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Modern Pumping Today _ July 2020

JULY 2020
Providing Solutions for the Worldwide Pump Industry
Modern Pumping Today
Providing Solutions for the Worldwide Pump Industry
Innovative Digital Dosing
to Fight COVID-19
Keeping Workers Safe When
Moving Combustible Liquids
How Will New EPA
Guidelines Affect You?
JULY 2020
P.O. Box 660197
Birmingham, Alabama 35266
Modern Pumping Today®
inquiries or changes:
Vice President, Editorial
312 Lorna Square
Birmingham, Alabama 35216
JEFF FLETCHER National Sales Manager
LISA AVERY Art Director
SETH SAUNDERS Digital Media Specialist
INGRID BERKY Office Manager
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Vice President
Welcome to the July issue of MPT. An article in
our Case Studies section (pg. 18) this month is as
informative as it is topical. Clean Works, an innovative
startup in food sanitation, recognized its unique
position to help ght COVID-19 by using its produce
disinfection technology to disinfect up to 1,200 N95
masks per day for hospitals and other healthcare
facilities. Joel Jackson of Grundfos shows how this
award-winning food sanitation company applied its
technology to disinfect PPE.
Every day, industrial workers transfer potentially
hazardous chemicals from large drums into smaller
containers or into machinery. Traditionally, such potentially ammable or
combustible liquids have been tipped and poured. Today such spill-prone, VOC
emitting methods are no longer considered acceptable, safe, or compliant.
Nancy Westcott, president of GoatThroat Pumps, shares “A Call to Keep Workers
Safer When Transferring Flammable and Combustible Liquids” (pg. 30) in this
month’s Pump Solutions section.
Lastly, on a recent episode of MPT’s podcast, The Efciency Point, Chris
Moody from AWWA’s government affairs ofce joined us to discuss the impact
of the EPA’s new guidelines on PFAS regulations and the organization’s current
efforts advocating for clean and potable water throughout the country. Read
an excerpt of that interview at the end of this issue (pg. 44) and be sure to
subscribe to the show on your favorite podcast app. Enjoy!
J. Campbell, Editor
Modern Pumping Today
Terry Bell Product Manager, ABB
Heinz P. Bloch, P.E. Consulting Engineer, Process Machinery Consulting
Robert G. Havrin Director of Technology, Centrisys Corporation
Michael Mancini Consultant and Trainer, Mancini Consulting Services
John M. Roach Engineering Manager for New Product Development, Trebor International,
Inc.: A Unit of IDEX
Lisa Riles Business Development Manager, Wastewater Pumps, Xylem Inc.: Flygt
Frank Knowles Smith III Executive Vice President, Blacoh Surge Control
Greg Towsley Director of Regulatory and Technical Affairs, Grundfos
Trey Walters, P.E. President, Applied Flow Technology
30 14
What's happening in the industry ......................................... 6
Choosing a Submersible Pump vs. a Dry-pit Pump ............12
Don’t Wanna Go Back to My Little
Cesspool in Aloha, Aloha ...................................................14
All-Terrain Sewer from E/One strikes the balance between performance
and environmental protections
Clean Works Uses Innovation and SMART Digital
Dosing to Fight COVID-19 ..................................................18
Award-winning food sanitation startup applies its technology to disinfect PPE
Wastewater Treatment Technology
Doesn’t Have To Be New To Be Disruptive ..........................20
I/O for the IIoT Part 2 of 2 ...................................................24
Edge I/O creates a simpler way to meet the needs of today’s
IIoT applications
Going Beyond Efciency Standards Part 2 of 2 ...................26
A Call to Keep Workers Safer When Transferring
Flammable and Combustible Liquids .................................30
Reducing Downtime with Better Grounding .......................34
Pumping systems account for 25 percent of the energy consumed
by electric motors in the U.S.
Reinventing Primer to Prevent
Chemical Facility Corrosion ...............................................38
Advanced primer converts rust into a protective layer and can be
applied by any method, without the need to sandblast rst
What Do the EPA’s New PFAS Guidelines
Mean for You? .....................................................................44
The AWWA lays out four guiding principles for the regulatory future
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
Caparo Bull Moose, Inc. (CBM), a Chesterfield, Missouri,
based manufacturer, has named Andy Annakin as executive
vice president and chief commercial officer of its tubular
products subsidiary, Bull Moose Tube Company. CBM is
owned by the Caparo diversified global industrial interests
of British Indian businessman The Right Honorable Lord
Swraj Paul, PC.
Commenting on Annakin's appointment Tom Modrowski,
president and CEO of Bull Moose Tube Company states, "We
are excited to welcome Andy to our executive team. Andy
has the skills to position Bull Moose for long term success
by strengthening and building on the talent I have seen in
our organization. His ability to forge strong partnerships
with customers and suppliers in a dynamic market that is
driven by ever-changing needs will be invaluable to Bull
Moose and its stakeholders. He is a transformative leader
who brings a commitment to commercial excellence with
over thirty years of industry experience."
Annakin comments, "Bull Moose Tube has a proud history
and reputation of creating value for its customers. I look
forward to working with the Bull Moose team in continuing
to create an optimal commercial experience that puts the
needs of the customer at the center of all we do. Together
we will provide our customers with service excellence and
the highest quality products."
Sundyne announces that Hélène Balligand has joined
Sundyne as pump product line manager. In this new role,
Balligand will be responsible for Sundyne’s Low Flow High
Head product management activities, including pricing,
recommending new products based on customer and
market needs and insuring the growth and profitability
of Sundyne’s flagship products. Additionally, she will
assist in the expansion of Sundyne’s digital promotion and
marketing activities.
Balligand comes to Sundyne from Gardner Denver
Nash, where she managed channel partners and direct
OEM accounts throughout the western United States and
Canada. Previously, she garnered sales, engineering, and
management experience through a variety of roles with
pump companies Sulzer, Enisval Moret, and Wilfley. Prior
to that, she gained experience in the power generation
markets working at the Woodward Governor Company,
where she managed accounts for large industrial
companies such as GE and Siemens.
Balligand earned a bachelor’s degree in mechanical
engineering from Ecole Nationale Supérieure in
Strasbourg, France; a PhD in mechanical and aerospace
engineering from Syracuse University in New York; and
an MBA from Colorado State University. In addition to her
doctoral thesis, she has written numerous technical papers
for trade publications and scientific journals.
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
BlockMaster Electronics, a leading supplier of
terminal blocks for electrical and electronic
distribution, launches a new website to make it easier for
customers to select and order terminal block products.
The website features an entirely new Selection
Guide for a wide range of terminal blocks and screw
terminal hardware.
The new Selection Guide includes a quick visual
selection of the primary BlockMaster terminal block
and hardware families on the new home page. From
there, site visitors are taken to a table for the selected
product family that provides a complete listing of
terminal block or hardware products, including part
numbers, photos, drawings, and data sheets or catalogs.
The table also identifies the Voltage, Current, Pitch,
and Number of Poles for a quick visual identification
of the terminal blocks needed. The Current Rating is
provided for the terminal screw hardware line (25A
to 150A for PCB and surface mount). Altogether, the
Selection Guide covers over 9,500 part numbers.
The new website also includes listings of the
company’s distributors and sales representatives,
and a convenient Cross-Reference Guide of competitor
part numbers. To view the new website, visit
AESSEAL has achieved certification for Information
Security Management System (ISMS) ISO
27001, one of the most widely recognized international
standards for industrial supply chain security.
The Rotherham-based manufacturer of mechanical
seals and support systems completed the ISMS
accreditation process despite the challenges
presented by the COVID-19 lockdown, which meant
all external auditing had to be completed remotely.
ISO 27001 will help AESSEAL colleagues to ensure
the secure management of the information, business
processes, information systems, and facilities that
support its products and services.
AESSEAL IT Director Stuart Welsh adds, “As
a business which is committed to evidencing
best practice, continuous improvement, and
outstanding customer service, achieving ISO 27001
certification is an important accomplishment. It
sends a clear message to our customers around
the globe that we take ensuring the security of
their data extremely seriously. We are extremely
grateful for the professionalism of our colleagues
who helped us to complete the external
audit successfully despite the challenges of
operating remotely.
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
The Alias Group announces that Kate Morgner has
been promoted to director of business development,
heading up business development and client
services for the Salesforce CRM Services division.
Morgner’s previous role at the Alias Group was
director of marketing, a role which she held for
six years.
"This is a great opportunity to bring the untapped
power of Salesforce to companies looking for a
competitive edge in generating leads and managing
their sales pipeline, Morgner says. "It's amazing
how quickly optimizing Salesforce CRM and sales
processes can shorten sales cycles and accelerate
lead qualifying, keeping sales funnels full. I'm
excited to help our partners use Salesforce to
its fullest potential."
