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Lionel Hampton Orchestra 

MUZAK SESSIONS Lionel Hampton Orchestra
Released Sept 29
Muzak Archives
Background - The State of Muzak
THE FIRST FORTY YEARS It was late 1935 and the company had already been in operation for a year or so when Major General George O. Squire, Muzak’s founder, came up with
the idea Muzak after the name Kodak, a company that he admired and respected.
George Squire was quite an accomplished and gifted inventor. He was responsible for four patents in multiplex telephony, whereby; several verbal messages could be
transmitted and received over a single wire, the very basis for modern communications systems. His other advances included writing the specifications for the first military
aircraft, and witnessed acceptance trials of the Army's first Wright Flyer while working with the Wright Brothers.
Muzak’s operations were in full swing by 1934. Ben Selvin was Vice President of Programming, operating from their Manhattan AMP Studios. It is also of interest to note that,
according to The Guinness Book of World Records, Ben Selvin recorded more musical sides (on 78-rpm discs) than any other person. Selvin’s passion for capturing music on disc
was the very basis for Muzak’s early and lasting success.
Mr. Selvin recorded the most popular artists from many genres of the times. Artists were recorded while performing sets onto 16-inch vinyl transcription discs for transmission
over the Muzak lines through their ingenious technology and franchise system. From the mid 1930s through the early 1970s Muzak had recorded more than 32 thousand tracks
by over 10 thousand artists. Muzak’s recording documentation, rights clearance and quality control systems were rigorous with masters cut simultaneously on four identical
lathes. The Muzak production staff carefully examined and annotated each master for performance and technical quality.
In just those first forty years of Muzak’s life, many notable artists, singers, orchestras, big bands, and spoken word recordings by the popular artists and performers of the time
were recorded and added to Muzak’s growing library. In the 1930s there was Fats Waller, the Frank Luther Quintet, Carson Robertson & His Buckaroos, Claude Hopkins, The
Greene Brothers Novelty Orchestra, The Dorsey Brothers, and Glen Gray. Then in the 1940s there was Adrian Rollini Novelty Trio, Ben Selvin, Xavier Cugat, Larry Clinton, Charlie
Spivak, Johnny Messner and his Orchestra, Russ Morgan and his Orchestra, and Arthur Fiedler and his Orchestra. Other noted artists throughout the next three decades were Les
Paul Trio, The Carter Family, Carl Sandburg, Vic Damon, Ozzie Nelson (with Harriet Hilliard), Neal Hefti, Bob Cosby, Warren Covington, The Deep River Boys, Al Caiola, Bobby
Hackett, Klaus Ogermann, Metropolitan Opera Company, Earl Sheldon and Orchestra, Sid Bass, Dick Hyman, Frank Hunter and Orchestra, Rosemary Clooney, Mindy Carson, and
many more.
MUZAK IN THE 70s Fresh musical styles flourished as a vital new generation of young people reacted to the changing world around them. While 70s music was diverse, genres
had an important thing in common: emotion. Gone were the neutral big band era strings and bland mood music melodies. Early dance/electronica, hard rock and heavy metal
burst onto the scene and a generation hungry for emotion embraced these trends readily.
Despite this seismic shift in taste, Muzak spent the 1970s holding fast to their original business model, reproducing tracks with in-house orchestras and following Stimulus
Progression models. The generation gap between those old enough to be in decision-making management positions and those just entering the workforce was mostly to blame
for the disconnect.
The 1970s also saw the launch of Muzak’s first satellite, the K2. Satellite technology was a huge step forward because it allowed Muzak to provide higher quality programming to
customers anywhere. They no longer needed to be located near a physical office or FM subcarrier signal.
By the 1970s Muzak was a household name. Programming might not have been enjoyed by every single one of Muzak’s then estimated 80 million daily listeners but the reach and
scope of Muzak music was undeniably strong. Muzak continued to adapt to the changes in music. More and more music was becoming Foreground music instead of Background
music. Under Jane Jarvis musical direction, recording sessions were geared more toward recording instrumental covers of popular songs. Artists like Al Caiola, Frank Hunter, and
Warren Covington were brought in for these recording sessions, covering pop songs of the 70s
Background Lionel Hampton in the 1970s
When the 70’s rolled around for Lionel was already 62 years, old but he was still going strong. According to his autobiography, “in the 70s jazz was really making a comeback and
it seems that every time I would turnaround, he was getting offers to perform with guys he had played with in the late 30s and 40s. At the Newport Jazz Festival in 1972 he had
another reunion with Gene Krupa and then the following year the whole Benny Goodman Quartet was reunited again this time the occasion was the Urban League’s 33rd Annual
Ball at the Waldorf-Astoria. It was a salute to Lionel not only for his long career in music but also for his role is a developer of the Lionel Hampton Houses (a housing project in
1974 was the first year Hampton and his Orchestra had played a club in London. It was the famous Ronnie Scott’s. Hampton had a bunch of young musicians with him at that time
In fact; Glen Drewes was his trumpet player and had just graduated from Eastman School of Music Most of the players weren’t even born yet when he was giving young cats like
Dexter Gordon and Illinois Jaqcuet their first break.”
Lionel also shared that around 1976 he got quite a bit of play from his music involvement with Bette Midler in a Broadway musical she was starring in, “Clams on the Half Shell
Revue.” Ms. Midler had heard him perform his original composition “Flying Home” and wanted him to play it in the Broadway show. The show was successful, had a 10-week run,
and it was beneficial for both of them. It helped give Bette Midler more legitimacy and allowed Hampton’s sound to get out in front of a whole new group of people.
