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A Comprehensive Framework for Standards-Referenced and Competency-Based Education

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Empower Learning
presents
The Marzano Implementation Manual:
A Comprehensive Framework for Competency-Based and Standards-Referenced Education
Written by Dr Robert J Marzano
2019
©Robert Marzano
Annotated for use with Empower by Ben Hartlieb
Empower Resources ©EmpowerLearning,LLC
Empowerlearning.net
727-373-2552
317 W4th St
Greenville, OH 45331
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Table of Contents
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 3
I. Measurement Topics & Proficiency Scales .......................................................... 5
II. Classroom Assessment ..................................................................................... 10
III. Reporting and Grading .................................................................................... 27
IV. Cognitive and .................................................................................................. 38
Metacognitive Skills ............................................................................................. 38
V. Blended Instruction ......................................................................................... 47
VI. Vocabulary ...................................................................................................... 54
VII. Inspiration...................................................................................................... 95
VIII. Student Agency ........................................................................................... 108
IX. Personal Projects .......................................................................................... 124
X. Cumulative Review ........................................................................................ 136
XI. Knowledge Maps .......................................................................................... 149
XII. Collective Responsibility............................................................................... 189
XIII. Instructional Model and .............................................................................. 193
XIV. Planning and Preparing ............................................................................... 240
XV. School Level Indicators ................................................................................ 248
References ......................................................................................................... 283
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Introduction
This manual describes fifteen categories of interventions and initiatives that
can be used by a school to become a high functioning competency-based or
standards-referenced organization. The model has been developed in concert
with Marzano Academies, Inc. (MAI) which is a 501c(3) not for profit corporation
established in 2016. The purpose of MAI is to establish schools that approach the
educational process from a highly coordinated perspective where every
component is designed specifically to be used in concert with all the other
components. The interventions and initiatives described in this manual have been
development by Robert J. Marzano over a 40-year period. Each component has a
rich theoretical base, a research base, and (in most cases) an evidence base.
However, when executed in a coordinated fashion, these components have a
combined effect that is greater than the sum of their individual parts.
Throughout this manual, the use of all components in a coordinated fashion
is referred to as the “academy model. However, to attain official designation as a
Marzano Academy, schools must go through a certification process with Marzano
Academy, Inc.. A school that becomes a Marzano Academy must execute all
components in the integrated manner described in this manual. However, schools
that do not strive to become a Marzano Academy might find it useful to employ
various components in the context of their current systems. The fifteen sections
of this manual are:
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I. Measurement Topics and Proficiency Scales. In the academy model, all content is
articulated as measurement topics with accompanying proficiency scales.
II. Classroom Assessment. The academy model employs classroom assessments in such
a way that they can be used to track students’ growth and determine their current
status on each measurement topic.
III. Reporting and Grading. The academy model includes the option of a reporting
system that is standards-referenced or competency based.
IV. Cognitive and Metacognitive Skills. In addition to subject matter content, the
academy model focuses on direct instruction in cognitive and metacognitive skills.
V. Blended Instruction. The academy model employs online instruction in such a way
that any student can receive virtual instruction independently at any time.
VI. Vocabulary. The academy model ensures that students have adequate opportunities
to learn Tier I, II, and III vocabulary terms.
VII. Inspiration. The academy model systematically provides activities and events that
are designed to inspire students.
VIII. Student Agency. One of the most important outcomes of the academy model is
that students develop and experience a sense of agency.
IX. Personal Projects. Personal projects within the academy model provide
opportunities for students to pursue goals of their own design and demonstrate
cognitive and metacognitive skills.
X. Cumulative Review. Cumulative review within the academy model is a strategy that
provides students with systematic opportunities to review and revise their
understanding of critical content.
XI. Knowledge Maps. Knowledge maps are employed in the academy model as
frameworks for reading comprehension and coherence in writing.
XII. Collective Responsibility. Collective responsibility in the academy model involves
teachers operating from the perspective that every teacher has shared responsibility for
every student.
XIII. Instructional Model. Teachers in the academy model follow an instructional
framework that is based on decades of research regarding effective instructional
strategies in the traditional classroom. However, these strategies have been adapted
and studied in the context of competency-based and standards-referenced classrooms.
XIV. Planning and Preparing. Academy teachers plan and prepare lessons and units in a
manner that is geared toward competency-based education or standards-referenced
education.
XV. School Level Indicators. When an academy is functioning fully and independently, it
is focusing on and addressing sixteen school level indicators using a high reliability
perspective.
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I. Measurement Topics and Proficiency
Scales
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At the core of the academy model are measurement topics and proficiency scales. These
are described in depth in the books The Handbook for Personalized Competency-Based
Education (Marzano, Norford, Finn, and Finn III, 2017), Making Classroom Assessments Reliable
and Valid (Marzano, 2018), and The New Art and Science of Classroom Assessment (Marzano,
Norford, and Ruyle, 2018).
Measurement topics, as the name implies, are those topics that will be assessed by
classroom teachers in each subject area and each grade level. To illustrate, consider figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1: Sample Measurement Topics
Eighth-Grade
Mathematics
Sixth-Grade English
Language Arts
Fifth-Grade Science
Exponents
Cube and Square Roots
Scientific Notation
Rational and Irrational
Numbers
Linear Equations
Systems of Linear
Equations
Quadratic Equations
Concept of Functions
Linear Functions
Volume
Transformations,
Similarity, and
Congruence
Angles of Two-
Dimensional Figures
Line and Angle
Constructions
Pythagorean Theorem
Bivariate Categorical Data
Bivariate Measurement
Data
Analyzing Text
Organization and
Structure
Analyzing Ideas and
Themes
Analyzing Claims,
Evidence, and Reasoning
Analyzing Narratives
Analyzing Point of View
Comparing Texts
Analyzing Language
Generating Text
Organization and
Structure
Generating Claims,
Evidence, and Reasoning
Considering Sources and
Research
Generating Narratives
Considering the
Audience, Purpose, and
Task
Dealing with Revision
Considering Parts of
Speech
Editing
Gravity
Matter
Properties of Matter
Celestial Motion
Celestial Objects
Earth Systems
Ecosystem Interactions
Engineering Design
Problems
Solutions for
Engineering Design
Problems
Scientific Method
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The use of measurement topics can be a rather significant change for some schools,
since within the traditional approach, teachers commonly don’t keep track of how students are
performing on a topic-by-topic basis.
Every measurement topic should have an accompanying proficiency scale, such as the
one in figure 1.2.
Figure 1.2: Sample Proficiency Scale
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
Proficiency scales such as the one in figure 1.2, are foundational to assessment and instruction
in every subject within an academy, including the following:
Mathematics
Science
English language arts
Social studies
Technology
The arts
Foreign language
Cognitive analysis skills
Knowledge applications skills
Metacognitive skills
Every proficiency scale follows the same format. To understand that format, it is best to
start with the score 3.0 content. This level represents proficiency in whatever topic is the focus
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of the scale. When students can demonstrate the knowledge and skill at the 3.0 level, they are
considered proficient. The content at the score 2.0 level represents knowledge that is
considered prerequisite to the 3.0 content and will be directly taught to students. The content
at the score 4.0 level is that which demonstrates expertise above the proficient level. In some
cases, a specific task is articulated at the score 4.0 level, in other cases, a general statement is
provided such as “The student demonstrates inferences and applications beyond the score 3.0
level”.
A proficiency scale also contains levels for score 2.5 and 1.0. These levels do not contain
more content. Rather, they are used when scoring assessments for a measurement topic. This is
addressed in the next section entitled Classroom Assessment. This is also true for the other
half-point scores on the scale. They do not contain new content but are used when scoring
assessments.
Empower
An academy uses a specific learning management system (LMS) entitled Empower
(empowerlearning.net). The vast majority of components in an academy can and should be
carried out directly within the Empower system. Therefore, it is imperative that academy
teachers learn to navigate the Empower system as quickly as possible and continue to develop
their expertise in Empower over time. In this book, callouts like the one below will contain
instructions about how concepts under discussion can be found or performed in the Empower
application.
r
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Measurement Topics and their associated Scales can be found in Empower’s Target
Browser (pictured). Each tile in the Target Browser is a Measurement Topic. Clicking on the tile
will open the proficiency scale.
As we use Empower to create Gradebooks and Instruction, we will return to the
Target Browser over and over to select the standards we are working with, so it is important to
be very familiar with it.
This tutorial will teach you all about it.
Everything in the Target Browser can be created and managed by those with
administrative rights in Empower. A video with instructions for this and much more can be
found at the below link.
Teacher Notes:
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
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I.
II. Classroom Assessment
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The proficiency scale is the primary tool for determining a student’s level of proficiency
at any given moment. Classroom assessment should always be guided by proficiency scales,
since every proficiency scale has a quantitative structure that is designed for classroom
assessment. To illustrate, consider the proficiency scale in figure 2.1.
Figure 2.1: Proficiency Scale for Measurement Topic of Estimation at Third-Grade Level
4.0
The student will:
• Use mental computation and estimation strategies to assess the reasonableness of an answer
at different stages of solving a problem (for example, when given that a boy has 374 more
baseball cards than a friend who has 221 baseball cards, and when given that he then buys
another186 cards, use rounding to estimate that the number of baseball cards the boy started
with should be close to 600 and the number of cards he ended up with should be close to 800).
3.5
In addition to score 3.0 performance, partial success at score 4.0 content
3.0
The student will:
• Round a given number to the nearest 10 or100 (for example, round the numbers 23, 50, 95,
447, 283, 509, and 962 to the nearest 10 and the nearest 100).
2.5
No major errors or omissions regarding score 2.0 content and partial success at score 3.0
content
2.0
The student will recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, digit, estimate, ones, tens,
hundreds, thousands, number line, place, place value, round, round down, round up,) and
perform basic processes such as:
• Identify multiples of 10 and 100.
• Identify relationships between place values. For example, explain that ten 1’s are equal to one
10 and that ten 10’s are equal to one 100.
• Explain that rounding a number to a given place estimates or approximates the value of the
number to the nearest multiple of that place. For example, rounding a number to the nearest
10 approximates the value of that number to the nearest multiple of 10.
• Explain that rounding a number to a given place will leave a value of 0 in each place that is
smaller than (to the right of) the targeted place. For example, rounding a number to the nearest
100 will leave a value of 0 in the tens and ones places.
• Use a number line to find the nearest multiple of a specified place for a given number. For
example, when given the number 146 represented on a number line, identify 100 as the closest
multiple of 100.
• Explain that a number will be rounded up to a given place if the digit in the place immediately
to the right is greater than or equal to 5, and will be rounded down if the digit is less than or
equal to 4.
• Identify situations in which rounding might be useful. For example, explain that rounding two
addends and quickly calculating their sum can be useful for assessing whether or not the
calculated sum of the unrounded addends is accurate.
1.5
Partial success at score 2.0 content and major errors or omissions regarding score 3.0 content
1.0
With help, partial success at score 2.0 content and score 3.0 content
0.5
With help, partial success at score 2.0 content but not at score 3.0 content
0.0
Even with help, no success
The proficiency scale in figure 2.1 is for the measurement topic of estimation for third
grade mathematics. The core of a proficiency scale is score 3.0 content. Score 3.0 represents
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proficiency. In other words, it represents what a student should know or be able to do to be
considered proficient at this third grade topic. In this case, the score 3.0 content involves
rounding to the nearest 10 or 100. Additionally, score 3.0 provides performance examples that
would demonstrate proficiency. Score 2.0 contains necessary vocabulary terms that students
will need to understand in order to reach proficiency at score 3.0. It also identifies basic skills
that will be directly taught such as identifying multiples of 10 and 100. The score 4.0 content
illustrates an example of a task that could be used to demonstrate competency beyond the
score 3.0 proficiency level
These three-tiered proficiency scales are designed to make CA construction relatively easy, and
they can help teachers design multiple types of assessments. This means that a proficiency
scale does not limit the types of assessments teachers can design.
In addition to the explicitly stated content for a given measurement topic, proficiency
scales also contain score values of 1.0 and 0.0, but these values do not contain new content.
Instead, a score of 1.0 indicates that a student has some success with score 2.0 and 3.0 content
with help. A score of 0.0 indicates that, even with help, a student does not demonstrate even
partial success with any of the content. Student performances that represent half-point scores
are also identified on the proficiency scale. The half point indicates partial achievement of the
next level of the scale. For example, a score of 1.5 indicates that a student has partial
competence with the score 2.0 content. (For a discussion of half-point and full-point scores, see
Marzano, 2006).
In Empower, whenever you encounter a measurement topic, you will see an icon with the letter i,
clicking that will display the proficiency scale.
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In effect, the content in a proficiency scale can be translated into nine different score
values based on evidence provided by a CA. This is the essence of classroom assessment within
an academy. Teachers use the information provided by a specific assessment to assign students
a score on a specific proficiency scale.
A number of traditional and non-traditional types of assessments can be used with
proficiency scales.
In Empower, whenever you encounter a measurement topic, you will see an icon with
the letter I, clicking that will display the proficiency scale.
Traditional Tests
Traditional tests are only one type of assessment, but they are important. Usually, traditional
tests require students to write down their responses. This can be done in a paper-and-pencil
format or electronically. Traditional tests are comprised of a variety of types of items and tasks
such as selected response items, short constructed response items, and extended response
items.
Selected-Response Items
Many classroom tests use selected-response items and tasks. The types of items and tasks in
figure 2.2 illustrate a variety of selected-response items.
Figure 2.2: Selected-Response Items
Type
Example
Multiple Choice
Which of the following is an accurate statement about Venus?
A. It is composed mostly of carbon dioxide.
B. It is covered by thick clouds of sulfuric acid.
C. It is believed to have had water that has all boiled away.
D. It is surrounded by rings.
Matching
Match the state listed on the left with its most famous landmark
listed on the right.
1. District of Columbia
2. Arizona
3. South Dakota
4. Texas
A. The Alamo
B. The Pentagon
C. The White House
D. Mount Rushmore
E. Everglades
F. Grand Canyon
Alternative Choice
On a number line, a negative seven can be found:
A. To the right of zero
B. To the left of zero
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True or False
Quotation marks are used at the end of sentences that are
questions.
Multiple Response
Put a check next to the shapes for which you can find the volume.
Circle
Cube
Square
Sphere
Octagon
Prism
Fill-In-The-Blank
________________ was the first African American to hold the
office of President of the United States.
Source: Adapted from Marzano, 2010.
Selected-response items like those in figure 2.2 are most effectively used to assess score 2.0
content. They can be used for score 3.0 and 4.0 content as well, but this requires extensive
written explanation for students. For example, a teacher could construct a multiple-choice item
to assess a student’s use of the decision-making process as described in score 3.0 content.
However, the stem for the item would have to provide a description of the alternatives, the
criteria that would be used to select among the alternatives, and the relative importance of the
criteria.
Short Constructed-Response Items
While selected-response questions require students to recognize the correct answer from a set
of provided options, short constructed-response items ask students to recall the answer from
memory. Short constructed-response items typically require short written answers (anything
from a few words to a few sentences). For example, a high school social studies test might
include the short constructed-response item, “Briefly explain the role that Alice Paul played in
the American women’s suffrage movement.” Short constructed-response items are usually
used to address score 2.0 and 3.0 content.
Extended Constructed-Response Items
An extended constructed-response item asks students to present a longer, more complex
answer to a prompt or question. An example of this type of response item is an essay. Extended
constructed-response items generally assess score 3.0 or 4.0 content and often require
students to draw upon multiple elements of content knowledge as they develop their answer
over the course of several paragraphs. Extended constructed-response items might also pose
multiple questions and prompt students to write an essay that answers all of them (see
Marzano, 2010). These items often incorporate content from all three levels of the proficiency
scale. Consider the following example:
Read the passage above and study the picture provided. Then answer the following
questions.
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A. Who is the artist this passage is about, and
what medium is he or she famous for?
B. In what country and during what time period
was this artist working?
C. What were the unique elements of the artist’s
work, and how did people initially react?
D. Compare this artist’s work to one of the other
artists we have studied. Who do you think is the
superior artist and why?
This task is designed to address score 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 content
on a proficiency scale for art. Score 2.0 focuses on expressing
details about an artist’s life and work, score 3.0 content
focuses on understanding the unique features of an artist’s
style, and score 4.0 content focuses on comparing the work of
different artists.
Non-Traditional Assessments
While teachers in an academy will certainly use traditional
tests, they will more commonly use non-traditional
assessments.
Probing Discussions
A probing discussion is a type of oral assessment. This means
that a teacher meets one-on-one with a student to talk about
a specific topic. The teacher begins with a broad
prompt, then, as the student explains the
relevant concepts, the teacher asks more
specific or in-depth questions to determine what
the student knows and does not know about the
topic. The proficiency scale is used as a guide for
questioning. In other words, the teacher
determines a student’s score by asking
questions that correspond to the levels of the
scale.
Evidence from probing discussions can
be directly translated into a score on a
proficiency scale. This means that there is no need to assign a
format-specific score and then translate that score into a proficiency scale score. For example,
during a probing discussion with a student working on the fifth-grade science topic of
ecosystems, a teacher would ask questions pertinent to score 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 content on the
Creating and delivering
assessments via Empower has
several advantages.
Objective-type questions
(true/false, fill-in-the-blank,
multiple choice, etc.) can be
scored by the system. Scores will
automatically be entered into
appropriate gradebooks and the
student's portfolio.
As with all created instruction in
Empower, assessments can be co-
created, shared and re-used
district-wide and year after year.
Each question needs to be aligned
to one and only one measurement
topic and a proficiency scale level
must also be chosen to ensure
score reliability.
Learn all about assessments in
Empower in this tutorial:
ASSESSMENTS
IN EMPOWER
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proficiency scale for that topic. At the end of the discussion, the teacher might conclude that
the student demonstrated a thorough understanding of the score 2.0 content, a thorough
understanding of the score 3.0 content, and a partial understanding of score 4.0 content. The
teacher would then assign the student a proficiency scale score of 3.5 for that assessment.
Demonstrations
Demonstrations are assessments that ask students to perform a skill or complete a strategy or
process. For example, a social studies teacher might ask a student to demonstrate how to use
the key on a map to interpret a particular map feature. Demonstrations can be used to assess
both physical and mental skills and procedures. In the case of mental skills, the teacher can ask
the student to explain the process as he or she performs it. Demonstrations can also be scored
directly from a proficiency scale. For example, a student working on a fifth-grade English
language arts measurement topic on using citations has prepared a demonstration of the
process. As the student executes and explains the steps, the teacher might realize that he has
demonstrated all the score 2.0 content correctly and has also demonstrated some of the 3.0
content. The teacher would then assign a score of 2.5.
Observations
The assessment formats discussed thus far are all forms of obtrusive assessments (meaning that
they interrupt the normal flow of classroom activity). Observations however, are often
unobtrusivemeaning the student may not be aware that he or she is being assessed.
Observations involve the teacher noticing a student demonstrating some level of proficiency
and recording a score as a result. Skills, strategies, and processes are most often the subject of
observations. For example, a science teacher might notice a student independently executing
the correct procedures for a specific aspect of a research project.
Informational knowledge can also be the subject of an observation. For example, a
student might use a vocabulary term in a class discussion that represents score 2.0 content on a
scale. The teacher would recognize that the student understands that content. Again,
observations are scored directly from a proficiency scale.
Student-Generated Assessments
Student-generated assessments allow students to decide how they will demonstrate
proficiency. This process allows students to take responsibility for demonstrating their learning.
When a student feels that she has achieved a particular level of proficiency, she goes to the
teacher and explains how she is going to demonstrate her knowledge or skill. Students
commonly use such assessments to demonstrate competence at a specific level of a scale. For
example, a student might propose that she will make a timeline of civil war events to show her
understanding of that topic at the 2.0 level on a proficiency scale.
Quick Group Assessments
As the name implies, quick group assessments are administered to the entire class. They are
usually focused on score 2.0 content that can be assessed easily with selected-response items.
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For example, assume that a particular science proficiency scale on the topic of energy
conversion has the following elements at the score 2.0 level.
1. Explain that an object’s energy is a combination of kinetic energy and potential energy.
2. Use the law of conservation of energy to explain why energy is always transferred from
place to place or from form to form.
3. Describe various forms of energy (for example, chemical, elastic, electrical, light,
mechanical, nuclear, sound, thermal).
The teacher might consider selected-response items like the following:
1. Fill in the blanks: An object’s energy is a combination of ________________ energy and
__________________ energy.
2. Select the best answer. The law of conservation of energy says that:
A. Energy is constant in a closed system.
B. Energy can change form, but it can’t be created or destroyed.
C. Both A and B.
D. Neither A nor B.
3. Select any items in this list that are not forms of energy: chemical, sound, electrical,
practical, heat, weight.
Each of these items would be displayed to all students simultaneously, perhaps using a
PowerPoint slide. Students could record responses in a variety of ways. For example, they might
hold up response cards. The teacher could then record responses as the assessment progresses.
By the end of the class, the teacher would have scores for each student on a multi-item
assessment of score 2.0 content. An easier way might be to use electronic voting devices (or
“clickers”.) If teachers have devices that allow students to connect to the Internet, they can also
use free sites or software to gather students’ responses.
Student Self-Assessments
Student self-assessments are distinct from student-generated assessments. With student-
generated assessments, a student proposes a task he or she will perform to demonstrate
competency at a certain level of a proficiency scale. With student self-assessments, students
score themselves using personal tracking matrices, and these student-generated scores are
translated into proficiency scale scores by the teacher. To illustrate, consider the personal
tracking matrix in figure 2.3.
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Figure 2.3: Personal Tracking Matrix
Level
Indicator
My Rating
My Evidence
I’m still
confused
about
this
topic.
I’ve
learned
some
but not
all of
the
topic.
I’ve
got
this
now.
4
I can show situations in which
solving a linear equation is
best done through graphing
versus situations in which it is
best done algebraically.
X
3
I can find the point that will
satisfy two linear equations by
graphing both equations.
X
2
I can verify the point of
intersection by inserting the
coordinates into each linear
equation.
X
practice activity 4
2
I can determine the
intersection point of the
graphs of two linear
equations.
X
practice activity 3
2
I can graph a linear equation
on a coordinate plane.
X
practice activity 2
2
I can convert a linear equation
into its slope-intercept form.
