holding his The chiasmus implies that her fingers are holding fingers too Paul D takes her hand but does not claim it The chiasmus also holds the two characters in a balance distinct and even his fingers are his and hers are hers His story is his and hers is hers side by side without claiming the other s space Sethe and Paul D are each a physical space occupying body their courteous fingers each holding the other s actively holding communion with each other a body seeing touching and feeling another body and still each a body of his or her own 12 She left him his manhood 13 when she does not look at the scar that would make his body seem collared and possessed by another he knows that she is a thing a body that this is her best thing and that 7 From the narration of the women who see that Beloved s smile was dazzling to the narration of what follows Sethe feels her eyes and Beloved is smiling emphases added The present tense persists in the last two chapters Ibid 308 309 8 Ibid 322 9 Ibid 10 Ibid 11 Ibid 12 I have discussed this scene in a previous essay which considered freedom in Beloved and in William Faulkner s Absolom Absolom I wrote of Paul D and Sethe They are each their own free beings distinct though intimate free though tangible intangible though held And Now We re Going to Talk about Freedom Essay Harvard College Spring 2016 10 In that essay I was most interested in the last of these three subordinate clauses In this thesis I am interested in the first two 13 Morrison Beloved 322 24 it is her own They recognize the power the manhood and best ness of one another and they help each other recognize their own They are powerful because they alone lay claim to their powerful bodies they are free because their bodies are free of any claim but their own They are free when they hold communion with other bodies they are free when they love each other Embracing society relishing in their senses these bodies are free and individual but perhaps not so sublime This is not a story to pass on 14 As critics have noted pass on has a double meaning this is not a story to transmit and this is not a story to overlook 15 The characters may forget Beloved but the novel does not and as it states what has been forgotten it remembers and reminds its readers of the water and the chasm and the space under the closed place Black bodies are not expendable not for the sake of a slave economy not for the sake of one s own mind not for the sake of a literary imagination Beloved is the Africanist personae incarnate because proto American writers with their fabricated brew of darkness otherness alarm and desire rendered metaphysical and thereby expended and forgot the real fleshly bodies that forged the American identity Toni Morrison does not Beloved s flesh is as dark other alarming and desirous as the sublime and it is also real flesh The other characters may recognize their free identity only once Beloved is gone but like The Prelude Beloved tells the story of the process of recognition not just what is recognized Beloved s conclusion may be antisublime but the process its story relates is sublime and I do not know which this novel is more about The sublime is not a story to pass on and it may seem purely metaphorical or supernatural when I talk about bodies surpassing this limit with Beloved coming back from the dead to incarnate the metaphor However I have been less metaphorical than I may have seemed Some do not come back to life or come up like zombies some do not extend beyond the limits their abusers have put them up against and when they do not they are like dead Death or something like it really is a limit that one can encounter in life one might live sitting up against the wall until the day one dies The last time Paul D sees Halle Halle had butter all over his face 16 and Paul D hopes that Halle is dead because butter and clabber was no life or reason to live it 17 To be at the limit is no life and to have no chance of surpassing it is to have no reason to live Halle understands freedom Halle who had never drawn one free breath knew that there was nothing like it in this world 18 But Halle reaches a limit he cannot surpass He smears goop across his cheek and Paul D never sees him again Halle does not reemerge remolded and new and alive I title my thesis to remember the story I have forgotten Halle is according to Paul D s memory forever by the churn The butter never cools This too is not a story to pass on 16 Morrison Beloved 82 17 Ibid 147 18 Ibid 166 That the characters overpower Beloved does not make Beloved less fleshly and real That the characters bodies surpass their supposed limits does not make the pain they encounter less real When Paul D and the other prisoners all come up out of the mud they are like the unshriven dead Their resurrection does not absolve them of their sins nor does it absolve their abusers nor does it diminish the suffering of those that do not survive I have talked about the body s limit as being death 14 Ibid 324 15 Smith Circling the Subject 353 25
spirit. Sethe and Paul D   s bodies surpass the body   s supposed limits, and Sethe and Paul D hold communion  not with th...
