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Scrapbook Carly Wynne
From 1775-1789
Battles of Lexington and Concord
April 19th of 1775 marked the start of the American revolutionary war.
This violent and unplanned battle begun when British troops stormed from
Boston to Concord in hopes to confiscate all weapons belonging to the
colonies. When the word spread of the British’s arrival, colonial militiamen
prepared to fight. Soon enough, the British scurried as fast as they could
under intense fire. About 3,500 militiamen wounded or killed 250 redcoats,
and a rough 90 were killed on their side. This mark in history came to prove
the millennium as one of the bravest warriors of all.
This photo goes to show a lot about the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
From looking at this photo, you can tell that the British is dressed in blue and the
French is dressed in red, since they were called the redcoats. You can also see the
types of weapons the warriors and colonies used to fight during this particular
time period. Since this was wasn't planned, the men in this photo were most
likely to be very surprised and angry with each other. As you can tell from the
smoke in the picture, there was a lot of destruction during the war as well.
Lastly, the homes and buildings in the background emphasise the era that this
war took place in.
Passage of Stamp Act
The first direct tax imposed on the British Colonies took place in March
22nd, 1765. This major act required them to pay for every piece of printed paper
that was used. Little things like playing cards and newspapers were becoming
taxed, and not many were happy about it. Prime Minister George Grenville
imposed this act as a way to raise money for the new military forces. He thought
that these taxes were fair since the colonists were simply paying their fair share.
But since englishmen had a much heavier stamp tax, Americans knew it was
unfair. So they resorted to lashing out in a violent way against the entire stamp
act. This flare is what lead to the battle cry, “No Taxation without
representation!”. Grenville presented Americans a virtual representation, but
they rejected. This stamp tax was finally repealed after a Stamp Act Congress
was formed which included representatives from 9 or the 13 colonies, meeting in
New York to discuss.
This picture is representing the Stamp Act of 1765. Not many were
satisfied with the Stamp Act, especially Englishmen. It was a way to raise more
money for military forces which was of course very helpful, but some of the
different tax amounts were thought to be unfair (Americans were taxed more).
The skull in the picture signified the anger and dissatisfaction the famous
Stamp Act brought, even though it needed to be done in order to help army
forces. This taxation certainly did not last long either. It started and ended both
in 1765, meaning not much money would have been raised.
The Declaration of Independance
July 4th of 1776 marks the date where The United States of America
won independence. In April of 1775, conflicts between British Soldiers and
American colonists grew. Americans were fighting for their right as
subjects of the British Crown. The Revolutionary War was at its peak the
following summer, and the delegates of the Continental Congress
discussed a vote of the issue of Britain's growing independence. So, a
committee including John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin
Franklin drafted a formal statement of the colonies intentions, adopting
the Declaration of Independance. The Declaration of Independance
greatly changed America and the date of the signing is remembered as
one of the most important dates in history.
Battles of Saratoga
Taking place September 19th-October 7th of 1777, the Battles of Satatoga
were in action, marking as a major turning point in the American Revolution.
These battles were fought on the same ground, and is what encouraged France
to support the Americans against Britain. During the first battle, American
troops stopped the British from breaking through their lines and joining with
their Albany troops. Britain failed at this attempt, the second battle arrived on
the 7th of October, where they were completely outnumbered by a continental
army. By the 17th of October, Britain surrendered by their commander, John
Burgonye. This battle's importance is why it will never be forgotten.
This picture shows the two sides of the Battles of Saratoga. One side is the
Americans who have their French allies (right) and the other side is the British.
You can tell that the American side is the right because the warriors are holding
up American flags. You can tell that the left side is the British because they are
holding up Britain flags. No one seems to be fighting in this photo, so it is most
likely to be showing how the British accepted defeat and surrendered. There are
two men of opposite sides shaking hands in the picture. I can tell from this that
the right man who is shaking hands is George Washington, and the man on the
left is commander John Burgonye.
Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine is one of the most famous and memorable men of
American history. Thomas was an excise officer in England in 1768. He did not
excel at this particular job, as he had been discharged from his post twice in four
years. In 1772, he published The Case of Officers at Excise
arguing for a pay raise
for officers.
Thomas met Benjamin Franklin in London of 1774 by happenstance.
There, Benjamin helped him emigrate to Philadelphia. In Philly, his career
transformed to journalism. In 1776, Thomas Paine was a name known by all for
publishing Common Sense. Common Sense
is a strong defence of American
Independance from England. It exposed both levels of the Revolution. This
publication persuaded readers who favoured a peaceful settlement of
differences with British government to support a break with Britain instead.
Paine traveled with the Continental Army and found that being a soldier was not
his success. But then, 1776-1783 he produced The American Crisis which helped
inspire the Army. This pamphlet became extremely popular that it was read to
more people than people watch the Super Bowl today. By writing pamphlets and
other books, he impacted America for the better.
Thomas Paine was born in Thetford, England on January 29th of 1737.
When he wrote one of the world's most famous books Common Sense,
his name
was heard all around the globe. It changed the way people view certain things
having to do with supporting breaks with Britain at the time being. After
producing the American Crisis,
Paine went back to Europe rather than
continuing to help the revolutionary cause. There, he changed up his hobbies by
working on a smokeless candle and an iron bridge. Thomas Paine sadly died at
age 72 in the morning of June 8th, 1809.
The Battle of Yorktown
The Siege of Yorktown was a victory by a combined force of the American
Continental Army troops who were lead by George Washington and French
Army troops who were led by Comte de Rochambeau. This was between a British
army commanded led by Charles Cornwallis. It consisted of a force of 17,000
French and Continental troops and only 9,000 British troops. This siege was the
last major battle of the American Revolutionary War, where General Cornwallis
surrendered. This famous battle took place on the September 28th of 1781 in
Yorktown, Virginia. Since it was the final battle that ended the Revolution, it will
always be remembered as an important American victory.
The Constitution
The United Stated constitution is the most important document ever to be
made in the country for many reasons. The Constitution was first made as a
rough draft written by Thomas Jefferson. This document outlines the national
framework or government. This includes the three branches: executive, judicial,
and legislative. It also states the qualifications, powers, and responsibilities of
the president and members of the congress, and goes over natural human rights
as well. The final draft of the Constitution was signed on September 17th, 1787 by
39 of the 55 delegates who help in creating the constitution. It was written
because the 13 colonies which now form the United States, were unhappy under
British rule, subject to the oppressive King George III. So in conclusion, a group
of five men drafted a document to the king, commonly known as the Declaration
of Independance. From there, the Constitution was created as a way to set rule
and regulations for the country.
The Constitution is known for being the greatest and most impacting
document of America. It is made up of three parts: The Preamble, The Articles
(7), and The Amendments (27). This document was signed by several people who
were delegated of the original states. They first gathered when drafting the
Declaration of Independance, then a second time after the colonists defeated
the British Army and won independence, writing the Constitution. These
delegated were- Connecticut: William Samuel Johnson, Roger Sherman/
Delaware: George Read, Gunning Bedford Jr., John Dickinson, Richard Bassett,
Jacob Broom /Georgia: William Few, Abraham Baldwin/ Maryland: James
McHenry, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, Daniel Carroll /Massachusetts:
Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King /New Hampshire: John Langdon, Nicholas
Gilman /New Jersey: William Livingston, David Brearley, William Paterson,
Jonathan Dayton /New York: Alexander Hamilton /North Carolina: William
Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Hugh Williamson /Pennsylvania: Benjamin
Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George Clymer, Thomas FitzSimons,
Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouverneur Morris /South Carolina: John
Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Pierce Butler /Virginia: George
Washington (President and deputy), John Blair, James Madison Jr. All of those
men took part in making a change for the better.