X
practice activity 1
2
I can provide an explanation
of the term intersection point.
X
vocab worksheet
2
I can provide an explanation
of the term coordinate plane.
X
vocab worksheet
2
I can provide an explanation
of the term slope-intercept
form.
X
vocab worksheet
2
I can provide an explanation
of the term linear equation.
X
vocab worksheet
This personal tracking matrix for the topic of solving linear equations through graphing
is depicted in figure 2.3. The matrix was created by unpacking the elements of the proficiency
scale for this topic into discrete score 2.0 elements. Elements, such as vocabulary, were
assigned a row in the matrix. Each row explicitly states its level on the proficiency scale. Finally,
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there is a self-rating scale ranging from, “I’m still confused about this topic” to, “I’ve got this
now” in each row.
Note that the student in figure 2.3 has assigned himself the value of “I’ve got this now”
for all the score 2.0 content. The student has assigned the value of “I’ve learned some but not
all of the topic” for the score 3.0 element and has assigned himself the value of “I’m still
confused about this topic” for the score 4.0 content. In the column titled “My Evidence” the
student has briefly noted the activities and assignments he completed as support for his self-
ratings.
Note that for the teacher to use the matrix as an assessment, the student would have to
provide more evidence for the score he assigned. This evidence could come in the form of a
physical or electronic folder the student keeps with related assignments and assessments. The
teacher would examine the student’s self-assessment represented in the personal tracking
matrix as well as the supporting evidence. This evidence would allow a teacher to create a score
on the proficiency scale. Analysis of the personal tracking matrix will generally be accompanied
by a brief conversation with the student. While interacting with the student, the teacher might
glean more information and decide that the student’s self-assessment warrants a different
score on the scale.
Scoring Assessments
Most types of assessments can be scored in such a way that they are immediately translated
into a score on the proficiency scale. However, some assessments, like traditional tests, are first
scored in a way that best fits their format and then translated into a score on the proficiency
scale. To illustrate, consider the percentage method of screening traditional tests.
Using Percentage Scores
This method involves determining what percentage of available points a student earned and
using that percentage to assign an appropriate proficiency scale score. To illustrate, consider
figure 2.4.
Figure 2.4 compares the available points on each section of an assessment to the points
that a student earned. For example, there were twenty-five points available in the score 2.0
section, and this student earned twenty-two. This ratio is then converted into a percentage to
make it easier to assess the student’s overall success in each section. The teacher examines the
percentage for each section to determine a proficiency scale score. In figure 2.4, the student
earned 88 percent in the score 2.0 section, indicating that he or she knows most of that
content. The student also earned 50 percent in the score 3.0 section, indicating that he or she
knows half of that content. Based on this evidence, the teacher would likely assign a proficiency
scale score of 2.5, meaning there were no major errors or omissions with the basic content and
there was partial success with the 3.0 content.
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Figure 2.4: The Percentage Approach to Scoring Assessments
Section
Item Number
Possible Points
per Item
Obtained Points
per Item
Section
Percentage
Score 2.0
1
2
3
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
3
5
5
22/25 = 88%
Total
25
22
Score 3.0
6
7
8
10
10
10
7
4
4
15/30 = 50%
Total
30
15
Score 4.0
9
10
10
10
1
2
3/20 = 15%
Total
20
3
Source: Marzano, Heflebower, Hoegh, Warrick, & Grift, 2016, p. 56.
Using Response Codes
When using response codes, the teacher marks a student’s responses to each item correct,
partially correct, or incorrect and then examines the pattern of responses to determine the
student’s level of proficiency. To illustrate, consider figure 2.5.
Figure 2.5 The Response Codes Approach to Scoring Assessments
Section
Item Number
Correct, Partially
Correct, or
Incorrect?
Section Pattern
Score 2.0
1
C
Correct
2
C
3
C
4
C
5
C
Score 3.0
6
PC
Partially Correct
7
C
8
PC
Score 4.0
9
I
Incorrect
10
I
Overall Score
2.5
Source: Adapted from Marzano, 2010.
21
This student provided all correct responses for the score 2.0 items, so the overall
pattern for the section is recorded as correct. In the score 3.0 section, he or she gave one
correct answer and two partially correct answers, leading to a section pattern of partially
correct. Both items in the score 4.0 section were marked incorrect, so the overall pattern for
that section is incorrect. Because these patterns indicate complete understanding of score 2.0
and partial understanding of score 3.0, this student would receive an overall score of 2.5.
Proficiency Scales with Multiple Elements
Figure 2.6: Proficiency Scale with More than One Element at 3.0, Strand: 7th Grade Math,
Measurement Topic: Converting Fractions, Decimals, and Percentages
4.0
In addition to score 3.0 performance, the student demonstrates in-depth inferences
and applications that go beyond what was taught. For example, the student will:
Compare and order fractions, decimal values, and percentages in real-life
situations
Compare and convert fractions, decimal values, and percentages in real-life
scenarios
3.5
In addition to score 3.0 performance, partial success at score 4.0 content
3.0
The student will:
Convert numbers in decimal form to simple fractions
Convert fractions to numbers in decimal form using division skills
convert fractions and numbers in decimal form to percentages
2.5
No major errors or omissions regarding score 2.0 content, and partial success at score
3.0 content
2.0
The student will recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, decimal, fraction,
numerator, denominator, simplify) and perform basic processes, such as:
Interpreting decimal place value as fractions
Simplifying fractions
The student will recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, division, decimal
value, truncate, rounding) and perform basic processes, such as:
Using division skills on multi-digit numbers to convert a fraction to a decimal
Interpreting fractions as decimal place values
The student will recognize or recall specific vocabulary (for example, percentage,
decimal form) and perform basic processes, such as:
Demonstrating understanding that percentage represents parts per 100
Solving a percentage as a fraction out of 100
1.5
Partial success at score 2.0 content, and major errors or omissions regarding score 3.0
content
1.0
With help, partial success at score 2.0 content and score 3.0 content
0.5
With help, partial success at score 2.0 content but not at score 3.0 content
0.0
Even with help, no success
22
One issue that commonly arises when assessments are designed using proficiency scales,
involves scales that have more than one element at the score 3.0 level. This is depicted in figure
2.6.
When a proficiency scale has more than one element at the score 3.0 level, not every element
must be represented on every assessment given. More than one element are included on a
scale when it can be assured that the elements covary.
Here we use the term covary to mean that sets of knowledge and skill in the element
are related in such a way that as you get better at one component, you quite naturally get
better at the others. When elements on a scale covary, it can be considered unidimensional for
the purposes of measurement. Figure 2.6 above depicts this situation. That proficiency scale
has three statements at the score 3.0 level that might even have come from different standards
statements. However, the educators who created the scale believed that these three
components could be taught in such a way that student improvement in one component would
naturally stimulate student improvement in the other elements.
Note the italicized phrase “could be taught in such a way.” Whether or not content truly
covaries and can, therefore, be considered unidimensional, can depend on how the content is
taught. For example, consider the score 3.0 elements in figure 2.6:
Convert numbers in decimal form to simple fractions
Convert fractions to numbers in decimal form using division skills.
Convert fractions and numbers in decimal form to percentages.
There is obviously some overlap in these statements. While a case could be made that each of
these elements should be taught as separate measurement topics and, therefore, should have
their own proficiency scales, just as strong a case can be made that they can be taught in a
highly integrated fashion. If this is accomplished, then the statements should be in a single
proficiency scale. Assessments designed using such a proficiency scale would, therefore,
address these three statements as a single entity. Not every assessment would have to contain
content from each of the statements though. A pretest and posttest constructed from this scale
would probably address all three elements equally, but the assessments in between would vary
in their emphasis.
All Scores Are Proficiency Scale Scores
It is important to remember that all assessment scores should be recorded as proficiency scale
scores. For example, as depicted in figure 2.6, a teacher might administer an assessment with
three sections that pertain to score levels 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 on a proficiency scale. Each of its
own sections might have its own score, but teachers do not record them (meaning the teacher
does not need to record three scores). Instead, the teacher examines the score pattern across
the three sections to assign an overall proficiency scale score for the assessment. It is this one
proficiency scale score that is recorded, not the format-specific scores. To use another example,
a teacher might administer a ten-point quiz on score 2.0 content. Teachers might score this quiz
23
using a percent-correct method. Any student scoring 80 percent or higher would receive a score
2.0 on the scale, and the teacher would record only the score 2.0.
Multiple Proficiency Scale Scores
For every measurement topic, academy teachers develop and administer multiple assessments
using the proficiency scale as the guide for designing these assessments. Academy teachers
might design common pre-assessments and post-assessments for each measurement topic, but
this is not a requirement. However, it is a requirement that academy teachers provide multiple
proficiency scale scores for each student in each measurement topic. Ideally, teachers enter at
least three proficiency scale scores for each student on each measurement topic.
These multiple scores are entered as “evidence scores” with the Empower system. Each
time a teacher generates a score for a student it is entered into the Empower system for that
particular student. During a single class period, a teacher might enter a score for a particular
measurement topic for a specific student when the teacher had observed functioning at the
score 2.0 level. During the same class period, the teacher might have a probing discussion with
another student regarding another measurement topic and enter that score into Empower for
that student on that topic. This, of course, differs greatly from the traditional approach of giving
a single assessment to all students during a specific class period, scoring the assessment for
each student, and then entering the scores for all students into a gradebook. While this
convention can still be used, academy teachers more commonly enter proficiency scale scores
for small sets of students regarding a variety of measurement topics almost every day. This
renders record keeping for an academy broadly diffused throughout the school year and much
more a part of the day-to-day interaction in the classroom.
Keeping track of proficiency scale scores requires no more record-keeping than any
other system. For example, assume that a particular level or grade level contains twenty
proficiency scales. Teachers generate multiple proficiency scales for each student. Over the
course of the year, the teachers generate three to five scores for each student on each
measurement topic. If we assume an average of four scores per measurement topic, this
amounts to eighty scores for each student over the course of the year. If we assume an average
of six scores per measurement topic, this amounts to 120 scores for each student over the
course of a year.
This is roughly the same number of scores per student typically recorded in a traditional
system. In a traditional system, a teacher records quizzes, formal tests, homework, various
assignments, and extra credit points for a single student each quarter. If a quiz is given every
week, homework or assignments are recorded twice a week, and a test is given halfway
through the quarter and at the end of the quarter, then the teacher would record twenty-nine
scores (nine quizzes, eighteen homework assignments, and two tests) per student per quarter.
This would mean 116 entries each year per student.
Generating Summative Scores
Academy teachers assign summative scores in specific ways quite unlike teachers in a
traditional classroom. The traditional approach is to administer a single test referred to as the
24
summative assessment. If students receive a score on that test that is equal to or greater than a
specific “cut score” on the summative test, they are considered to be proficient. This approach
is fraught with many problems, not the least of which is that it can be highly inaccurate (see
Marzano, 2018).
In an academy, teachers assign summative scores based on the pattern of scores that
have been assigned to students over the various assessments described previously. For a
specific measurement topic, students would have different numbers of proficiency scale scores
assigned using different types of assessments at different times. This is depicted in figure 2.7.
Figure 2.7: Student Scores on a Specific Measurement Topic
1
2
3
4
5
Scott
1.5
2.0
3.0
3.5
4.0
Lonnie
2.0
2.0
3.0
2.5
Meara
2.5
3.0
3.0
Juan
2.0
2.5
1.5
2.5
Adrian
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
Justin
3.0
3.0
2.0
3.0
Eleanor
2.5
2.5
4.0
3.5
Keisha
3.0
3.5
2.5
April
1.5
2.0
3.0
As described above students do not have the same number of scores. Scott has five, Meara has
three, and Justin has four. Students can be assessed at different times, with different types of
assessments, and with different frequencies. However, teachers use these scores to construct a
reliable summative score. To illustrate, consider figure 2.8.
Figure 2.8: Mathematical Models Report
25
Figure 2.8 depicts a single student’s scores on a specific
measurement topic. The bars represent six proficiency scale
scores that were assigned over time. Such scores are referred
to as observed scores. The student began with an observed
score of 1.5 and ended with a score of 4.0. As these scores are
entered into the Empower system, it will automatically
compute three estimates of the best summative score and
mathematically evaluate which is best. The three ways of
computing a summative score are also illustrated in figure 2.8:
linear, curvilinear, and average. If the average were used to
compute the student’s summative score, it would be 2.5. The
average would only make sense as a summative score if the
student demonstrated no learning from one assessment to
the next. If a teacher used the linear trend in the student’s
scores, the summative score would be 3.66. The linear trend
score makes sense if the student’s learning increases at the
same rate as time goes on. Finally, a teacher can use what is
referred to as a curvilinear trend. If a teacher used this model,
the summative score would be 3.14. The curvilinear trend
makes sense if the student’s learning increases quickly in the
beginning and then flattens out as the student reaches
proficiency.
Perhaps the most powerful aspect of the Empower
system is that it mathematically evaluates each of the three
trends in terms of how well they represent, or fit, the
observed scores (Marzano, 2006). In this case, the Empower
system would determine that the linear trend best
fits the observed scores. This means that 3.66
would be the best mathematical estimate of the
student’s summative score.
Academy teachers use this information to
assign a summative score. It is important to note
that an academy teacher can use the exact
mathematical summative score computed by
Empower. In this case the score would be 3.66.
However, in some academies, the convention is to
round the mathematically computed summative
score to the nearest half point. In this case, that would be 3.5.
Once teachers have inputted
evidence scores into Empower,
Empower organizes and
analyzes that data in order to
present the evidence for
teachers’ review and suggest a
summative score based on the
methodology described above.
The Marzano True Score
Calculator is a powerful tool in
Empower which gives teachers
a wholistic look at a learner's
historical evidence and progress
through a given measurement
topic according to the
philosophy laid out above.
Learn more about summative
scoring in this tutorial video:
SUMMATIVE
DECISIONS IN
EMPOWER
26
Teacher Notes:
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
From the Summative Gradebook (Score Standards), The Marzano True Score estimator is only a click away.
27
III. Reporting and Grading
28
Within the academy model, reporting and grading can take a number of forms. More
specifically, an academy has the choice of using standards-referenced reporting or competency-
based reporting.
Standards Referenced Reporting
Standards-referenced reporting retains aspects of traditional grades and incorporates aspects
of a competency-based system. A standards-referenced report card is depicted in figure 3.1.
Figure 3.1: A Standards-Based Report Card
Name
Frederick Burgess
Address
4567 Mason Street
City
Anytown, WA 90000
Grade level
5
Language Arts
2.38
C+
Comparing
2.70
B
Mathematics
3.18
A
Classifying
3.50
A
Science
2.56
B
Staying focused
3.00
A
Social Studies
2.94
B+
Seeking accuracy
3.00
A
Art
2.75
B
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
English Language Arts
Decoding
2.5
Analyzing Text Organization and
Structure
1.5
Analyzing Ideas and Themes
2.0
Analyzing Claims
3.5
Analyzing Narratives
2.5
Comparing Texts
1.0
Analyzing Words
2.5
Generating Text Organization and
Structure
3.0
Generating Sentence Structure
3.0
Generating Claims
3.0
Using Citations
2.5
Generating Narratives
2.5
Generating Point of View and Purpose
3.0
Writing for a Specific Audience
3.0
Using Specific Words and Parts of
Speech
3.0
Punctuation, Capitalization, and Spelling
2.0
Revision and Editing
3.0
Average for English Language Arts
2.38
29
Cognitive Skills (English Language Arts)
Comparing
2.5
Classifying
3.5
Metacognitive Skills (English Language
Arts)
Staying focused
3.0
Seeking accuracy
3.0
Mathematics
Decimals
3.0
Fractions
3.0
Area
3.0
Volume
2.5
Multiplication
3.5
Division
3.5
Comparison Symbols
4.0
Exponents
3.0
Ordered Pairs and Coordinate Systems
3.0
Addition and Subtraction
4.0
Perimeter
4.0
Data Representation
3.0
Central Tendency in Data Sets
3.0
Numerical Patterns
3.0
Probability
3.0
Symmetry
3.0
Two-Dimensional Figures
4.0
Basic Functions
2.5
Factors and Multiples
2.5
Measurement
3.0
Average for Mathematics
3.18
Cognitive Skills (Mathematics)
Comparing
3.0
Classifying
3.5
Metacognitive Skills (Mathematics)
Staying focused
3.5
Seeking accuracy
3.5
Science
Matter and Its Interactions
2.5
Motion and Stability: Forces and
Interactions
3.0
Energy
3.0
30
From Molecules to Organisms:
Structures and Processes
2.5
Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and
Dynamics
2.0
Earth’s Place in the Universe
2.0
Earth’s Systems
2.0
Earth and Human Activity
3.0
Engineering Design
3.0
Average for Science
2.56
Cognitive Skills (Science)
Comparing
2.5
Classifying
3.5
Metacognitive Skills (Science)
Staying focused
2.5
Seeking accuracy
2.5
Social Studies
History: Analyze and interpret historical
sources
3.5
History: Historical eras, individuals,
groups, ideas and themes in regions of
the Western Hemisphere
3.5
Geography: Use geographic tools
3.0
Geography: Human and physical
systems
3.0
Economics: Different economic systems
2.5
Economics: Personal financial literacy
3.0
Civics: Connection of the U.S. to other
nations
2.5
Civics: Multiple systems of government
2.5
Average for Social Studies
2.94
Cognitive Skills (Social Studies)
Comparing
3.0
Classifying
3.5
Metacognitive Skills (Social Studies)
Staying focused
3.0
Seeking accuracy
3.0
Art
Perceptual Skills and Visual Arts
Vocabulary
3.0
Art Elements and Principles of Design
3.0
Skills, Processes, Materials, and Tools
2.5
31
Communication and Expression Through
Original Works of Art
2.5
Average for Art
2.75
Cognitive Skills (Art)
Comparing
2.5
Classifying
3.5
Metacognitive Skills (Art)
Staying focused
3.0
Seeking accuracy
3.0
In figure 3.1 the overall grades have been computed and reported in a traditional manner. This
is done by translating the summative scores on measurement topics for a given subject area
into a traditional letter grade. To illustrate, consider the final scores for the subject of social
studies. The dark portion of each bar graph represents the student’s initial status, while the
light portion represents the student’s current status as described by the summative score. For
the measurement topic of Using Geographic Tools (Geography), the student started with a
score of 1.0 (the dark part of the bar graph) but reached a summative score of 3.0 by the end of
the grading period. Thus, the student grew by 2.0 score points. Notice that the report card in
figure 3.1 also includes measurement topics for cognitive and metacognitive skills. These are
addressed just as academic content is addressed. That is, each subject area reports status and
growth for each specific measurement topic.
Summative proficiency scale scores can be converted to letter grades using the
conversion scale in figure 3.2.
Figure 3.2: Conversion From Proficiency Scale Scores to Letter Grades
Average Proficiency Scale Score
Letter Grade
3.754.00
A+
3.263.74
A
3.003.25
A−
2.842.99
B+
2.672.83
B
2.502.66
B−
2.342.49
C+
2.172.33
C
2.002.16
C−
1.761.99
D+
1.261.75
D
1.001.25
D−
Below 1.00
F
Source: Adapted from Marzano, 2010.
32
There is obvious logic to the conversion scale in figure 3.2. A score of 3.0 on a proficiency scale
represents proficiency with the content, therefore, an average of 3.0 or above puts a student in
the A category. By extension, an average score of 2.50 to 2.99 puts a student in the B category
and so on. Figure 3.3 translates proficiency scale scores into percentage scores.
Figure 3.3: Conversion From Proficiency Scale Scores to a One Hundred-Point Scale
Average Proficiency Scale Score
One Hundred-Point Scale Score
4.0
100
3.5
95
3.0
90
2.5
80
2.0
70
1.5
65
1.0
60
Below 1.0
50
Source: Adapted from Marzano, 2010.
Figure 3.4 contains a comprehensive conversion system from proficiency scale scores to both
letter grades and percentage scores.
Again, the report card in figure 3.1 lists overall grades for each subject area as well as overall
grades for cognitive and metacognitive skills. Teachers use the same conversion system to
calculate the grades for the cognitive and metacognitive skills, using an average of the scores
across all subject areas. For example, the scores for comparing are as follows: English language
arts, 2.5; mathematics, 3.0; science, 2.5; social studies, 3.0; and art, 2.5. The average of these
scores is 2.70, which translates to a B.
There is another approach to computing overall grades. It is called the conjunctive
approach (Marzano, 2010). The conjunctive approach is best used when the teacher has not
provided instruction in score 3.0 content for all measurement topics addressed. It stands to
reason that students likely cannot score 3.0 on any assessment unless score 3.0 content has
adequately been addressed in class. Therefore, in a conjunctive approach, academy teachers
establish minimum scores for each measurement topic for corresponding grades. To illustrate,
consider the measurement topic for mathematics in figure 3.5. Each of these measurement
topics has a proficiency scale, and the teacher introduced nine topics in the first trimester.
However, for three of these topics, instruction was not provided past the score 2.0 content. In
addition, students just started learning about score 3.0 content in two topics. Given that for
three topics the students only received instruction for score 2.0 content, and for two topics the
students received only partial instruction in 3.0 content, the teacher might establish criteria for
an A grade as depicted in figure 3.5.
33
Figure 3.4: Comprehensive Conversion System
Figure 3.4: Comprehensive Conversion System
34
Figure 3.5: Scoring Criteria for a Grade of A for First Trimester
Measurement Topic
Exposure to Content
Criteria
Decimals
Complete
3.0 or above
Fractions
Just started score 3.0 content
2.5 or above
Area
Score 2.0 content only
2.0 or above
Volume
Score 2.0 content only
2.0 or above
Multiplication
Complete
3.0 or above
Division
Complete
3.0 or above
Ordered Pairs and
Coordinate Systems
Score 2.0 content only
2.0 or above
Addition and Subtraction
Complete
3.0 or above
Perimeter
Just started score 3.0 content
2.5 or above
The teacher would use a similar approach to set minimum scores for grades B, C, D, and F. The
conjunctive approach can be useful in a standards-referenced system when students have not
been exposed to all of the score 2.0 and 3.0 content for some measurement topics during a
grading period.