The Alias Group recently formalized its Salesforce
CRM Services division by expanding service
offerings under optimization and implementation
categories to serve both new Salesforce users and
existing users. The mission at the Alias Group is to
raise the performance of clients' Salesforce instances
to equal the performance level that the sales teams
execute at every day.
Melissa Elliott of Greenwood Village, Colorado, begins
her one-year term as president of the American Water
Works Association (AWWA) today during a live-
streamed gavel passing ceremony hosted at AWWA’s
Denver headquarters. The Presidential Gavel Passing
Ceremony usually takes place at AWWA’s Annual
Conference and Exposition, but it was conducted
virtually this year after the conference was cancelled
due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Elliott is director of strategic communication
services at Raftelis, where she consults with utilities
across the United States. She has been an AWWA
member for over fifteen years, during which time
she has served as chair of the Public Affairs Council.
She has also served as trustee and chair of AWWA’s
Rocky Mountain Section.
During her term as president of the largest
association of water professionals in the world,
Elliott said she will concentrate on three themes:
economics, engagement, and equity. She highlighted
the financial challenges that water utilities, water sector
businesses, and consumers will experience due to the
pandemic; the importance of engaging with one another in
new ways in a socially distanced world; and advancing an
inclusive, diverse water sector that ensures equity. u
Covid-19 Responses: Our facility is open and working • 24/7 Emergency Service On-Site
Babbi Bearing Repair,
Refurbishment & Manufacturing
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
Choosing a
Submersible Pump
vs. a Dry-pit Pump
hen deciding
on the best
pump for an
application, it’s important to
consider not only the initial
investment but also the relevant maintenance and efficiency
costs over the pump’s life-cycle. Critics sometimes point
out that, because dry-pit pumps are not in a wet well, they
are easier to access for inspection and service. However,
in the conversation below, SWPA Executive Director Adam
Stolberg and Lisa Riles, product management director for
Xylem’s Applied Water Systems, discuss how submersible
pumps provide long-term benefits and savings that pump
users need to factor into their purchasing choice.
What are some of the basic reasons one would
choose a submersible pump over a dry-pit pump?
A submersible pump is not visible to the public, essentially
the equipment is out of sight and out of mind, which
would fall in favor of local authorities trying to integrate
infrastructure that does not disturb its residents. Most
importantly, submersible pumps are part of a large network
on flood-proof pump stations that has drastically increased
over the years to keep the equipment in operation while
encountering unpredictable weather events.
What are the maintenance advantages of a
submersible pump that some users may not be
aware of?
Submersible wet-pit pumps are maintained through
lifting means whether it’s a deep lift or chain system. The
maintenance required is very minimal, especially with
impeller technology designed to pass modern day rags at the
same time maintain efficiency. Dry-pit submersible pumps
on the other hand can be maintained in the same methods
applied for the above mentioned dry-well pumps with the
added benefit of not worrying about misalignment or added
work that would be necessary on an extended shaft pump.
Being submersed in a wet environment helps keep
a submersible pump cool. How does that advantage
translate to its performance and efficiency?
The motor cooling methods are vital in maintaining
operating life of the equipment, whether choosing an
integral media cooled drive, closed loop cooled, or
external cooling. There are cases where a customer
would opt to not have a cooling jacket surrounding the
stator housing; however, in these cases operations needs
to maintain water levels assuring the unit is constantly
submerged. This step adds to the operation and
maintenance protocol, which is why it’s recommended
to choose a proper cooling method supplied from
the factory. Close-loop cooling methods offer higher
efficiency and are often compliant to IE3 standards.
Lastly, being submerged also eliminates the need for
suction piping and in turn avoiding losses incurred with
their installation.
Which impediments in a dry-pit pump’s
performance don’t affect submersibles?
The following impediments do not affect submersible pumps:
Pump and motor shaft alignment, coupling, and
coupling guard.
Priming conventional pump must be considered
(submersible pumps are already submerged/primed).
Suction piping losses must be accounted for (no
suction piping on submersible pumps).
Mechanical seals typically required a secondary water
source for flushing (cooling/lubrication); submersible
pump mechanical seals do not require seal flush.
Proper suction and discharge piping support and
alignment are critical for dry-pit pumps. Submersible
pumps are typically not “hard-piped” and they
automatically connect to their mating discharge elbow
by gravity, making pump installation, and removal fast
and easy.
By SWPA Executive Director Adam Stolberg and Lisa Riles, Xylem
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
Dry-pit pumps typically have
stuffing boxes designed to
accommodate mechanical seals
from different manufacturers and
styles, which requires a longer shaft
overhang. Quality submersible
pumps are designed with minimal
shaft overhang, thus reducing shaft
loads and resultant deflection
(longer seal and bearing life).
What are some applications
where a submersible pump would
be exclusively the better option?
Every pump application less than
1,000 horsepower—all kidding aside,
wastewater and stormwater are the
most common applications where
pump stations are constructed below
grade as conveyance or routing of
pumpage to collection systems and in
turn treatment plants. Any location that
is prone to flooding, coastal cities for
instance. From a civil works standpoint
if the pump station is a single wet
well it’s designed for submersibles
or a pre-fabricated lift station which
contains valves, float sensors, controls,
and additional appurtenances needed
for successful operation. On retrofit
stations, there are some additional
steps needed possibly moving the
discharge header to accommodate the
dry-pit submersible option but these
changes would be very minimal. u
The Submersible Wastewater Pump
Association (SWPA) is a national
trade association representing
and serving the manufacturers of
submersible pumps for municipal
and industrial wastewater
applications. Founded in 1976, the
association’s primary focus is on
industry guidelines, education,
and promotion.Information on
membership as well as technical
resources, online training center,
and links to SWPA’s own industry
renowned publications can be
found on the organization website.
For more information, visit
Submersible pumps are part of a large network on flood-proof
pump stations that has drastically increased over the years to
the equipment in operation while encountering unpredictable
weather events.
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
Don’t Wanna Go Back
to My Little Cesspool
in Aloha, Aloha
he Hawaiian Islands encapsulate every conceivable
wastewater infrastructure challenge. High water
tables requiring expensive dewatering or inviting
contamination from septic tanks, which—by design—leak.
Excavations of great depth for inclines of large-diameter
gravity sewer pipe. The threat of inflow and infiltration
from heavy rains. Beds of lava, one of nature's most
impenetrable surfaces. Undulating terrains. Preservation
of archaeological sites, fragile tropical vegetation, ocean
fronts, and sacred anchialine ponds. Notably higher costs
for labor, equipment and materials than the mainland.
Then there are the hurdles posed by some of the state's
tiniest yet most visited tourist attractions--Hanauma Bay,
Sandy Beach and Waim nalo State Park—along a scenic
7.5-mile stretch of the Kalaniana'ole Highway on O’ahu.
In each location, the use of gravity sewers would be
environmentally disruptive, prohibitively expensive or
physically impossible given their function to transport
wastewater downhill, not up steep inclines. Septic already
had proven a failure as there was not the space nor soil
All-Terrain Sewer from E/One strikes the balance
between performance and environmental protections
By Joseph Harmes
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
Don’t Wanna Go Back
to My Little Cesspool
in Aloha, Aloha
conditions for adequate drain fields
to prevent nitrogen and phosphorous
from threatening marine life and coral
reefs. Nor could Hawaii consider the
antiquated technology of cesspools
(technically, a hole for untreated
human waste) as it has passed
legislation to eliminate the 88,000
already imperiling its groundwater.
Authorities opted to trial the All-
Terrain Sewer
(ATS) developed
by Environment One Corporation
(E/One) "for the city to be able to
understand how these things work
and how dependable they were,"
says Paul Scott of Engineered
Systems in Kailua.
The ATS represents a more cost-
effective alternative to expensive
gravity and is fiscally competitive
with the installation and subsequent
maintenance costs associated
with the current generation of
nitrogen-reducing septic tanks.
Found on almost every continent,
its pressurized, inflow-and-
infiltration free small-diameter
pipes are conduits to conventional
wastewater treatment plants. This
go-to wastewater infrastructure
has cleansed and protected many
other islands including Martha's
Vineyard, the Florida Keys,
and, notably, Alcatraz.
In 2009, some E/One pumps were
installed at Hanauma Bay in the
Hawaii Kai neighborhood of East
Honolulu. This popular backdrop for
TV and movie productions is both
a nature preserve and a marine life
conservation district with about 400
species of fish known to inhabit the
bay. It attracts about 90,000 monthly
visitors—and their bathroom needs.
Given its location between a
volcanic crater and the Pacific
Ocean, the ATS was the magic carpet
required to convey wastewater from
the restroom facilities up and over
to an existing gravity line, then to
a wastewater treatment plant. This
was made possible by a grinder
pump, whose primary component
is a 1 horsepower, semi-positive
displacement pump. Its robust torque
can propel wastewater for a distance
of more than two miles—or even
vertically 186 feet.
