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The Civil War:

A War between Groups of the Same Country

Stacey Lee

Leaders: Abraham Lincoln; George B. McClellan; Ulysses S. (aka "Unconditional Surrender") Grant; David Farragut; John Pope; Ambrose Burnside; Joseph Hooker; George Meade; William Tecumseh Sherman

States: California, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin

Strengths: larger population; more industry; plentiful resources; better banking system; more ships; better network of railroads; Lincoln's dedication and intelligence

Weaknesses: must invade the South; go to the Confederacy's territory

War Aims: get the Southern states to return to the Union; end slavery

Strategies: stop supplies by closing the South's ports; gain control of the Mississippi River to divide the Confederate states; take control of the Confederate capital

Nicknames: Yankees; Bluebellies; "Unconditional Surrender" Grant

The North

Leaders: Jefferson Davis; Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson; Robert E. Lee; George Pickett

States: Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia

Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia

Strengths: fighting in their territory; trained military leadership

Weaknesses: smaller population; not many factories; trouble sending food, weapons, and other supplies; belief in state’s rights

War Aims: wanted to be seen as an independent nation

Strategies: defend homeland; tire out the North; some attacked

Nicknames: Rebels; Confederates; "Stonewall" Jackson

The South

Secession Events and Causes of the Civil War

     The South started to secede over states' rights and slavery. At first, it was just a threat, until South Carolina held a convention about their secession.

  In February 1861, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas seceded with South Carolina. At Montgomery, Alabama, these seven states formed the Confederate States of America, aka the Confederacy. Jefferson Davis from Mississippi was chosen as their president. 

   Abraham Lincoln did not allow the secession, saying in his Inaugural Address, "We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies." On April 12, 1861, Confederate troops fired at Fort Sumter, starting the Civil War.


The Battle of Fort Sumter starts when the fort was low on supplies. As Lincoln was sending in supplies, the Confederates attacked.


On April 12, 1861, the first shots were fired. After about 34 hours, on April 14, 1861, the Union side surrendered.

The Battle at Fort Sumter


Major Robert Anderson (Union) sent a message to Lincoln (Union) about how they should surrender due to the supply shortage. 

P.G.T. Beauregard (Confederate) opened fire on April 12, 1861.

Abner Doubleday (Union) was the first to fire at the Confederates.

The North started with 85 soldiers, than called for 75,000 troops


The Union surrendered, and the Confederates rose their flag. Neither side had actually won this battle, and no deaths occurred. After the battle ended, volunteers started to sign up for the war, and Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas left the Union to join the Confederacy.


The Battle of Fort Sumter was the battle that started the Civil War. It went on for about 34 hours, when the Union surrendered. Although there were no deaths, both sides started to prepare for the upcoming war.


This battle takes place in Fort Sumter, South Carolina, a United States fort. The fort is meant to guard Charleston Harbor


 Before the battle had started, many citizens came out to watch the war begin. They expected a quick victory, only to be proven wrong in the end.


On July 21, 1861, the Union troops fought the Rebels in Bull Run.

The First Battle of Bull Run


Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson (Confederate) inspired the Rebels and fought "like a stone wall."

About 30,000 inexperienced Union troops attacked a smaller and also inexperienced Confederate group.


The Confederate troops, which were much smaller than the Northern troops, were being attacked when inspired by General Thomas Jackson. The "Rebel yell" was used for the first time during this battle as they ran towards the Union soldiers. These men were terrified, and ended up running away with many civilians.


This battle took place in a town near Manassas Junction.


The Rebels won this battle when the Yankees took off running to Washington D.C. Lincoln was ready for what was to come. He asked for volunteers with the new general George B. McClellan and created the Army of the Potomac. About 2,680, 9.5% of the Yankee men, were killed or wounded. Around 2,000 Confederate casualties occurred.


Before the Battle of Fort Donelson, Yankees had come into Fort Henry, then entered Fort Donelson to attack.


The Battle went on from February 11 to February 16, when the fort was surrendered to the Union.