Competency-Based Reporting
Competency-Based reporting uses a different model than standards-referenced reporting. A
competency-based system uses levels rather than traditional grade levels. A competency-based
system allows students to progress through levels in each subject area according to
demonstrated proficiency rather than time. Therefore, scores are reported according to a
student’s individual progression through levels rather than according to a time-based grade
level or a specific course. This is depicted in figure 3.6.
Note that many subject areas include levels 01 through 10. Level 10 represents mastery
of a subject area as would be sufficient for a general high school diploma in a traditional
system. However, not all subject areas include 10 levels. For example, art has six levels,
technology has seven levels, and personal or social skills has five levels. In other words, each
content area has as many or as few levels necessary to describe progression up to high school
graduation.
An advantage of a competency-based system is that it allows for levels that exceed high
school achievement expectancy. For example, mathematics has three advanced levels, as do
language arts and science. Art has one advanced level, and technology has two. This means that
a student who is still working on high school proficiency for some levels, may exceed high
school proficiency in others. In many cases, students may earn college credit for achieving these
advanced levels.
Finally, note that figure 3.6 displays the level a student is currently working on for each
subject area, as well as areas in which a student has already demonstrated proficiency. For
example, in science, the student is working on level 04. The proportion in the cell is 17/25. Of
the twenty-five measurement topics at that level, the student has demonstrated proficiency (an
35
obtained score of at least 3.0 on the scale) on seventeen of the topics. Also, note that at level
03 in science, the student has a recorded score of 3.0. This means that while the student
received a 3.0 or higher on all measurement topics, the majority of the scores were 3.0. An
alternative to this convention is to report the average score across measurement topics. For
example, instead of an overall score of 3.0 for level 02 mathematics, the student might have
received a score of 2.68. It is important to note that, in all cases, this average score across
measurement topics would always be at least 3.0 before students can move on to the next level
(meaning this student would have needed more work to achieve proficiency). Once a student
has completed a level, the teacher drops the proportional scores (as seen in the 17/25 cell for
level 04 science) and reports only the overall score for the measurement topics of that level.
Figure 3.6: A Report Card with Levels
Level
Art
Career
Literacy
Math
Personal/
Social
Skills
Language
Arts
Science
Social
Studies
Technology
Advanced
3
Advanced
2
Advanced
1
10
09
08
07
06
05
04
2 of 16
21 of 35
3 of 36
17 of 25
03
9 of 10
3.0
(Proficient)
3.0
(Proficient)
4 of 6
4.0
(Advanced)
3.0
(Proficient)
13 of 15
7 of 8
02
3.0
(Proficie
nt)
3.0
(Proficient)
4.0
(Advanced)
3.0
(Proficient)
3.0
(Proficient)
3.0
(Proficient)
3.0
(Proficient)
4.0
(Advanced)
01
3.0
(Proficie
nt)
3.0
(Proficient)
4.0
(Advanced)
3.0
(Proficient)
3.0
(Proficient)
3.0
(Proficient)
3.0
(Proficient)
3.0
(Proficient)
Note: Shaded cells indicate levels that do not apply to the subject area.
Source: Marzano, 2010, p. 119.
36
Every teacher in Empower has the
opportunity to set up their Scoring tab to
their own preference. Setting up your
gradebook is simple. First you will create
a group. A group in Empower is simply a
set of learners. When selected on the
Scoring tab, this determines the y axis of
your scoring workspace.
SCORING
IN EMPOWER
Now we need an x axis to create
a workspace. To do this, we will
create a gradebook. In Empower,
a gradebook is a selection of
Measurement Topics. The Target
Browser makes that simple, as
shown in the following video.
With those steps done, you're ready to enter scores. We recommend learning first to
enter Evidence scores. Evidence scores will be used to make summative decisions.
[Cite your source here.]
37
The variables involved in printing cause us to
strongly advise that you out well ahead of this,
that is, that you attempt to print reports a
month or more before the day you want to
put them in backpacks. This will give plenty of
time to ensure that all wrinkles get ironed out
and reports are a big success!
This video will serve as a great intro to
printing progress reports:
Empower has a range of printable progress reports and each of those have their own options.
Ensuring that the necessary data and settings are in place for your chosen report can be a little trickier. This
flow chart will help you trouble shoot the most common questions.
REPORTING IN EMPOWER
38
IV. Cognitive and
Metacognitive Skills
39
In addition to academic content, an academy focuses on cognitive and metacognitive skills.
Cognitive skills are those that human beings naturally use to correctly process new information
and effectively complete tasks. For example, human beings naturally compare two or more
objects or options in order to decide which object or option best fits the desired outcome.
Although cognitive skills are, to some degree, hardwired in human beings, direct instruction of
cognitive skills can greatly improve a student’s ability to think rigorously and deepen
knowledge. Cognitive skills, within the scope of K-12 education, are those skills that help
students retrieve and comprehend knowledge. Additionally, cognitive skills help students
analyze and utilize knowledge in a variety of circumstances. There are two types of cognitive
skills in the academy model: cognitive analysis skills and knowledge application skills.
Cognitive Analysis Skills
The cognitive analysis skills in the academy model are listed in figure 4.1.
Figure 4.1: The Cognitive Analysis Skills in the MAI Model
Cognitive Analysis
Skill
Definition
Comparing
Comparison helps students see similarities and differences between
concepts. By comparing multiple concepts, students can gain new
insights on each concept and learn how to best apply each concept in
individual circumstances.
Analogical
Reasoning
Analogical reasoning is the process of determining how one set of
elements or concepts is related to another set of elements or
concepts. Analogical reasoning often begins with recognizing common
analogy relationships.
Classifying
Classifying is the process of using definable attributes to group
concepts or elements purposefully and putting them into categories
or related subcategories.
Analyzing
Perspectives
Analyzing perspectives allows students to explore their own
perspectives, see one issue or concept from different perspectives,
and adapt their own viewpoints in light of new information. It also
allows students to understand how perspective colors their own
viewpoints.
Constructing
Support
Constructing support allows students to formulate a claim, discover
and analyze valid support for that claim, evaluate opposing facts or
claims, and create a comprehensive argument to support the claim.
Analyzing
Inferences
Analyzing inferences allows students to recognize automatic (or
default inferences), discover more complex inferences based on
reason, analyze the accuracy of inferences, and explain their own
inferences or changes in their inferences based on logic.
40
Analyzing Errors in
Reasoning
Analyzing errors allows students to recognize when an argument or
opinion is not based on sound logic or reasoning. It also allows
students to recognize and articulate common errors in reasoning.
Generating Mental
Images
Creating pictures, symbols, or imaginative scenarios mentally and then
using them to test hypotheses, ideas, or solutions.
As is the case with academic skills, cognitive analysis skills have associated proficiency scales. To
illustrate, consider figure 4.2.
Figure 4.2: Middle School Proficiency Scale for the Cognitive Analysis Skill of Classification
4.0
The student will:
• Describe how the classifying process can be made more rigorous or informative.
3.5
In addition to score 3.0 performance, partial success at score 4.0 content
3.0
The student will:
CLAS1Independently execute a classifying process that involves selection of items,
characteristics, categories, and self-analysis.
2.5
No major errors or omissions regarding score 2.0 content, and partial success at score 3.0 content
2.0
CLAS1The student will perform basic processes such as:
• Describe a classifying process that involves selection of items, characteristics,
categories, and self-analysis (for example, [1] determine if classification would help you
with the content you are studying, [2] identify the items you wish to classify and the
characteristics on which you will classify, [3] create the categories you will use by
specifying the attribute(s) for membership in the category, [4] place the items in
categories by determining if they fit the attributes for membership, [5] if needed,
combine categories or split them into smaller categories and specify new attributes, [6]
summarize what you have learned from the classifying task and identify questions
about the items that are still unanswered for you).
1.5
Partial success at score 2.0 content, and major errors or omissions regarding score 3.0 content
1.0
With help, partial success at score 2.0 content and score 3.0 content
0.5
With help, partial success at score 2.0 content but not at score 3.0 content
0.0
Even with help, no success
Figure 4.3: Distribution of Cognitive Analysis Skills Across Grades K-8
Cognitive Analysis Skill
K
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Comparing
X
X
X
X
X
Analogical Reasoning
X
X
X
Classifying
X
X
X
X
X
Analyzing Perspectives
X
X
X
X
Constructing Support
X
X
X
X
X
Analyzing Inferences
X
X
X
Analyzing Errors in
Reasoning
X
X
X
Generating Mental Images
X
X
X
X
X
X
41
The cognitive analysis skills should be distributed throughout the curriculum in a manner like
that depicted in figures 4.3 and 4.4.
Figure 4.4 Distribution of Cognitive Analysis Skills Across Subject Area and Grade for High
School
Cognitive Analysis Skill
9
ELA
9
Math
9
SS
9
Sci
10
ELA
10
Math
10
SS
10
Sci
Comparing
X
X
Analogical Reasoning
X
X
Classifying
X
X
X
X
Analyzing Perspectives
X
X
Constructing Support
X
X
X
Analyzing Inferences
X
X
Analyzing Errors in Reasoning
X
X
Generating Mental Images
X
X
X
X
Knowledge Application Skills
As the name implies, the knowledge application skills require students to apply the content
they have learned in situations not specifically addressed in class. The knowledge application
skills in the academy model are defined in figure 4.5.
Figure 4.5: Knowledge Application Skills
Knowledge Application Skill
Definition
Problem Solving
Navigating obstacles and limiting conditions
to achieve a goal
Decision Making
Methodically selecting the best option from
among several good alternatives
Experimental Inquiry
Generating explanations for events or
phenomena and testing the accuracy of
those explanations
Investigating
Identifying questions about a topic, event, or
idea and discovering answers, solutions, or
predictions
Inventing
Developing original products or processes
that meet specific needs
Systems Analysis
Describing how the parts of a system work
together
The proficiency scales for the knowledge application skills follow the same format as the
cognitive analysis skills. Figure 4.6 depicts the proficiency scale for experimental inquiry at the
middle school level.
42
Figure 4.6: Middle School Proficiency Scale for Experimental Inquiry
4.0
The student will:
• Describe how to make the experimental-inquiry process more rigorous or effective.
3.5
In addition to score 3.0 performance, partial success at score 4.0 content
3.0
The student will:
EI1Independently execute a complete experimental-inquiry process.
2.5
No major errors or omissions regarding score 2.0 content, and partial success at score 3.0 content
2.0
EI1The student will perform basic processes such as:
• Understand more complex aspects and nuances of the experimental-inquiry process
(for example, making a good prediction is dependent on how well you can explain what
you have observed, explaining an observation involves identifying the rules and
generalizations you think are at work).
• Describe a complete experimental-inquiry process that involves self-analysis in which
the student independently executes the steps and accesses resources (for example, [1]
make observations of something that is of interest to youWhat do I see or notice? [2]
describe what you have observed while trying to be as concrete and objective as
possibleWhat is the best way to tell about what I see or notice? [3] provide an
explanation for what you have observedWhat theories or rules can explain my
observations? [4] based on your explanation, make a predictionWhat do I predict
based on my explanation? [5] set up an experiment or activity to test your prediction
How can I test my prediction? [6] explain the results of your experiment or activity using
your original explanationWhat happened? Is this what I predicted? [7] if necessary,
make changes in your original explanationDo I need to try a different explanation? [8]
evaluate how well you have done in your experimental inquiry and summarize what you
have learnedHow do I feel about the inquiry? What have I learned?).
1.5
Partial success at score 2.0 content, and major errors or omissions regarding score 3.0 content
1.0
With help, partial success at score 2.0 content and score 3.0 content
0.5
With help, partial success at score 2.0 content but not at score 3.0 content
0.0
Even with help, no success
The knowledge application skills should be distributed throughout the curriculum in a manner
like that depicted in figures 4.7 and 4.8.
Figure 4.7: Distribution of Knowledge Application Skills Across Grade Levels
Knowledge Application
Skill
K
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Problem Solving
X
X
X
X
X
X
Decision Making
X
X
X
X
Experimental Inquiry
X
X
X
X
Investigating
X
X
X
X
Invention
X
X
X
Systems Analysis
X
X
X
43
Figure 4.8: Distribution of Knowledge Application Skills Across Subject Area and Grade Level
for High School
Knowledge Application
Skill
9
ELA
9
Math
9
SS
9
Sci
10
ELA
10
Math
10
SS
10
Sci
Problem Solving
X
X
Decision Making
X
X
Experimental Inquiry
X
X
Investigating
X
X
Inventing
X
X
X
X
Systems Analysis
X
X
X
X
Metacognitive Skills
Metacognitive skills are also addressed in the academy model. Metacognitive skills are defined
broadly as those skills that help a person perform both mental and physical actions effectively
and efficiently throughout his or her life (especially in difficult situations). In education, these
are crucial skills for critical thinking in each subject area. They are also highly transferable
between subject areas. The metacognitive skills in the academy model are defined in figure 4.9.
Figure 4.9: The Metacognitive Skills in the Academy Model
Cognitive and Metacognitive measurement topics can be found in the Target Browser just like
academic measurement topics.
44
Metacognitive Skill
Definition
Staying focused when answers
and solutions are not
immediately apparent
This skill helps students identify personal difficulties and
stay focused when challenges arise. It also allows
students to recognize how adamantly they are pursuing
goals.
Pushing the limits of one’s
knowledge and skills
This skill allows students to set goals that challenge
them. Students with this skill strive to learn more and be
able to do more.
Generating and pursuing one’s
own standards for performance
This skill enables students to envision criteria for what a
successful project will look like.
Seeking incremental steps
This skill allows students to achieve large goals one
carefully planned step at a time. It helps students
understand each part’s relationship to the whole.
Seeking accuracy
This skill allows students to vet sources of information
for reliability. Students are also able to verify
information and sources by consulting multiple sources
known to be reliable.
Seeking clarity
This skill allows students to identify points of confusion
when learning new information. This allows students to
independently seek a deeper understanding.
Resisting impulsivity
When faced with a desire to form a quick conclusion,
this skill allows students to refrain from doing so until
more relevant information can be gathered and
necessary revisions can be made.
Seeking cohesion and
coherence
This skill allows students to monitor the relationships
between individual parts in a system and relationships
between the parts and the whole. Students understand
how to make necessary adjustments.
Setting goals and making plans
This skill allows students to set shortand long-term goals,
create timelines or blueprints, monitor progress, and
make necessary adjustments.
Growth mindset thinking
This skill allows students to habitually take on challenges
that seem daunting.
Again, proficiency scales accompany each metacognitive skill. One is depicted in figure 4.10.
Figure 4.10: Middle School Proficiency Scale for Metacognitive Skill of Seeking Accuracy
4.0
The student will:
• Articulate specific situations (in school and outside of school) in which he/she should
seek accuracy, set goals to do so, and evaluate progress.
3.5
In addition to score 3.0 performance, partial success at score 4.0 content
3.0
The student will:
SA1Recognize when he or she is not seeking accuracy and respond by executing a
complex strategy involving self-analysis.
45
2.5
No major errors or omissions regarding score 2.0 content, and partial success at score 3.0 content
2.0
SA1The student will recognize or recall vocabulary associated with self-analysis as it
relates to seeking accuracy (for example, critical thinking, evidence, reflection) and
perform basic processes such as:
• Describe a complex strategy involving self-analysis for seeking accuracy (articulated by
the class or the teacher in the form of a standard operating procedure [SOP]) (for
example, [1] ask yourself if there is something about which you need to seek accuracy,
[2] if yes, identify possible resources (you might need to ask for help on this), [3] check
the sources you’ve identified, [4] identify what you were right about, what you were
wrong about, and what you have learned that is new).
• Understand what an individual might think and feel while seeking accuracy (for
example, feeling skeptical; thinking “Is this source biased?” or “What evidence is
presented?”).
1.5
Partial success at score 2.0 content, and major errors or omissions regarding score 3.0 content
1.0
With help, partial success at score 2.0 content and score 3.0 content
0.5
With help, partial success at score 2.0 content but not at score 3.0 content
0.0
Even with help, no success
Metacognitive skills should be distributed through the curriculum in a manner like that depicted
in figures 4.11 and 4.12.
Figure 4.11: Distribution of Metacognitive Skills Across Grades K-8
Metacognitive Skill
K
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Staying focused when
answers and solutions are
not immediately apparent
X
X
X
X
Pushing the limits of one’s
knowledge and skills
X
X
Generating and pursuing
one’s own standards of
excellence
X
X
Seeking incremental steps
X
X
X
X
Seeking accuracy
X
X
X
X
Seeking clarity
X
X
X
Resisting impulsivity
X
X
X
Seeking cohesion and
coherence
X
X
X
X
Setting goals and making
plans
X
X
X
X
X
Growth mindset thinking
X
X
X
Figure 4.12: Distribution of Metacognitive Skills Across Subject Area and Grade
46
Metacognitive Skill
9
ELA
9
Math
9
SS
9
Sci
10
ELA
10
Math
10
SS
10
Sci
Staying focused when answers
and solutions are not
immediately apparent
X
X
Pushing the limits of one’s
knowledge and skills
X
X
Generating and pursuing one’s
own standards of excellence
X
X
Seeking incremental steps
Seeking accuracy
X
X
Seeking clarity
X
X
Resisting impulsivity
X
X
Seeking cohesion and
coherence
X
X
Setting goals and making plans
X
X
Growth mindset thinking
X
X
Teacher notes:
______________________________________________________________________________
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______________________________________________________________________________
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______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
47
V. Blended Instruction
48
Blended instruction should be a staple for academy teachers. In its simplest form blended
instruction means that students receive instruction in two ways: from the teacher and virtually.
On a daily basis teachers will provide students with instruction that addresses score 2.0,
3.0, and 4.0 content for a specific proficiency scale. Sometimes direct instruction is required.
Sometimes instruction is focused on practicing a skill or deepening understanding of
information. Sometimes instruction focuses on helping students apply their knowledge in new
situations. An academy teacher continually evaluates the type of instruction required for
students given the level of the proficiency scale in which they are working.
In addition to planning for day-to-day instruction regarding proficiency scales, an
academy teacher continually develops online activities and resources for score 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0
content for each proficiency scale. This is a project in which all teachers should share
responsibility. That is, teachers who are using proficiency scales in common should design,
create, and share online resources for the score 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 content. To illustrate, consider
figure 5.1.
Figure 5.1: Resources Based on a Proficiency Scale for the Measurement Topic Atmospheric
Processes and the Water Cycle
4
Describe and defend what might
occur to climatic patterns in a
specific location given a dramatic
change in one specific process of
the water cycle.
Hard-copy directions for
specific requirements regarding
what must be addressed
Examples from previous
students
3
Have an understanding of:
How the water cycle processes
(condensation, precipitation,
surface runoff, percolation,
evaporation) impact climate
changes
The effects of temperature
and pressure in different
layers of Earth’s atmosphere
Khan Academy video
Teacher-created screencasts
Pages in a book
Practice sheets
Short formative assessments
2
Recognize and recall basic terms
such as: climatic patterns,
atmospheric layers, stratosphere,
and troposphere.
Recognize or recall isolated details
such as:
Precipitation is one of the
processes of the water cycle
The troposphere is one of the
lowest portions of the Earth’s
atmosphere.
Khan Academy video
Teacher-created screencasts
Pages in a book
Practice sheets
Short formative assessments
49
The left hand side of figure 5.1 contains the score 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 content for a specific
proficiency scale. The right hand side of the figure lists some online resources that will help
students learn the content at the score 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 levels. Notice that some entries like the
Khan Academy references are free online resources that already exist. Figure 5.1 also lists
screencasts. These are instructional resources created by teachers that provide instruction
regarding specific score 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 content. Screencasts can be created using a wide
variety of free online tools. Also listed in figure 5.1 are practice activities in PDF form and even
pages from textbooks. As time goes on teachers using this proficiency scale would continue to
identify and develop resources which are then tagged to the score 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 content.
Empower's Instruction tab is the place to design and manage activities, quizzes and whole
units which you can design, reuse, co-edit and share with colleagues.
A unit, a pathway, a module. A playlist by any other name would still be a set of organized
learning experiences in Empower. Playlist can help organize your instruction for your own
purposes, for delivery to students and they get pretty fancy when we start using them as
courses and to help us manage differentiated learning.
Here is a good article that explains all about playlists.
And here is the tutorial video for Playlists.
INSTRUCTIONAL PLAYLIST IN EMPOWER
50
Using the Instruction Tab adds a lot of value to the Scoring tab and visa versa as the two are
woven together and actions on one can create and change elements on both. The graphic
below helps chart the relationships.
A major advantage of delivering instruction in Empower is that Empower is designed to help
manage a differentiated classroom.
As students progress through your playlist, Empower will keep you up to the minute with a
tally of how many students are working where. Click on that number to find out exactly which
learners are presently on that tile.
If you'd like to cut out the noise, click the Show Groupings button and Empower will show
only tiles which students are working on. These are your groups!
51
Sometimes called tasks, activities are very versatile and designed to deliver all sorts of digital
instruction. Whether you are building instruction for learners to be self-directed, or using
playlists to organize your own lesson plans, activities are a must-know.
This video shows how teachers can build and deploy activities.
Now learn about the control panel and how you can use it to adjust and change some of the
activity's settings as needed including assign and due dates, lock and unlocking, student
statuses, etc..
ACTIVITIES IN EMPOWER
52
What does that look like for learners? See it in this video:
When learners turn things in, one of the most efficient methods of scoring is the Scoring Inbox:
53
Creating and delivering assessments via Empower has several advantages.
Objective-type questions (true/false, fill-in-the-blank, multiple choice, etc.) can be scored by
the system. Scores will automatically be entered into appropriate gradebooks and the student's
portfolio. As with all created instruction in Empower, assessments can be co-created, shared
and re-used district-wide and year after year. Each question needs to be aligned to one and
only one measurement topic and a proficiency scale level must also be chosen to ensure score
reliability.
Learn all about assessments in Empower in this tutorial:
QUIZZES IN EMPOWER
54
VI. Vocabulary
55
An academy places a great deal of emphasis on direct vocabulary instruction. An important
aspect of direct vocabulary instruction is selecting appropriate terms to teach. Beck and her
colleagues (2002) designated three tiers of words: basic words like clock, happy, and baby are in
Tier I; more advanced general academic or literary words like coincidence, absurd, imaginative,
commercial, muscular, duplicate, and restrict are Tier 2; and domain-specific words such as
pronoun, algebra, isthmus, and quark are in Tier 3.