"It was used there because of the
low-flow, high-head requirement. The
elevation difference is quite steep,"
says Scott.
Subsequently, other grinder pumps
were installed to overcome the
similar conditions at comfort stations
in the beachfront Waim nalo District
Park (Waim nalo Beach is regarded
as the longest stretch of sandy
shoreline on O’ahu. In Hawaiian,
Waim nalo means "potable water.").
Grinder pumps also anchor the
comfort stations at Sandy Beach,
close to Hanauma Bay, which was the
childhood body surf break of O’ahu-
born President Barack Obama.
Modern Pumping Today      Keeping Workers Safe When Moving Combustible Liquids How Will New EPA Guidelines Affect You   W ...
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
Clean Works
Uses Innovation and
SMART Digital Dosing
to Fight COVID-19
Award-winning food sanitation startup
applies its technology to disinfect PPE
By Joel Jackson, Grundfos
The food industry uses the Clean Works Clean Flow
Mini to kill 99.9 percent of pathogens, providing a more
effective and consistent cleaning process while reducing
water consumption.
Sarker, Grundfos
district sales
manager, tests
the Grundfos
SMART Digital
dosing pump for
the Clean Works
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
s an innovative startup in food
sanitation, Clean Works quickly
recognized the company’s
unique position to help fight COVID-19
by using its produce disinfection
technology to disinfect up to 1,200
N95 masks per day for hospitals and
other healthcare facilities.
Clean Works was founded in Ontario,
Canada, in 2012, by produce industry
veterans who developed a sanitizing
system for fruits and vegetables to
prevent the outbreak of foodborne
illnesses. The Clean Works process
uses ultraviolet light, vaporized
hydrogen peroxide and ozone to kill
99.99 percent of pathogens. A key
component of the Clean Flow Health
Care Mini, the system used to disinfect
PPE, is a chemical metering pump that
provides continuous dosing of their
sanitation solution.
“Independently, they’re good
sanitizers. But when you mix them
together, the three of them multiply the
effectiveness,” Clean Works president
and CEO Mark VanderVeen says. “What
happens is it creates a hydroxyl radical
and that radical is what then finds the
pathogen or the virus that’s resident.
Precise control of the dosing levels and
constant spray are essential to effective
sanitation, whether sanitizing produce
or PPE. Early on, Clean Works faced
some challenges in this area.
“Pulsation was a big issue with the
previous pump manufacturer,” says
Clean Works general manager Joe
Symons. “We needed a fully integrated
solution that could deliver the needed
accuracy and precision, while
communicating with the PLC controls.
To meet the accuracy and precision
demands with PLC integration,
Grundfos began testing its DDA
FCM pumps with the Clean Works
nozzle and chemicals. The team was
committed to ensuring the pumps
worked with the innovative equipment.
“The atomizing was really cool to
see, says Grundfos district sales
manager Aninda Sarker. “As we
tested the solution with our pump
variants, I took a video for the Clean
Works team, so they could see the
pump in action. I also joined them at
the plant for on-site testing to ensure
our solution consistently delivered
the results.
By using stepper motor technology,
Grundfos SMART Digital dosing
pumps provide a smooth continuous
flow profile, even when very small
volumes are required. Additionally,
an integrated pressure sensor and
flow monitoring algorithm controls
the flow rate by comparing the actual
flow to the set point and automatically
making any needed adjustments.
“This pump has completely
alleviated our maintenance worries,
and it’s hands-free,” says Clean
Works co-owner Paul Moyers. “This
has allowed us to a consistent flow
of our hydrogen peroxide across the
treatment area.
Due to the shortage of N95 masks
and other PPE in Canada, Clean
Works’ newest affiliate, Clean Works
Medical, has seen an increased
demand from healthcare providers
and industries for the Clean Flow
Health Care Mini and the chemical
dosing pumps that are critical
to its functionality.
Grundfos worked with its global
operations teams to quickly meet the
needs of Clean Works Medical for
DDA dosing pumps and ensure the
company’s innovative solution can be
deployed to sanitize equipment that
protects the frontline workers who
are helping save lives.
Clean Works is now working
with the federal and provincial
governments, as well as hospitals,
nursing homes and other healthcare
facilities in Canada, to help supply
sanitized equipment during the
“The key was to quickly provide
a PPE solution to our frontline
healthcare providers during this
crisis, and Grundfos was an integral
part of that, says VanderVeen. u
Clean Works
Uses Innovation and
SMART Digital Dosing
to Fight COVID-19
Grundfos, based in Bjerringbro,
Denmark, is a global leader in water
pump technology. To complement
its global presence, Grundfos is
committed to the American market with
regional headquarters in the Houston,
Texas area. The company’s purpose—
pioneer solutions to the world’s water
and climate challenges and improve
quality of life for people—inspires
an operations, sales and service staff
of over 1,200 across North America
to deliver the world to the next
generation in a better state than we
inherited. For more information, visit
The Clean Works Clean Flow Mini
sanitizes produce using ultraviolet
light, vaporized hydrogen, and ozone.
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
Wastewater Treatment
Technology Doesn’t
Have To Be New To
Be Disruptive
he term “disruptive technology” can be found
everywhere across wastewater treatment, from
conferences to whitepapers, and from small
industrial and manufacturing sites to large municipal
wastewater treatment plants. There is no doubt that
disruptive technologies have the power to transform
sustainability in the water sector, but it is important to
realize that a technology does not need to be new in order
to be disruptive. The widespread use of previously niche
systems, or the novel use of well-established technologies
like heat exchangers, can be equally transformative.
A disruptive innovation is typically described as one that
creates a new market or value network, leading to the
displacement of market-leading businesses and products.
High profile examples from everyday life include the
Internet, mobile phones, Amazon, and television streaming
services. However, it is also evident that while the terms
disruptive innovation and disruptive technology may
be new, the fundamental idea is not. From the Iron Age
overtaking the Bronze Age, to the invention of gunpowder,
the steam engine and the internal combustion engine,
human history is littered with examples of transformational
developments that have changed the course of
global civilization.
The current high level of disruptive technological
development and implementation is itself part of a wider
industrial development, which is often referred to as
Industry 4.0. This fourth industrial revolution refers to the
increased use of technology, automation, and data across
industries as diverse as agriculture and healthcare; and
water treatment and the environmental sector are no
different. While some people dismiss Industry 4.0 as a
marketing buzzword, there is no denying the effects that
digitization, data capture and analysis, and automation are
having across the economy.
There have been plenty of disruptive developments in
the treatment of wastewater streams through history, from
sewer systems and trickling filters, to the use of activated
sludge, anaerobic digestion, and nutrient recovery. Some
of the current areas that have the most potential for
disruption, either because they are new, or because they
are becoming increasingly common, include:
Decentralized wastewater treatment
: The development
of smaller, decentralized treatment technology has
the potential to improve levels of sanitation and
access to clean water around the world. A number of
universities and companies are working on practical
solutions for sustainable, small scale wastewater
treatment units.
Phosphorus recovery
Economic, political, and
environmental factors are already combining to
make the recovery of this valuable nutrient from
waste streams and sludges routine at commercial
wastewater treatment facilities. Consultants are also
turning their attention to phosphorus recovery at
smaller scale installations, such as septic tanks and
agricultural effluent.
Wastewater mining
: While the recovery of some key
nutrients, such as phosphorus, is now common, an
improved understanding of the scarcity of resources
and moves towards the development of a true circular
economy means that the next generation of wastewater
treatment plants is likely to include physical, chemical,
and biological systems to recover key materials
(including carbon, nutrients, and rare metals) for
By Matt Hale, HRS Heat Exchangers
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
Wastewater Treatment
Technology Doesn’t
Have To Be New To
Be Disruptive
HRS Unicus Series scraped-surface evaporators are used to maintain thermal efficiency and remove fouling during evaporation in ZLD installations.
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
reuse in processes as diverse as
farming, food production, and
industrial manufacturing.
Zero Liquid Discharge:
Commonly abbreviated to
ZLD, this technique refers to
waste treatment techniques
that remove the liquid streams,
usually employing a combination
of processes such as filtration
and crystallization to remove
suspended and dissolved
materials to leave a number
of solid residues—which often
contain valuable co-products
or components and water.
Now categorized as a mature
technology, it is an example of a
disruptive technology which is
rapidly becoming mainstream.
There are many drivers for the
adoption of all or some of these
techniques in wastewater treatment,
including environmental, economic,
and social factors. However, the
good news for companies wanting
to evaluate and introduce such
technology is that the techniques
already exist.
For example, many of the
processes described above involve
some form of evaporation to
concentrate residues for extraction
and as part of the purification of
wastewater streams. As heat transfer
and evaporation specialists, HRS Heat
Exchangers already produce a range
of heat exchangers and systems
that are suitable for any or all the
above processes. The patented HRS
Unicus series of scraped surface heat
exchangers are particularly suitable
for use in evaporation systems,
such as those used for ZLD and
material recovery.