spirit Sethe and Paul D s bodies surpass the body s supposed limits and Sethe and Paul D hold communion not with the incarnation of the invisible world but with each other each other s bodies here now in the visible world The women s voices or maybe Sethe s changed act send the invisible back to its invisible place and the narrator moves into the present tense 7 Though Paul D says to Sethe We need some kind of tomorrow 8 though Paul D looks towards the future and intends for their stories his story next to hers 9 to continue into the future Sethe s best thing is neither gone nor anticipated It is here now hers her black and indisputably present You your best thing Sethe You are emphasis added 10 His holding fingers are holding hers 11 The reader can easily imagine the sentence flipped Her holding fingers are holding his The chiasmus implies that her fingers are holding fingers too Paul D takes her hand but does not claim it The chiasmus also holds the two characters in a balance distinct and even his fingers are his and hers are hers His story is his and hers is hers side by side without claiming the other s space Sethe and Paul D are each a physical space occupying body their courteous fingers each holding the other s actively holding communion with each other a body seeing touching and feeling another body and still each a body of his or her own 12 She left him his manhood 13 when she does not look at the scar that would make his body seem collared and possessed by another he knows that she is a thing a body that this is her best thing and that 7 From the narration of the women who see that Beloved s smile was dazzling to the narration of what follows Sethe feels her eyes and Beloved is smiling emphases added The present tense persists in the last two chapters Ibid 308 309 8 Ibid 322 9 Ibid 10 Ibid 11 Ibid 12 I have discussed this scene in a previous essay which considered freedom in Beloved and in William Faulkner s Absolom Absolom I wrote of Paul D and Sethe They are each their own free beings distinct though intimate free though tangible intangible though held And Now We re Going to Talk about Freedom Essay Harvard College Spring 2016 10 In that essay I was most interested in the last of these three subordinate clauses In this thesis I am interested in the first two 13 Morrison Beloved 322 24 it is her own They recognize the power the manhood and best ness of one another and they help each other recognize their own They are powerful because they alone lay claim to their powerful bodies they are free because their bodies are free of any claim but their own They are free when they hold communion with other bodies they are free when they love each other Embracing society relishing in their senses these bodies are free and individual but perhaps not so sublime This is not a story to pass on 14 As critics have noted pass on has a double meaning this is not a story to transmit and this is not a story to overlook 15 The characters may forget Beloved but the novel does not and as it states what has been forgotten it remembers and reminds its readers of the water and the chasm and the space under the closed place Black bodies are not expendable not for the sake of a slave economy not for the sake of one s own mind not for the sake of a literary imagination Beloved is the Africanist personae incarnate because proto American writers with their fabricated brew of darkness otherness alarm and desire rendered metaphysical and thereby expended and forgot the real fleshly bodies that forged the American identity Toni Morrison does not Beloved s flesh is as dark other alarming and desirous as the sublime and it is also real flesh The other characters may recognize their free identity only once Beloved is gone but like The Prelude Beloved tells the story of the process of recognition not just what is recognized Beloved s conclusion may be antisublime but the process its story relates is sublime and I do not know which this novel is more about The sublime is not a story to pass on and it may seem purely metaphorical or supernatural when I talk about bodies surpassing this limit with Beloved coming back from the dead to incarnate the metaphor However I have been less metaphorical than I may have seemed Some do not come back to life or come up like zombies some do not extend beyond the limits their abusers have put them up against and when they do not they are like dead Death or something like it really is a limit that one can encounter in life one might live sitting up against the wall until the day one dies The last time Paul D sees Halle Halle had butter all over his face 16 and Paul D hopes that Halle is dead because butter and clabber was no life or reason to live it 17 To be at the limit is no life and to have no chance of surpassing it is to have no reason to live Halle understands freedom Halle who had never drawn one free breath knew that there was nothing like it in this world 18 But Halle reaches a limit he cannot surpass He smears goop across his cheek and Paul D never sees him again Halle does not reemerge remolded and new and alive I title my thesis to remember the story I have forgotten Halle is according to Paul D s memory forever by the churn The butter never cools This too is not a story to pass on 16 Morrison Beloved 82 17 Ibid 147 18 Ibid 166 That the characters overpower Beloved does not make Beloved less fleshly and real That the characters bodies surpass their supposed limits does not make the pain they encounter less real When Paul D and the other prisoners all come up out of the mud they are like the unshriven dead Their resurrection does not absolve them of their sins nor does it absolve their abusers nor does it diminish the suffering of those that do not survive I have talked about the body s limit as being death 14 Ibid 324 15 Smith Circling the Subject 353 25
spirit. Sethe and Paul D   s bodies surpass the body   s supposed limits, and Sethe and Paul D hold communion  not with th...
