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Isaac Newton and His Discoveries

E Book By Thomas P.

Isaac Newton and His Discoveries

By Thomas Peng

Meet Isaac Newton, a man who grew up to invent branches of math and greatly influence western thought in science. Isaac Newton started calculus, physics and this helped him make the universal laws of gravity. He also greatly supported Planetary Movement and made major discoveries in optics and chemistry. Though his insecurity and lack of affability diminished his personality and relationships with people, he was a very stubborn person and therefore, good person to have on your side. Though he tried to keep his discoveries quiet, when his breakthroughs were revealed the world changed its way of thought.

Isaac Newton was born in January 4th, 1643 on a farm in Woolsthorpe Manor, England and had a sad, depressing childhood. His father, a farmer, died when he was 3 months old. When he grew to to be three years old, his mother abandoned him and married a minister, leaving poor Isaac with his grandmother. 

When Isaac turned 12, his mother returned to him after the minister died. She brought 3 small children from the minister and Newton finally went to school. There, he lived in an apothecary's office and at school, he was introduced English and alchemy. That same year, his mother pulled him out of school to work at the farm like his father did. But Newton didn't want to be a farmer. Newton knew he had so much more potential and he found farming very monotonous. He was very soon sent back to school to finish his education. At school, he learned about English and he wrote his signature on one of the school walls.

Newton's uncle was a graduate from Cambridge, Trinity College. He saw the potential in Newton and invited Newton to the college. Since his mother refused to pay for his schooling, he had to be a servant for wealthier student's. If he didn't, he would be kicked out of the college. An excited student, he was very interested in science and mathematics. He was taught standard curriculum, but he didn't want to learn that. Instead, he was interested in more advanced science and he so he studied advanced, more modern science while, he was taught standard curriculum. This double sort of learning experience gave Newton an average result. 

The school later had a two year break because of the Great Plague ravaging Europe. During this break, Newton studied science and mathematics and published a book called Opticks. When Newton returned, he found out a book called Logarithotechnia and he quickly wrote a dissertation about it. He called it De Analysis and it was about infinite series of decimals.

After Newton wrote the dissertation, he shared his work with his mentor, Isaac Barrows and Barrows shared it with John Collins. John Collins was a British mathematician and later Barrows resigned his seat as Professor of Geometry and Greek Professor. Newton quickly took Barrow's seat and he became a member of the Royal Society (An learning institution). When Newton entered the Royal Society, not many people welcomed Newton in though. Many of the protester's didn't like Newton's work on Optics. One of the main protesters was a man named Robert Hooke. Hooke theorized light was made of waves while Newton thought it was made of particles. Hooke was not the alone objecting Newton's work. Other scientists objected too following Hooke because he was one of the original members of the Royal Society and a renowned scientist in Optics and mechanics.

When the Royal Society criticized Newton, he couldn't handle it, so he fell into a rage and denied all of the accusations. The rage was like a storm inside him, increasing in power. He argued about the importance of his discoveries for the world and as the fight went on, relationships got worse and worse. Soon it got so bad that Newton indicated that he would leave the whole of the Royal Society. He stayed when a few of the members assured him that they held him in high regards. 

The argument continued until Newton isolated himself. Later, it got worse because Newton's mother died and Newton received a letter from Robert Hooke. 

The letter involved the questioning of if inverse squares might correspond with the movement of planets. A few conversations broke out upon the topic before Newton stopped talking once again. Newton, who was coming out of his solitude talked to two men named Christopher Wren and Edmond Halley and told them about his concentrated studies. 

They liked the path he was going but, they told him they needed a scientific presentation. When Halley visited Newton, Newton claimed to have understood the movement of planets long ago but he said he couldn't find his notes. When Halley offered to pay, Newton published a book called Principia. When Hooke heard of this, he criticised Newton for plagurism and many people knew his argument was groundless.

When Newton was accused, he fiercely defended his breakthoughs. He removed all mentioning of Hooke in his notes. Halley tried to calm the tension because he worked hard with Newton and Newton later reluctantly admitted that Hooke affected his work in his talk about inverse squares.He also made a threat of not publishing the next edition of Principia.

Also as Newton grew more and more known, Hooke's position among people declined. Hooke became bitter and spiteful. He verbally attacked Newton as much as possible and he refused to stop working until his death. Sadly, Hooke was left unsatisfied and later his life began to go downhill. First his much loved niece and wife died the year Principia was published. Newton's next editions of Principia  more specified such as on calculus or physics.