The Battle of Fort Donelson


General Ulysses Grant (Union) started the attack Fort Donelson.

John Floyd (Confederate) messed up his part, causing the Confederates to surrender.

16,000 Confederate soldiers fought against 24,500 Union troops.


Because General Gideon Pillow made the mistake of fighting back. instead of turning away, the Union side was victorious in this battle. Fort Donelson was surrendered to the Union. About 13,400 casualties occurred from the 16,000 Confederates who fought. Out of the 24,500 Union troops, only approximately 2,700 casualties transpired. In the end, Kentucky was taken, and Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama were open for the Union to take.


The Union troops went Fort Donelson and attacked. Confederate General Gideon Pillow tried to fight back, resulting in the winning of the Union side. The Confederate general tried to ask for another way out, but Grant responded with "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted."


The battle took place in Fort Donelson, which was located near the Cumberland River in Tennessee.


The Battle of Hampton Roads (The Monitor versus the Merrimack) went on for two days- March 8-9, 1862


Before the First Battle of Bull Run, Lincoln commanded that Southern ports be blocked. This angered the Confederates, because they started to run out of supplies. They attacked some Northern ships, starting the Battle of Hampton Roads.

The Battle of Hampton Roads


John Ericsson designed the Monitor.

Franklin Buchanan was the Confederate leader, Louis M. Goldsborough  (Union) was the flag officer, and John L. Worden (Union) was the lieutenant.


The Monitor sank at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean and was found in 1973. The ships were used as models to build more ironclads. The battle resulted in a new era of naval warfare.


In Norfolk and Richmond, Virginia, Confederates took the rebuilt Merrimack (CSS Virginia) and attacked a few Union ships. Richmond was the Confederate capital.


Southerners rebuilt the abandoned Northern ship, the Merrimack, calling it the CSS Virginia. They used the ship to fire at other Northern ships. The North sent and ironclad of their own, and both tried to sink the other's ship.


On April 6, 1862, Johnston attacked Grant.

Two days later, on April 8, the battle ended with one of the Civil War's bloodiest battles.


Knowing that Union forces were going to attack, Confederate General Johnston took troops to surprise Grant by striking.

The Battle of Shiloh


General Ulysses Grant (Union) took 40,000 troops into Corinth, Mississippi, waiting for General Buell (Union).

Albert Sidney Johnston (Confederate) planned to attack Grant before Buell came.

A total of 66,000 Union soldiers and 44,700 Confederates fought in this battle.


This victory goes to the Northerners for tiring out the Confederates. One of the 10,700 Confederate casualties included General Johnston, which decreased their belief in winning. 13,000 casualties in the North happened.


Union troops were on the way to Corinth, Mississippi. They waited for Buell at Pittsburg Landing, near a church called Shiloh, where Confederate forces attacked. The word "shiloh" means "place of peace," which is ironic, considering a battle occurred here.


Confederate forces surprisingly attacked Northern troops while they were camping out. This battle became one of the bloodiest battles in the Civil War. The Union troops were driven back and, with 25,000 helpers, defeated the Confederate side.

The Second Battle of Bull Run


The Second Battle of Bull Run went on for longer than the first, lasting from August 28-30, 1862.



Jackson's troops marched into Manassas, joining Lee's army. Pope fired the first shot, which started the Second Battle of Bull Run.


Robert E. Lee (Confederate) sent half of his Army of Northern Virginia with Stonewall Jackson (Confederate) to Manassas to attack General John Pope (Union)'s supply base.

James Longstreet (Confederate) led 28,000 rebels to counterattack Pope.

62,000 Union soldiers fought against 50,000 Confederates.


Like the First Battle of Bull Run, this battle took place at Manassas, where the Federal supply base was located.


John Pope struck at the Confederates on August 29, 1862. Union troops started to fight, when Confederates counterattacked. The South had won this battle.


The Confederates won with Richmond being safe. Now, Lee and his troop were only 20 miles away from the Union capital, Washington D.C. With 9,000 Southern casualties and 14,000 Union ones, the Second Battle of Bull Run was over.