The HRS evaporators used in ZLD
systems are run at lower pressures to
reduce the boiling point of the liquid,
enabling multi-effect evaporation.
In multi-effect evaporation, steam
from a previous evaporation stage is
used as the thermal energy for the
next stage, which works at a lower
boiling point. In this way, multiple
evaporation stages are combined,
delivering considerable energy
savings. For many components,
Evaporation and
concentration systems
based on heat
exchangers have
a small footprint,
making them ideal
for decentralized
water treatment.
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
crystal precipitation is also favored
at lower temperatures; so, lowering
the evaporation temperature helps to
boost product recovery rates.
The HRS ZLD process consists of
an evaporation concentration phase
where a concentrated solution is
concentrated as much as possible.
From that point on there are
two possibilities:
Concentration to maximum
solubility without the formation
of suspended solids. This is then
followed by a cooling step which
causes solids precipitation and
separation of the solids which
are formed; the liquid fraction is
then returned to the evaporator.
This method can be applied
for a product that has a sharp
change of maximum solubility
with temperature.
Concentration to just above
the saturation point, followed
by a separation tank where the
solids and liquids are separated. The
liquid fraction is then returned to the
evaporator. This method can
be applied for a product which
solubility does not change too much
with temperature.
Both the evaporation and cooling
steps result in a high degree of
material fouling on the inside of
the equipment. To combat this,
HRS Unicus Series scraped-surface
evaporators are used, as they
maintain thermal efficiency and
remove fouling as it occurs in the
evaporation process. In addition,
HRS R series scraped surface heat
exchangers are also used for cooling
the crystal-loaded slurry that is
obtained in the crystallization tanks.u
Located in Atlanta, Georgia, HRS
Heat Exchangers is part of the HRS
Group, which operates at the forefront
of thermal technology, offering
innovative heat transfer solutions
worldwide across a diverse range of
industries. With approaching forty
years’ experience in the wastewater
sector, specializing in the design and
manufacture of an extensive range
of turnkey systems and components,
incorporating our corrugated tubular
and scraped surface heat exchanger
technology, HRS units are compliant
with global design and industry
standards. For more information, visit
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
n last month’s installment of this article, we introduced how
the new groov RIO
family from automation manufacturer
Opto 22 offers a simple solution in an increasingly
complex era of connectivity and technical capabilities. In this
concluding segment, we’ll focus on some of the details that
best illustrate the product’s use in the real world.
First, specifying I/O for a particular application becomes
much simpler. Because groov RIO supports thousands of
unique I/O configurations from a single device, you no longer
need to identify and procure specific I/O modules. You can
order just one part number. Second, mounting the unit and
connecting it to a standard Ethernet network are easier.
You place groov RIO near the sensors or equipment
with the signals you want. RIO’s operating temperature is
-4 to 158 degrees Fahrenheit (-20 to 70 degrees Celsius),
it is UL Hazardous Locations approved and ATEX compliant,
and it can be panel or DIN-rail mounted. An enclosure may
not be required, especially in low-voltage applications.
groov RIO attaches to an Ethernet network through one
of its two switched Gigabit interfaces. You can use power
over Ethernet (PoE) with a PoE switch, or provide 10-
32 VDC power. The device automatically receives an IP
address from your corporate LAN's DHCP server, just like
most other smart devices on an Ethernet network. Note
that wireless LAN networking is also supported through
optional USB WiFi dongles.
Once the unit is in place, you open a web browser and
create a secure user account, configure I/O channels,
and set up data communications for your application. The
following sections list the steps to complete three of our
simple applications.
Wire one of the first eight channels to a low-cost,
simple two-wire ICTD (integrated circuit temperature
device) temperature sensor and place the sensor in the
refrigeration unit.
From a computer or mobile device, securely log
into groov RIO and use the browser-based groov
Manage software to configure the channel as an ICTD
input sensor.
Still in your web browser, open the embedded Node-
RED editor. Use pre-built nodes to create a simple
flow that moves the temperature data to an on-premises or
cloud-based database, like MariaDB, Microsoft SQL Server,
or PostgreSQL.
You could also write a flow to log the temperature to
local on-board, power-fail-safe flash memory, or to an
installed USB memory stick connected directly to groov
RIO’s USB port—especially handy if the remote location
has no internet connection.
Wire one of the first two I/O channels to the
compressor’s run/stop contact. In a web browser,
configure the channel as a discrete input with the on-
time totalizing feature. groov RIO automatically totals the
amount of time the compressor is running.
I/O for the IIoT
Edge I/O creates a simpler way to meet the needs
of today’s IIoT applications Part 2 of 2
By Benson Hougland, Opto 22
Part 1
Wire sensor
to temperature
One part number
Internal firewall
channel on
groov RIO
Node-RED writes to
database and/or to
USB on groov
Store data in
the cloud or on
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
Open Node-RED and create a
simple flow to move totalized
data to the analytics system.
Wire process instrumentation
transmitters (like level, flow,
or pressure) to the first four I/O
channels and configure as analog
inputs (voltage or current).
In groov Manage, configure
MQTT communications to
publish channel data to an MQTT
broker. SCADA systems can then
subscribe to data from the broker.
If you have Ignition from Inductive
, you can use the
Cirrus Link MQTT Distributor
module to publish directly to Ignition,
and use the MQTT Engine module
to subscribe to MQTT Sparkplug-B
payloads, which Ignition understands.
An efficient publish-subscribe
method of communication like
MQTT reduces security concerns
by eliminating open network ports,
and provides a high-performance,
two-way communications path for
both monitoring and control.
These three examples point
out some key ways in which an
edge I/O product can simplify
your IIoT projects. Do you have a
simple idea you’d like to realize
without the complexity and cost of
a typical IIoT project? Take a look
at newer I/O products like groov
RIO and see if they’ll do the job
for you. u
Opto 22 was started in 1974 by a
co-inventor of the solid-state relay
(SSR), who discovered a way to make
SSRs more reliable. Opto 22 has
consistently built products on open
standards rather than on proprietary
technologies. The company’s latest
product line, groov RIO
, provides
compact, autonomous remote I/O
that is ideal for communicating field
data in IIoT applications. All Opto
22 products are manufactured and
supported in the USA. Most solid-
state SSRs and I/O modules are
guaranteed for life. The company is
especially trusted for its continuing
policy of providing free product
support and free pre-sales engineering
assistance. For more information,
Logging temperature data to a database is too complex.
Wire sensor
to temperature input
Install and configure
input module
Write code
to log data
Log data
Write code to get data
Write code
sending to
Store data in
the cloud or on
PC workstation or
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
Going Beyond
Efciency Standards
s we discussed in the first part of this series, four
ago, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)
launched the first Energy Conservation Standard
for Clean Water Pumps. In part, this is because pumps,
fans, and compressors account for about 60 to 70 percent
of total
electrical energy usage by domestic manufacturers,
so these
standards are viewed as a starting point for greatly
improving pump efficiency and reducing energy costs.
However, though it is good that there are more efforts now
for vendors to provide more efficient and energy compliant
pumps, as we discussed last month, this is not just about
efficiency. With more focus on improving reliability, not only
will this minimize repair costs, increase profits, etc., it will
naturally improve pump efficiencies as well. Below, we’ll look
into how to improve reliability as well as efficiency.
Many times, a recommended solution is to incorporate a
variable speed drive (VSD) or variable frequency drive
This can help, but it is more of a band-aid solution.
When you
see operational problems at the pump, rarely
is it due to
a faulty pump. Plant maintenance usually
ends up fixing issue
after issue. But they may not always
investigate what is causing the problem in the first place.
One example could be a plant wearing through pump
seals frequently. After a while, operators may suspect
the seals from a certain manufacturer are bad. So, the
plant starts switching vendors to find different seals. Most
likely, this will only lead to more worn-out seals. If the seal
manufacturer asks the plant how they are operating the
pumps, most likely it would be found that the seals were
never faulty or poor quality in the first place. But it was the
pump that killed the seal!
However, what caused the pump to operate at flows
away from the best efficiency point (BEP) that would lead
to seals wearing out faster? This is where flow analysis
software is incredibly beneficial. A system approach with
flow analysis is a lot more effective at diagnosing the root
cause of the problem than only focusing on the symptom of
a problematic component itself.
Here are a few of the many advantages and benefits
available when using flow analysis software:
Understand Complex System Interactions Easier
Multiple load cases
Seasonal considerations
Different operating configurations and requirements
Water hammer and cavitation issues
Pulsation and resonance problems caused by positive
displacement pumps
There are several other key benefits that a flow analysis
provides including improved system sizing and scale-up,
design feasibility analysis, transient analysis, system
troubleshooting, quantify pump/system scaling/fouling/
degradation, maintain code compliance, etc.
