American Imperialism in the Early 1900s
By: Nina Moir
Instructor: Ryan Call
Annexation of Hawaii
Sugar and military defense capabilities were the two main reasons that the United States was ininterested in Hawaii. American planation owners wanted political control over Hawaii to further their economic growth in the sugar industry. The United States military considered Hawaii vital for the defence of the west coast of the United States. In 1887 a group of non-citizians of Hawaii, called the Patriotic League started a rebellion that forced King Kalakaua of Hawaii to dismiss his cabinet ministers and sign a new constitution, referred to as the "Bayonet Constitution". This new constitution took away political power from native Hawiians and gave it to the foreign plantation owners living on the islands. King Kalakaua sister, Liliuokalani suceeded him after his death in 1889. She was overthrown in 1893 when she attempted to change the constitution to restore native Hawiians rights and political power. The new goverment of Hawaii intended to petition the United States of America for annexation. Juy 7, 1897 President William Mckinley signed the Newlands Resolution, declaring the annexation of Hawaii. Most of the native Hawiian population stayed indoors the day of the formal ceremony of Hawaii's annexation. Thier culture and traditions had been forever changed.
Annexation of Philippines
After the Spanish - American War of 1898, Spain and the United States of America signed the Treaty of Paris of 1898. In this agreement Spain conceded their governing rule over the Philippines and sold them to United States for $20 million dollars. The Filipinos, lead by Emilo Aguinaldo opposed not having their independence and the Second Battle of Manila occurred on February 4, 1899 between the Americans and the Filpinos. The Philippine - American War (1899-1902) was a brutal war that had two phases. The first phase was fought in conventional warfare style and the second phase shifted to guerrilla-style warfare by the Filpinos. Eventually Aguinaldo was captured and President Roosevelt called for a general amnesty to end the war. There was must debate in the United States over the annexation of the Philippines. Some opposed it while others wanted to use the Philippines as away to expand commercial opportunities with Asia. There were some who believed that the Filpinos were not civilized enough to govern themselves or protect themselves from other countries like Japan and Germany. In 1900, President Taft started the "policy of attraction" to entice the Filpinos with plans for self-government to stop the remaining conflict in the Philippines. In 1916 the Jones Act was instated promising the Philppines Indepence which occurred 1946.
Spanish troops left the island in December 1898, the government of Cuba was temporarily handed over to the United States onf January 1st 1899. Unlike Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philipines, the United States did not annex Cuba because of the restrictions imposed, they could not annex cuba. Before the United States officially took over the government, it had already began cutting tarriffs on American goods entering Cuba. Immediately after the war, there were several serious barriers for foregin businesses attempting to operate in Cuba. Three seperate pieces of legislation-the Joint Resolution of 1898, the Teller Amendment, and the Foraker Amendment-threatened foreign investment.
Monroe Doctrine was establshed on December 2, 1823, cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy started by President James Monroe in his annual message to Congress. Declaring that the Old World and New World had different systems and must remain distinct spheres, Monroe made four basic points. The first point was the United States would not interfere in the internal affairs of or the wars between European powers. Secondly the United States recognized and would not interfere with existing colonies and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere. Thirdly the Western Hemisphere was closed to future colonization. Lastly any attempt by a European power to oppress or control any nation in the Western Hemisphere would be viewed as a hostile act against the United States.
The Panama Canal is an international waterway that links the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. After France unsuccessfully attempted to build a canal through the Isthmus of Panama in the 1800s, the United States began building the canal in 1904. At the height of the canal's construction, more than one million cubic yards of earth was moved by approximately 25,000 workers each day. The canal was completed in 1914. Theodore Roosevelt was interested in building a canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans before the Spanish-American war in 1898. He became more interested in the canal after the U.S. won the war and acquired Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam. He wanted a shorter route for naval ships needing to pass between the two oceans. Failed negotiations with Colombia, which owned Panama, led to the U.S. providing funds and a naval blockade in support of Panama's revolution. In 1903, the newly-independent Panama sold the rights to the canal to the U.S. for $10 million. The U.S. military had a strong presence in the Panama Canal Zone until 1999, when all U.S. military bases were closed. The canal is still used for the transportation of military water vessels.