After winning previous battles, President Jefferson Davis commanded Lee to go into the northern territory and fight. A southerner accidentally dropped his plans, so McClellan now knew their plans. He then attacked.


It took four days for McClellan to prepare for the battle. This battle took place on September 17, 1862, after the second battle at Manassas. On September 18, Lee fled, making the Union think that they won.

The Battle of Antietam


Robert E. Lee (Confederate) and George McClellan (Union) fought each other.

38,000 Confederates joined Robert against 75,000 Union troops.


A total of about 22,000 casualties occurred, 10,318 from the Confederate side and 12,401 from the North.

Although the North had thought that they won because Lee had left, McClellan never achieved his goal of destroying the rebel army. This caused him to be fired from being in command in November, but the battle was still a crucial Union victory. The South no longer had a good chance of getting international recognition. Lincoln decided, after the battle, to end slavery for good. He signed the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863.


The Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest battle in the war and was the first that took place in the North. Many people died, but neither armies were destroyed. Lee left to Virginia, ending the war.


The Battle of Antietam was located near Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, Maryland. It was the first battle of the Civil War that was fought in the North.


Before the battle occurred, the Army of the Potomac had trouble getting to the area in time. This gave the Confederates an advantage, since they were able to get up onto a hill.


The two leaders started fighting on December 13, 1862.

The Battle of Fredericksburg


Robert E. Lee (Confederate) and his 80,000 troops fought against Ambrose Burnside (Union)'s larger group of 120,000 troops.


The Confederates won the fight with less than 5,000 casualties with the 13,000 casualties from the North. Burnside thought that he didn't deserve to be the commander, because he let down his team. Joseph Hooker replaced him.


Before the Battle of Fredericksburg, Burnside and his troops had to cross a river, taking up some time. Lee and his troops were able to get to the top of Marye's Heights while they were trying to cross. The Confederates were able to get up the hill and defeat the Union soldiers. Burnside resigned because he thought that his loss meant that he wasn't right to be commander.


The Army of the Potomac had to cross the Rappahannock River.  Lee's troops waited at the top of Marye's Heights for the Union troops, where they attacked.

The Battle of Chancellorsville


The Confederate had won the Battle of Fredericksburg, which was only a couple miles away. Lee had a smaller army than Hooker, almost half the size. He divided his troops and attacked.


The Battle of Chancellorsville happened from April 30 - May 6, 1863.

On April 30, Lee went up to Fredericksburg Heights.

On May 2, Jackson went to Hooker's line and attacked there.


The newly appointed Joseph Hooker (Union) rebuilt the Army of the Potomac and attacked against Robert E. Lee (Confederate).

Confederate troops of 60,000 went against 100,000 hiding Union troops.


The battle was in Chancellorsville, near Fredericksburg which was where the previous battle occurred.


Lee's smaller army was split into two different groups. 30,000 went with Stonewall Jackson. Jackson's soldiers went up to Hooker's right flank and destroyed half of them, because night had come. One of his own Confederates had accidentally killed Jackson.


This battle was Lee's greatest Civil War victory. Although they had lost Jackson, along with 12,825 others, they were able to get Hooker to flee with 17,278 casualties. This led him to Gettysburg, the last major battle of the Civil War.


The attacks on Vicksburg happened because the North thought that Vicksburg was the key to victory. The Union needed to capture Vicksburg to have gained complete control of the Mississippi River.


The battle of Vicksburg went on from May 18 to July 4, 1863. In 1862, the First Battle of Vicksburg occurred, where Grant failed. June 25-July 1 was the Seven Days Battle, which Lee started.

Assault on Vicksburg


Ulysses S. Grant led the Union, and John C. Pemberton led the Confederates.

75,000 Union soldiers and 34,000 Confederate soldiers were involved.


The Union won, with Vicksburg surrendered to them. They now had all of the Mississippi River. 4,800 Union soldiers died, along with 3,300 dead Confederates and 30,000 captured ones.