Panels from The Second Book of Enu Graphic Novel by Alex Lee 26 27
Panels from The Second Book of Enu Graphic Novel by Alex Lee  26  27
Panels from The Second Book of Enu Graphic Novel by Alex Lee 26 27
Panels from The Second Book of Enu Graphic Novel by Alex Lee  26  27
From Pointillism Poetry by Joshua Ascherman EFFORTS AFTER ORPHEUS Failure s image MATING RITUALS IN THE AGE OF MECHANICAL REPRODUCTION All you have to do is swallow the red pill or blue one of them makes the apparatus happen makes it engorge perform You have to imagine Cezanne painting this with a basket of apples How this act the pills the background relate to space relate to the questions of structure and intent What happens with color How faces change How painting is like orgasm but not in the easy way The pills make it like lithography It feels bad in a modern way to be plucked out from To rely on mysticism alone Dark brown wood varnished To look like instrument After Altamira images After the cave floods with karst water After the flood a drought Understandable to eels the interface between man and beast Where dolphins fuck for pleasure Where once per season whales fuck to survive To blind fishes These images Understandable to them You can imagine they fill the baleen with metric tons of krill The apparatus now engorged These recombinations They ve all drunk the Kool Aid is primed To operate To emerge and depart The pill is an antidepressant it s the mood that s changed Stage the conversation Red pill tells blue pill you make everything feel real blue pill answers with a dismissal red pill asks do you hear the rook crowing blue pill urges engorgement It s love and art It s love and argument Neither really responds Neither really hears the other The cave s becoming Descent s undoing Mangroves swinging their salty limbs LAPIS LAZULI I If material mythical If the marble slaves escape you know it s hexagons all the way down If you can t imagine accident you have blue earth blue sand beach gold flecks are shells are fossils I delight in pigments bells and trinkets all small human things At the water whose stars are inclusions downwind on the beach the moon is a grand old air bubble and the sand is almost all things in the world bubbling inclusions If I learned what I m supposed to mean I hope the stone s the same III If metaphor look around outside There could be other pieces of shimmering rock At the blue sand beach two Chinese citizens are re enacting a rock that s bubbled up with stars it s massively violent violently unconvincing I delight in overturning clumps of sand to look for stars They re studs in an abstract thing my hand If they snag they snag Right now I feel multilayered Love I think you re interesting The mixing of paint the most irreversible form Dear Andy this is only the beginning of what I can exhaust Yours Jasper II over the river that must connect The world s underground If cosmic stars bottled light foam very old things If the marble slaves It s roots against stone Model them Reach for air exist perpetually escaping they exist as stone things in the world As the pneumatophores do Pushing up into briskness not somehow melted stars as it turns out not even really cosmic Without fear Of the earth Of the cave Of the sea Do you prefer additive or subtractive things If additive imagine a plinth adorned with rhinestones if substractive low relief If chiseled one polygon at a time I wonder what the gods prefer 28 29
From Pointillism Poetry by Joshua Ascherman  EFFORTS AFTER ORPHEUS Failure   s image.  MATING RITUALS IN THE AGE OF MECHAN...
