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Introduction to Singhania Clinic
Singhania Clinic is located in Dubai Healthcare City. Al Razi building 64 block A room
Saturday :8:30 AM to 6:30 PM
Sunday: 8:30 AM to 6:00 PM
Monday: 8:30 AM to 6:30 PM
Tuesday: 8:30 AM to 6:30 PM
Wednesday: 8:30 AM to 6:00 PM
Newborn Screening Tests
Newborn screening for early detection of medical disorders began in the early 1960’s
and has gradually been expanded and improved. Today these tests identify about 3000
newborns nation-wide each year with serious underlying medical conditions. Most of
these infants are diagnosed before symptoms occur and have improved lives because
of early diagnosis and treatment.
Required Blood Screen
Newborns are screened for many medical disorders. Prior to being sent home from the
hospital, newborns have their blood drawn, placed on a special filter paper, and sent to
a central state lab for testing.
Early Hearing Detection
Newborn hearing screening is usually done before discharge from the hospital.
Intervention for hearing impairment during the first six months of life significantly
improves language development in these infants. Without newborn hearing screening,
hearing loss is not generally diagnosed until the second year of life.
Car Safety Seats
All children should sit properly restrained in the back seat of the car until age 13. Air
bags can cause serious injury to children in the front seat. Infants and children up to 40
pounds need to be restrained in a car safety seat with a harness.
All infants and toddlers should ride in a rear facing car seat until they are at least 2 years
of age. Serious injuries are five times more likely to occur if your child is in forward facing
safety seat.
Immunizations Protect Babies
Medical experts agree that the development of immunizations was one of the most
significant medical advancements of the 20th century. Prior to immunizations, parents
could expect that every year :
Polio would paralyze 10,000 children
Rubella would cause birth defects and mental retardation in as many as 20,000
Measles would infect as many as 4 million children, killing 3000
Diphtheria would be one of the most common causes of death in school age
A bacteria called Haemophilus influenza type B would cause meningitis in 15,000
children, leaving many with mental retardation or hearing impairment
Pertussis would kill 8,000 children, most under the age of 2 years
Today, thanks to the development and widespread use of vaccines, the frequency of
these illnesses has been vastly reduced, and in some cases almost eliminated.
Media Alert
Although your child is very young, or perhaps not yet even born, this is a good time for
parents to consider the risks and benefits of mass media (T.V, Movies, Videos, Computer
games) exposure and set family rules for media time.
Time spent with the media can displace creative, active and social pursuits. In response
to excessive media exposure in many American homes and the increasing evidence of
harm done to our children by this excessive exposure, the AAP has issued a set of
recommendations for television and video viewing for American Children.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children less than 2
years of age avoid all screen time, including phone, tablet, TV, or video viewing.
Despite the AAP recommendation of no television and video viewing for children
less than 2 years of age, 14%of infants are watching more than 2 hours of media
a day. Certain television programs and DVD’s are promoted for this age group,
but research on the early brain development shows that babies and toddlers
have a critical need for direct interactions with parents and other significant
caregivers for healthy brain growth and development of appropriate social,
emotional and learning skills. We encourage you to read daily to your child
starting at birth to promote their language development, literacy, and bonding
with you.
For children 2 and older, the AAP recommends no more than 1 to 2 hours a day
of media exposure. We recommend no more than an hour a day for children
ages 2-6.
Children should not have television sets in their bedrooms
Breast milk is the optimal nutrition for your baby. There are many health benefits of
breastfeeding including reducing risks of infection, asthma, overweight, and obesity for
your child. Many breastfeeding mothers feel that breastfeeding is harder at the
beginning than expected, so do not be discouraged. Ask for help.
Starting to Breastfeed
When breastfeeding your baby, you should be comfortable. Hold your baby in your lap
with their head slightly raised and resting on the bend of your elbow. Hold your baby
comfortably close and guide the nipple into your baby’s mouth. With your hand cupping
your breast, gently stroke the baby’s lip nearest the breast. They will turn their head and
hunt for the nipple. This is called the rooting reflex. If they have trouble grasping the
nipple, try rolling the nipple with your finger and thumb to get the nipple more erect. If
the breast seems to close off the baby’s nose, position them so that their chin touches
your breast and pull their belly close to you. Allow your baby to nurse both breasts,
alternating the breast that you begin with. After 10-15 minutes your baby will take in
80-90% of the milk, although you may certainly permit them to nurse longer if they
desire. Try to nurse your baby every 2-3 hours, although babies are often drowsy and
difficult to feed the first day or 2. Do not be discouraged if every feeding does not go
well. Supplementation with formula is discouraged unless there is a medical need.
Changes Around Day Three
For the first 2-3-days your breasts produce small amounts of milk called colostrum,
which is rich in protein and protective antibodies. Colostrum is all your baby needs in the
beginning. Around the 3rd day the amount of breast milk and the fat content of your
breast milk should increase. Your breasts may feel larger and full. If the fullness is
excessive and uncomfortable, it is called engorgement. Frequent feedings can help
relieve and prevent engorgement. It is a temporary problem.
Nipple pain is common during the first few weeks of breastfeeding. The pain is felt when
the baby initially latches on and takes its first few sucks. Improper latch on may
contribute to nipple discomfort. Don’t hesitate to see a lactation consultant if you are
having nipple pain. Plain lanolin or vitamin E oil from a capsule applied directly to the
nipples can also be helpful, especially if nipples are dry and cracking.
Frequency of Feedings
After a first day or two of often erratic nursing, most breast fed infants will nurse 8-12
times in a 24 hour period for the first month. The AAP discourages rigid feeding
schedules for breastfeeding babies. Restricted feedings, especially in very young
infants interfere with successful lactation and have been associated with failure to
thrive (poor weight gain) in infants.