Overall, lots of money is spent fixing and operating
poorly designed systems. The investment in a quality
flow analysis software tool will lead to a better system
understanding which then leads to better designs and
operation. Better designed and operated systems that
are well-understood to keep pumps operating as close to
BEP as possible will have a major effect on reducing long
term costs.
What information do you need in order to build a hydraulic
model for a flow analysis? In general, if there is a hydraulic
element in the system that makes an impact on system
pressure/flow/temperature, then it should be included in
the model. The closer to reality that the system is modeled
with as-built system configurations, operating data, valve
positions, etc., the more accurate the model results will
be. The more accurate the results, the better predictions
the model can make when it comes to understanding how
various system changes will impact performance.
Here are the basic pieces of information that would be
needed for an accurate hydraulic flow model.
Fluid Properties: Densities, viscosities, vapor pressure, etc.
Pipes: Inner diameter, friction model (i.e.,
Darcy-Weisbach, Hazen-Williams, etc.), length,
elevation changes
Part 2 of 2
By Ben Keiser, Applied Flow Technology
Part 1
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
Tanks: Liquid level, surface
pressure, pipe connection elevation
: Head curve, efficiency/
power curve, NPSH curve
: Pressure drop versus
flow profile
: Cv and open
percentage data
: K factors
or equivalent lengths
Let’s look at a real-life example
of how a system flow analysis had a
dramatic impact on improving system
reliability and pump efficiency. The
hydraulic flow analysis model in
figure 2 is for a raw brine injection
system that displaced product in a
chemical plant’s underground cavern
storage facility.
In this system, several of the vertical
pumps in parallel were completing
hydraulically. Ideally, the flow
distribution through each of the pumps
should be similar, if not, the same.
And in best case circumstances, they
would each be operating as close to
their BEP as possible. However, when
Figure 2: Hydraulic flow model of raw brine injection system. Five vertical pumps operating in parallel competed with
each other, causing each of the pumps to operate at 20 to 50 percent of BEP.
Horizontal Pumps
Vertical Pumps
Crossover Valve
Over Valve
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
the pumps compete hydraulically,
each of the pumps would provide a
different flow. Some pumps would
dominate and provide more flow than
the others. Ultimately, it can cause
each of the pumps to operate further
away from their BEP.
The pain point for this raw brine
injection facility was not high energy
costs. They certainly would have
had higher energy costs with their
pumps operating at low efficiencies.
But this was not the problem. This
facility dealt with 41 repairs in a
five-year period that totaled up to
$1.23 million. The MTBF was about
fifteen months.
A pump manufacturer was
contracted to evaluate pump
performance and find ways to
improve reliability. After constructing
the flow model and calibrating results
to measured data, the contractor
found that several of the pumps
were typically operating between
20 to 50 percent of their BEP. This
certainly explains the reliability
issues the plant had. Once the
model was calibrated, the contractor
tested several operating scenarios.
This included cases where various
combinations of pumps were turned
on and off while operating with all
valves open, closing off cross-over
valves, and maintaining cavern
pressures at a certain pressure.
Figure 3 highlights the final results
after running over thirty scenarios to
determine that only two out of the five
vertical pumps needed to operate.
This still maintained required system
flowrates and dramatically improved
reliability where the pumps could
operate at 75 percent of the BEP and
higher. The simulation discovered better
flow paths and pump operation to deliver
the same amount of product at required
flows and pressures. The simulation
improved system reliability and allowed
better system recommendations to
be made in the future. This is not
something that could be accomplished
without taking a system approach to a
component problem.
Ultimately, more attention to pump
efficiency is helpful in avoiding wasted
energy and reducing energy
costs. The
new energy conservation standards
for clean water pumps will help
manufacturers and end users to start
purchasing and using more energy-
efficient pumps. A deeper focus on
reliability and operating pumps as close
to the BEP as possible will have a much
more dramatic effect on reducing repair
and maintenance costs and increasing
the MTBF which will decrease
downtime and increase profits. And as
shown, this effort will naturally improve
pump efficiency and reduce energy
costs as well. Using a quality flow
analysis software tool will streamline
the efforts in improving reliability by
taking a systems approach to solving
operational problems rather
than a
component by component approach. u
Wireless Field Test Data/Three Pump Performance
Wireless Field Test Data/Two Pump Performance
Fathom Model Data / J67 Closed / RB Header 300 psi / Two Pump Performance
Test Scenerio
Figure 3: Final test results of raw brine injection system. Test 6 and 7 show that operating only two of the five pumps will still provide required flows and the pumps will operate
at 75 percent of BEP.
Ben Keiser is technical sales
consultant at Applied Flow Technology.
With a primary focus on developing
high quality fluid flow analysis
software, AFT has a comprehensive
line of products for the analysis
and design of piping and ducting
systems. For more information, visit
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
A Call to Keep
Workers Safer
When Transferring
Flammable and
Combustible Liquids
By Nancy Westcott, GoatThroat Pumps
very day industrial workers transfer potentially
hazardous chemicals, such as solvents, acetones,
lubricants, cleansers, and acids, from large drums
into smaller containers, or into machinery. Traditionally, such
potentially flammable or combustible liquids have been tipped
and poured. Today such spill-prone, VOC emitting methods
are no longer considered acceptable, safe, or compliant—not
when a fire or explosion can result.
In particular, younger workers, having seen the resulting
physical injuries, chronic respiratory ailments, and even deaths
endured by parents, grandparents, and friends want much
safer working conditions. Consequently, there is now a call for
greater safety and regulatory oversight to protect vulnerable
workers and their families as simply and efficiently as possible.
“It can be catastrophic to a company if toxic or highly
flammable material is accidentally released at the
point of use, says Deborah Grubbe, PE, CEng, founder
of Operations and Safety Solutions, a consulting firm
specializing in industrial safety.
“When tipping a heavy drum, it is extremely difficult
to pour a liquid chemical and maintain control,” adds
Grubbe. “Companies have to assume that if something
can go wrong during chemical transfer, it will, and
take appropriate precautions to prevent what could be
significant consequences. Because there is no such thing
as a small fire in my business.
Although the dangers of transferring flammable and
combustible liquids are very real, protecting workers
from harm can be relatively straightforward. This includes
proper safety training, the use of personal protective
equipment (PPE), and the use of engineering controls to
prevent dangerous spills.
During a manufacturing process on Nov 20, 2017 at Verla
International's cosmetics factory in New Windsor, New
York, an employee transferred hexamethyl disiloxane
(flash point 21.2 degrees Fahrenheit / -6 degrees Celsius)
from a drum into another container and then wiped down
the chemical drum. The friction from wiping created static
electricity that caused the drum to become engulfed in
flames within seconds. The resulting fire and explosions
injured more than 125 people and killed one employee.
A video released by the Orange County Executive’s Office
shows the worker wiping down the chemical tank, “causing
static which is an ignition event.“Seconds later, the tank
becomes engulfed in flames, with parts of the man's clothing
catching on fire as he runs from the explosion, according to
the Poughkeepsie Journal, a local area newspaper.
Although the man sustained only minor injuries, many at
the cosmetics factory were not so lucky. With the potentially
lethal consequences from the use of flammable/combustible
liquids in so many industrial facilities, it is essential to
understand the hazard.
In a flammable liquids fire, it is the vapors from the liquid
that ignite, not the liquid. Fires and explosions are caused
when the perfect combination of fuel and oxygen come
in contact with heat or an ignition source. Based on their
flash points, that being the lowest temperature at which
liquids can form an ignitable mixture in air, flammable
liquids are classified as either combustible or flammable.
Flammable liquids (those liquids with a flash point
below 100 degrees Fahrenheit, or 37.8 degrees Celsius)
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
will ignite and burn easily at normal
working temperatures where they
can easily give off enough vapor to
form burnable mixtures with air. As a
result, they can be serious sources of
a fire hazard. Flammable liquid fires
burn very fast and frequently give off
a lot of heat and often clouds of thick,
black, toxic smoke.
Combustible liquids (those liquids
with a flash point above 100 degrees
Fahrenheit, or 37.8 degrees Celsius)
do not ignite so easily but if raised to
temperatures above their flashpoint,
they will also release enough vapor to
form burnable mixtures with air. Hot
combustible liquids can be as serious
a fire hazard as flammable liquids.
Both combustible and flammable
liquids can easily be ignited by a
flame, hot surface, static electricity,
or a spark generated by electricity
or mechanical work. Highly volatile
solvents are even more hazardous
because any vapor (VOCs) released
can reach ignition sources several
feet away. The vapor trail can spread
far from the liquid and can settle
and collect in low areas like sumps,
sewers, pits, trenches, and basements.
If ventilation is inadequate and the
vapor trail contacts an ignition source,
the fire produced can flash back (or
travel back) to the liquid. Flashback
and fire can happen even if the liquid
giving off the vapor and the ignition
source are hundreds of feet or even
several floors apart.