From Pointillism Poetry by Joshua Ascherman EFFORTS AFTER ORPHEUS Failure s image MATING RITUALS IN THE AGE OF MECHANICAL REPRODUCTION All you have to do is swallow the red pill or blue one of them makes the apparatus happen makes it engorge perform You have to imagine Cezanne painting this with a basket of apples How this act the pills the background relate to space relate to the questions of structure and intent What happens with color How faces change How painting is like orgasm but not in the easy way The pills make it like lithography It feels bad in a modern way to be plucked out from To rely on mysticism alone Dark brown wood varnished To look like instrument After Altamira images After the cave floods with karst water After the flood a drought Understandable to eels the interface between man and beast Where dolphins fuck for pleasure Where once per season whales fuck to survive To blind fishes These images Understandable to them You can imagine they fill the baleen with metric tons of krill The apparatus now engorged These recombinations They ve all drunk the Kool Aid is primed To operate To emerge and depart The pill is an antidepressant it s the mood that s changed Stage the conversation Red pill tells blue pill you make everything feel real blue pill answers with a dismissal red pill asks do you hear the rook crowing blue pill urges engorgement It s love and art It s love and argument Neither really responds Neither really hears the other The cave s becoming Descent s undoing Mangroves swinging their salty limbs LAPIS LAZULI I If material mythical If the marble slaves escape you know it s hexagons all the way down If you can t imagine accident you have blue earth blue sand beach gold flecks are shells are fossils I delight in pigments bells and trinkets all small human things At the water whose stars are inclusions downwind on the beach the moon is a grand old air bubble and the sand is almost all things in the world bubbling inclusions If I learned what I m supposed to mean I hope the stone s the same III If metaphor look around outside There could be other pieces of shimmering rock At the blue sand beach two Chinese citizens are re enacting a rock that s bubbled up with stars it s massively violent violently unconvincing I delight in overturning clumps of sand to look for stars They re studs in an abstract thing my hand If they snag they snag Right now I feel multilayered Love I think you re interesting The mixing of paint the most irreversible form Dear Andy this is only the beginning of what I can exhaust Yours Jasper II over the river that must connect The world s underground If cosmic stars bottled light foam very old things If the marble slaves It s roots against stone Model them Reach for air exist perpetually escaping they exist as stone things in the world As the pneumatophores do Pushing up into briskness not somehow melted stars as it turns out not even really cosmic Without fear Of the earth Of the cave Of the sea Do you prefer additive or subtractive things If additive imagine a plinth adorned with rhinestones if substractive low relief If chiseled one polygon at a time I wonder what the gods prefer 28 29
From Pointillism Poetry by Joshua Ascherman  EFFORTS AFTER ORPHEUS Failure   s image.  MATING RITUALS IN THE AGE OF MECHAN...