Understanding that Newton would be elected president of the Royal Society, Hooke didn't retire until he died. After the publish of Principia, Newton became involved with more public affairs af·fair [noun: an event or sequence of events of a specified kind or that has previously been referred to] involving politics.

For example, Newton helped command King James's attempt to recapitulate Catholic learning in Cambridge and he was later voted to speak for Cambridge in Parliament. In his stay and London, he met a scientists and he made himself aquainted with them. A new generation of British scientists became intersted in his point of view of the world and they knew him as a leader. "Isaac Newton is a very smart and brilliant man so he should lead us " they reasoned.

He had started working in alchemy a few years before  he believed in it. Sadly, in a few years, he fell into another nervous breakdown. The reasons are unknown but, a few assumptions were disapointment of his rank in society or poisoning from years of working with mercury. He sent letters seeming a bit crazy saying "You traitors! " and "May god wreak havoc upon you."

He later sent apology letters and went back working. He was a lion attacking his prey until he was satisfied it was incapacitated. Later, Newton seemed fine but he looked like he was more intent (in·tent, noun, intention or purpose) in prophecy and alchemy. In 1669 Newton's aim finally came true; he became promoted to Master of the Mint. 

He soon moved in with his niece, partner of Lord Halifax (A high ranking government official) who was very excited about Newton's promotion (pro·mo·tion noun, activity that supports or provides active encouragement for the furtherance of a cause, venture, or aim). Newton was very serious about his position so he changed the currency from silver to gold standard. He also gave very harsh consequences to the counterfeiters and in 1703 Newton was elected president of the Royal Society.

As president of the Royal Society, Newton used his power to rule over the younger learners with supremacy. His high aim and aggresive attitude made many conflicts with many other scientists. There were a few examples of these conflicts. One of them was when a German scientists named Gottfried Leibniz publicly criticized Newton for plagiarism.

Leibniz claimed that Newton copied his work on infinitesimals and said he discovered it several years before Newton the publishing of Principia. In 1712 The Royal Society sent a team to explore the situation. Newton chose the team members so it was favored towards Newton."This accusation is preposterous!" (pre·pos·ter·ous, adjective, contrary to reason or common sense; utterly absurd or ridiculous.) he said.

After the search, the team conluded Newton's inncocence. Another example would be when Newton published a man named John Flamsteed's notes without permission. The scientist collected a lot of information with his time at the Royal Observatory. When Flamsteed wouldn't publish the notes quickly enough, Newton used his power as president of the Royal Society to be named Chairman of the people who used the observatory. Newton used this power to be named Chairman for the people using the Royal Observatory.wton used this power to be named Chairman for the people using the Royal Observatory. Newton used this power to be named Chairman for the people using the Royal Observatory. Newton used this power to be named Chairman for the people using the Royal Observatory. Newton used this power to be named Chairman for the people using the Royal Observatory.

 He then attempted to forcefully publish all of Flamsteed's. To further offend Flamsteed, he prepared for Flamsteed's rival (ri·val, noun, a person or thing competing with another for the same objective or for superiority in the same field of activity) Halley, to arrange the notes for the print. Flamsteed later got a court to and it stoped Newton from continuing his plans and return the notes to Flamsteed. 

Near the ending of his life, he lived at Cranbury Park, with his niece and her husband. At this time, he was one of the most famous people in Europe. His many discoveries were accepted by the world and he also became rich, generously donating to charity and judged his investments (in·vest·ment, noun, the action or process of investing money for profit or material result) well.

Though he had many troubles in his life, he had finally achieved happiness. When he had turned 80 years old, he had encountered mobility (mo·bil·i·ty, noun,
the ability to move or be moved freely and easily) 
and digestion problems. By March, 1727, one of the most brilliant man ever suffered severe pain and he blacked out, never to wake again. At this time of his life, he made the quote, "To myself I am only a child playing on the beach, while vast oceans of truth lie undiscovered before me."

Newton is born January fourth, 1643 in Lincolnshire England.

Newton publishes Principia which suggest his laws of motion and gravity in 1687.

Opticks is published written about light in 1704.

Newton started studying at Cambridge in 1661.

Newton dies in 1727.

The plague drives Newton out of London and he starts Calculus and gets the idea of gravity.

Newton is elected to Royal Society in 1672.