Most native speakers of English will acquire Tier 1 words through conversation, reading,
and daily experiences. However, there are two notable exceptions: students from lower
socioeconomic status families and English learners. These students may require direct
instruction in the basic Tier 1 words listed in this document. These 2,845 basic terms, along with
5,162 advanced terms, were listed in the book Teaching Basic and Advanced Vocabulary
(Marzano, 2010).
Tier I Terms
Tier I terms should be explicitly addressed at the elementary level. Stated differently, by the
time academy students are ready to matriculate to the sixth grade they should be well graded
in the Tier I terms. This should be done in a systematic fashion that involves three components:
1) the word list and student notebooks, 2) the practical activities, and 3) the video instructional
activities.
1. The Word List and Student Notebooks. The Tier I terms are organized into 420 semantic
clusters. They are listed in Appendix A at the end of this section. As the name implies, the
clusters are sets of related terms. For example, Cluster 35: Baby animals- bunny, cub, pup,
tadpole, calf, kitten, puppy.
The clusters themselves are organized sequentially, with the first one being the most
basic. This means that the cluster contains terms that are highly frequent in the English
language. The second cluster contains terms that are a little less frequent, and so on. Each
student should have a book entitled Building Background Vocabulary: Tracking My Progress.
That book contains all 420 clusters as depicted in figure 6.1.
Figure 6.1: Cluster 35. Baby Animals
bunny
4 3 2 1
calf
4 3 2 1
pup
4 3 2 1
kitten
4 3 2 1
cub
4 3 2 1
puppy
4 3 2 1
tadpole
4 3 2 1
Challenge Words
chick
4 3 2 1
colt
4 3 2 1
fawn
4 3 2 1
56
Notice that in figure 6.1, each Tier I term is listed with a
scale that ranges from 4 to 1. The values of the scale are:
4: I understand even more about the term than I
was taught.
3: I understand the term and am not confused
about any part of what it means.
2: I am a little uncertain what the term means,
but I have a general idea.
1: I am very uncertain about the term. I really
don’t understand what it means.
This scale is a form of self-assessment that students
should update on a systematic basis.
Also note in figure 6.1 that some words are
labeled Challenge Words. These are Tier II words that
also have similar meaning to the Tier I terms in the
cluster.
2. Practice Activities. For each of the clusters,
practice activities are available in PDF form. These
activities introduce students to the meaning of the
terms in the cluster and provide activities that
deepen their understanding of the terms. To
illustrate, consider cluster 20 on “distances.” The
folio begins by asking students to check the words
they already know. For example:
Check the words you already know:
Along
Away
Beside
Between
By
Close
Far
Near
Past
Toward
Apart
Lists of words can be built right
into Measurement Topics in
Empower. As learners
demonstrate knowledge of each
term or concept at this granular
level, teachers can check them
off, allowing guardians,
students and other teachers to
know up-to-the-minute and
down-to-the-letter what each
learner does and doesn't know.
Watch the tutorial video to
learn how admins can create
and teachers can use lists:
LISTS IN
EMPOWER
57
Aside
Beyond
Nearby
Opposite
Outer
Following this brief self-assessment students are provided with a stylized picture for each term
and a brief explanation. Consider the following example:
Beside
Preposition
Something that is beside something else is next to it.
Each PDF also includes review and assessment activities that help students determine the
extent to which they know the terms in the cluster. Consider the following example:
Circle the correct word to complete each sentence.
1. Sit across from me on the ______________ side of the table.
a. outer b. opposite c. along
2. The cat slept __________________ the bed and the dresser.
a. between b. close c. apart
3. The dog sat ___________ the door with a leash in its mouth.
a. aside b. far c. by
4. The restaurant was _________ to the mall, so Lanie and Jill walked there.
a. by b. close c. away
58
5. Jonathan walked ______________ us when he saw us arrive.
a. toward b. beside c. along
6. Jay’s grandparents live ________ from him, so he hardly gets to see them.
a. near b. far c. beyond
7. Liz and I live twenty minutes ____________ from each other.
a. toward b. nearby c. apart
8. Nelson sat __________ the front of the classroom to see the board better.
a. near b. beside c. past
9. Tania pushed the sandwich ___________ and said she would eat it later.
a. close b. aside c. beyond
10. Scott walked _____________ from school and headed home.
a. toward b. along c. away
11. There is a grocery store ___________, so we can just walk there.
a. nearby b. far c. aside
12. John sat __________ Cindy to show her pictures
from his vacation.
a. beside b. between c. past
13. The lake is ____________ these trees.
a. aside b. away c. beyond
14. Bill drove ___________ the house quickly.
a. along b. past c. far
15. Kevin lives in the _________ part of the city, away from the center.
a. away b. apart c. outer
16. Linda walked ____________ the shore slowly.
a. along b. close c. away
3. Video-Based Instructional Activities. For each of the clusters, video-based instructional
activities are available to provide further support for students learning the Tier I terms. For
many students, simply addressing the information and activities in the PDF folios will be
adequate for them to have a basic awareness and understanding of the terms in a cluster.
However, for some students, more support might be required. The video-based instruction
provides such support.
Multiple choice quizzes can be created in
Empower and taken digitally by students. This
will allow Empower to score the quiz and
automatically manage the scores including
insterting them into the appropriate gradebook.
Watch the Quiz Video Read the Quiz Article
59
The video-based instructional activities provide a picture representing each term as well
as an extended audio description of the meaning of each term and examples of how the term is
used in sentences. The video-based
instruction is particularly useful with students
for whom English is not their native language.
At the elementary level, instruction in
the Tier I terms should be systematic and
schoolwide.
The Schoolwide Emphasis
Within the schoolwide emphasis specific clusters are assigned to specific grade levels. For
example, grades 1 and 2 would be held responsible for clusters 1 through 200. Grades 3 and 4
would be held responsible for clusters 201 through cluster 420. Teachers in these grade levels
would identify clusters for which they are willing to take responsibility. For example, a first
grade teacher might be responsible for cluster 57, color, because it fits into a specific unit she
will teach.
For clusters for which they are responsible, teachers print the online PDF practice
activities and go over them with the whole class. After instruction, each student fills out the
section in their Tracking My Progress book indicating their level of understanding on the four-
point scale discussed previously. The teacher can also use the video-based resources for small
groups of students.
For some clusters, teachers might have students work in teams to go over the printed
practice activities and the video-based instructional resources. Students would also be
encouraged to work independently on clusters that are not directly covered in class.
Badging
As students progress through the clusters, it is important to acknowledge and celebrate their
accomplishments. This can be done using a badging approach. For example, once students have
demonstrated competence for the first 100 clusters they might be awarded the bronze level of
basic vocabulary expertise; when they have demonstrated competence for the first 200
clusters, they would be awarded silver status. 300 clusters would constitute the gold level
status, and all 420 clusters would constitute the platinum level.
Students Working Independently in School and at Home
Students should be allowed to work independently as they progress through the clusters. This
includes working at home with help from their parents and guardians. Specifically, parents and
guardians should have access to the online practice activities and video resources so that they
might help students at home.
Videos can be easily uploaded and accessed by
students with Empower's Activity tools.
Watch the Video Read the Article
60
Student Self-Assessment
One of the aspects of the academy approach to instruction in Tier I terms that might seem
unusual is the use of student self-assessment. Recall that students systematically assess
themselves on a four-point scale as they progress through clusters. Some educators might
question the accuracy of such assessments. In fact, students self-assessments might be
inaccurate to one degree or another. However, this should not be of great concern. The
important part and the point of this activity is that students are engaging in the process of self-
analysis as it relates to the terms in the Tracking My Progress book. Periodically, (e.g., once
every two weeks) students should be asked to re-examine their books and update their
assessment of the words they have already covered.
Another form of assessment is available online. Specifically, the online assessment
provides an approximation of the number of clusters a student knows. This assessment can be
used to initially place students in the continuum of clusters. It can also be used to determine
how many clusters students have progressed along the continuum.
Surface Level Learning of Terms
Another unusual aspect of the academy approach to instruction in Tier I terms is that
instruction is not designed for deep level learning of the terms. This is because the Tier I terms
are so frequent in the English language, that as long as students have a general, albeit surface
level, knowledge of them, they will encounter the terms frequently enough that the deep level
learning will occur quite naturally.
Tier II Terms
Tier II terms are also a part of the schoolwide approach described above. Specifically, each
cluster includes challenge words. For example, for Cluster 35, Baby Animals, depicted in figure
6.1, the following challenge words are listed: chick, colt, fawn. These are the Tier II words that
coincide with the Tier I terms in Cluster 35. In effect, if students have at least a working
knowledge of the terms in the 420 clusters and the challenge words for those clusters, they will
have a sound grounding in the Tier I and Tier II terms in the English language.
Tier III Terms
As described previously, Tier III words are domain-specific terms that students encounter as
part of instruction in specific subject areas. The level 2.0 content in the proficiency scales
explicitly list the Tier III terms important to each measurement topic.
A useful activity relative to Tier III terms is to highlight their importance by displaying
them in word walls and playing academic games that involve them. For the elementary level,
Appendix B contains the Tier III terms for English language arts, mathematics, and science.
61
Vocabulary Instruction in High school
The discussion about vocabulary instruction thus far has pertained primarily to grade levels
below high school. This noted, there are some students who could benefit greatly from
instruction in Tier I and II terms and even some of the elementary Tier III terms. Such
instruction typically occurs in small group or one-to-one formats.
For the most part, vocabulary instruction at the high school level takes place in subject
matter classrooms and focuses on the score 2.0 terms listed in the proficiency scales.
Teacher Notes:
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________.
62
Appendix A: Tier I Terms
The Tier I terms are organized into 420 semantic clusters. The 420 clusters of semantically
related terms have been further classified into 60 super clusters, or clusters of clusters. For
example, consider super cluster 10 (Animals), which contains the following clusters:
32 Birds
35 Baby Animals
64 Cats/Dogs
65 Land Animals (General)
70 Sea Animals
82 Reptiles and Mythical Animals
95 Insects
117 Actions Related to Animals
155 Parts of Animals
188 Rodents
189 Dwellings for Animals
194 Animals (General)
309 Shellfish (and Others)
310 Equipment Used with Animals
341 Primates
A list of all 2,845 Tier I terms organized into clusters is presented below. The terms are
bracketed and formatted in boldface for emphasis.
1. Modals [can, cannot, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would] (Super
cluster 1: Auxiliary and Helping Verbs)
2. Relationship Markers (Concurrent Action) [as, at, during, now, of, on, together, when,
while] (Super cluster 6: Time)
3. Primary Auxiliary Verbs [did, do, does, doing, done, had, has, have] (Super cluster 1:
Auxiliary and Helping Verbs)
4. Auxiliary Verbs [am, are, be, been, is, was, were, being] (Super cluster 1: Auxiliary and
Helping Verbs)
5. Relationship Markers (Addition) [and, of, too, with] (Super cluster 7: Comparison and
Contrast)
6. Pronouns/Reflexive Pronouns [he, him, I, it, me, myself, she, them, they, us, we, you]
(Super cluster 2: Pronouns)
7. Possessive Pronouns [her, hers, its, mine, my, our, their, your, yours, his, ours, theirs]
(Super cluster 2: Pronouns)
8. Interrogative Pronouns [what, when, where, which] (Super cluster 2: Pronouns)
9. Direction To and From [at, from, to] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and
Orientation)
10. Cause/Effect (Relationship Markers) [because, by, for, from, if, since, so, then, to,
because of] (Super cluster 3: Cause and Effect)
11. Relative Pronouns [that, which, who] (Super cluster 2: Pronouns)
63
12. Indefinite/Interrogative Adverbs [how, why] (Super cluster 2: Pronouns)
13. Specifiers [a, an, each, every, no, that, the, these, this, those, either] (Super cluster 5:
Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
14. Exclamations (General) [ah, aha, bye, gee, good-bye, ha, hello, hey, hi, ho, maybe, no,
oh, ok, okay, ooh, wow, yes, goodnight,] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
15. Intensifiers [more, most, much, so, such, sure, too, very, well, badly] (Super cluster 5:
Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
16. Relationship Markers (Concurrent Action) [already, early, fresh, new, ready, since,
young, ago, lately] (Super cluster 6: Time)
17. Directions [left, right, east, north, south, west] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and
Orientation)
18. Diminishers [almost, enough, just, only, hardly, alone, mostly, nearly, simply] (Super
cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
19. General Amounts [all, another, both, few, half, less, little, lot, many, more, most,
none, only, other, pair, two, whole, amount, couple, extra, several, single, twice]
(Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
20. Distances [along, away, beside, between, by, close, far, near, past, toward, apart,
aside, beyond, nearby, opposite, outer] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and
Orientation)
21. Front/Middle/Back [ahead, back, behind, end, forward, front, middle, center, last,
ahead of, among, backward, backwards, rear] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and
Orientation)
22. In/Out [across, in, inside, into, out, outside, through, enter, outdoors, indoor,
indoors, throughout, within] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
23. Down/Under [below, bottom, down, low, under, beneath, underneath, downhill,
downstairs, downward] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
24. Relationship Markers (Subsequent Action) [before, late, next, soon, then, until,
afterward, afterwards, later, latter] (Super cluster 6: Time)
25. Locations [here, there, where, nowhere, somewhere, anywhere, someplace] (Super
cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
26. Up/On [above, high, off, on, over, tip, top, up, onto, upon, aboard, overheard,
upright, upside-down, upstairs, upward] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and
Orientation)
27. Relationship Markers (Contrast) [but, else, not, or, still, than, without, yet, against,
compare, either, except, instead, neither, unless, whether] (Super cluster 7:
Comparison and Contrast)
28. Numbers [eight, five, four, nine, one, seven, six, ten, three, two, zero, eighteen,
eighty, eleven, fifteen, fifty, first, forty, fourteen, hundred, nineteen, ninety,
number, numeral, second, seventeen, seventy, sixteen, sixty, thirteen, thousand,
twelve, twenty, billion, decimal, dozen, million, ninth, seventh, sixth, tenth, third]
(Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
29. Days and Months [April, August, December, February, Friday, January, July, June,
March, May, Monday, November, October, Saturday, September, Sunday, Thursday,
Tuesday, Wednesday] (Super cluster 6: Time)
64
30. Attitudinals (Lack of Truth/Doubt) [maybe, possibly] (Super cluster 19: Attitudinals)
31. Attitudinals (Other) [hopefully, please] (Super cluster 19: Attitudinals)
32. Birds [bird, chicken, crow, duck, eagle, fowl, goose, hen, jay, owl, parrot, robin,
rooster, turkey] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
33. Size and Weight [big, giant, great, huge, large, little, small, tiny, enormous, gigantic,
jumbo] (Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
34. Indefinite Pronouns [any, each, enough, nothing, some, nobody, anybody, anyone,
anything, no one, somebody, someone, something] (Super cluster 2: Pronouns)
35. Baby Animals [bunny, calf, cub, kitten, pup, puppy, tadpole] (Super cluster 10:
Animals)
36. Vegetation (General) [bush, flower, plant, tree, vegetation, weed] (Super cluster 13:
Trees and Plants)
37. Boundaries [corner, edge, limit, margin, side] (Super cluster 4: Location/Direction)
38. Tossing and Catching [catch, pass, throw, toss] (Super cluster 28: Movement and
Action)
39. Ascending Motion [climb, lift, raise, order, rank, rise] (Super cluster 28: Movement
and Action)
40. The Act of Occurring [do, use, happen, occur] (Super cluster 28: Movement and
Action)
41. Ownership/Possession [have, belong, own, possess] (Super cluster 14: Acquisition and
Ownership)
42. Contractions (Are) [they're, we're, you're] (Super cluster 31: Contractions)
43. Sadness [sad, sorry, unhappy] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
44. Giving and Taking [bring, carry, deliver, get, give, mail, move, place, present, put,
return, send, set, take, bear, remove] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
45. Fun and Joy [fun, glad, happy, joke, jolly, joy, merry, play, please, silly, celebrate,
happiness, humor, joyful] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
46. Choice [choice, choose, decide, judge, pick, select, appoint, sort] (Super cluster 37:
Reasoning and Mental Actions)
47. Things Worn on the Head [cap, glasses, hat, helmet, hood, mask, sunglasses, crown]
(Super cluster 26: Clothing)
48. Types of Meals [breakfast, dinner, lunch, meal, picnic, supper, treat, dessert] (Super
cluster 22: Food and Eating)
49. Location (General) [address, direction, place, point, position, spot, location] (Super
cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
50. Bodies in Space [moon, sky, star, sun, universe, world, meteor, planet, space] (Super
cluster 33: Places, Land, and Terrain)
51. Eating and Drinking [bite, drink, eat, feed, sip, swallow, chew] (Super cluster 22: Food
and Eating)
52. Periods of Time [age, fall, month, season, summer, week, weekend, winter, year,
century, decade, generation, spring, weekday] (Super cluster 6: Time)
53. Poems and Songs [lullaby, music, poem, rhyme, song, hymn] (Super cluster 23:
Literature, Composition, and Writing)
65
54. Music and Dance [dance, music, ballet, melody, orchestra, solo] (Super cluster 24:
Arts and Entertainment)
55. Caring and Trusting [believe, care, enjoy, like, love, forgive, want] (Super cluster 39:
Emotions and Attitudes)
56. People (General Names) [human, individual, people, person, hero, self] (Super cluster
32: Categories of People)
57. Color [black, blue, brown, color, gold, gray, green, orange, pink, purple, red, white,
yellow, blonde, colorful, silver] (Super cluster 8: Color)
58. Importance and Value [best, better, dear, fine, good, important, perfect, outstanding,
super, useful] (Super cluster 11: Importance and Goodness)
59. Speed [fast, hurry, quick, race, rush, slow, speed, sudden, dash, slowdown] (Super
cluster 6: Time)
60. Places Related to Learning/Experimentation [kindergarten, library, museum, school,
classroom, schoolroom] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
61. Communication (Presentation of Information) [describe, explain, present, say, state,
tell, brag, inform, mention, recite] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
62. Things Worn on the Hands/Feet [boot, glove, mitten, shoe, skate, sock, stocking,
sandal, slipper] (Super cluster 26: Clothing)
63. Walking/Running [dance, march, run, skip, step, trip, walk, hike, limp, stumble,
tiptoe, trot] (Super cluster 18: Actions Involving Walking and Running)
64. Cats/Dogs [cat, dog, doggie, fox, lion, tiger, wolf, bulldog, collie] (Super cluster 10:
Animals)
65. Land Animals (General) [bear, cow, deer, donkey, elephant, giraffe, horse, lamb, pig,
pony, rabbit, sheep, bat, bull, kangaroo, moose, raccoon, reindeer, skunk, zebra]
(Super cluster 10: Animals)
66. Coming/Going (General) [go, come, leave, travel, visit, wander, appear, approach,
arrive, depart, disappear, exit, journey, proceed] (Super cluster 28: Movement and
Action)
67. Memory/Thought (General) [forget, idea, remember, think, thought, wonder,
imagine, memory] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
68. Students and Teachers [principal, student, teacher, graduate, pupil, schoolteacher]
(Super cluster 52: Occupations)
69. Emptiness and Fullness [empty, fill, full, hollow] (Super cluster 30: Shapes)
70. Sea Animals [fish, seal, whale, salmon, shark, tuna] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
71. Writing, Drawing, and Reading [color, copy, draw, paint, print, publish, scribble, sign,
spell, write, handwriting, misspell, publish, skim, trace, underline] (Super cluster 23:
Literature, Composition, and Writing)
72. Right and Wrong [correct, just, real, right, true, truth, wrong, error, fair, false, fault,
honest, mistake] (Super cluster 11: Importance and Goodness)
73. Units of Measurement [foot, gallon, grade, inch, mile, pound, quart, yard, mouthful,
spoonful, tablespoon] (Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
74. Ingredients Used to Make Foods [dough, flour, gravy, mix, pepper, salt, sauce, sugar,
catsup (ketchup), mayonnaise, mustard] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
66
75. Limbs [arm, elbow, finger, hand, thumb, shoulders, wrist] (Super cluster 12: The
Human Body)
76. Legs and Feet [feet, foot, knee, leg, toe, ankle, heel] (Super cluster 12: The Human
Body)
77. Plays and Movies [act, cartoon, film, movie, show, stage, comedy, play] (Super cluster
24: Arts and Entertainment)
78. Temperature [cold, heat, hot, temperature, warm, chill, cool] (Super cluster 34:
Combustion and Temperature)
79. Parts of a Day [day, evening, hour, minute, morning, night, noon, second, tonight,
afternoon, midnight, overnight, sundown, sunrise, sunset] (Super cluster 6: Time)
80. Throat and Mouth [mouth, teeth, throat, tooth, voice, gum, jaw, lip, tongue] (Super
cluster 12: The Human Body)
81. Contractions (Is) [he's, I'm, it's, she's, that's, there's, here’s, what's, where's] (Super
cluster 31: Contractions)
82. Reptiles/Mythical Animals [alligator, dragon, frog, snake, toad, turtle, dinosaur,
mermaid, monster] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
83. Relative Time [old, past, present, today, tomorrow, yesterday, ancient, future,
history, someday] (Super cluster 6: Time)
84. Sound Producing Devices [alarm, bell, horn, phone, doorbell, siren, telephone] (Super
cluster 21: Sounds and Noises)
85. Contractions (Will) [he'll, I'll, she'll, they'll, we'll, you'll] (Super cluster 31:
Contractions)
86. Dairy Products [butter, cheese, egg, yolk, cream, margarine] (Super cluster 22: Food
and Eating)
87. Locations Near Water [beach, island, coast, shore] (Super cluster 20: Water)
88. Medical Occupations [dentist, nurse, doctor] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
89. Losing/Winning [loss, winner, champion, defeat, win] (Super cluster 14: Acquisition
and Ownership)
90. Nature and Weather (General) [air, weather, nature] (Super cluster 48: Weather and
Nature)
91. Rooms [basement, bathroom, cellar, closet, garage, hall, kitchen, nursery, room,
bedroom, doorway, hallway, playroom, porch] (Super cluster 15: Parts of Dwellings)
92. Fasteners [chain, glue, key, lock, nail, needle, pin, rope, string, cable, knot, screw,
shoelace, strap] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
93. Things You Travel On [alley, bridge, driveway, highway, path, railroad, road,
sidewalk, street, track, trail, avenue, freeway, mall, racetrack, ramp, route, tunnel]
(Super cluster 16: Vehicles and Transportation)
94. Family Relationships [aunt, brother, dad, family, father, granny, ma, mama, mom,
mother, papa, parent, sister, son, uncle, cousin, daughter, grandparent, husband,
mammy, nephew, niece, sibling, wife] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
95. Insects [ant, bee, bug, butterfly, caterpillar, fly, insect, ladybug, spider, worm,
bumblebee, cockroach, flea, grasshopper, mosquito, moth, slug, wasp] (Super cluster
10: Animals)
67
96. Cooking and Eating Utensils [bowl, cup, dish, fork, glass, knife, pan, plate, pot, spoon,
chopsticks, mug, opener, tablespoon, teaspoon, tray] (Super cluster 41: Machines and
Tools)
97. Vehicles (Actions and Characteristics) [cruise, drive, passenger, ride, row, sail, glide]
(Super cluster 16: Vehicles and Transportation)
98. General Names for Groups [gather, group, pile, sequence, bunch, classify, list,
organize, stack] (Super cluster 44: Groups)
99. Dimensionality [deep, height, high, length, long, short, size, tall, thin, wide, depth,
narrow, shallow, thick, width] (Super cluster 30: Shapes)
100. Communication (Positive Information) [agree, bless, greet, pray, thank, welcome,
compliment, cooperate, encourage, praise] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
101. Forms of Water/Liquid [ice, rain, snow, water, hail, icicle, liquid, rainbow, raindrop,
rainfall, snowball, snowman, steam] (Super cluster 20: Water)
102. Bodies of Water [lake, ocean, puddle, river, sea, stream, bay, creek, pond] (Super
cluster 20: Water)
103. Noises (General) [hear, listen, loud, noise, quiet, sound, aloud, calm, echo, silence,
silent] (Super cluster 21: Sounds and Noises)
104. Money and Goods [cent, coin, dollar, money, penny, quarter, cash, check, dime,
nickel, pound, ticket] (Super cluster 17: Money and Goods)
105. Communication (General) [speak, speech, talk, chat, discuss, statement] (Super
cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
106. Places Related to Protection/Incarceration [cage, cave, shelter, fort, jail] (Super cluster
29: Structures and Buildings)
107. Building and Repairing [find, fix, make, build, develop, prepare, produce, repair,
shape] (Super cluster 43: Containers, Materials, and Building)
108. Trees/Bushes (Parts) [branch, leaf, twig, bark, limb, stump] (Super cluster 13: Trees
and Plants)
109. Places Where Money/Goods Are Kept [bank, safe, purse, wallet] (Super cluster 17:
Money and Goods)
110. Actions Helpful to Humans [behave, help, save, heal, improve, protect] (Super cluster
50: Actions That Are Helpful or Destructive)
111. Women [girl, lady, woman, female, housewife, schoolgirl] (Super cluster 32:
Categories of People)
112. Things to Write On/With [brush, card, crayon, ink, page, paper, pen, pencil,
blackboard, chalk, chalkboard, loose-leaf, notebook, paintbrush] (Super cluster 23:
Literature, Composition, and Writing)
113. Furniture [bed, bench, chair, crib, desk, drawer, seat, table, bookcase, couch,
counter, cradle, cupboard, playpen, sofa, stool] (Super cluster 15: Parts of Dwellings)
114. Areas of Land [land, lot, place, region, area, location, territory, zone] (Super cluster
33: Places, Land, and Terrain)
115. Head and Face [cheek, chin, face, head, brain, forehead, mind] (Super cluster 12: The
Human Body)
116. Money-Related Characteristics [free, poor, poverty, rich, broke, cheap, expensive]
(Super cluster 17: Money and Goods)
68
117. Actions Related to Animals [fish, fly, hunt, trap, buck, gallop, soar, sting] (Super
cluster 10: Animals)
118. Appliances [oven, radio, stove, television, furnace, heater, fridge] (Super cluster 41:
Machines and Tools)
119. Tools (General) [hammer, saw, shovel, tool, drill, rake, screwdrivers, tweezers] (Super
cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
120. Vehicles (Air Transportation) [balloon, helicopter, kite, plane, rocket, aircraft, airline,
airplane, spacecraft] (Super cluster 16: Vehicles and Transportation)
121. Places to Live [castle, home, hotel, house, hut, apartment, motel, palace, tent] (Super
cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
122. Actions Related to Money/Goods [buy, pay, sale, sell, spend, bet, earn, owe,
purchase] (Super cluster 17: Money and Goods)
123. Parts of a Home [door, floor, roof, stairs, wall, window, ceiling, doorstep, stair,
staircase, stairway] (Super cluster 15: Parts of Dwellings)
124. Foods that Are Prepared [bread, bun, cereal, chips, cracker, crust, hamburger,
hotdog, jelly, pancake, pizza, salad, sandwich, snack, toast, biscuit, coleslaw, loaf,
macaroni, muffin, noodle, oatmeal, omelet, pretzel, spaghetti, taco, tortilla, waffle]
(Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
125. Pants, Shirts and Skirts [belt, diaper, dress, jeans, pajamas, pants, pocket, shirt, skirt,
apron, bathrobe, nightgown, robe, shorts, sweater, tights] (Super cluster 26:
Clothing)
126. Frequency and Duration [long, never, often, once, sometimes, always, anymore,
awhile, daily, ever, forever, frequent, hourly, rare, regular, repeat, seldom, twice,
usual, weekly] (Super cluster 6: Time)
127. Water/Liquid [boil, dive, drain, drip, float, melt, pour, sink, spill, splash, stir, swim,
wet, bubble, dribble, flush, freeze, leak, slick, slippery, soak, spray, sprinkle, squirt,
trickle] (Super cluster 20: Water)
128. Transportation (Types) [bicycle, bike, bus, car, train, tricycle, truck, van, wagon,
ambulance, automobile, cab, locomotive, motorcycle, scooter, stagecoach, subway,
taxi, taxicab, trailer] (Super cluster 16: Vehicles and Transportation)
129. Clothing-Related Actions [fit, fold, sew, tear, wear, braid, patch, rip, wrinkle, zip]
(Super cluster 26: Clothing)
130. Parts [bit, dot, flake, part, piece, crumb, member, portion, section, slice, sliver,
splinter, type] (Super cluster 5: Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
131. Grabbing and Holding [catch, hold, hug, pick, clasp, cuddle, grab, pinch, snuggle,
squeeze] (Super cluster 35: Actions Involving Holding and Touching)
132. Consciousness/Unconsciousness [asleep, awake, nap, sleep, daydream, dream,
pretend, wake] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
133. Soil [ground, land, mud, soil, clay, dirt, dust, earth] (Super cluster 46: Rocks, Metals,
and Soil)
134. Linens [blanket, cover, pillow, towel, bedspread, cushion, napkin, pillowcase, sheet,
tablecloth] (Super cluster 15: Parts of Dwellings)
135. Looking and Perceiving [look, see, stare, watch, blink, peek, spy, wink] (Super cluster
25: Seeing and Perceiving)
69
136. Meats [bacon, beef, ham, hotdog, sausage, bologna, pork, steak] (Super cluster 22:
Food and Eating)
137. Intelligence [able, smart, stupid, alert, brilliant, wise] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and
Mental Actions)
138. Literature (Types) [myth, story, fiction, legend, literature, mystery, poetry, riddle,
tale, writing] (Super cluster 23: Literature, Composition, and Writing)
139. Parks and Yards [garden, park, yard, patio, playground, schoolyard] (Super cluster 33:
Places, Land, and Terrain)
140. Ears, Eyes and Nose [ear, eye, nose, eyebrow, eyelash, nostril] (Super cluster 12: The
Human Body)
141. Descending Motion (General) [drop, fall, lay, dump, slump, tumble] (Super cluster 28:
Movement and Action)
142. Rectangular/Square Shapes [block, rectangle, square, triangle, cube, pyramid,
triangular] (Super cluster 30: Shapes)
143. Board/Other Games [doll, toy, toys, puppet, puzzle] (Super cluster 42: Games, Sports,
and Recreation)
144. Time Measurement Devices [calendar, clock, watch, date, o’clock] (Super cluster 6:
Time)
145. Coats [coat, jacket, cape, raincoat] (Super cluster 26: Clothing)
146. Actions Related to Work [quit, work, hire, labor] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
147. Beginning Motion [begin, start, try, beginning, origin] (Super cluster 28: Movement
and Action)
148. Receiving/Taking Actions [get, steal, accept, attract, capture] (Super cluster 14:
Acquisition and Ownership)
149. Specific Actions Done with the Hands [point, wave, clap, handshake, salute] (Super
cluster 35: Actions Involving Holding and Touching)
150. Contractions (Have) [I've, they've, we've, you've] (Super cluster 31: Contractions)
151. Facial Expressions [grin, smile, frown, nod] (Super cluster 40: Actions Involving the
Face)
152. Actions Associated with the Mouth [kiss, suck, lick, spit] (Super cluster 40: Actions
Involving the Face)
153. Sweets [cake, candy, cookie, cupcake, doughnut, gum, honey, jam, pie, pudding,
syrup, brownie, butterscotch, caramel, chocolate, cocoa, fudge, licorice, lollipop,
marshmallows, sherbet, sundae, vanilla] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
154. Learning and Teaching [coach, direction, know, learn, teach, understand, advice,
comprehend, confuse, discover, information, instruct, outsmart, study, suggest,
trick] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
155. Parts of Animals [feather, fur, hide, paw, tail, whisker, beak, bill, claw, fin, flipper,
hoof, snout] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
156. Noises People Make [cheer, cry, laugh, roar, shout, sing, whisper, yell, applause,
chuckle, cough, giggle, holler, laughter, scream, snore, whistle, yawn] (Super cluster
21: Sounds and Noises)
157. Body Coverings and Marks [bump, hair, rash, skin, bald, beard, bruise, freckle, pigtail,
scar] (Super cluster 12: The Human Body)
70
158. Recreation/Sports Equipment [ball, bat, glove, swing, base, goal, net, softball,
touchdown] (Super cluster 42: Games, Sports, and Recreation)
159. Vehicles (Sea Transportation) [boat, canoe, ship, raft, submarine, tugboat, yacht]
(Super cluster 16: Vehicles and Transportation)
160. The Body (General) [body, lap, neck, belly, chest, hip, waist] (Super cluster 12: The
Human Body)
161. Actions Harmful to Humans [hurt, kill, punish, harm, injure, murder, shoot] (Super
cluster 50: Actions That Are Helpful or Destructive)
162. Food-Related Actions [bake, boil, cook, barbeque, broil, fry, grill, roast, serve] (Super
cluster 22: Food and Eating)
163. Cutting Tools [ax, axe, knife, scissors, blade, lawnmower, pocketknife] (Super cluster
41: Machines and Tools)
164. Containers [bag, basket, bath, bathtub, bottle, box, bucket, jar, barrel, coffeepot,
container, crate, folder, hamper, jug, package, pail, pitcher, sack, suitcase, tub]
(Super cluster 43: Containers, Materials and Building)
165. Noises that Objects Make [bang, beep, boom, ring, click, creak, plop, rattle, slam,
squeak, toot, zoom] (Super cluster 21: Sounds and Noises)
166. Mathematical Operations [add, count, minus, plus, subtract, addition, cube, divide,
division, multiplication, multiply, subtraction] (Super cluster 36: Mathematical
Operations and Quantities)
167. Performers and Entertainers [clown, dancer, actor, actress, magician, model] (Super
cluster 52: Occupations)
168. Hills and Mountains [hill, mountain, cliff, hillside, mound] (Super cluster 33: Places,
Land, and Terrain)
169. Lack of Motion [rest, stay, delay, pause, relax, remain, wait] (Super cluster 28:
Movement and Action)
170. Descending Motion [lie, sit, crouch, kneel, squat] (Super cluster 28: Movement and
Action)
171. Finding/Keeping [find, keep, bury, hide, spot] (Super cluster 14: Acquisition and
Ownership)
172. Locations Where People Might Live [city, neighborhood, state, town, village, camp,
county, downtown, ghetto, heaven, slum, suburb] (Super cluster 38: Locations and
Places Where People Live)
173. Royalty and Statesmen [king, mayor, president, candidate, knight, official, prince,
princess, queen] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
174. Fruits [apple, banana, cherry, grape, orange, peach, pear, strawberry, avocado,
berry, blueberry, coconut, cranberry, grapefruit, lemon, melon, pineapple, plum,
prune, raisin, raspberry] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
175. Noises that Animals Make [bark, buzz, meow, moo, baa, cluck, gobble, growl, peep,
purr, quack] (Super cluster 21: Sounds and Noises)
176. Drinks [juice, milk, pop, soup, beer, chili, coffee, soda, stew, tea, wine] (Super cluster
22: Food and Eating)
177. Questioning [answer, ask, call, offer, question, reply, request, respond, test] (Super
cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
71
178. Fabrics [cloth, rag, thread, cotton, lace, leather, nylon, silk, wool] (Super cluster 26:
Clothing)
179. Recreational Events and Festivals [birthday, party, recess, circus, date, fair, holiday,
parade, vacation] (Super cluster 45: Events)
180. Countries and Continents [country, nation, continent, equator, hemisphere] (Super
cluster 38: Locations and Places Where People Live)
181. Wooden Building Materials [stick, wood, board, log, post, timber] (Super cluster 43:
Containers, Materials and Building)
182. Pushing and Pulling [pull, push, drag, haul, shove, yank] (Super cluster 28: Movement
and Action)
183. Recreation and Sports [game, recess, contest, race, recreation, sport] (Super cluster
42: Games, Sports, and Recreation)
184. Giving Up/Losing [show, trade, borrow, lose, loser, share] (Super cluster 14:
Acquisition and Ownership)
185. Cleanliness/Hygiene [clean, wipe, rinse, scrub, sweep, wash] (Super cluster 49:
Cleanliness)
186. Attractiveness [pretty, ugly, beautiful, cute, handsome, lovely] (Super cluster 53:
Physical Traits of People)
187. Physical Trait (Size) [fat, heavy, chubby, lean, skinny, slim] (Super cluster 53: Physical
Traits of People)
188. Rodents [mouse, squirrel, beaver, groundhog, hamster, rat] (Super cluster 10:
Animals)
189. Dwellings for Animals [nest, zoo, aquarium, beehive, birdhouse, cocoon, hive] (Super
cluster 10: Animals)
190. Places Related to Sports/Entertainment [theater, court, gym, stadium] (Super cluster
29: Structures and Buildings)
191. Body Fluids [blood, bleed, sweat] (Super cluster 12: The Human Body)
192. Vegetation (Other) [grass, lawn, root, vine] (Super cluster 13: Trees and Plants)
193. Inclination [flat, even, lean, level, steep] (Super cluster 30: Shapes)
194. Animals (General) [animal, pet, wildlife] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
195. Visual Images and Perception [appearance, badge, flag, image, scene, sight, view]
(Super cluster 25: Seeing and Perceiving)
196. Breathing [blow, breath, choke, exhale] (Super cluster 40: Actions Involving the Face)
197. Feeling and Striking [hit, slap, spank, touch, beat, feel, knock, pat, pound, smash, tap,
tickle] (Super cluster 35: Actions Involving Holding and Touching)
198. Communication (Confrontation/Negative Information) [blame, cheat, lie, accuse,
argue, complain, dare, disagree, disobey, quarrel, scold, tease, warn] (Super cluster
9: Verbal Interactions)
199. Angular and Circular Motions [around, roll, turn, clockwise, rotate, spin, surround,
swing, twirl, twist] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
200. Political and Social Groups [country, family, community, democracy, nation, race,
society, tribe] (Super cluster 44: Groups)
201. Money/Goods (Received) [gift, prize, award, medal, reward, savings, treasure] (Super
cluster 17: Money and Goods)
72
202. Texture [hard, soft, bumpy, firm, rough, smooth, tight] (Super cluster 27: Texture,
Durability, and Consistency)
203. Men [boy, man, guy, hero, male, schoolboy, sir] (Super cluster 32: Categories of
People)
204. Names that Indicate Age [baby, child, adult, grown-up, kid, teenager, toddler] (Super
cluster 32: Categories of People)
205. Names that Indicate Camaraderie/Friendship [friend, neighbor, boyfriend, classmate,
pal, partner, playmate] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
206. Names that Indicate Negative Characteristics about People [bandit, villain, bully,
criminal, enemy, killer, liar, pirate, thief] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
207. Communication (Supervision/Commands) [correct, let, obey, advice, allow, command,
control, demand, direct, excuse, forbid, force, permit, refuse, remind, require] (Super
cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
208. Vegetables, Grains and Nuts [carrot, corn, nut, peanut, popcorn, seed, almond, bean,
cashew, celery, cucumber, lettuce, olive, onion, peas, pickle, potato, pumpkin, rice,
spinach, squash, tomato, walnut, wheat] (Super cluster 22: Food and Eating)
209. Sports (Specific Types) [baseball, soccer, softball, swim, swimming, basketball,
bicycle, bowling, boxing, football, golf, hockey, racing, skate, skating, ski, skiing,
tennis, volleyball, wrestling] (Super cluster 42: Games, Sports, and Recreation)
210. Places Where Goods Can Be Bought/Sold [grocery store, bakery, bookstore, cafeteria,
drugstore, lunchroom, restaurant] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
211. Courage and Loyalty [brave, courage, heroic, honest, loyal] (Super cluster 55:
Nonphysical Traits of People)
212. Clothing Parts [button, collar, sleeve, zipper] (Super cluster 26: Clothing)
213. Muscles, Bones and Nerves [bone, joint, muscle, skeleton] (Super cluster 12: The
Human Body)
214. Money/Goods (Paid Out) [price, cost, payment, rent] (Super cluster 17: Money and
Goods)
215. Completion [end, complete, finish, last] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
216. Shifting Motion [slip, rock, skid, slide] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
217. Fences and Ledges [gate, fence, mailbox, shelf] (Super cluster 15: Parts of Dwellings)
218. Crookedness/Straightness [line, bent, crooked, cross, straight, stripe] (Super cluster
30: Shapes)
219. Alphabet and Letters [alphabet, consonant, letter, symbol, vowel] (Super cluster 54:
Language)
220. Fire [fire, burn, campfire, flame, spark] (Super cluster 34: Combustion and
Temperature)
221. Ease and Difficulty [easy, difficult, impossible, problem] (Super cluster 51: Danger and
Difficulty)
222. Tastes Related to Food [taste, flavor, juicy, ripe, sour, sweet, tasty] (Super cluster 22:
Food and Eating)
223. Cleaning Tools [brush, soap, broomstick, floss, mop, shampoo, sponge, suds,
toothbrush, toothpaste] (Super cluster 49: Cleanliness)
73
224. Clothing and Grooming Accessories [brush, comb, handkerchief, buckle, fan, jewelry,
kerchief, necklace, perfume, pin, ribbon, ring, scarf, tie, umbrella] (Super cluster 26:
Clothing)
225. Mental Exploration [news, search, analyze, examine, experiment, explore,
homework, investigate, lesson, schoolwork] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental
Actions)
226. Wind and Storms [storm, thunder, blizzard, downpour, draft, hurricane, lightning,
thunderstorm, tornado, wind] (Super cluster 48: Weather and Nature)
227. Names for Spiritual/Mythological Characters [angel, god, cupid, devil, elf, fairy, ghost,
monster, witch, wizard] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
228. Goodness and Kindness [thankful, considerate, courteous, gentle, grateful, kind, nice,
polite, respectful] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
229. Names of People in Sports [athlete, batter, boxer, catcher, coach, loser, runner,
winner] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
230. Disease [sick, disease, health, ill, injury, well] (Super cluster 56: Disease and Death)
231. Medicine [pill, aspirin, bandage, medicine, vitamin] (Super cluster 56: Disease and
Death)
232. Hunger and Thirst [hungry, hunger, starve, thirst, thirsty] (Super cluster 22: Food and
Eating)
233. Time (General) [time, bedtime, daytime, dinnertime, lunchtime] (Super cluster 6:
Time)
234. Parts of Vehicles [paddle, wheel, anchor, fender, mirror, oar, parachute, seatbelt, tail,
tire, trunk, wing] (Super cluster 16: Vehicles and Transportation)
235. Contractions (Not) [don’t, isn’t, ain't, aren't, can't, couldn't, doesn't, hasn't, haven't,
shouldn't, weren't, won’t, wouldn't] (Super cluster 31: Contractions)
236. Occupations (General) [job, career, chore, housework, profession, task, worker]
(Super cluster 52: Occupations)
237. Rocks and Jewels [rock, boulder, diamond, jewel, marble, stone] (Super cluster 46:
Rocks, Metals, and Soil)
238. Words, Phrases and Sentences [word, adjective, adverb, noun, sentence, verb] (Super
cluster 54: Language)
239. Art [art, painting, photo, photograph, picture, statue] (Super cluster 24: Arts and
Entertainment)
240. Safety and Danger [safe, danger, dangerous, risk, trouble, unsafe] (Super cluster 51:
Danger and Difficulty)
241. Actions Associated with the Nose [smell, sneeze, sniff, snore, snort, stink] (Super
cluster 40: Actions Involving the Face)
242. Abrasive/Cutting Actions [cut, rub, carve, chop, clip, dig, mow, peel, scoop, scratch,
shave, slice, snip, stab] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
243. Lack of Value [bad, awful, evil, terrible, wicked, worse, worst] (Super cluster 11:
Importance and Goodness)
244. Musical Instruments [instrument, banjo, drum, guitar, piano, triangle, violin] (Super
cluster 24: Arts and Entertainment)
74
245. Life, Birth, and Death [dead, alive, born, die, egg, hatch, life, live, wake] (Super cluster
47: Life, Death, and Survival)
246. Types of Food [food, crop, fruit, meat, seafood, sweets, vegetables] (Super cluster 22:
Food and Eating)
247. Joining [meet, attach, combine, connect, fasten, include, join, marriage, marry, stick,
wedding] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
248. Publication Types [book, bible, booklet, chapter, cookbook, diary, dictionary, essay,
journal, magazine, newspaper, novel, outline, storybook, summary, text, textbook]
(Super cluster 23: Literature, Composition, and Writing)