The Lake District This March Professor Engell and ten English concentrators traveled to the Lake District in northwest England to study Wordsworth his poetry manuscripts legacy and the natural environment of much of his verse This trip was made possible because of the generosity of Paul and Harriet Weissman The following are excerpts from students reflections on their experience Bonnie Bennett I loved learning so much about William Wordsworth and the people who helped make his work possible Studying his physical manuscripts in the place where he lived and was inspired has given me a deeper understanding of his work life and legacy Reading from a first edition 1805 version of The Prelude was a remarkable moment and I ll never forget having teatime at dusk in Wordsworth s smoky parlor with a roaring fire and two candles As we roasted crumpets on sticks students took turns sitting in the window to catch the fading light and read Wordsworth s poetry aloud I read one of my favorite poems I wandered lonely as a cloud It was magical to hear his poetry while sitting on the cold slate floor of his cottage hearing Wordsworth s poems recited in the house where he wrote The Prelude and many other wonderful pieces was amazing I felt completely immersed in his life Aisha Bhoori We smelled the flowers in Beatrix Potter s garden played chords on John Ruskin s personal piano toasted crumpets in Wordsworth s fireplace On our frequent hikes to the beautiful Rydal Mount for instance or the more formidable Lion and Lamb we encountered hikers who shared a reverence for the landscape and who provided tips on other hikes we might take Each night students from the Harvard and Amherst cohorts would sit in the lobby of the Inn and read poetry aloud Often during these late hours we d chat with English tourists about their perception of the Lake District and of Wordsworth himself These conversations made me realize how Wordsworth had become almost ancillary to the Lake District how important curating his work was to ensuring his relevance and longevity Chloe Brooks I ve read and loved Wordsworth for much of my life and his poetry has shaped my relationship to Nature from an early age growing up in the city I was distinctly aware that the world can be too much with us and recognized in Wordsworth s poetry my own longing for a Triton or any sublime experience of the world His powerful impassioned voice spoke to me clearly across centuries but it was not until I was given the opportunity to visit the place where he grew up lived worked and perhaps most importantly walked that I gained a sense of the man who possessed the voice Standing alone after an early morning hike beside Alcock Tarn the magnificent glacier carved lake at the summit of one of Grasmere s many stunning mountains inhaling the pristine air in a silence broken only by the bleating of the omnipresent Lake District Goats I was able to experience the overpowering natural beauty that Wordsworth encountered daily and felt I understood for the first time the grounds of a poetic imagination that had always seemed to me impossibly infinite to me in scope Photo by Sarah Toomey 30 31
The Lake District This March, Professor Engell and ten English concentrators traveled to the Lake District in northwest En...
The Lake District This March Professor Engell and ten English concentrators traveled to the Lake District in northwest England to study Wordsworth his poetry manuscripts legacy and the natural environment of much of his verse This trip was made possible because of the generosity of Paul and Harriet Weissman The following are excerpts from students reflections on their experience Bonnie Bennett I loved learning so much about William Wordsworth and the people who helped make his work possible Studying his physical manuscripts in the place where he lived and was inspired has given me a deeper understanding of his work life and legacy Reading from a first edition 1805 version of The Prelude was a remarkable moment and I ll never forget having teatime at dusk in Wordsworth s smoky parlor with a roaring fire and two candles As we roasted crumpets on sticks students took turns sitting in the window to catch the fading light and read Wordsworth s poetry aloud I read one of my favorite poems I wandered lonely as a cloud It was magical to hear his poetry while sitting on the cold slate floor of his cottage hearing Wordsworth s poems recited in the house where he wrote The Prelude and many other wonderful pieces was amazing I felt completely immersed in his life Aisha Bhoori We smelled the flowers in Beatrix Potter s garden played chords on John Ruskin s personal piano toasted crumpets in Wordsworth s fireplace On our frequent hikes to the beautiful Rydal Mount for instance or the more formidable Lion and Lamb we encountered hikers who shared a reverence for the landscape and who provided tips on other hikes we might take Each night students from the Harvard and Amherst cohorts would sit in the lobby of the Inn and read poetry aloud Often during these late hours we d chat with English tourists about their perception of the Lake District and of Wordsworth himself These conversations made me realize how Wordsworth had become almost ancillary to the Lake District how important curating his work was to ensuring his relevance and longevity Chloe Brooks I ve read and loved Wordsworth for much of my life and his poetry has shaped my relationship to Nature from an early age growing up in the city I was distinctly aware that the world can be too much with us and recognized in Wordsworth s poetry my own longing for a Triton or any sublime experience of the world His powerful impassioned voice spoke to me clearly across centuries but it was not until I was given the opportunity to visit the place where he grew up lived worked and perhaps most importantly walked that I gained a sense of the man who possessed the voice Standing alone after an early morning hike beside Alcock Tarn the magnificent glacier carved lake at the summit of one of Grasmere s many stunning mountains inhaling the pristine air in a silence broken only by the bleating of the omnipresent Lake District Goats I was able to experience the overpowering natural beauty that Wordsworth encountered daily and felt I understood for the first time the grounds of a poetic imagination that had always seemed to me impossibly infinite to me in scope Photo by Sarah Toomey 30 31
The Lake District This March, Professor Engell and ten English concentrators traveled to the Lake District in northwest En...
