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human Resource Management Certificate Programme

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Occupational Behavior
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[Type the document subtitle]
Louanne Campbell
A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals,
groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the
purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an
organization's effectiveness in order to maintain a healthy working
environment, we need to adapt to the environment and understand the
goals we need to achieve. It studies three determinants of behavior in
organizations: individuals, groups, and structure. In addition, it
applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups, and the
effect of structure on behavior in order to make organizations work
more effectively", it is considered an applied behavioural science that
is built upon contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines.
The predominant areas which are
Psychology attempts to understand individual behavior and seeks
to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans
and other animals.
Sociology, study the social system in which individuals fill
their roles; which is the study of people in relation to their fellow
human beings.
Social psychology anthropology that is an area within
psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology
and that focuses on the influence of people on one another,
Anthropology that is the study of societies to learn about
human beings and their activities work on cultures and
environments, for instance, helping in understand differences in
fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior among people in
different countries and within different organizations
And political science which study of the behavior of
individuals and groups within a political environment. concern
with the structuring of conflict, allocation of power, and how
people manipulate power for individual self-interest.
While undergoing certain challenges that include responding to
globalization; Managing Workforce Diversity; Improving Quality and
Productivity; Improving People Skills; Empowering People; Coping
with 'Temporariness and Improving Ethical Behavior. With a number of
differences in globalization and work force diversity as globalization
focuses on differences among people from different countries,
workforce diversity addresses differences among people within given
countries in addition to the more obvious groups women, African
Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans it also includes the
physically disabled, gays and lesbians, and the elderly. Moreover, it's an
issue in Canada, Australia, South Africa, Japan, and Europe as well as
the United States"; also dealing with attitudes and perception which
needs to understand what the role of perception in an organization is. It
is very important in establishing different role of perceptions like −
Understanding the tasks to be performed.
Understanding associated importance of tasks allotted.
Understanding preferred behavior to complete respective tasks.
Clarifying role perceptions.
For example, every member in a group has to be clear regarding the role
allotted to them. Programmer writes the code, tester checks it, etc.
Also the order of needs which could be defined by Douglas McGregor,
the eminent social psychologist, divides management style into two
contrasting theories −Theory X and Theory Y Theory X considers that
people dislike work, they want to avoid it and do not take
responsibilities willingly. While, Theory Y considers that people are
self-motivated, and sportingly take responsibilities.
With Maslows outlining individual needs or What motivates an
individual”.as every second need comes to force when the first need is
satisfied completely for instance:
- Physiological Needs: Every individual needs to take care of the
basic requirements required to sustain. These requirements include
food to eat, clothing to wear and shelter to live in. These
necessities are relatively independent of each other but are finite.
- Safety Needs: In an enterprise, it includes job security, salary
increment, etc. The managerial practice to satisfy this involves
offering pension scheme, provident fund, gratuity etc.
- Social Needs: This theory helps managers to think about
encouraging their employees by identifying employee needs. In
short, it presents motivation as constantly changing force,
expressing itself to the constant need for fulfilment of new and
higher levels of needs.
- Esteem: Esteem means the typical human desire to be accepted and
valued by others. People often involve in a profession or hobby to
gain recognition, earn fame and respect. According to Maslow, the
needs of humans have strict guidelines - the hierarchies rather than
being sharply separated, are interrelated. This means that esteem
and the consequent levels are not strictly separated but are closely
- Self-Actualization: Self-actualization means realizing one’s full
potential. Maslow describes this as a desire to complete everything
that one can, to become the most that one can be.