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     Defense mechanisms are your body's way of protecting itself from potential emotional danger. This can include denial, repression, displacement, sublimation, projection, intellectualization, rationalization, regression, reaction formation, or compensation. These mechanisms are what your ego builds up to protect you. Defense mechanisms are there to help you but sometimes can cause more harm than good. For example, someone may project their anger onto an innocent person rather than rationalizing the situation. These concepts can help everyone in their day to day lives. Personally, my preferred mechanism is intellectualization. For instance, if I were to get a bad grade on my algebra test, I wouldn't go home and yell at my sister or suppress my feelings; I would think over the situation and plan for future tests. My first thought is to ask myself if I studied enough. If the answer is yes, then I would question whether I studied the right material or not. If both of these answers were yes, then I may go and talk to the teacher and see what I messed up on and see how I can fix this for future cases.

Defending Your 


Module 1

Theories and Personality

Who You Are 

     Creating an identity is one of the toughest things teenagers go through mentally. Throughout the adolescent years, teens figure out their importance and role in society; this idea is called your identity. Everyone goes through this process and has an idea of whether they want a productive future or not. The identity they create for themselves is in direct correlation to their future. Whether they decide to pursue drugs and alcohol with the wrong people or if they choose to have perfect attendance and receive good grades is completely up to them. Usually throughout the four years of high school, teens experiment with various roles. They may try different sports or experience different friendships; whatever identity they establish for themselves will shape their entire future. 

Module 2

The Human Lifespan

Visual, Acoustic, or Semantic?

     There are many different ways to learn and memorize ideas, formulas, rules, or concepts. Everybody has their own preference as to how they can learn and retain knowledge. There are three types of "encoding" that help people memorize and learn; visual, acoustic, and semantic encoding. Visual encoding is being shown images or videos as a means of memorization. For example, you remember looking at a poster of The Beatles when you were memorizing your math formula in your room, now, during the math test, you can recall that same poster and it will help you remember the formula. There is also acoustic encoding which is learning through sounds. Say you were listening to classical music when you were studying for your math test; when taking the test, have the teacher put on classical music or maybe put headphones in. By listening to the same sounds as when you were studying, this will help you recall the information easier. Finally there is semantic encoding which is learning through personal references. For example, you may remember the area of a triangle, A=(bXh)/2, because your brothers Blake and Hunter are two years old. People can be better at learning or memorizing information by using any of the three encoding methods. Find out which one works best for you and use it to your advantage. 

Module 3 

Learning and Memory

     There are endless ways to problem solve and everybody has their own choice. There are seven basic steps to properly solve issues that give a little bit of flexibility; define the problem, analyze the situation, identify possible solutions, evaluate said solutions, select the most appropriate solution, develop an action plan, and finally, implement the chosen solution. These seven steps work in any possible situation and help implement the right solution. As heart breaking as it is, bullying is a common problem many teens are faced with. For example, John is beginning freshman year in high school and has become a popular target for some kid's teasing. The problem here is that John has just started high school, which, alone, can be difficult, never mind when there are teenagers who target him for their aggression or insecurities. John has realized that the kids who pick on him are in his algebra class, which he does very well in; his teacher likes to use him as an example for the other kids. John has become very sad throughout the past few weeks and his teachers have been noticing changes in his attitude. John hasn't let this get in the way of his grades but has very few friends. These are the seven steps John must take to properly stop the bullying. The problem is that John is a target for kid's bullying and has yet to make any friends. This problem has made an impact on John's mood because he has no one to sit with at lunch or in class which makes the bullying worse; but as the bullying gets worse, no one wants to be John's friend. There are a couple ways John could combat this issue; John can stand up to the kids and show them he's not as weak as they think he is. He could purposely fail algebra so they think he's "cool" and will stop picking on him. John could wait until they get their 

Tough Decisions

Module 4

Thinking and Language

satisfaction out of this and just be patient. John can talk to his parents about switching schools. Lastly, John can talk to a teacher and ask for a class change or just to have them watch out for the bullying. First off, John doesn't want to fail on purpose since his parents would be very disappointed and he doesn't think he should sink to their level. John figures he doesn't have enough confidence to stand up to them without being pushed around; he shouldn't have to anyway. It may take a while for them to stop and John shouldn't have to be sad for a long period of time just waiting for them to end it. The only other school close to them is a private school and he knows his parents don't have a lot of money; he wouldn't want them to spend their money on a private school when his academic integrity is perfectly fine at the public school. But, if he asks a teacher to switch classes and he is moved to another class, maybe more suited for his academic level, those kids will be a much better fit than the lower classmates. Even if he can't switch classes, as long as the teacher knows about the situation, they will be aware and watch out for it to stop it. John decides that we is going to talk to a teacher privately and ask to switch classes. He is going to explain that kids in his algebra class are picking on him and he believes it is because of his easy ability to do math. He has decided that if the teacher isn't able to switch the class, he is going to ask if they will watch out for the bullying and put a stop to it. If we fast forward a couple days. John has asked his algebra teacher to switch classes and maybe move up a level. Since it's close to the beginning of the year, she is able to move his classes. He gets to move up a level so he makes friends with a similar academic integrity as him. The teacher is still aware of the situation and will look for anything else that may need her care. 

Deviant, Distressing, and Dysfunctional.

     There are three main categories that the classification of mental disorders fall under. This is called the DSM (The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). The first category is deviant. To fall under this topic you have to be in violation of social norms. For example, if someone were to get eight piercings on their face and fifty tattoos all over their body, this would be considered deviant behavior since the average person would look at this is as abnormal. The second category is distressing which is behavior that causes self destruction. Someone with the DSM category, distressing, would inflict physical and emotional pain onto themselves and/or others around them. The third, and final, category is dysfunctional which is very common. This behavior consists of acting out in a way that is distracting to yourself and those around you; they impact your daily activities. Many people with learning disabilities fall under this category of dysfunctional. Personally, I believe that my everyday behavior puts me into the dysfunctional category. 

Module 5

Psychological Disorders and Treatments