Mitchell Edwards Our close work with manuscripts and original documents throughout our stay in Grasmere reminded me of my love for any hands on experience with the physical artifacts of literary history To that end I would like my future career in academia to be historically focused enough to allow me this sort of manuscript study throughout my life I learned on this trip there is nothing quite like holding an original manuscript of a text you have studied and read only in newlyprinted volumes In addition to reinforcing my desire for further study of manuscripts in the future this trip cemented my desire to spend at least a short period of my life after college in England between graduation and the beginning of a PhD program Whether this takes the form of a shorter graduate program like a master s or simply working in the UK I intend to spend at least a year of my life there and soon Monica de los Reyes This trip opened my interests to poetry that I would not have looked at for a long time without it I had never studied William Wordsworth or any of the Romantic poets very much before this trip since I never seemed to have room in my schedule for a Romantics class but the prospect of studying the poet in the beautiful landscape which he lived was too enticing to pass up This was the first time that I truly felt the connection to the inspiration of a poet something that I have only circled around when reading poetry in class or on my own Getting the opportunity to read Wordsworth from the original manuscripts also forced us all to consider some of the people in Wordsworth s career such as his sister Dorothy who I might even argue were important to the movement than William himself Sarah Toomey In the mornings and some afternoons we had opportunities for free time I rarely spent any of it indoors regardless of what the weather patterns were doing With a group of those who were willing to rise with the sun I hiked Helm Crag Easedale Tarn Alcock Tarn Silver Howe and other public footpaths We made special note to visit places of particular Wordsworthian interest like the parting stone the wishing gate and John s Grove among countless others In full group trips we made it to Brantwood John Ruskin s house Hill Top Beatrix Potter s summer home and even an old Druid stone circle Castlerigg on our way up the highway to Keswick On the whole locals were kind and receptive of our presence perhaps more so given how tenacious we were in experiencing the landscape and culture I took every opportunity to talk to those I passed in the woods or met behind bookstore counters We also bonded pretty quickly and powerfully with the group of Amherst students who shared our hotel and part of our itinerary A mutual love for the Lake Poets was all it took to be fast friends and I expect that we will all keep in touch There are already plans in the works to reunite for tea and toast Photo by Sarah Toomey 32 33
Mitchell Edwards     Our close work with  manuscripts and original documents throughout our stay in Grasmere reminded me o...
Mitchell Edwards Our close work with manuscripts and original documents throughout our stay in Grasmere reminded me of my love for any hands on experience with the physical artifacts of literary history To that end I would like my future career in academia to be historically focused enough to allow me this sort of manuscript study throughout my life I learned on this trip there is nothing quite like holding an original manuscript of a text you have studied and read only in newlyprinted volumes In addition to reinforcing my desire for further study of manuscripts in the future this trip cemented my desire to spend at least a short period of my life after college in England between graduation and the beginning of a PhD program Whether this takes the form of a shorter graduate program like a master s or simply working in the UK I intend to spend at least a year of my life there and soon Monica de los Reyes This trip opened my interests to poetry that I would not have looked at for a long time without it I had never studied William Wordsworth or any of the Romantic poets very much before this trip since I never seemed to have room in my schedule for a Romantics class but the prospect of studying the poet in the beautiful landscape which he lived was too enticing to pass up This was the first time that I truly felt the connection to the inspiration of a poet something that I have only circled around when reading poetry in class or on my own Getting the opportunity to read Wordsworth from the original manuscripts also forced us all to consider some of the people in Wordsworth s career such as his sister Dorothy who I might even argue were important to the movement than William himself Sarah Toomey In the mornings and some afternoons we had opportunities for free time I rarely spent any of it indoors regardless of what the weather patterns were doing With a group of those who were willing to rise with the sun I hiked Helm Crag Easedale Tarn Alcock Tarn Silver Howe and other public footpaths We made special note to visit places of particular Wordsworthian interest like the parting stone the wishing gate and John s Grove among countless others In full group trips we made it to Brantwood John Ruskin s house Hill Top Beatrix Potter s summer home and even an old Druid stone circle Castlerigg on our way up the highway to Keswick On the whole locals were kind and receptive of our presence perhaps more so given how tenacious we were in experiencing the landscape and culture I took every opportunity to talk to those I passed in the woods or met behind bookstore counters We also bonded pretty quickly and powerfully with the group of Amherst students who shared our hotel and part of our itinerary A mutual love for the Lake Poets was all it took to be fast friends and I expect that we will all keep in touch There are already plans in the works to reunite for tea and toast Photo by Sarah Toomey 32 33
Mitchell Edwards     Our close work with  manuscripts and original documents throughout our stay in Grasmere reminded me o...