The most obvious harm would be
the danger of a fire or explosion.
“If the vapor is ignited, the fire can
quickly reach the bulk liquid. A
flammable vapor and air mixture
with a specific concentration can
explode violently,” according to
information on the topic posted
online by the Division of Research
Safety by the University of Illinois at
Consequently, minimizing the
dangers of handling flammable
and combustible liquid chemicals
requires proper training
and equipment.
Without proper ventilation, the
handling of flammable substances has
a good chance to create an explosive
atmosphere. It is essential to work
only in well-ventilated areas or have
a local ventilation system that can
sufficiently remove any flammable
vapors to prevent an explosion risk.
Because two of the three primary
elements for a fire or explosion
usually exist in the atmosphere inside
a vessel containing a flammable liquid
(fuel and an oxidant, usually oxygen),
it is also critical to eliminate external
ignition sources when handling
such liquids. Sources of ignition can
include static discharge, open flames,
frictional heat, radiant heat, lightning,
smoking, cutting, welding, and
electrical/mechanical sparks.
When transferring flammable liquids
from large containers (greater than
4 liters), to a smaller container, the
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
flow of the liquid can create static
electricity which could result in a
spark. Static electricity build-up
is possible whether using a pump
or simply pouring the liquid. If the
bulk container and receiving vessel
are both metal, it is important to
bond the two by firmly attaching a
metal bonding strap or wire to both
containers as well as to ground, which
can help to safely direct the static
charge to ground.
When transferring Class 1, 2, or 3
flammable liquids with a flashpoint
below 100 degrees Fahrenheit (37.8
degrees Celsius), OSHA mandates
that the containers must be grounded
or bonded to prevent electrostatic
discharge that could act as an ignition
source. NFPA 30 Section
also requires a means to prevent
static electricity during transfer/
dispensing operations.
Beyond PPE and proper ventilation,
it is absolutely critical for workers
to use regulatory compliant,
engineered controls to safely
transfer flammable and combustible
liquids at the jobsite. Most states
and municipalities across the U.S.
have adopted NFPA
30 Flammable
and Combustible Liquids Code
and OSHA 29 CFR 1910.106, which
address the handling, storage, and
use of flammable liquids. With NFPA
30, material is classified as a Class
1 liquid (flammable) and Class 2
and 3 (combustible).
The codes account for safeguards
to eliminate spills and leakage
of Class 1, 2, and 3 liquids in
the workplace. This begins with
requirements surrounding the
integrity of the container, but also
extends to the pumps used to
safely dispense flammable and
combustible liquids.
According to Gary Marcus of Justrite
Manufacturing in an article posted on
EHS Today’s web site, “Drums stored
vertically are fitted with pumps
instead of faucets for dispensing. Use
of a pump is generally considered
safer and more accurate. Some local
codes require pumps for all drums
containing flammable liquids.
A fast-growing approach to
flammable liquids storage is to keep
as much liquid as possible close
to the point of use because it is
efficient and saves time. Workers can
minimize their exposure to potential
ignition sources if they replenish
their solvent supply from a drum
near their workstations, rather than
from the solvent room a quarter-
mile away. OSHA permits up to 60
gallons of Class I or Class II liquids
and up to 120 gallons of Class III
liquids to be stored in safety cabinets
close to workstations.
In most workplaces, supervisors
and facility managers have been
recommending rotary and hand
suction pumps to transfer flammable
liquids for decades. However, they are
increasingly turning to sealed pump
systems designed for class 1 and 2
flammable liquids, which are a more
effective engineering control tool for
protecting employees and operations.
Conventional piston and rotary
hand pumps have some inherent
vulnerabilities. These pumps are
open systems that require one of
the bungs holes to be open to the
outside atmosphere. The pumps
dispense liquids from the containers
using suction, so it requires that a
bung be open to allow air to enter
the containers to replace the liquid
removed. Without this opening, either
the container will collapse or the
liquid will stop coming out.
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
Typically, there is also a small gap
between the container opening (bung)
and the pump dip tube that allows air
to enter. This opening also allows some
vapor release into the atmosphere
when the pumps are unused and
connected to the container. The gaps
may allow an explosion to occur at a
temperature near the flashpoint. This
can cause a high-velocity flame jet to
vent near the bung, which could injure
personnel near the container.
In addition, using the piston and
rotary pumps to remove liquid from
containers can allow some spillage
since there is no flow control device. If
a seal fails, liquid can also be sprayed
from the pump and onto the user and
the floor.
As a solution, the industry has
developed sealed pump dispensing
systems that enhances safety by
eliminating spills and enables spill-
free, environmentally safe transfer
that prevent vapors from escaping
the container.
These systems are made of
groundable plastic and come
complete with bonding and grounding
wires. The spring actuation tap handle
can be immediately closed to stop
liquid flowing preventing any spills.
The design of this sealed pump
system also prevents liquid vapors
from exiting the container when the
pump is unused. These characteristics
significantly reduce the chance of an
ignition event. The combination of all
these features ensure the pump meets
both NFPA30-2015.18.4.4 standards
and NFPA 77.
Now that the hazards of
transferring flammable and
combustible liquids are clearly
recognized, proactive industrial
facilities are beginning to protect
their workers and their families by
implementing safety training, PPE
use, and sealed, grounded pumps.
This will help their operations stay
compliant, mitigate insurance risks
while minimizing the risk of fire and
explosion due to spills, vapors, and
static shock.
Nancy Westcott is the president of GoatThroat Pumps, a Milford, Connecticut, based
manufacturer of industrial safety pumps and engineered chemical transfer solutions that
keep companies in regulatory compliance. The company has developed a sealed, hand-
operated or pneumatic-operated pump system, the SCP Pump Series, that complies with
NFPA30.18.4.4. so it can be used to safely dispense flammable and combustible liquids.
For more information, visit
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
Reducing Downtime
with Better Grounding
Pumping systems account for 25 percent of the energy
consumed by electric motors in the U.S.
By Matt Laufik, Electro Static Technology
Figure 1: A new bearing race wall has a mirror-smooth surface to minimize friction. Figure 2: Pitting of a bearing race wall (magnified) is the result of electrical arcing as shaft
voltage discharges through the bearings, blasting small craters in metal surfaces. Figure 3: In fluting, concentrated pitting at regular intervals creates washboard-like ridges. This
causes noise and vibration. By the time this is noticeable, bearing failure is imminent.
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
umps and pumping systems
account for 25 percent of the
energy consumed by electric
motors in the United States. In pumping
intensive industries, this number is
over 50 percent. In fact, providing clean
drinking water to homes and businesses
alone accounts for almost 12.5 percent
of total U.S. pump energy consumption.
To improve the efficiency of pumping
systems and reduce their electricity
consumption, a growing number of
pump users are turning to variable
frequency drives (VFDs), also known as
inverters or adjustable speed drives.
Most pumping systems are designed
for maximum service conditions, but
running them at partial load can save
a considerable amount of energy. By
precisely matching electric motor
speed to pumping requirements, VFDs
can reduce energy costs by as much as
30 percent.
VFDs work by first rectifying 50/60 Hz
AC power to DC, and then inverting
the DC back to three phase AC at
the desired frequency. But these
drives’ output is not a smooth sine
wave like line voltage. Rather, it is a
series of pulses that approximates
a sine wave. Because the voltage is
pulsed, each phase’s voltage is either
fully on or fully off. Switching between
the on and off states is extremely rapid,
so the voltage has a very short rise time.
These voltage pulses can cause
problems in the motor. Firstly,
the high peak voltages and fast
rise times cause cumulative degradation
of insulation and bearings, coil varnish,
etc. This problem is made worse by
the phenomenon of reflected waves in
the VFD cable, which can lead to even
higher voltages at the motor.
Most new motors are protected
against winding damage with Class F or
H insulation, so this is less of a problem
now than it was twenty years ago.
But VFDs can also cause electrical
bearing damage.
Reducing Downtime
with Better Grounding
Figure 4: AEGIS Shaft Grounding Rings are available for
any size of motor. They can be factory-installed inside or
outside the motor, or retrofitted.
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
umps and pumping systems
account for 25 percent of the
energy consumed by electric
motors in the United States. In pumping
intensive industries, this number is
over 50 percent. In fact, providing clean
drinking water to homes and businesses
alone accounts for almost 12.5 percent
of total U.S. pump energy consumption.
To improve the efficiency of pumping
systems and reduce their electricity
consumption, a growing number of
pump users are turning to variable
frequency drives (VFDs), also known as
inverters or adjustable speed drives.
Most pumping systems are designed
for maximum service conditions, but
running them at partial load can save
a considerable amount of energy. By
precisely matching electric motor
speed to pumping requirements, VFDs
can reduce energy costs by as much as
30 percent.