This happened at Vicksburg, Mississippi. It was near the Mississippi River. Grant moved up, and his supply line and base were both captured.


Grant had tried to capture Vicksburg before, but never succeeded. Vicksburg was being watched by General John C. Pemberton. The Confederate side surrendered Vicksburg, and the Union finally won.


Hooker was told to fight Lee's army, but wouldn't. Meade replaced him, and left for supplies. While the Confederates were looking for shoes, they saw Union soldiers coming up to surprise them. Then, the North fired.


The three day battle went on from July 1-3, 1863.  It started on July 1, when Confederates fought the Army of the Potomac.

The Battle of Gettysburg


George Meade (Union) took the place of Hooker because he did not attack Lee's army when told. Meade had to attack the Confederates and protect Washington and Baltimore.

James Longstreet (Confederate) fired at Union soldiers under the orders of Daniel Sickles.

75,000 of Robert E. Lee's troops attacked the 82,000 soldiers from the North.


The battle ended with a victory for the North. 28,000 casualties from the Confederates and 23,000 from the Union occurred. Lee tried to resign, but was rejected by President Davis. The battle was won in the Union's favor.


Northern forces sent troops to attack the Confederates while they were out for shoes. They fought, but the outnumbered Union troops withdrew to Cemetery Hill.

On the second day, Longstreet's army fired at Sickles's at 4 pm. Sickles ended up extremely wounded.

The third day ended up with many dead and wounded, after a failed attack.


The Battle of Gettysburg was located in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania in Adams County.

The Terms of the Surrender ->

1. They must give their roles in the Army of Northern Virginia to Grant.

2. They could keep their horses for planting.

3. They may return home, with no one, not even U.S. authority, to disturb them.

4. They will be given food.

*Read a copy of terms at*

What happened before the Surrender at Appomattox?

On April 8, as Robert E. Lee and his army were running from the Appomattox campaign, Union forces were able to get together and catch up to the Confederates. They surrounded them, with no way for one to escape.

Surrender at Appomattox

& Terms of Surrender

The Surrender

On April 9, 1865, Lee told Grant that he surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia. Soon, other Confederates surrendered and president Jefferson Davis was captured, ending the Civil War.

Lee, in full dress attire, sat at The Appomattox Court House with Grant, in his muddy uniform. Lee asked for the terms, and they were written down in front of him. "The war is over. The Rebels are our countrymen again," Grant told his side.

Ulysses S. Grant (Union) 

Before the Civil War

On April 27, 1822, Hiram Ulysses Grant was born to Jesse Root Grant and Hannah Simpson Grant in Point Pleasant, Ohio. When he was 17, he was sent to a military school called United States Military Academy. The school accidentally enrolled him as "Ulysses S. Grant," causing him to change his name. Grant thought that after four years in the military, he would stop serving.

He worked in the Mexican-American War and met Robert E. Lee. They didn't know each other at the time, but soon went against each other in the American Civil War.

At Fort Humboldt in the Mexican War, he met Robert C. Buchanan, which would soon be a Union general in the Civil War as well.

From 1854-1860, Grant worked in Missouri as a civilian.

Civil War General

In February 6 of 1862, Grant volunteered to help attack Fort Henry. He captured the fort and ten days later, captured Fort Donelson as well. In capturing the fort, he replied to the Confederate commander in charge, "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted," earning the nickname "Unconditional Surrender" Grant and becoming a major Union general. The two captures became significant Union victories, allowing the Union to be able to march into Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama.

Grant and his troops marched into Corinth, Mississippi, where the Battle of Shiloh took place. On the second day of this battle, the Union was able to defeat the Confederates, who had run to Corinth. Although the Union had won this battle, Grant was criticized by Congress and demoted to second-in-command for a while.

Grant had tried many times to take hold of Vicksburg. After many attempts, in July 4, 1863, Grant finally succeeded and Vicksburg surrendered.

In the end of the war, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia. This led to many other surrenders, and finally, the Union won the Civil War.