249. Conclusions [guess, calculate, clue, compose, conclude, create, design, estimate, fact,
information, invent, invention, mystery, prediction, prove, solve, suppose] (Super
cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
250. Destructive Actions [accident, break, crash, crush, damage, dent, destroy, mark, ruin,
scratch, waste, wreck] (Super cluster 50: Actions That Are Helpful or Destructive)
251. Building Materials (Other) [bar, brick, cardboard, paste, pipe, plastic, sewer, tube,
wire] (Super cluster 43: Containers, Materials and Building)
252. Similarity [alike, copy, equal, even, example, like, same, similar, twin] (Super cluster
7: Comparison and Contrast)
253. Physical Characteristics [athletic, beauty, clumsy, health, might, power, strength,
strong, weak, weakness] (Super cluster 53: Physical Traits of People)
254. Weapons [arrow, bomb, bullet, firecracker, fireworks, gun, sword] (Super cluster 41:
Machines and Tools)
255. Persuasion/Advice [advise, appeal, beg, convince, cue, persuade, recommend,
suggest] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
256. Messages [letter, message, note, postcard, poster, signal, valentine] (Super cluster
23: Literature, Composition, and Writing)
257. Domains of Work [business, law, medicine, military, religion, science, technology]
(Super cluster 52: Occupations)
258. Groups of Animals/People [band, class, club, crowd, herd, team] (Super cluster 44:
Groups)
259. Metals [gold, iron, magnet, metal, silver, steel] (Super cluster 46: Rocks, Metals, and
Soil)
260. War and Fighting [battle, fight, peace, revolution, war, wrestle] (Super cluster 50:
Actions That Are Helpful or Destructive)
261. Likelihood and Certainty [bet, certain, chance, likely, luck, miracle, possible] (Super
cluster 57: Popularity, Familiarity, and Likelihood)
262. Order and Complexity [balance, blank, fancy, order, plain, simple] (Super cluster 59:
Complexity and Conformity)
263. Clothing (General) [clothes, clothing, costume, suit, uniform] (Super cluster 26:
Clothing)
264. Artists and Performers [artist, choir, drummer, painter, singer] (Super cluster 52:
Occupations)
265. Public Officials [firefighter, officer, policeman, sheriff, soldier] (Super cluster 52:
Occupations)
75
266. Religious and Clergy [minister, nun, pastor, pope, priest] (Super cluster 52:
Occupations)
267. Craters and Valleys [hole, canyon, ditch, manhole, pit, valley] (Super cluster 33:
Places, Land, and Terrain)
268. Objects/Materials Used to Cover Things [cork, cover, flap, lid, mask] (Super cluster 43:
Containers, Materials, and Building)
269. Plants and Flowers [berry, blossom, dandelion, rose, seed] (Super cluster 13: Trees
and Plants)
270. Curved and Circular Shapes [circle, bend, curl, curve, loop, oval, round, twist] (Super
cluster 30: Shapes)
271. Light [bright, clear, light, shiny, sunshine] (Super cluster 58: Light and Darkness)
272. Light Producers [candle, candlestick, lamp, light, lightbulb] (Super cluster 58: Light
and Darkness)
273. Causality/Effect [cause, change, effect, outcome, purpose, reason, result] (Super
cluster 3: Cause and Effect)
274. Contractions (Would) [he'd, I'd, she'd, they'd, you'd] (Super cluster 31: Contractions)
275. Engines [battery, brake, engine, jet, motor] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
276. Electronics [computer, keyboard, monitor, mouse, robot] (Super cluster 41: Machines
and Tools)
277. Topics and Subjects [goal, plan, subject, topic] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and
Mental Actions)
278. Pride and Confidence [certain, confident, hopeful, proud, sure] (Super cluster 55:
Nonphysical Traits of People)
279. Illustrations and Drawings [diagram, drawing, graph, map] (Super cluster 23:
Literature, Composition, and Writing)
280. Motion (General) [action, activity, motion, play] (Super cluster 28: Movement and
Action)
281. Vibration [juggle, shake, shiver, vibrate, wiggle] (Super cluster 28: Movement and
Action)
282. Jerking Motion [bounce, fidget, snap, wag] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
283. Expanding Motion [blast, expand, explode, magnify, spread] (Super cluster 28:
Movement and Action)
284. Furnishing and Decorations [banner, carpet, curtain, rug, vase] (Super cluster 15: Parts
of Dwellings)
285. Attitudinals (Truth) [certainly, honestly, really, seriously, simply, truly] (Super cluster
19: Attitudinals)
286. Language Conventions [comma, language, period, vocabulary] (Super cluster 54:
Language)
287. Symptoms [dizzy, fever, itch, pain] (Super cluster 56: Disease and Death)
288. Uncleanliness and Filth [garbage, junk, litter, trash] (Super cluster 49: Cleanliness)
289. Familiarity and Popularity [common, familiar, normal, ordinary, popular, regular,
usual] (Super cluster 57: Popularity, Familiarity, and Likelihood)
290. Conformity to a Norm [odd, rare, special, strange, weird] (Super cluster 59:
Complexity and Conformity)
76
291. Fear [afraid, alarm, fear, nervous] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
292. Anger [anger, angry, dislike, hate, mad] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
293. Desire [expect, miss, need, selfish, want, wish] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and
Attitudes)
294. Dependability and Eagerness [active, busy, eager, responsible] (Super cluster 55:
Nonphysical Traits of People)
295. Instability [crazy, mad, wild] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
296. Locations For/Near Water (Manmade) [aquarium, canal, dam, dock, pool] (Super
cluster 20: Water)
297. Small Business [baker, barber, butcher] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
298. Military [army, navy, police] (Super cluster 44: Groups)
299. Dissimilarity [change, difference, different, opposite, unequal, unlike] (Super cluster
7: Comparison and Contrast)
300. Pursuit [chase, follow, track] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
301. Reducing/Diminishing [crumble, crumple, shorten, shrink, tighten] (Super cluster 28:
Movement and Action)
302. Separating [divorce, separate, split] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
303. Shapes (General Names) [outline, pattern, shape] (Super cluster 30: Shapes)
304. Exercise [exercise, practice, stretch] (Super cluster 42: Games, Sports, and Recreation)
305. Actions Related to Disease/Injury [blister, burn, scab, sunburn] (Super cluster 56:
Disease and Death)
306. Dark [dark, shade, shadow] (Super cluster 58: Light and Darkness)
307. Natural Catastrophes [avalanche, earthquake, flood] (Super cluster 48: Weather and
Nature)
308. Jumping [hop, jump, leap] (Super cluster 18: Actions Involving Walking and Running)
309. Shellfish (And Others) [lobster, shell, shrimp, snail, starfish] (Super cluster 10:
Animals)
310. Equipment Used with Animals [collar, horseshoe, leash, saddle] (Super cluster 10:
Animals)
311. Cruelty and Meanness [cruel, mean, unkind, violent] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and
Attitudes)
312. General Upset [alone, bother, upset] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
313. Doubt and Hope [belief, doubt, hope, trust] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
314. Lubricants and Fuels [fuel, gas, grease, oil] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
315. Handles [doorknob, handle, knob] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
316. Miscellaneous Devices [dial, ladder, pedal, switch, trigger] (Super cluster 41: Machines
and Tools)
317. Lack of Permanence (People) [guest, stranger, visitor] (Super cluster 32: Categories of
People)
318. Vehicles (Snow) [sled, sleigh, snowplow] (Super cluster 16: Vehicles and
Transportation)
319. Titles and Names [name, title, nickname] (Super cluster 23: Literature, Composition,
and Writing)
77
320. Rules and Laws [law, regulation, rule] (Super cluster 23: Literature, Composition, and
Writing)
321. Places Related to Meetings/Worship [church, shrine, temple] (Super cluster 29:
Structures and Buildings)
322. Opening and Closing [open, shut] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
323. Durability/Strength [strong, weak, delicate] (Super cluster 27: Texture, Durability, and
Consistency)
324. Storage Locations [barn, shed] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
325. Objects (General Names) [thing, object] (Super cluster 43: Containers, Materials, and
Building)
326. Bluntness/Sharpness [sharp, dull] (Super cluster 30: Shapes)
327. Things that Are Commonly Measured [angle, diameter, radius] (Super cluster 5:
Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
328. Lack of Popularity/Familiarity [secret, private] (Super cluster 57: Popularity,
Familiarity, and Likelihood)
329. Growth and Survival [grow, survive] (Super cluster 47: Life, Death, and Survival)
330. Size of People [giant, dwarf] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
331. Vehicles (Work-related) [tractor, wheelbarrow] (Super cluster 16: Vehicles and
Transportation)
332. Independence and Freedom [free, liberty, obedient] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical
Traits of People)
333. Writers and Reporters [author, speaker, writer] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
334. People Who Clean Up [garbage man, janitor, custodian] (Super cluster 52:
Occupations)
335. Places Related to Transportation [station, airport] (Super cluster 29: Structures and
Buildings)
336. Organs [stomach, heart] (Super cluster 12: The Human Body)
337. Characteristics of Rocks/Soil [sand, pebble] (Super cluster 46: Rocks, Metals, and Soil)
338. Halting Actions [quit, stop] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
339. Kicking Actions [kick, stamp] (Super cluster 18: Actions Involving Walking and Running)
340. Mathematical Quantities [average, sum, total] (Super cluster 36: Mathematical
Operations and Quantities)
341. Primates [gorilla, monkey] (Super cluster 10: Animals)
342. Linking Verbs [become, seem] (Super cluster 1: Auxiliary and Helping Verbs)
343. Names that Indicate Permanence for People [pioneer, caveman, citizen] (Super cluster
32: Categories of People)
344. Names that Indicate Fame [star, celebrity] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
345. Communication (Information Previously Withheld) [admit, tattle] (Super cluster 9:
Verbal Interactions)
346. Recording/Translating Information [record, recording, video] (Super cluster 9: Verbal
Interactions)
347. Interest [attention, interest] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
348. Procedures and Processes [process, recipe, routine] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and
Mental Actions)
78
349. Beliefs [belief, opinion] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
350. Shyness [bashful, shy] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
351. Dishonesty [dishonest, naughty, unfair] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of
People)
352. Equipment Used with Water/Liquid [faucet, hose, sprinkler] (Super cluster 20: Water)
353. Moisture [cloud, fog] (Super cluster 20: Water)
354. Characteristics Related to Clothes/Wearing of Clothes [barefoot, naked] (Super cluster
26: Clothing)
355. Assistants and Supervisors [boss, leader, owner] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
356. Occupations Usually Held by Youth [babysitter, paperboy] (Super cluster 52:
Occupations)
357. Discoverers and Scientists [astronaut, geographer, scientist] (Super cluster 52:
Occupations)
358. Occupations Associated with Imprisonment/Slavery [guard, prisoner, slave] (Super
cluster 52: Occupations)
359. Construction and Repairmen [carpenter, plumber] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
360. Legal Professions [judge, lawyer] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
361. Servants [maid, servant] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
362. Woodlands and Forests [forest, jungle] (Super cluster 33: Places, Land, and Terrain)
363. Pastures and Fields [field, prairie] (Super cluster 33: Places, Land, and Terrain)
364. Structures that are Man-made [building, tower] (Super cluster 29: Structures and
Buildings)
365. Factories, Mills and Offices [office, shop] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
366. Ranches and Farms [farm, ranch] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
367. Packing and Wrapping [pack, tape, tie, wrap] (Super cluster 43: Containers, Materials,
and Building)
368. Failure and Success [fail, succeed] (Super cluster 11: Importance and Goodness)
369. Attitudinals (Fortunate/Unfortunate) [luckily, unfortunately] (Super cluster 19:
Attitudinals)
370. Magic [magic, trick] (Super cluster 42: Games, Sports, and Recreation)
371. Ailments and Diseases [blind, cold, deaf] (Super cluster 56: Disease and Death)
372. Actions Related to Light [reflect, shine, twinkle] (Super cluster 58: Light and Darkness)
373. Actions Related to Measurement [measure, weigh] (Super cluster 5: Measurement,
Size, and Quantity)
374. Devices Used for Measurement [thermometer, yardstick] (Super cluster 5:
Measurement, Size, and Quantity)
375. Characteristics Associated with Weather [dry, overcast, sunny] (Super cluster 48:
Weather and Nature)
376. Products of Fire [ash, smoke] (Super cluster 34: Combustion and Temperature)
377. Chemicals [caffeine, helium, oxygen] (Super cluster 60: Chemicals and Matter)
378. Guilt and Worry [guilt, shame, worry] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
379. Irritability [grouch, grumpy, rude] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
380. Excitement and Attention [amaze, excite, surprise] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and
Attitudes)
79
381. Human Traits (General) [skill, talent] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
382. Experience/Expertise [beginner, expert] (Super cluster 32: Categories of People)
383. Promises [promise] (Super cluster 9: Verbal Interactions)
384. Definition/Meaning [define] (Super cluster 37: Reasoning and Mental Actions)
385. Lack of Initiative [lazy] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
386. Luck and Success [lucky] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
387. Stubbornness and Strictness [strict] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
388. Spirituality [holy] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
389. Caution [careful] (Super cluster 55: Nonphysical Traits of People)
390. Geometric Planes [sideways] (Super cluster 4: Physical Location and Orientation)
391. Water-Related Directions [afloat] (Super cluster 20: Water)
392. Food Service Occupations [waiter] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
393. Messengers [mailman] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
394. Occupations Associated with the Outdoors [cowboy] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
395. People Who Buy and Sell [customer] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
396. People Who Work in Offices [secretary] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
397. Occupations Associated with Transportation [pilot] (Super cluster 52: Occupations)
398. Characteristics of Places [desert] (Super cluster 33: Places, Land, and Terrain)
399. Medical Facilities [hospital] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
400. Monuments [monument] (Super cluster 29: Structures and Buildings)
401. Business and Social Groups [audience] (Super cluster 44: Groups)
402. Actions Associated with Crops/Soil [plant] (Super cluster 46: Rocks, Metals, and Soil)
403. Force [force] (Super cluster 28: Movement and Action)
404. Germs and Genes [germ] (Super cluster 56: Disease and Death)
405. Clarity [invisible] (Super cluster 58: Light and Darkness)
406. Clouds [cloud] (Super cluster 48: Weather and Nature)
407. Neatness/Sloppiness [neat] (Super cluster 53: Physical Traits of People)
408. Creeping/Lurking Actions [crawl] (Super cluster 18: Actions Involving Walking and
Running)
409. Standing/Stationary [stand] (Super cluster 18: Actions Involving Walking and Running)
410. Branches of Mathematics [math] (Super cluster 36: Mathematical Operations and
Quantities)
411. Semi-Auxiliary Verbs [have to] (Super cluster 1: Auxiliary and Helping Verbs)
412. Events and Dates (General) [event] (Super cluster 45: Events)
413. Political Events [vote] (Super cluster 45: Events)
414. Products Associated with Fire [pipe] (Super cluster 34: Combustion and Temperature)
415. Paint [paint] (Super cluster 8: Color)
416. Actions Related to Fear [scare] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
417. Envy and Jealousy [jealous] (Super cluster 39: Emotions and Attitudes)
418. Electricity [magnet] (Super cluster 60: Chemicals and Matter)
419. Machines [machine] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
420. Vision-Related Equipment [camera] (Super cluster 41: Machines and Tools)
80
Super Clusters and Related Clusters
1. Auxiliary and Helping Verbs: 1, 3, 4, 342, 411
2. Pronouns: 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 34
3. Cause and Effect: 10, 273
4. Physical Location and Orientation: 9, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 37, 49, 390
5. Measurement, Size, and Quantity: 13, 15, 18, 19, 28, 33, 73, 130, 327, 373, 374
6. Time: 2, 16, 24, 29, 52, 59, 79, 83, 126, 144, 233
7. Comparison and Contrast: 5, 27, 252, 299
8. Color: 57, 415
9. Verbal Interactions: 14, 61, 100, 105, 177, 198, 207, 255, 345, 346, 383
10. Animals: 32, 35, 64, 65, 70, 82, 95, 117, 155, 188, 189, 194, 309, 310, 341
11. Importance and Goodness 58, 72, 243, 368
12. The Human Body: 75, 76, 80, 115, 140, 157, 160, 191, 213, 336
13. Trees and Plants: 36, 108, 192, 269
14. Acquisition and Ownership: 41, 89, 148, 171, 184
15. Parts of Dwellings: 91, 113, 123, 134, 217, 284
16. Vehicles and Transportation: 93, 97, 120, 128, 159, 234, 318, 331
17. Money and Goods: 104, 109, 116, 122, 201, 214
18. Actions Involving Walking and Running: 63, 308, 339, 408, 409
19. Attitudinals: 30, 31, 285, 369
20. Water: 87, 101, 102, 127, 296, 352, 353, 391
21. Sounds and Noises: 84, 103, 156, 165, 175
22. Food and Eating: 48, 51, 74, 86, 124, 136, 153, 162, 174, 176, 208, 222, 232, 246
23. Literature, Composition, and Writing: 53, 71, 112, 138, 248, 256, 279, 319, 320
24. Arts and Entertainment: 54, 77, 239, 244
25. Seeing and Perceiving: 135, 195
26. Clothing: 47, 62, 125, 129, 145, 178, 212, 224, 263, 354
27. Texture, Durability, and Consistency: 202, 323
28. Movement and Action: 38, 39, 40, 44, 66, 141, 147, 169, 170, 182, 199, 215, 216, 247,
280, 281, 282, 283, 300, 301, 302, 322, 338, 403
29. Structures and Buildings: 60, 106, 121, 190, 210, 321, 324, 335, 364, 365, 366, 399, 400
30. Shapes: 69, 99, 142, 193, 218, 270, 303, 326
31. Contractions: 42, 81, 85, 150, 235, 274
32. Categories of People: 56, 94, 111, 203, 204, 205, 206, 227, 317, 330, 343, 344, 382
33. Places, Land, and Terrain: 50, 114, 139, 168, 267, 362, 363, 398
34. Combustion and Temperature: 78, 220, 376, 414
35. Actions Involving Holding and Touching: 131, 149, 197
36. Mathematical Operations and Quantities: 166, 340, 410
37. Reasoning and Mental Actions: 46, 67, 132, 137, 154, 225, 249, 277, 347, 348, 349, 384
38. Locations and Places Where People Live: 172, 180
39. Emotions and Attitudes: 43, 45, 55, 291, 292, 293, 311, 312, 313, 378, 379, 380, 381,
416, 417
40. Actions Involving the Face: 151, 152, 196, 241
41. Machines and Tools: 92, 96, 118, 119, 163, 242, 254, 275, 276, 314, 315, 316, 419, 420
81
42. Games, Sports, and Recreation: 143, 158, 183, 209, 304, 370
43. Containers, Materials, and Building: 107, 164, 181, 251, 268, 325, 367
44. Groups: 98, 200, 258, 298, 401
45. Events: 179, 412, 413
46. Rocks, Metals, and Soil: 133, 237, 259, 337, 402
47. Life, Death, and Survival: 245, 329
48. Weather and Nature: 90, 226, 307, 375, 406
49. Cleanliness: 185, 223, 288
50. Actions That Are Helpful or Destructive: 110, 161, 250, 260
51. Danger and Difficulty: 221, 240
52. Occupations: 68, 88, 146, 167, 173, 229, 236, 257, 264, 265, 266, 297, 333, 334, 355,
356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397
53. Physical Traits of People: 186, 187, 253, 407
54. Language: 219, 238, 286
55. Nonphysical Traits of People: 211, 228, 278, 294, 295, 332, 350, 351, 385, 386, 387,
388, 389
56. Disease and Death: 230, 231, 287, 305, 371, 404
57. Popularity, Familiarity, and Likelihood: 261, 289, 328
58. Light and Darkness: 271, 272, 306, 372, 405
59. Complexity and Conformity: 262, 290
60. Chemicals and Matter: 377, 418
82
Appendix B: Tier III Terms (Elementary)
At the elementary level, Tier III terms should be taught in the context of specific measurement
topics to which they are most closely related. This does not mean that this should not be
reinforced outside of regular classroom instruction. They can be the subjects of word walls,
vocabulary games, and continuous review of the words and their meanings. Figure 6.2 depicts
the number of Tier III terms in grades K-5.
Figure 6.2: Tier III Terms
K
1
2
3
4
5
ELA
83
73
70
60
65
72
Math
94
50
77
83
98
67
Science
80
65
96
80
111
66
Science
(Grade Band Scales)
12
17
7
Totals
276
188
243
240
274
205
Figure 6.3 depicts the number of terms teachers should address on a weekly basis.
Figure 6.3: The Number of Terms Teachers Should Address Weekly
K
1
2
3
4
5
ELA
2
2
2
2
2
2
Math
3
1
2
2
3
2
Science
3
2
3
3
3
2
Total:
8
5
7
7
8
6
Figure 6.4 depicts the recommended Tier III terms for ELA for grades K-2.
Figure 6.4: ELA K2 Vocabulary Terms
Kindergarten
1
st
Grade
2
nd
Grade
action
alphabet
author
back cover
beginning
capital letter
character
compare
consonant
describe
detail
different
end
adjective
article
attribute
bold word
capitalize
caption
category
character
comma
compare
conclusion
conjunction
consonant
adverb
affix
alliteration
alphabetical
apostrophe
associate
body
caption
category
challenge
chapter
climax
closing
83
event
exclamation mark
fact
fiction
front cover
how many
illustration
information
left
letter
long vowel
main topic
meaning
middle
narrative
nonfiction
noun
opinion
opposite
period
plural
poem
preposition
question
question mark
reason
rhyme
rhythm
right
root word
sentence
setting
short vowel
similar
singular
sound
space
spell
statement
story
subject
syllable
title
topic
consonant blend
context
declarative
determiner
dialogue
emotion
end punctuation
exclamatory
fact
fiction
final-e
first person
five senses
future
glossary
heading
illustration
imperative
important
interrogative
introduction
irregular
lesson
list
main character
message
narrative
narrator
nonfiction
opinion
order
paragraph
past
personal pronoun
place
plural
possessive
possessive pronoun
present
pronounce
proper noun
question
quotation marks
relevant
collective
common noun
compound word
conclusion
conflict
contraction
coordinating conjunction
definition
descriptive detail
dictionary
draft
event
fact
formal
fragment
greeting
guide word
index
informal
irregular
keyword
location
opinion
passage
perspective
persuade
plot
point of view
predicate
prefix
purpose
r-controlled vowel
reason
reflexive pronoun
relationship
response
restate
revise
sidebar
signature
slang
suffix
synonym
table of contents
84
verb
vowel
what
when
where
who
why
word
sense
sequence
singular
source
spelling
support
syllable
third person
time
type
vowel team
thesaurus
time period
timeline
trait
Venn diagram
verb
Figure 6.5 depicts the recommended Tier III terms for ELA for grades 3-5.