VFDs work by first rectifying 50/60 Hz
AC power to DC, and then inverting
the DC back to three phase AC at
the desired frequency. But these
drives’ output is not a smooth sine
wave like line voltage. Rather, it is a
series of pulses that approximates
a sine wave. Because the voltage is
pulsed, each phase’s voltage is either
fully on or fully off. Switching between
the on and off states is extremely rapid,
so the voltage has a very short rise time.
These voltage pulses can cause
problems in the motor. Firstly,
the high peak voltages and fast
rise times cause cumulative degradation
of insulation and bearings, coil varnish,
etc. This problem is made worse by
the phenomenon of reflected waves in
the VFD cable, which can lead to even
higher voltages at the motor.
Most new motors are protected
against winding damage with Class F or
H insulation, so this is less of a problem
now than it was twenty years ago.
But VFDs can also cause electrical
bearing damage.
Reducing Downtime
with Better Grounding
Figure 4: AEGIS Shaft Grounding Rings are available for
any size of motor. They can be factory-installed inside or
outside the motor, or retrofitted.
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
Because each of the three
phases of VFD output is always
either on or off, the three phase
voltages do not sum to zero (as
three-phase line voltage does).
The total voltage across the three
phases, called the common mode
voltage, couples to the motor
rotor and capacitively induces a
shaft voltage.
This shaft voltage “wants” to
discharge to ground. Usually, the
lowest-resistance path from the
shaft to ground is through the motor
bearings, so shaft voltage tends
to discharge by arcing through
the bearings. This causes pitting
(tiny craters in bearing surfaces),
frosting (widespread pitting),
fluting (washboard-like ridges in
the bearing race), and eventual
bearing failure. The rate of damage
varies, but failure can occur in just a
few months.
Electrical damage is believed
to be the most common cause of
bearing failure in VFD-controlled
AC motors. Repair or replacement
of failed motor bearings is a costly
hassle. But these repair costs pale in
comparison to the cost of unplanned
downtime, which can easily wipe out
any energy savings that VFDs offer.
To prevent unplanned downtime
and the losses it entails, it is
necessary to protect against
electrical bearing damage.
Shaft Grounding Rings provide
a very low-resistance path from the
motor shaft to ground. By offering a
“path of least resistance,” a grounding
ring channels charge on the shaft
away from the bearings and safely
to ground, ensuring the reliable,
long-term operation of VFD-driven
pumping systems. As proven in
millions of installations worldwide,
AEGIS rings provide unmatched
bearing protection for the full L-10 life
of the bearings.
AEGIS Shaft Grounding Rings are
the only form of electrical bearing
protection that comes with a two-year
extended warranty against bearing
failure from fluting damage.
One approach to electrical bearing
protection is to use insulated
motor bearings. But this does not
remove the shaft voltage; the charge
on the shaft simply seeks another path
to ground—typically through a pump,
gearbox, tachometer, encoder, etc.,
which consequently can end up with
bearing damage of its own. By bleeding
the voltage off
the motor shaft, AEGIS
Left: Figure 5: Shaft voltage readings from a VFD-fed
motor without shaft grounding (top), and with an AEGIS
Shaft Grounding Ring (bottom).
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
rings protect attached equipment as
well as the motor’s bearings.
When installed according to AEGIS
Best Practices, AEGIS Shaft Grounding
Rings protect pump motors and the
pumps themselves from VFD-caused
bearing damage and costly downtime.
These Best Practices are detailed in the
AEGIS Bearing Protection Handbook,
available at
The easiest way to protect a motor
against electrical bearing damage
is to buy a new motor with an AEGIS
ring factory installed. Several motor
manufacturers now offer AEGIS Shaft
Grounding Rings installed as standard
or optional features on certain models.
These include:
ABB Baldor Super-E C-Face Motors
with -G suffix (standard).
and World
Inverter Duty Motors (standard).
WEG Electric Close Coupled
Pump Motors (standard
some lines).
Regal Beloit Marathon XRI Motors
(standard in several lines,
including severe duty, IEEE-841,
and explosion proof).
TECO-Westinghouse TEFC
Rolled Steel, ODP Rolled
Steel and Cast Iron, and MAX-
Motors. u
Matt Laufik is global sales manager
for AEGIS, a leading brand in bearing
protection. Electro Static Technology,
the world leader in passive static
control solutions, solves industry
challenges posed by static charges
in many of today’s sophisticated
machines. For more information, visit .
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
Reinventing Primer
to Prevent Chemical
Facility Corrosion
Advanced primer converts rust into a protective layer
and can be applied by any method, without the need
to sandblast rst
By Martin Lawrence, NanoRustX LLC
or chemical plants, chemical tank farms, and
refineries, atmospheric corrosion of steel is a
continual concern that can require re-priming and
re-painting every few years to prevent safety issues and
the premature replacement of costly infrastructure.
Industrial primers represent a critical foundation for
paints and coatings in harsh environments. However, they
have certain limitations and have historically been unable
to effectively deal with the eventual formation and future
recurrence of rust. Traditional primers only encapsulate
rust until the paint/primer is scratched, chipped, or
breached and moisture and oxygen migrate under the
film, allowing the corrosion to spread.
As a result, facility maintenance personnel or contracted
coating applicators must repeatedly utilize costly, time-
consuming and environmentally hazardous surface
preparation methods such as sandblasting to prepare
surfaces to be primed and repainted. However, not all
environments can withstand the impact of sandblasting,
which can damage critical surfaces and may be
impractical for reaching hard-to-access areas such as
cracks and crevices. Sandblasting is also expensive and
time-consuming, and even poses its own safety risks to
applicators and the environment.
Now, however, more advanced primers have been
formulated that set a higher performance bar in corrosive
environments. These reactive primers go beyond
encapsulating rust to instead convert it to a protective
material (iron phosphate) to minimize the risk of further
corrosion. The chemical bond provides superior
adhesion, high corrosion protection, and also eliminates
under-film corrosion.
The rust conversion formulation also differs from
prior technologies by using a non-toxic, ultra-low
VOC water-based acrylic polymer solution that can be
applied with minimal surface preparation and without the
need for sandblasting of steel substrates.
One of the main reasons that petrochemical facilities are
so susceptible to corrosion is that traditional primers have
serious deficiencies in this area.
“We have found that the typical primer and topcoat
needs to be replaced in a harsh chemical facility
environment every couple of years, says Dave Marzano,
NanoPrime reacts with iron and iron oxide (rust) to form iron phosphate, creating a
Nano bond with both metallic and painted surfaces.
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
owner of Maxim Contracting, a Newark, New Jersey-based
industrial and commercial contractor. “There are not many
products out there that will stop the rust.
A common failure of primers is not sufficiently protecting
against under-film corrosion. A primer must first form an
effective chemical bond to the metal substrate. Without
this, rust promoters like oxygen and humidity will creep
underneath the primer causing further corrosion. Most
primers on the market go only as far as encapsulating the
iron oxide, which is not 100 perfect effective in preventing
further rust from occurring.
Another reason that chemical facilities are prone to
corrosion when utilizing typical primers is that a high
level of surface preparation is required because most rust
primers on the market are sensitive to chlorides.
Even a minute amount of chloride on the steel can
cause coating system failure. This is why leading coating
manufacturers demand extreme levels of surface cleaning
(sandblasting) and removal of chlorides to a level of
5 micrograms per meters squared, which is nearly
impossible to achieve. Even when sandblasting is used for
surface preparation, flash rusting will still occur.
In response, the search for more enduring corrosion
protection at petrochemical facilities has involved the
development of long-lasting primers that correct the
deficiencies of traditional methods.
NanoRustX (NRX) NanoPrime, for example, works by
chemically reacting with iron and iron oxide (rust) to form
iron phosphate and creates a Nano bond with both metallic
and painted surfaces. The chemically bonded layer is
insoluble and extremely corrosion resistant. This “bonding”
process also provides superior adhesion and flexibility and
stops under-film corrosion that occurs when conventional
coatings are damaged.
The non-toxic, ultra-low VOC primer contains nano-
polymers for added strength and durability and has been
tested to successfully coat surfaces from rust-free to up to
700 microns of rust. The elasticity of the advanced primer
makes it very durable in temperature variations from -900 to
400 degrees Fahrenheit (-67 to 200 degrees Celsius).
Because the advanced primer actually chemically reacts
with galvanized steel surface, no surface preparation is
required other than a water wash. The water-based acrylic
polymer is not sensitive to chlorides or rust and can actually
neutralize them. Unlike initial generations of rust converting
The chemical bond provides
superior adhesion, high
corrosion protection, and also
eliminates under-film corrosion.
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
primers, the primer performs equally
well on clean, partially corroded, and
heavily rusted surfaces. Typically, a
power wash (240 bar/3500 psi) is all
that is needed before applying to steel
(clean or corroded), galvanized steel,
or aluminum in order to remove loose
paint, dirt, and grease. The primer can
be applied to a corroded surface by
hand brush, roller, or airless spray gun
on the substrate. After the application
of the primer, a
single coat of a low
VOC top coat will complete the job.