Faye Zhang Going to the Lake District over Spring Break was one of the best experiences of my undergraduate career As an English concentrator with a secondary in Visual and Environmental Studies I am deeply impacted by the effect of landscape on literature I expected to gain a deeper understanding of how the surrounding environment influenced the work of William Wordsworth and that of other Lake District writers and artists One of my favorite moments was finding a small path beside a creek in a hidden valley that led to an abandoned sheepfold My companions and I opened our Wordsworth collections to a random page to read out loud and as we read on we discovered that we had selected the poem Michael which described perhaps the ancient sheepfold in front of our eyes Going on the trip learning about manuscripts visiting museums hiking and talking to scholars deepened my interest in pursuing the unity of storytelling and environment as a writer and documentary filmmaker I hope to someday return to the area to make films and tell its stories Photo by Sarah Toomey 34 35
Faye Zhang    Going to the Lake District over  Spring Break was one of the best experiences of my undergraduate career. As...
Faye Zhang Going to the Lake District over Spring Break was one of the best experiences of my undergraduate career As an English concentrator with a secondary in Visual and Environmental Studies I am deeply impacted by the effect of landscape on literature I expected to gain a deeper understanding of how the surrounding environment influenced the work of William Wordsworth and that of other Lake District writers and artists One of my favorite moments was finding a small path beside a creek in a hidden valley that led to an abandoned sheepfold My companions and I opened our Wordsworth collections to a random page to read out loud and as we read on we discovered that we had selected the poem Michael which described perhaps the ancient sheepfold in front of our eyes Going on the trip learning about manuscripts visiting museums hiking and talking to scholars deepened my interest in pursuing the unity of storytelling and environment as a writer and documentary filmmaker I hope to someday return to the area to make films and tell its stories Photo by Sarah Toomey 34 35
Faye Zhang    Going to the Lake District over  Spring Break was one of the best experiences of my undergraduate career. As...
The Chair is Recognized This summer marks the end of Professor James Simpson s two term tenure as Chair of the English Department so we must acknowledge all he has done to champion undergraduate humanities education Since 2010 he has proclaimed concentrate on the concentrators prompting a deliberate and constant focus on the student experience in Barker both inside and outside of the classroom He pored over statistics and constantly pondered feedback and new ideas co chairing the working group that produced the report The Teaching of the Arts and Humanities at Harvard College Mapping the Future helping shape how we move forward as a division Professor Simpson instituted concentrator lunches setting aside time each term to connect with seniors and sophomores and without fail he returned from each of those gatherings wholly moved by concentrators stories and accomplishments While the demanding duties of a Chairperson can easily distance a professor from their students he made it a point to stay connected with undergraduates through thoughtful advising and by regularly offering stimulating courses in the General Education curriculum as well as his Arrivals course always piquing student interest in medieval and early modern Britain As we welcome Professor Nicholas Watson as our next Chair in July we first offer sincere thanks to Professor Simpson for his tireless dedication to the Undergraduate Program and his holistic approach to the concentrator experience From a Former Chair to One About to Become Ex Chair I saw one I knew and stopped him crying Simpson You who were with me in the ships at Mylae That scheme you planted years ago in our garden Has it begun to sprout Will it bloom this year Or has the sudden frost disturbed it bed You hypocrite lecteur mon semblable mon fr re In your end is your beginning There is life after the service And it should be sweeter is made perhaps sweeter with thanks Of those remaining in your debt and double thanks from us Who thank you too on behalf of any who do not Know enough to give good thanks even for their own sakes Now when the day s hustle and bustle is done Then the Gumbie Cat s work is but hardly begun So for Old Gumbie Cats let us now give three cheers On whom well ordered households depend it appears Fare forward I understand the first stop may be Paris then on to Berlin With admiration and double portion of thanks Jim Engell 36 37
The Chair is Recognized   This summer marks the end of Professor James Simpson   s two-term tenure as Chair of the English...