Voiding and Stooling
The number of wet diapers can help you assess whether or not your infant is obtaining
sufficient breast milk after leaving the hospital. The rule of thumb that can help you
determine hydration the first week is the same as how many days old the baby is. In
other words, a one day old should void at least once; a two day old should void at least
twice etc. on occasion the urine stain in the diaper may look coral coloured, this is due to
normal crystals in the urine. This should clear as your baby’s feedings improve.
Your baby’s first stools are dark and tar like for the first few days. After a few days the
stools become looser and vary in colour. These stools are called transition stools. Ny the
end of the first week or before breast - fed infants stools are yellow, seedy, and often
watery. Breast fed infants tend to have more stools than formula fed infants. Three to
five stools a day are common, and some breast fed infants have small stools with
almost every feeding for the first few weeks. happily , most infants slow down on stol
frequency around a month of age.
Vitamin D Supplementation for Breastfed Infants
The APP recommends that vitamin D supplementation be given to breastfed infants
starting in the first month of life. Vitamin D is needed to develop and maintain strong
bones as well as help your baby’s immune system.
Breast fed infants are at risk for vitamin D deficiency and rickets due to the low vitamin
D content of breast milk. Vitamin D is also made naturally in the body with exposure of
skin to sunlight; however, infants should not have significant exposure to sunlight. The
recommended dose of vitamin D from birth to 12 months of age is 400 IU.
Diet and Breastfeeding
While breastfeeding, eat a balanced diet. A mother’s breast milk is flavoured by the
foods eats. These first taste experiences will influence later food preferences by your
child., so having a variety of foods in your diet in the future. Spicy foods and foods that
cause indigestion or gas may bother your baby. Eat these sorts of foods in moderation
while breastfeeding. Your body needs added calcium (from milk products and dark leafy
vegetables) and iron (prenatal vitamins and food sources). Never take any medication
routinely (except prenatal vitamins) without letting your baby’s doctor know. An
occasional laxative, antihistamine, acetaminophen or ibuprofen is okay.
Formula Feeding
Seated comfortably and holding your baby, hold the bottle so that the neck of the bottle
and the nipple are always filled with formula. This helps the baby to get the formula
instead of sucking air. Air in their stomach may give them a false sense of being full and
may also make them uncomfortable. If your baby has trouble sucking, make sure the
nipple hole is big enough.
Do not prop the bottle and leave the baby to feed himself. The bottle can easily slip into
the wrong position so that they suck in air or they may choke. Propping the bottle is also
associated with ear infections. Remember that your infant needs the security and
pleasure of being help at feeding time.
Preparing the Formula
Infant formulas are available and can give complete nutrition to your baby (though not
as good as breast milk). When you use powdered formula, one scoop of powder is
mixed with 1 oz of water. Bottle sterilization is important.just before feeding, remove4 a
bottle from the refrigerator and warm it in a pan of hot tap water for a few minutes, or
use a bottle warmer. Test the temperature of the formula by shaking a few drops on the
inside of your wrist. Do not use microwave oven for warming. The milk heats unevenly,
which may burn the baby.
How Much Formula and How Often?
In the first 24 hours most formula fed infants feed about every 3 to 4 hours and will only
take 30 to 60 ml of formula per feeding on average. In fact most babies lose a few
hundred grams over the first couple of days of life. Then over the next few days your
baby’s appetite will increase and by the end of the first week most babies are taking
about 120ml of formula per feeding and are gaining weight rapidly.
By the end of the first week most formula fed babies feed less often than breast fed
infants. Your formula fed infant will need 6-8 feedings per day for the first month.
Feeding schedules are best decided on using your baby’s hunger cues as guidance.
The amount of formula per feeding varies somewhat between babies.
Formula Storage
Prepared formula should be stored in the refrigerator and must be used within 48 hours.
Prepared formula left at room temperature for more than 1 hour should be thrown
away. At the end of each feeding, throw away any formula left in the bottle.
All babies cry each day. Crying is your baby’s way of saying “I’m hungry”, “i have a belly
ache”, “i, wet or dirty”, “i'm hot, or “pick me up, I’m bored”. Sometimes babies cry for no
apparent reason or to get rid of excess energy. Pay attention to your baby’s cries. You
will soon learn what your baby’s cry means. Take a deep breath if you feel yourself
getting frustrated or mad. These feelings are normal. Call a friend or relative to talk
about it. If you think your baby is crying more than normal; call your baby’s doctor and
have your baby seen.
Sneezing, Hiccups, Eye Crossing
All newborns sneeze. Sneezing at this early stage does not mean allergies. Sneezing is
the only way a baby can clear his nose of mucus, lint, or milk. All babies hiccup. Hiccups
are normal and usually go away within 5-10 minutes.
Many newborns briefly cross their eyes. This is normal in the first month or two, but
should resolve by two months of age. If eye crossing continues to be noticed after 2
months, let your baby’s doctor know.
Burping your baby helps remove swallowed air and decreases spitting up. There are
several different possible burping positions for your baby, such as over your shoulder,
across your lap, or even seated leaning forward on your lap. Once your baby is in a
comfortable burping position, simply pat or rub their back gently until you hear the burp.
Burping two times a feeding for a minute or two is generally plenty. More burping may
be needed if your baby is a “spitter”. Some babies do not swallow much air during
feedings and may need very little burping.
Bathing and Other Basics
Most infants need a bath only 2-3 times a week. Withhold regular tub baths until the
cord has dried up and fallen off. Until then sponge bathe and keep the cord dry. The
face, neck and diaper area may need daily cleaning. Use mainly water for the first few
weeks. Soaps are very drying to newborns skin and should not be used. Use mild soap
daily to clean