When a chemical plant in the Newark,
New Jersey, area had a number of
roof exhausts with severe corrosion,
Marzano, who had sought a lasting
corrosion solution for his customers,
applied a coat of NRX NanoPrime
with no topcoat to a 50-foot high roof
stack as a trial.
“The roof exhausts were so rusty
the chemical company was ready
to replace them, which would have
cost about $7,000 to $9,000, says
Marzano. “However, about five
With NRX NanoPrime, less surface
preparation is required compared to
other primers.
Tank before coating.
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
years later there still is no visible
rust on the roof exhausts. The
success of the trial demonstrated
the primer’s effectiveness against
chemical plant corrosion, so we
have applied it many times since
then on everything from roofs,
exhaust fans, and exhaust stacks
to tanks for carbon monoxide and
sulphuric acid.
In one of Marzano’s recent
applications, his Maxim Contracting
work crew coated four outdoor
and three indoor chemical tanks,
ranging from 1,500 to 10,000
gallons, including a liquid nitrogen
tank and a 2,000-gallon CO
Using a spackle knife and palm
sander to remove existing loose
flaking paint and rust, and a water
wash with nearby hose, the surfaces
were readied for applying the
primer. The system included two
coatings of primer applied by roller,
followed by one application of the
customer supplied water-based,
industrial epoxy topcoat.
“With NRX NanoPrime, less surface
preparation is required compared
to other primers,” says Marzano.
“Also, it can dry in thirty minutes to
touch and takes about two hours to
apply a second coat, depending on
temperature, which is much faster
than typical primer and paint. So, we
finished the job in a few days rather
than a week, which helped to reduce
potential downtime for the facility.
“But the bottom line is that the
primer prevents corrosion and really
lasts, concludes Marzano.
Martin Lawrence is managing
director of New Jersey-based
NanoRustX LLC, a supplier of
advanced primer technologies. For
more information, call 973.751.2200,
email, or visit
NanoPrime salt spray test
panel after 7,775 hours.
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
Featured Product
To take advantage of the many benefits the new Blacoh SurgeWave Defender
has to offer email or visit
Finally, transient pressure monitoring that makes
sense. The patented Blacoh
is the latest generation pressure
monitoring device from Blacoh Surge Control. This
patented device can monitor and record transient
pressures up to 100 times per second which is
not possible with gauges and traditional SCADA
systems. High frequency recording is the best way
to capture high speed events occurring within
your piping system. The SurgeWave Defender
monitors your pumping and pipelines 24/7 with
fast 4G LTG cellular connectivity. This allows
you to fine tune your piping system and access
critical data at any time. You can also configure
your device and calibrate remotely from anywhere
using your PC or smartphone.
The SurgeWave Defender
is simple to set up
and easy to use. There are two inputs to capture
pressure, flow, level, etc. If a pressure transient
occurs, the unit will store the high-speed data
that you need to understand what is happening
in your system. If nothing of interest is detected,
it stores minimal data needed to observe overall
trends. Transient thresholds and sensitivity can be
adjusted remotely, and the system will generate
automatic alerts when events are detected.
Liquid level in your surge vessel or pulsation
dampener can be monitored using a differential
pressure transducer. You can remotely monitor
the performance of the vessel and view overall
trends. All data captured is GPS time stamped
and stored on a cloud server which can hold
years of data, so you never have to worry about
storage. The time stamp allows you to precisely
compare data to other systems or devices.
You can use a backup battery to capture pump
trips and events during power outages. The
SurgeWave Defender
also features an external
cellular antenna which can be extended for
installations below grade.
When considering protection and recording
equipment for your system, keep in mind how
fast pressure can change and fluctuate. Pipe
breaks are most often associated with pressure
surges or fatigue. Eliminate expensive damage
and repairs with 24/7 constant monitoring. The
SurgeWave Defender
can help detect leaks,
ruptures, faulty actuators, insufficient air valves,
and more. You do not have to choose between
too much data and not enough data, and the easy
to use interface takes the stress out of accessing
your data anytime from anywhere.
Modern Pumping Today
July 2020
Oxford YASA Motors with TorqSense
Oxford YASA Motors, a company created to commercialize the revolutionary YASA
motor developed by Oxford University’s Energy and Power Group, is finding that
a TorqSense non-contact speed and torque sensor from Sensor Technology is an
invaluable aid in the refinement of its world-leading motor designs. Used in a test
rig to evaluate prototype motors, the sensor provides accurate and dependable
real time information in a readily accessible format. The YASA topology is based
around a series of magnetically separated segments that form the stator of the
machine. For more information, visit
Vibration Mote Model 3
Petasense’s Vibration Mote Model 3 (VM3)’s smart sensor enables variable
speed equipment monitoring. VM3 is a revolutionary sensor that combines
speed detection with triaxial vibration and temperature, enabling continuous
monitoring of variable speed assets. Variable speed, intermittently operating,
and spared assets have traditionally been difficult to monitor with predictive
maintenance programs since the equipment could be operating under
different conditions when measurements are taken. With VM3, users can trend
readings under consistent operating conditions. For more information, visit
TURBOVAC i/iX Family of Pumps
In June 2020 the vacuum specialist Leybold expanded its TURBOVAC
series—90, 250, 350, and 450—by the sizes 850 i/iX and 950 i/iX to six
models. The two new turbomolecular pump variants are characterized by
extended, trouble-free operation, longer system life, and lower operating
costs. They are used in many applications from research and development
and analytics to industrial. In other words, especially where a clean and
stable high—and ultra-high vacuum is required—such as in coating, heat
treatment, analysis, thin-film research, and helium recovery. For more
informaiton, visit
L4N1XP Thru-Bolt
Ratchet Wrench
Reed L4N1XP Thru-Bolt™ ratchet wrench keeps the dirt out. New
XP model features sealed ratchets for best performance and extra
protection for jobsite conditions. The four sockets in a dog bone
configuration are designed to stay on the handle, meaning no loose
sockets. This wrench replaces the need for multiple wrenches and
sockets—carry one wrench for all your jobs. This is the ideal wrench
for water, sewer, and gas installations and maintenance. The L4N1XP
is made in USA. For more information, visit
July 2020
Modern Pumping Today
To listen to an extended version of this
interview, be sure to subscribe to MPT’s
podcast, The Efficiency Point.
What Do the EPA’s
New PFAS Guidelines
Mean for You?
he American Water Works
Association is the largest
organization of water supply
professionals in the world and
its members represent the full
spectrum of the water community,
public water and wastewater
systems. environmental advocates,
scientists and others concerned
for effective management of the
world's most important resource.
On a recent episode of MPT’s podcast, The Efficiency
Point, Chris Moody from AWWA’s government affairs
office joined us to discuss the impact of the EPA's new
guidelines on PFAS regulations and the organization’s
current efforts advocating for clean and potable water
throughout the country.
MPT: Would you mind providing a brief history of the
EPA’s approach to PFAS regulation?
Chris Moody: I
t’s helpful to think about where things are
starting at with PFAS. It represents a class of thousands
of different chemicals. All are perfluorinated alcohol
compounds, the chemical makeup of these gives them
really unique properties that they first were used for the
Manhattan Project and now they're used for everyday
things like water repellent for jackets. So they're really
ubiquitously used throughout the country, and the
world, really.
The EPA’s history on regulating PFAS began in the mid
2000s. With both the regulatory and voluntary efforts
to reduce use by industry of certain PFAS. … Just last
year, they released the PFAS action plan, which is really
their way of putting out the detailed plans for multi-
barrier approach to PFAS. It involves research, risk
communication, contamination—addressing how to clean
up a lot of things.
Since that plan was released, the agency has focused on
developing different analytical methods and most recently,
getting to more than the hot topic of the day, the proposed
regulatory determinations for two particular PFAS and
drinking water.
MPT: What are the four guiding principles that AWWA
has put out with relation to PFAS regulation?
Chris Moody: The four guiding principles really boil down
to a commitment to public health protection. That's our main
goal as an organization at the end of the day. And then our
second one is a fidelity to the scientific process—ensuring
that we have any drinking water standards that do get
promulgated are actually the most effective they can be, and
they're based on science. Next, an investment in research
so that we can support that process and ensure that we can
have effective protection of source water. That means making
sure we're not letting the chemicals just blatantly get put into
the environment and then pushed off to the drinking water.
MPT: If I'm someone working on the forefront of facing
this issue, where should I turn to get the best information?
Chris Moody: There's lots of different resources! Our
organization has people who maintain different fact sheets
and we've been tracking different state-to-state activities.
We have a whole webpage dedicated to PFAS. And a lot
of those fact sheets are really good, high quality. u
The AWWA lays out four guiding principles for the
regulatory future
Chris Moody
What Do the EPA’s
New PFAS Guidelines
Mean for You?