Figure 6.5 ELA 35 Vocabulary Terms
3
rd
Grade
4
th
Grade
5
th
Grade
abstract
antecedent
antonym
body
call number
character trait
comparative
compare
complex sentence
compound sentence
concept
context
database
diagram
dialogue tag
diphthong
direct address
evidence
explanatory
feeling
feminine
folktale
future tense
historical period
homophone
impact
linking word
literal
act
adjective
affix
causation
cause
character list
chronological
compound sentence
convince
culture
dependent clause
describe
dialogue tag
double negative
effect
encyclopedia
firsthand
future progressive
graph
homophone
independent clause
inference
introduce
line
link
main idea
metaphor
meter
action verb
adage
anecdote
audience
circumstance
claim
clause
comparison
complex
compound
compound-complex
conflict
context
correlative conjunction
description
dialect
dialogue
direct
entertain
epilogue
example
focus
genre
heading
idiom
imagery
indirect
inform
85
main idea
masculine
modifier
moral
motivation
nonliteral
past tense
present tense
prompt
pronoun
react
research
root
section
signal word
simple sentence
slang
specific
storyboard
storyline
structure
subordinating conjunction
summary
superlative
theme
thesaurus
thesis
vocabulary
website
modal auxiliary verb
multimedia
myth
narration
oral
outline
paraphrase
past progressive
persona
personal experience
present progressive
problem/solution
procedure
proper adjective
quote
relative adverb
relative pronoun
representation
research question
scene
secondhand
section
sight word
simile
spellcheck
stanza
text feature
theme
third person
topic sentence
trait
transition
verse
visual
interjection
interrupters
italics
limited
line break
linking verb
nonessential
objective
omniscient
paraphrase
past participle
perfect tense
prologue
proper adjectives
proper nouns
proverb
register
resolve
root
run-on
search engine
second person
sensory language
series
setting
shift
show
simple
simple tense
stanza break
style
subjective
summarize
symbol
tangent
tell
tense
underline
Figure 6.6 depicts the recommended Tier III terms for mathematics for grades K-2.
86
Figure 6.6: Math K2 Vocabulary Terms
Kindergarten
1
st
Grade
2
nd
Grade
-
+
=
above
add
addend
addition
area
attribute
balance scale
below
beside
break apart
category
circle
closed
compare
compose
cone
corner
count
cube
curved
cylinder
decompose
difference
different
digit
edge
equal
equal corners
equal faces
equal sides
equal to
equation
face
fewer than
flat
greater than
group
heavy
height
<
>
analog clock
angle
category label
centimeter
clockwise
difference
digital clock
endpoint
equal portions
equals
fourth
graph
graph title
half
half hour
hour
hour display
hour hand
inch
longer
minute
minute display
minute hand
o’clock
ones
ones place
picture graph
place value
quarter
rhombus
right angle
shorter
sum
tally
tens
tens place
three-dimensional
$
¢
<
>
a.m.
axis
bar graph
bill
cell
cent
change
coin
column
count scale
difference
dime
dollar
equal groups
even
expanded form
foot
hash mark
hundred
hundreds
hundreds place
inequality
key
length unit
line plot
measurement
measuring tape
meter
meter stick
minuend
minute mark
nickel
number line
odd
ones place
p.m.
penny
pentagon
87
hexagon
length
less than
light
long
match
measurable attribute
measure
minus
more than
narrow
number
open
order
part
plus
point
rectangle
short
side
similar
solid
sort
sphere
square
straight
subtract
subtraction
sum
tall
temperature
thermometer
three-dimensional
total
trapezoid
triangle
two-dimensional
vertex
volume
weight
whole
wide
width
quadrilateral
quarter
range
rectangular array
right angle
row
ruler
skip count
standard form
subtrahend
sum
tens place
third
title
unit
unit type
whole
yardstick
zero mark
88
Figure 6.7 depicts the recommended Tier III terms for mathematics for grades 3-5.
Figure 6.7: Math 35 Vocabulary Terms
3
rd
Grade
4
th
Grade
5
th
Grade
a.m.
area
array
associative property
associative property of addition
associative property of
multiplication
category
commutative property
commutative property of addition
commutative property of
multiplication
cup
denominator
diagram
distributive property
distributive property of
multiplication
divide
dividend
division
divisor
equivalent fractions
estimate
factor
fluid ounce
fraction
gallon
gram
improper fraction
key
kilogram
liquid volume
liter
mass
metric system
midnight
milliliter
mixed number
multiplication
acute
acute triangle
adjacent angles
angle
angle measure
area
area model
benchmark fraction
borrow
carry
common denominator
composite number
congruent
decimal place value
decimal point
decimal value
degree
dimension
end point
equilateral triangle
equivalent fractions
flip
hundred thousands
hundredths
image
intersect
isosceles triangle
kiloliter
kilometer
least common multiple
like denominators
line
line of reflection
line of symmetry
line segment
liquid volume
mass
mile
millimeter
millions
base
brackets
Cartesian coordinate plane
centi
concave
convex
coordinate plane
coordinates
cube
cubic units
decagon
deci
decimal place value
decimeter
denominator
equivalent fractions
exponent
exponential notation
fraction
heptagon
horizontal
irregular
kilo
least common multiple
metric ton
milli
milligram
nonagon
numerator
numerical expression
octagon
ordered pair
origin
point
polygon
power
power of ten
quotient
raise
regular
89
multiplication table
multiply
noon
numerator
numerical expression
operation
order of operations
ounce
p.m.
parentheses
perimeter
pound
product
proper fraction
quotient
round
scale
side length
square units
times
unit fraction
unit square
US customary system
variable
whole number
whole unit
multiple
oblique
obtuse
obtuse triangle
opposite angles
parallel
parallelogram
pattern
perimeter
perpendicular
pint
place value
plane
point
point of rotation
power of ten
prime number
protractor
quart
quotient
ray
reduced form
reflection
regroup
remainder
right angle
right triangle
rotation
rotational symmetry
rule
scalene triangle
slide
square units
standard algorithm for
addition
standard algorithm for
subtraction
straight angle
ten thousands
tenths
term
thousandths
times
ton
remainder
right rectangular prism
sequence
square
standard algorithm for
multiplication
table of values
tablespoon
teaspoon
thousandths
unit cube
unit fraction
unlike denominators
vertical
volume
whole number
x-axis
x-coordinate
y-axis
y-coordinate
90
translation
turn
vertex
yard
Figure 6.8 depicts the recommended Tier III terms for science for grades K-2.
Figure 6.8: Science K2 Vocabulary Terms
Kindergarten
1
st
Grade
2
nd
Grade
adapt
air
animal
blizzard
carbon dioxide
category
cloudy
cooler
crawl
desert
direction
drought
energy
environment
fin
flood
fly
foggy
food
force
fur
gill
habitat
hail
heat
high wind
horn
hurricane
ice storm
jump
land
lightning
lung
manmade
material
adult
autumn
beam
behavior
brain
comforting
convert
copy
crescent
day
difference
ear
electricity
external
eye
feeding
full moon
gibbous
high
light
low
luminous
mature
needle
new moon
night
nonluminous
observation
offspring
opaque
parent
phase
planet
pouch
protecting
amphibian
anther
assemble
bay
beach
body of water
canyon
carnivore
ceramic
classify
compass rose
compose
condensation
continent
cool
disassemble
dissolve
diversity of life
earthquake
erosion
evaporation
flexibility
flooding
flow
flower
forest
form
freeze
fresh water
fruit
function
gas
glacier
hardness
herbivore
91
motion
mountain
need
ocean
organism
oxygen
plant
polar
predict
prepare
pull
push
rainy
region
resource
savannah
scales
season
severe weather
shade
shelter
snowy
soil
solution
strength
structure
sun
sunlight
sunny
surface
swim
tail
temperature
tornado
tropical
walk
warmer
water
weather
windy
wing
quarter
reflect
reflective
root
satellite
scale
seed
shadow
shell
similarity
sound
spring
star
stem
summer
sunrise
sunset
survive
thorn
translucent
transparent
vibration
visibility
waning
wave
waxing
winter
young
ice cap
irreversible
island
lake
landform
landslide
leaf
legend
liquid
mammal
melt
metal
mix
nectar
omnivore
ovary
ovule
petal
photosynthesis
plain
plastic
plateau
pollen
property
purpose
rainforest
reproduce
reversible
river
riverbed
salt water
sand dunes
scale
sea
sediment
sepal
solid
solution
stamen
state
stigma
structure
style
thaw
92
timescale
tributary
tundra
valley
vegetation
volcano
weathering
wetland
windbreak
wood
Figure 6.9 depicts the recommended Tier III terms for science for grades 3-5.
Figure 6.9: Science 35 Vocabulary Terms
3
rd
Grade
4
th
Grade
5
th
Grade
acquired
adulthood
arctic
atmosphere
atmospheric pressure
balanced force
birth
Celsius
characteristic
climate
climate zone
community
competition
continental climate
death
dry climate
egg
electrical charge
equator
evacuation
extreme weather
Fahrenheit
force
friction
germination
group behavior
growth
humidity
inherited
acid rain
adaptation
amplitude
angle of incidence
angle of reflection
biomass
cave
chemical energy
chemical weathering
circuit
coal
code
cone
consumption
contour interval
contour line
contour map
cornea
crest
decode
deposition
electrical energy
energy
external structure
fossil
fossil fuel
fossil record
frame of reference
frequency
angle
apparent brightness
atmosphere
atom
axis
biosphere
boiling point
chemical change
chemical reaction
chlorophyll
circumpolar constellation
closed system
conservation of mass
constellation
cycle
decomposer
density
deposition
east
ecosystem
elasticity
electrical conductivity
food chain
food web
geosphere
gravity
groundwater
hydrosphere
inorganic
93
larva
life cycle
magnet
magnetic
magnetic field
magnetic force
member
metamorphosis
migrate
mild climate
mitigation
natural disaster
natural hazard
negative charge
net force
neutral charge
nonmagnetic
north pole
pack
pattern
physical
polar climate
polar zone
pole
position
positive charge
precipitation
preparedness
prevention
recovery
reproduction
resultant force
risk
savanna
solitary
south pole
static electricity
temperate zone
torrid zone
trait
Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Capricorn
tropical climate
unbalanced force
function
geothermal power
heat
hydroelectric power
internal structure
iris
key
kinetic energy
law of conservation of energy
lens
longitudinal wave
mass
matter
mechanical weathering
medium
midline
Morse code
natural gas
natural resource
nonrenewable
nuclear power
oil
optic nerve
oscillate
period
phloem
potential energy
production
pupil
receiver
reflection
relative dating
renewable
response
retina
rock layer
rod
sedimentary rock
seed coat
sender
sense
sense organ
sinkhole
soil
luminosity
matter
melting point
mixture
northern hemisphere
nutrient
open system
orbit
organic
photosynthesis
physical change
plasticity
polar icecap
product
reactant
revolution
rotation
seasonal constellation
solute
solvent
southern hemisphere
sphere
star
stomata
sublimation
thermal conductivity
transfer
unit
vaporization
viscosity
volume
waste
water vapor
weight
west
year
94
variable
variation
solar power
sound energy
speed
stimulus
stoma
structure
symbol
system
terrain
thermal energy
topographic map
transfer
transverse wave
trough
tsunami
velocity
waste
wave
wave cycle
wavelength
wind power
work
xylem
Figure 6.10 depicts the recommended Tier III science grade-band terms.
Science Grade-Band Vocabulary Terms
K5
K2
35
analysis
conclusion
data
experiment
hypothesis
observation
scientific method
engineering
models
need
observation
predict
problem
situation
solution
solve
test
tool
collaborate
condition
constraint
criteria
design problem
difficulty
element
failure point
feature
investigate
limitation
research
source
topic
95
VII. Inspiration
96
Students in an academy should have a steady diet of activities that inspire them. There are a
number of ways this can be accomplished. Inspirational activities should be employed at the
school level by building administrators during assemblies, morning announcements, and other
times when students are assembled. Inspirational activities should also be employed by
classroom teachers as transitional activities, short breaks, and other times deemed appropriate
by the teacher.
Movies
Movies can be inspirational for both teachers and students. When using movies to help inspire
students, teachers should first provide an age appropriate context and purpose for watching
the film. For example, a teacher who has decided to show the film Hidden Figures in class might
begin the discussion by providing a brief review of American politics in the 1950s and 1960s. For
example, teachers might ask students to revisit what they know about the desegregation of
schools beginning in Little Rock in 1957. The teacher might emphasize how challenging it could
be for African Americans during that time to receive the upper level education the characters in
Hidden Figures needed to have. They might also be asked to reread work they did on Betty
Friedan’s book The Feminine Mystique. Specifically, they might be asked to think about how
women’s restrictive societal roles might influence women of that time to break norms and
rules. In addition to understanding the political climate the movie’s protagonists faced, the
teacher might provide students with a brief background of female mathematicians in the 20
th
century. Students might be surprised and interested to learn that women have a long history of
working for the government in crucial, mathematically-centered roles.
When provided with such context, teachers can easily provide a purpose for the film by
focusing on ideals. During the course of the movie, students might be asked to write down the
messages or ideals they believe the film delivers. For example, students might find the
following relevant and inspirational messages:
Any person can achieve any goal they set through hard work and perseverance.
The ability to work as a part of a team can be life changing.
Setting an example by doing what is right can change history and create positive results
on any project.
After students have articulated the ideals they feel the film focuses on, the teacher can ask
students to more closely relate the film to their lives. Questions such as the following might be
suitable:
Have you ever seen this ideal at work in your own life? How did you feel when times
were difficult? Did you feel a sense of reward or accomplishment?
Can you describe an instance in your life where you felt like the movie’s ideals were
lacking? (Maybe things just “weren’t like they are in the movies”)
Teachers might record and reinforce students’ positive ideals throughout the year when
appropriate.
The following is a list of contemporary movies commonly used to help inspire students:
97
The Pursuit of Happyness
The Diving Bell and the Butterfly
Rudy
Beasts of the Southern Wild
Life of Pi
Hidden Figures
Life is Beautiful
127 Hours
Slumdog Millionaire
Miracle
Babe
Akeelah and the Bee
Stories
Stories can also be sources of inspiration for students. There are many stories both online and
in print that can serve as sources of inspiration for students of any age. Additionally, many
different types of stories can be used. For example, a middle school teacher might choose the
myths described in the Percy Jackson and the Olympians fantasy series as a source of student
inspiration. After reading the books at their own pace, students might be asked to compare
some of the story lines to events in their own lives or other story lines they have seen in real
life. They might be asked to think about how similarities between the stories speak to common
human goals and inspirations.
Conversely, teachers might use nonfiction stories as inspirational sources. For example,
a teacher might ask students to read I am Malala by Malala Yousafzai. Each student might be
asked to articulate the ideals they find exemplified in her story of perseverance. They might
also be asked to provide specific passages that support the ideal they find to be inspiring, and
they might be asked to explain why they feel the passage relates to their own lives.
The following is a list of individuals in contemporary society who might be considered
inspirational:
JK Rowling
Desmond Tutu
Oprah Winfrey
Sean Swarner
Randy Pausch
Liz Murray
Temple Grandin
Liu Xiaobo
Nancy Herz
Chloe Kim
98
Quotations
Quotations that are memorable are often explicit or implicit statements of ideals. In this way,
they can be great sources of inspiration for students. Additionally, because quotes are generally
brief, teachers can incorporate them into lessons in a variety of ways. For example, teachers
might simply read or display a quote at the beginning of class and let students ponder its
meaning or ideal independently. Or they might accompany the quote with brief information
about the person to whom it is attributedthat information would relate directly to a unit the
teacher is teaching or has recently taught. The quotes can also be used to help students
consider inspirational themes a teacher may have chosen, such as perseverance, independence,
or overcoming obstacles.
Finally, Teachers can use quotes as key parts of lessons. For example, consider the
following quote:
“Follow your inner moonlight; don’t hide the madness.” Allen Ginsberg
While this quote seems simple, students might extract very different ideals and
inspiration from it. For example, one student might choose to focus on the specific word
“moonlight”. That student might note that the word connotes darkness and night. The student
might interpret the quote as an ideal that expresses the need to cultivate and express even the
darker, more negatives aspects of our nature. Conversely, another student might be curious
enough to look up the context of the quote. He or she might find the interview in which the
quote appears, and, after reading the entire interview, the student might determine that the
ideal at the center of the quote focuses on the importance of speaking our own true minds no
matter who might be listening. A rich discussion of ideals can follow from a quote.
Altruism
Depending on the situation, teachers can engage students in both long- and short-term projects
that encourage altruism. Altruism can be defined as the principle or practice of helping others
with no expectation of reward. Altruistic acts can help students understand how they can
positively affect the world.
When focusing on altruism, teachers should be sure to refrain from rewarding students’
altruistic acts. Instead, after providing students with opportunities for altruism, teachers should
ask students to simply reflect on the experience. Teachers can use the following questions to
prompt reflection:
How do you think your actions affected others? What is an example?
What kind of insight do you think you gained from having positively affected someone’s
life?
Has anyone ever done something kind for you with no expectation of thanks? How did
you feel then? How do you feel about it now?
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There are a variety of ways teachers can provide school-based, altruistic activities. Many
schools are coordinating volunteer days throughout the year that teachers can encourage
students to take part in. There are also many nation-wide events that encourage volunteerism
on a set date. For example, events celebrating Earth Day (www.earthday.org), Make a
Difference Day (http://makeadifferenceday.com), and Pay it Forward Day
(http://payitforwardday.com). Teachers and students can also volunteer for local organizations
or design their own service projects that are based on the unique needs of their communities.
The effects of altruism can also be exemplified by example. Teachers can invite organizers
of community events to speak about the effects local charities have on communities.
Community members who benefit from volunteerism can also be asked to speak. Figure 7.1
describes some common altruistic projects.
Figure 7.1: Sample Service Projects
Length of Project
Sample Project
One-Time Projects
Participate in a charity event, such as a
fun run, like Race for the Cure or Relay
for Life.
Make a call or write a letter to a politician
about an important issue.
Organize a local event to raise money or
goods and donate the proceeds to a
cause.
Clean up areas around home or school.
Spend time in service at an animal
shelter.
Make a blood or blood plasma donation.
Show gratitude for military members, civil
servants, and others who assist our
communities.
Ongoing Projects
Tutor students.
Become a mentor.
Perform a service that facilitates a school
community.
Perform regular volunteer service with a
local community.
Teachers can also provide students with specific examples of altruistic actions that have
impacted communities. Teachers can consult local news sources or volunteer organizations that
can help provide local examples. The following are additional relevant examples of altruistic
actions as adapted from Lesli Amos (2014).
When she was only 15, Shannon McNamara started SHARE, an organization that
provides girls in Africa with books.
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Zach Certner founded SNAP, a program that focuses on developing athletic programs for
children with special needs when he was only ten.
LuLu Cerone created LemonAID Warriors when she was ten. The program challenges
other kids to make social activism a part of their social lives.
Empathy
Empathy is another pathway towards a connection to something greater than the self. Empathy
helps us transcend our habits of focusing only on our own lives. However, students often need
guidance on how to understand and practice empathy. Teachers must begin by instilling in
students the difference between empathy and sympathy. While sympathy merely refers to
someone’s ability to offer condolences or feel sorry for someone, empathy refers to one’s
ability to use his or her own experiences in a way that relates to another person’s experiences,
creating understanding and connection on a deeper level.
Examples of Empathy
Teachers can find a multitude of examples that exemplify empathy. Stories that were mined in
real life or online as well as stories from history and literature can be incorporated into class
time. Like quotations, these stories can be small daily lessons meant for individual reflection, or
they can be the centerpieces for more in depth units.
For example, teachers may use small instances of empathy they have recently seen
displayed as part of everyday conversation with students. Maybe a teacher has recently spoken
with a friend who is caring for a loved one who broke a bone because that teacher sustained a
similar injury and can really understand how much help is necessary. A teacher might deliver a
simple anecdote such as “When my friend had surgery on his knee, he was unable to run each
morning, and that really affected his mood and his ability to accomplish things during the day.
Now that his grandmother has broken her hip, my friend visits her each day, simply because he
understands how difficult sitting still with an injury can be.” Teachers can ask students if there
is anyone in their lives who is experiencing something they can empathize with.
Teachers can point out examples of empathy expressed in classroom assignments. For
example, while reading the book Dad and the Dinosaur by Gennifer Choldenko, early
elementary teachers might start a discussion about why the father in the book tries so hard to
help his son find his lost and beloved dinosaur, rather than just hugging the boy and feeling
sorry that the dinosaur was lost.
Historical examples can also be used. For example, when reading about the potato
famine of Ireland from 1845-1849, students might read different accounts of Queen Victoria’s
actions. One account might focus on the Queen’s concerns that the famine would rally Irish
nationalist movements, while another might describe her pleas to British politicians and her
efforts towards raising money and contributing her own money to help alleviate the
catastrophe. After reading the various accounts, students might be asked to think about the
various levels of empathy described. They might be asked to consider how more empathetic
accounts of Queen Victoria make her a more likeable historical figure. They might be asked to
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think about how displays of empathy affect other people’s overall opinions of a person’s
character. Students can be asked to find their own examples of fictional and nonfictional
accounts of empathy and sympathy. After finding examples, students might be asked to relate
the terms to examples in their own lives.
Attributes of Empathy
When teachers ask students to understand empathy, it may be helpful to define specific
characteristics such as:
The ability to see the world from another person’s point of view.
The ability to see another point of view before judging another’s actions.
The ability to imagine another person’s feelings given a set of circumstances.
The ability to communicate an understanding of another person’s feelings, and taking
that understanding into account when making relevant decisions.