Ulysses S. Grant became the 18th president of the United States from 1869-1877. After being president, he became bankrupt and found out that he had throat cancer. He earned $450,000 from selling magazines and died on July 23, 1885 from his esophageal cancer.

Robert E. Lee (Confederate)

Before the Civil War

Robert Edward Lee was born on January 19, 1807 in Stratford Hall, Virginia.

Like Ulysses S. Grant, Lee attended the military academy at West Point. He was very serious about work in the school, being one of six who did not receive a demerit. His wife and children worked in plantations, but Lee continued to work hard for the military.

In 1846, Lee went to war for the United States against Mexico. The U.S. won the war, and Lee became thought of as a hero. He couldn't stand leaving the war and returning home, but he did.


Lee was no longer a military man; he was a civilian. He became the president of Washington College in Lexington in 1865. On September 28, 1870, Lee suffered from a stroke and died on October 12 of the year.

Civil War General

Lee put an end to a revolt on slavery by John Brown. He was then added to a list where he could lead fights for the North. His love for Virginia caused him to reject the offer and when Virginia seceded from the Union, he became a general for the Confederacy.

He led the Army of Northern Virginia, where they had victories at the Second Battle of Bull Run/Manassas,and battles at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. In the Second Battle of Bull Run, Lee's army counterattacked the Yankees, drove them away, and got closer to the Union capital. This became Lee's greatest Civil War victory. 

Lee lost the Battle of Gettysburg and fled to Appomattox. He, along with his army, was surrounded by many Union soldiers and was forced to surrender. In the Appomattox Court House, General Ulysses S. Grant wrote up the terms of the surrender and the Army of Northern Virginia became his. This surrender led to many other Confederate capitulations, and soon, the South lost the Civil War.

African Americans:

After the Emancipation Proclamation, African Americans were allowed to be a part of the war for the Union. The enslaved worked on plantations and mines, as well as becoming nurses and cooks for the armies. Because African Americans were not allowed to enter the Confederate army, many left to join the Union. Before the South was able to get African Americans into the war for their side, the Civil War ended.

In the North, African Americans could not sign up for the army, but could the navy, until 1862. Soon, about ten percent of the North's army was African American. One regiment for the Union was the 54th Massachusetts, made up of mostly African Americans.


Women during the Civil War wanted to assist the soldiers. They did this by bringing supplies, clothing, and money for the troops. The hoped to be able to care for the wounded. The United States Sanitary Commission was started to help the sick and injured in the war, and the program earned a lot of money for the war (mainly by the women). Soon, the women were allowed to become nurses for their side.

Women in the North did not have many changes in their life because most of the battles occurred in the South. Southern females, however, lost many crops due to armies passing by.

Life During the Civil War


Children replaced their family members in jobs while they were out at the war and tend crops, all while attending school. They were forced to make clothes, soap, and much more, because supplies were low due to the Civil War.

The children had little to do, so they read books and magazines to keep themselves company. They saw a few shows outside, but many were based off of the war.

Kids living in the towns that were attacked had to look for shelter. They hid in caves during the assault of Vicksburg.

The Civil War lost 600,000 soldiers and billions of dollars. Many towns were ruined, with destroyed bridges and railroads and bitter Southerners. No one actually knew how to bring the South back into the Union.

The time period in which the Southerners were trying to get everything together was called the "Reconstruction."

From 1865-1877, the United States went through a time called the "Reconstruction."

President Andrew Johnson went through a presidential reconstruction. He allowed southern states' governments to build themselves up. The states passed a few laws known as the "black codes" from 1865-1866. These stated that free African Americans must work and were restricted of their freedom. Congress wanted to end slavery, so they sent two laws to President Johnson- Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights' Bills. Johnson vetoed the bills, but the Civil Rights Act became a law in 1964.

Congress approved the 15th Amendment in 1869, stating, "the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." (15th Amendment). 


The Compromise of 1876 ended the Reconstruction, but in the 1960's, African Americans would fight for equality.

Results of the War