The Chair is Recognized This summer marks the end of Professor James Simpson s two term tenure as Chair of the English Department so we must acknowledge all he has done to champion undergraduate humanities education Since 2010 he has proclaimed concentrate on the concentrators prompting a deliberate and constant focus on the student experience in Barker both inside and outside of the classroom He pored over statistics and constantly pondered feedback and new ideas co chairing the working group that produced the report The Teaching of the Arts and Humanities at Harvard College Mapping the Future helping shape how we move forward as a division Professor Simpson instituted concentrator lunches setting aside time each term to connect with seniors and sophomores and without fail he returned from each of those gatherings wholly moved by concentrators stories and accomplishments While the demanding duties of a Chairperson can easily distance a professor from their students he made it a point to stay connected with undergraduates through thoughtful advising and by regularly offering stimulating courses in the General Education curriculum as well as his Arrivals course always piquing student interest in medieval and early modern Britain As we welcome Professor Nicholas Watson as our next Chair in July we first offer sincere thanks to Professor Simpson for his tireless dedication to the Undergraduate Program and his holistic approach to the concentrator experience From a Former Chair to One About to Become Ex Chair I saw one I knew and stopped him crying Simpson You who were with me in the ships at Mylae That scheme you planted years ago in our garden Has it begun to sprout Will it bloom this year Or has the sudden frost disturbed it bed You hypocrite lecteur mon semblable mon fr re In your end is your beginning There is life after the service And it should be sweeter is made perhaps sweeter with thanks Of those remaining in your debt and double thanks from us Who thank you too on behalf of any who do not Know enough to give good thanks even for their own sakes Now when the day s hustle and bustle is done Then the Gumbie Cat s work is but hardly begun So for Old Gumbie Cats let us now give three cheers On whom well ordered households depend it appears Fare forward I understand the first stop may be Paris then on to Berlin With admiration and double portion of thanks Jim Engell 36 37
The Chair is Recognized   This summer marks the end of Professor James Simpson   s two-term tenure as Chair of the English...
Spring Term Scrapbook 38 39
Spring Term Scrapbook  38  39
Spring Term Scrapbook 38 39
Spring Term Scrapbook  38  39
Dear Harvard Class of 17 English Concentrators Connect to us The period between the Senior Thesis Reception and Commencement makes our love more strong to love that well which we must leave ere long We have been aware both of how accomplished and how delightful you are for a long time ever since you became concentrators in fact but now that we see the limit of your time with us our admiration becomes poignant Harvard University Department of English So diminish the poignancy of our plight Come to the At Home for Graduating English Concentrators and their Parents on Tuesday 23 May 12 2 p m and above all stay in touch English_Harvard Each faculty and staff member of the English Department thanks you for the gift of your presence with us over the past four years harvardenglish All good wishes Henry Vega Ortiz Art Direction Design and Photography James Simpson Aubrey Everett Copy Editor
Dear Harvard Class of    17 English Concentrators,  Connect to us  The period between the Senior Thesis Reception and Comm...