(Adapted from Theresa Wiseman, 1996)
To help students understand the world as others see it, teachers might provide some
guidance regarding the basic characteristics of empathy. For example:
Analyzing competing points of view: Debating or presenting given points of view (points
of view that do not necessarily reflect the student’s own view) can help students
understand multiple sides of the same issue.
Stepping outside their current circumstances: This might involve roleplaying as notable
figures, or it might involve asking students to try to see the point of view of someone in
their lives.
Explaining someone else’s reasoning: Students might be asked to choose a point of view
expressed by someone they do not agree with. They might be asked to look more in
depth at both the person and his or her views and try to explain why this person came
to such conclusions.
To demonstrate being nonjudgmental, teachers might engage students in activities like the
following:
Becoming aware of negative or judgmental language: For example, recognizing terms or
phrases that indicate judgment in conversation such as “I don’t like,” “I don’t
understand,” or “I can’t believe”. When students can recognize judgmental language
about both themselves and others, they can begin to eliminate judgmental thoughts and
language and correct it when they can.
Discovering why judgments are often inaccurate: For example, understanding
stereotyping and examining why the practice is simplistic and incorrect. When students
recognize that judgments are often inaccurate, they may avoid making one and look for
additional information instead.
Identifying judgments they make or have made in the past: For example, students might
be asked to think about judgments they hold. These could be in regards to a character in
a book, a peer at school, a class or subject in school, or even a political issue. They may
be asked to reflect on why they feel the way they do.
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In order to help students learn how to understand another person’s feelings, the teacher
might engage students in activities that facilitate the process. For example, teachers can:
Ask students to use targeted questioning: Teachers can ask students to pose internal
questions such as “If I were in this situation, how would I feel?” and so on. Target
questions can help students focus on the feelings of another person rather than on their
own feelings.
Ask students to explain how feelings affect interactions: For example, after explaining
how feelings and emotions can affect one’s interpretations of a situation, teachers can
ask students to choose examples from life, history, or literature in which someone’s
feelings caused a skewed reaction to a situation.
Ask students to examine sympathetic feelings: For example, teachers might ask students
to describe in detail what sympathetic feelings are. After providing some specific
examples, students might then explain how those feelings might motivate empathetic
behaviors.
Ask student to practice and read facial expressions: The subjects of photographic or
artwork can provide students with excellent opportunities to practice identifying
feelings.
In addition to understanding another’s feelings and points of view, students also need to be
able to communicate and demonstrate their understanding. In this interest, teachers might
engage students in the following activities:
Reflecting on their own language: For example, a teacher might ask students to think
about recent conversations. What did they learn about someone? What questions did
they ask? Also, what did you share about yourself? Students might be asked to think
about whether they do more listening or sharing in a conversation.
Focusing on how others’ actions affect them rather than placing blame: For example, a
teacher might ask students to simply make statements that fit the “When you
__________, I feel ________” model.
Explaining empathetic qualities: For example, ask students to explain when they felt
empathy was being expressed towards them and why. Students might say, “I knew you
were paying attention to what I said because you asked questions that were based on
my previous response.”
Reviewing reminders of appropriate communication: For example, teachers might refer
to classroom procedures that outline appropriate communication and ask students to
explain why those rules apply to all students.
Forgiveness
Forgiveness can also provide a connection to something greater than the self. Because
forgiveness requires individuals to think outside of themselves, it can be intrinsically challenging
for many, if not all people. Forgiveness can benefit not just the person being forgiven, but the
person who has engaged in forgiveness as well. In schools, Elizabeth A Gassin, Robert D.
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Enright, and Jeanette A. Knutson (2005) posited that forgiveness can lead to a reduction in
anger. Forgiveness leads to “less depression and anxiety and to stronger academic achievement
and more peaceful social behavior” among students (p. 321).
Teachers can guide students by providing examples from real life, literature, or history.
They can also ask students to consider who might need their forgiveness and who they might
like to receive forgiveness from. Stories from resources such as “The Forgiveness Project”
(www.theforgivenessproject.com) can provide powerful examples such as:
Scarlet Lewis’s son, Jesse, was killed in 2012 during the Sandy Hook Elementary
shooting in Connecticut. In her grief, she found she had a lot of resentment
for both the gunman and the mother that Ms. Lewis believed had enabled
him. Over time, she found that the anger and the resentment were
overwhelming. One day, she saw a phonetically spelled message of
nurturing and love her own son had left behind shortly before his death.
She decided to make a choice of forgiveness, and her path led her to
create the Forgiveness Project, an endeavor she hopes will help bring
others the kind of peace she has experienced through forgiveness.
After students have processed such a story and discussed its inspirational attributes,
teachers can more directly teach students about the process of forgiveness. A four-phase
process might be introduced:
1. Uncovering phase: The recognition of an offense and its associated negative
consequences.
2. Decision phase: Making the decision to forgive.
3. Work phase: Trying to reframe feelings or reach a deeper understanding of the offense
or the offender.
4. Deepening phase: identifying the positives from the situation as a whole.
(Enright, 2001)
Figure 7.2 provides further guidance for teachers engaged in forgiveness instruction.
Figure 7.2: Enright Forgiveness Process Model
Phase
Associated Prompts
Uncovering Phase
Who hurt you?
How deeply were you hurt?
What were the circumstances? (Try to
recall specific details)
How did you respond?
How do you feel now, are you angry?
Have you expressed your feelings to
anyone in writing or in person?
Are you ashamed of any feelings you
have? Why?
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Have you avoided any feelings?
Have you been obsessed with the
injury or the offender?
Has the injury caused a permanent
change in your life?
Has the injury caused a change in how
you view people or the world?
Decision Phase
Decide that what you have been
doing has not worked
Be willing to begin the forgiveness
process
Work Phase
Work toward understanding the
offender by viewing him or her in
context.
Work toward compassion for the
offender
Accept the pain associated with the
offense.
Give the offender a gift (moral or
otherwise).
Deepening Phase
Find meaning for you and for others
in the offense and the forgiveness
process
Recognize times when you have
needed forgiveness from others
Discover you are not alone
Realize the offense has positive
implications and identify them
Recognize the emotional release, and
increased positive effect of
forgiveness.
Source: Adapted from Enright, 2001. Used with permission.
When focusing on forgiveness with students, it is important to understand that
forgiveness cannot be mandated. In other words, teachers should not expect students to
forgive one another after conflicts arise in class. Practicing forgiveness must be an individual
choice students arrive at independently.
Teachers should also address common misconceptions about forgiveness. For example,
teachers can ask students to differentiate between forgiveness, condoning, and reconciliation.
They may also ask students to identify appropriate and inappropriate responses to common
offenses.
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Gratitude
Gratitude also helps students connect to something greater than the self.
Researchers Jeffrey J. Froh and Giacomo Bono (2012) found that, for students, gratitude
“improves their mood, mental health, and life satisfaction, and it can jumpstart more
purposeful engagement in life at a critical moment in their development, when their identity is
taking shape.” In general gratitude helps us see the positive aspects of our lives overall, and it
helps us keep from focusing on a narrow perspective of one negative thing that might be
happening in our lives. A good place to start regarding teaching students gratitude can be noted
in the following broad statements:
The good experiences and feelings in life are as genuine as the bad.
The mere absence of the bad in life does not equate to an experience of the good.
What is good in life is worth acknowledging and exploring.
These statements allow students to begin exploring the practice of gratitude. Teachers
might ask students, after presenting these statements, which of them they believe to be true
and to what degree. Then, students, working alone or in teams, can generate definitions of
gratitude. The following are some common examples that students might create.
Gratitude is being aware and appreciating the things that you value.
Gratitude is a good emotion, but it can be hard too. It means we realize that other
people did a lot that cost them in many ways to help useven if they didn’t know us.
Gratitude is that warm feeling we get when someone else has given us a piece of
something they value.
Gratitude is appreciating how much other people have done to further our interests
without furthering their own.
Students can also benefit from a systematic engagement in gratitude-based activities.
Teachers can easily integrate the following gratitude activities, identified by Vicki Zakrzewski,
(2013) into the classroom.
Gratitude book: A classroom scrapbook can make space for students to write and draw
about things for which they are grateful. Families can contribute as well, if the book is
sent home with a different student each week.
Gratitude circle: Provide an opportunity for students to share what they are grateful for,
at the beginning or end of class. For younger students, examples may help stimulate
conversation.
Gratitude collage or board: Teachers can create a bulletin board (physical or online) that
allows students to post things which they are grateful for.
Gratitude journals: This more direct exercise asks students to think more in depth about
things they are grateful for in their lives. Teachers may ask students to write about as
many as three things they are grateful for. However, it is not recommended that
students do this more than once a week.
Gratitude letters: To begin with, students might be asked to consider the jobs others do
to help them in their own school. Janitors, food service staff, other teachers, peers, or
administrators might be the subjects of initial gratitude letters. Members of the larger
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community who consistently serve us or specific people who have helped students
might also be the recipients of gratitude letters.
Gratitude paper chain: A gratitude paper chain is a great way for students to see the
overall effect of small actions. Students are asked to write one thing for which they are
grateful on a small strip of paper. Those strips are then made into a paper chain that can
decorate the room.
Gratitude quilt: A more visual version of the paper chain, students can draw things for
which they are grateful on square paper. Those drawings can then be mounted on larger
pieces of construction paper to create a border, and the squares can be assembled into
a “quilt” that decorates the classroom.
Gratitude surprise sticky notes: Each student receives a number of sticky notes and is
asked to write down one thing they are grateful for on each note. Students are then
asked to display the notes in places where others will see them.
Gratitude activities can be executed without much planning, which makes them easy to use
during any free class time.
Mindfulness
A modern definition of mindfulness is a deliberate focus on thinking that results in intentionality
and/or action. These days, most people are so filled with plans, thoughts, and emotions that
they are not able to fully notice what is happening around them, nor are they fully capable of
making the best decisions. The simple act of being more aware of each moment often increases
self-efficacy. Increasingly, mindfulness practice is being integrated into schools. For example,
many schools have now adopted Quiet Time-type programs that ask students to reflect during a
meditative-like practice for a set period of time during the day. Schools that have implemented
two fifteen-minute periods of meditation during the school day have seen drastic changes in
student behavior, one school noting the number of suspensions falling by 45% during the first
year of the Quiet Time program (Kirp, 2014).
The following list presents strategies that help teachers present mindfulness to students in
their classrooms (adapted from Patricia A. Jennings (2015)):
Mindful listening: Transition times can be difficult for students. Listening activities can
help ease this. For example, when beginning a school day, teachers might ask students
who are not yet ready to listen to sit still and close their eyes or lower their gaze to their
hands. “Listen to your breathing, and try to take deep breaths. Listen for the sound of
my bell, and keep listening until you don’t hear it anymore. Then, open your eyes and
we can begin class,” a teacher might say. This can help students of all ages become
more aware of classroom activities once instruction time begins.
Mindful walking: During class transitions or periods during which students appear to be
restless, teachers can ask students to walk around the class, paying special attention to
how they walk (e.g., the length and pace of their strides, how their feet hit the ground,
or even how their shoes feel on their feet). Once students have been given this break
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from instruction and asked to tune in more, they may be more receptive to the lesson at
hand.
Setting intentions: Ask students to set an intention each morning. An intention would be
defined as something positive they intend to accomplish for the day. For example,
making something positive out of something negative, or challenging oneself on an
assignment or assessment. Teachers can ask students to reflect on those intentions as
well, asking them to note whether or not the intention helped them accomplish the
goal, or note if they accomplished a surprising goal.
Three breaths: This strategy can be used at any age. When students seem to need a
break or seem overly anxious, teachers can ask them to place their hands on their chest
and take three very slow, deep breaths. Be sure to ask students to feel their lungs fill
and empty air. Ask students to reflect on how they feel after the exercise.
Each of these strategies can and should be adapted for different age groups. For example,
an elementary teacher might simply ask students to think about what they would like to see
happen over the course of the day, and what they might do to make that happen. At the end of
each day or each week, teachers might ask students to reflect on those desires and how their
actions did or did not attribute to the desired result.
Recommendations
Teachers can and should use the strategies presented in this chapter in a variety of waysany
way that most suits their class and their students. We do recommend the following practices as
a way to reinforce each strategy:
At least once a month present students with inspirational movie clips or stories and ask
them to discuss the ideals they see presented.
Incorporate inspirational quotations whenever possible, even if this includes presenting
the quotes with no comment.
Ask students to engage in an altruistic project at least once a year.
Use strategies that emphasize empathy, forgiveness, gratitude, or mindfulness at least
once a semester.
Empower can be used to develop and archive instructional resources that help students learn
about and practice the various aspects of inspiration.
Create Activity Video Create Activity One-Sheet
These can be reused and shared. We recommend you check out the
Collaborative Work Article
for more details on co-creating, sharing and searching.
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VIII. Student Agency
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One of the most important outcomes for academy students is self-agency. In concrete terms,
agency means that students have the belief that they can positively affect their lives and
possess the skills to do so. Student agency should be addressed in a comprehensive fashion
starting with developing a shared vision at the school level.
An academy should operate from a shared vision that highlights student agency.
Initially, a shared vision can be generated by faculty and staff.
Faculty and Staff Shared Vision
Faculty and staff can engage in an abbreviated version of the shared vision in which the larger
community can be asked to participate at a later date (see the section below entitled Expanding
the Shared Vision).
The process begins by asking faculty and staff to answer the following questions:
According to current test scores, how are our students doing?
What happens to our students once they leave our K-12 system?
Why do we come to school? Why is school important?
What do we want our students to know and be able to do?
What does a successful student look like?
What does an ideal school look like, feel like, and prioritize?
Faculty and staff can be asked to answer these questions individually and then share in
small groups. Common themes should be identified and these themes prioritized.
The process should culminate in a relatively succinct statement like: Students will become
lifelong learners in a supportive and inviting environment that promotes individual learning and
teamwork.
Expanding the Shared Vision
If time and resources allow, input for a shared vision should be elicited from all members of the
school communityadministrators, teachers, nonteaching staff, parents and guardians,
students, business representatives, and community members.
Creating a shared vision involves six crucial steps: (1) identify stakeholder groups, (2)
create guiding questions to generate input, (3) gather input from stakeholder groups, (4)
prioritize and synthesize input, (5) take a final vote, and (6) deploy the shared vision.
Step 1: Identify Stakeholder Groups
Because the overall goal of a shared vision is to include the perspectives of each stakeholder, it
is important to engage as many voices from as many diverse groups as possible. When all
stakeholders are invited, supported, and heard, there will be many people dedicated to doing
the hard work required to achieve the vision. As mentioned, stakeholders to consider including
in the shared vision process are: certified staff (teacher’s aides, maintenance, custodial,
cafeteria, transportation, health, clerical, and administration staff), students, parents and
guardians, community members, and representatives from local businesses.
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Step 2: Create Guiding Questions to Generate Input
Essential questions help to guide productive discussions about the work of creating a shared
vision. Participants should be encouraged to share experiences and opinions, explore ideas, and
address assumptions and preconceived notions about the workings of the school in general.
This includes discussions about the school’s current vision (if one exists), how teaching and
learning happen, what knowledge and skills students are currently obtaining, and what
students need to be successful in the future. Questions like those listed above might be asked:
According to current test scores, how are our students doing?
What happens to our students once they leave our K12 system?
Why do we come to school? Why is school important?
What do we want our students to know and be able to do?
What does a successful student look like?
What does an ideal school look like, feel like, and prioritize?
Step 3: Gather Input From Stakeholder Groups
The next step in creating a shared vision is focused on gathering relevant input from
stakeholders through hosted conversations. Hosted conversations are separate, facilitated
meetings for specific stakeholder groups. Separate meetings are held for different stakeholder
groups in order to maximize information gathered specific to their perspectives and needs. All
meetings should be held within a short timeframe to ensure that schools receive maximum
input from stakeholders before a loss of momentum for creating the vision occurs.
Step 4: Prioritize and Synthesize Input
The goal of this step is to review and synthesize all gathered input. Initially, a school team
should be identified to asses all input. This group can be comprised of any invested
stakeholders. The team then uses a process (such as the affinity diagram process) to combine
similar ideas and create categories based upon the types of ideas (for example, environment,
academics, character). Once general categories are created, the team can work to narrow the
ideas and discover the overall concept that represents various ideas. With clear, distilled
information, the team can create several examples of vision statements that reflect the
concepts and ideas discussed. Ideally, the vision will be captured in one to two sentences.
Step 5: Take a Final Vote
When a set of possible shared vision statements is complete, stakeholders must be assembled
again in order to seek input and continue building a community of purpose and collaboration.
This step includes critical elements of facilitation. Specifically: remind participants of the
process used to gather input, describe with transparency how the initial stages of input
gathering led to the statements of a shared vision (describe the work of the team), and help
participants identify and embrace the roles they will assume in achieving the chosen shared
mission.
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Step 6: Deploy the Shared Vision
When a vote has determined the final shared vision, all stakeholders should be notified. Team
members and school participants should be available to help communicate the vision process
and the vision statement whenever possible. A shared vision is best communicated using
multiple formats. For example, graphics, newsletters, social media outlets, and in-person
meetings can all be used to communicate the vision statement. Once the vision has been
established and communicated, it should guide decision-making and bring clarity to setting
strategic goals, objectives, and outcomes.
Translate a Shared Vision into Classroom Level Goals
The schoolwide vision should be translated into a more classroom-specific version by the
teacher and students. This should occur in each homeroom (or some equivalent to a
homeroom) so that each student engages in the process only once.
To illustrate this process, reconsider the shared vision described previously: “Students
will become lifelong learners in a supportive and inviting environment that promotes
individualized learning and teamwork.” This type of vision is typical at the elementary level. At
the secondary level shared visions like the following are more common: “Students will engage
in work they are passionate about to develop the knowledge, skills, and habits of mind
necessary to succeed in college and career, overcome obstacles to their well-being, and
contribute positively to their communities.”
In their homeroom classes, students, guided by teachers, would attempt to translate the
schoolwide vision into class level behaviors. This process is facilitated by questions posed by the
teacher. For example, for the elementary shared vision the teacher might ask the following
questions:
How do supportive students act, think, and feel?
How do team players act, think, and feel?
What qualities do lifelong learners have?
What words describe the qualities that would best help us reach our goals this year?
For the shared vision at the secondary level the teacher might ask the following questions:
What metacognitive skills do we need to develop so that we can do our best?
What are the qualities of good collaborators?
What habits do we need to develop to be successful beyond high school?
Student answers to the questions should result in concrete protocols like the elementary code
of conduct in figure 8.1.
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Figure 8.1: Elementary Code of Conduct
Code of Cooperation
In our class, we will . . .
1. Stay on Task
2. Listen to Each Other
3. Pay Attention
4. Complete Our Work
Signed on August 27, 2014
Signed by Denise, Alma, Emmet, Kai, Ali, Braden, Hammond, Shamara, Emery, Kristian, Abdul,
Adrian, Asyriaw, Sloan, Noel, Amoni, Dontey, Kearté, and Donzel
Figure 8.2 contains examples at the secondary level.
Figure 8.2: High School Classroom Goals and Codes of Cooperation
2nd Block B Day
We Will Accomplish our Shared Vision By:
In our English class, we strive to be the
best versions of ourselves, and we will
work together to prepare ourselves for
the world, so that we can accomplish
anything.
Encouraging each other
Having a growth mindset
Trusting in ourselves
Being honest
Respecting each other
3rd Block B Day
We will accomplish our goals by:
In our English class, we strive for
perfection, and we will work together to
accomplish our goals, so we can be
successful.
Encouraging each other
Having a growth mindset
Being consistent
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Being willing to try
Being resourceful
First Block
Code of Cooperation
We will graduate and move on
Practice growth mindset
Apply the skills we learn here in our future
Maturity
Teamwork
Respect
Positive attitude
Honesty
Patience
Keeping Track of Progress
Individual classes can develop rubrics that can be used to measure their progress. For example,
figure 8.3 contains a rubric for self-control.
Figure 8.3: Rubric for Self-Control
Self-Control
4
I am on task and help my peers to get on task.
I keep my hands, feet, and other items to myself.
I listen to others instead of talking or doing other activities. I am a great role
model.
3
I am on task 90% of the time.
I keep my hands, feet, and other items to myself most of the time90% or
better.
I listen most of the time.
2
I am sometimes on task75% or better.
I try to keep my hands, feet, and other items to myself75% or better.
I try to listen.
1
I need to work harder at being on task.
I am not keeping my hands, feet, and other items to myself.
I do not have good listening skills.
Finally, students as individuals and the class as a whole can maintain their progress
using tracking systems like that in figure 8.4.
Figure 8.4: Behavioral Tracking System
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How did I do
today?
Be truthful
Be thoughtful
10/1
9/15
10/2
0/15
10/2
1/15
10/2
2/15
10/2
3/15
10/2
6/15
10/2
7/15
10/2
8/15
10/2
9/15
10/3
0/15
Self-Control
2
2
2
3
2
2
3
3
2
3
Organization
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
Accountability
3
2
2
2
3
2
3
3
3
3
Respect
3
4
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
3
What have I mastered? I am doing well on Respect.
Where can I improve? I can do better on Organization.
What is my goal for the next 2 weeks? My goal is to be a 3 in Organization.
Creating Standard Operating Procedures
Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are individual sets of detailed instructions that help
students consistently succeed in independently achieving goals for routines and procedures.
The teacher in an academy does not control the pace of the class, rather, students use SOPs as
guides to move through the content on their own. In this system, students bear more
responsibility for behaviors and actions. Additionally, students are expected to be aware of
their performance levels on proficiency scales, and they are equipped to create plans to
improve their performance. Developed SOPs give students explicit guidance and directions to
assume responsibilities and achieve goals. Additionally, working in this manner helps students
develop independence and agency, even in the primary grades.
Creating an SOP involves the following four steps:
1. Identify common inefficiencies that frequently require redirection, reminder, or more
time than necessary.
2. Prioritize inefficiencies based on need.
3. Determine the complexity and type of procedure. Does it require a procedural list or a
flowchart?
4. Develop schoolwide and classroom procedures with input.
As indicated in the four-step process, SOPs can be articulated as a procedural list or as a
flowchart. There are a number of situations for which SOPs might be created. These include the
following:
How to properly check out books
What to do when done