How the Lionel Hampton Session Came About
Jane Jarvis was the Muzak VP of Programming and the person most responsible for making Muzak’s Lionel Hampton Sessions possible. By the time Jarvis arrived on the Muzak
scene, she had already been on television at station WTMJ-TV in Milwaukee, hosting a show called "Jivin' with Jarvis" while serving as staff pianist and organist.
Also at the time, the Milwaukee Braves had just relocated from Boston and sought out Jarvis to be the organist. Jarvis stayed with the Braves for eight seasons and then came to
New York City, where she took a position with Muzak as a staff composer and arranger. She would rise to become a corporate vice-president and its director of recording and
programming. As she was working at the time with many of New York’s A List of session players such as Al Caiola, Frank Hunter, and Milt Hinton to do many of the sessions of
instrumental pop tunes for Muzak, she had easy access to Lionel Hampton through those artists.
In 1976, she wrote the following letter to Bill Titone, Lionel Hampton’s long-time manager:
November 29th, 1976
Mr. Lionel Hampton
Apt. 26K, 20 West 64th Street
New York, New York
Dear Lionel:
Bill Titone, your manager said that we were free to schedule you for another great recording session any time around December
We Have you booked for Wednesday, December 15th, 1976 at 1:00 PM, Studio B, R.C.A. we have hired the substantially the
same group. This includes your men, Paul Moen, Dominick Aloi, Glen Drewes plus most of the others that were on that other
Frank Hunter will do the arranging. There are two separate arrangements left over from the other session:
For the remaining ten, we are including the three you gave us some time ago (WHO AM I TO SAY, Etc.) plus some other originals
of yours.
NBC is going to film part of it for a news release! Please call us as soon as possible so we can finish up any details.
Best Wishes
Jane Jarvis
Vice President
Director of Music Programming And Recording
cc: Bill Titone
Fast forward to 2012, as I was going through pallet after pallet of the Muzak Archives library of 16” vinyl, 12” vinyl, acetates and ¼” tape masters at their Fort Mill, SC location.
When I uncovered the two reels of 2” multi-track tape with track assignments included labeled “S-2831 - Lionel Hampton Orchestra Session II December 19676 (yes there is a
session one), I was able to go to our master files from the decade and locate this completely and thoroughly documented recording session. Letters to the session players, pay
stubs, union dues reports session notes, writer and publisher information, it was all there in that session folder. A quick bit of research of Hampton’s discography indicated that
this particular session had never been released. Further research from Hampton’s autobiography, told me that Lionel did not recall the Muzak sessions at all (or did not feel they
were important enough to note in his autobiography.
Right away I contacted old friend Mark Williams who has been a part of numerous Grammy winning recordings and who has been a part of the recording industry since the early
1960s when analog tape recording was in it’s prime. We both agreed that it would be ideal of we could get a good Tape to Digital transfer of this music and see if it were worthy
of mixing and producing. Further information on the process can be found below but the results of the transfer were successful and yielded a fantastic recording session.
The Engineering Process
Mark Williams, Mix Engineer describes the process as follows: “The Lionel Hampton Orchestra masters were brought to me as 2” 16-track analog master reels, two of them,
recorded NAB at 15 IPS. Knowing that Mitch Easter (Fidelitorium Recordings) maintains tape machines of the period, I took them to his studio for transfers to 96K/24bit digital
through his Prism convertors. I then mixed from the high-resolution digital masters.
The recording was made with normal techniques of the period, and in a good studio. Reeds and brass sections were recorded with pairs of mics with each mic favoring different
players but typically with only moderate isolation. The drums were mic’ed with one on the foot and two overhead (EQ’d quite bright at the original session), the piano with one
mic (typical of the time), and the only real stereo pair aside from the drum overheads was on the vibes played by Hampton himself.
That said, the musicians were magnificent! As with any acoustic ensemble, the players balanced and blended themselves within their sections, and played with dynamics as
Lionel Hampton directed them. I made one high resolution mix (96K/24bit) of the entire session with false starts, alternate takes, and the producer commenting over the talk
back speaker to the studio the whole time. I further made high resolution mixes of the select takes with extraneous stuff removed (producer comments, etc.), although you can
clearly hear Lionel Hampton making grunts and growls as he plays.
My goal was to present this project both as an enjoyable and thoroughly playable music album in various formats, and also have it all available as an archive of the 1976 recording
session. I am hard pressed to say which version I find the most interesting!” Mark Williams@ East Oak Media, Charlotte, NC
The Mastering Process
Dave Harris, Mastering Engineer describes the process as follows: “When Rick Nash approached me to master the Lionel Hampton Muzak archives I was very excited. I always
enjoy audiophile projects, especially when they involve world-class musicians. After Mark Williams transferred the original multi-tracks to digital and performed his mixing magic
he captured each song as a high resolution as a high resolution wave file. These were then provided to me for mastering. After an initial listening session I determined that the
material was going to require a very minimalistic approach, everything already sounded fantastic! I chose a few of my key analog mastering tools in keeping with the original
theme of the recording from that time period. These included my Pendulum OCL-2 optical compressor for a very slight tightening of the dynamics as well as my Manley Massive
Passive equalizer for subtle timbre shaping. Lavry digital to analog converters were used to send the digital files back into the analog realm for this signal chain. As I worked I also
made small adjustments to the volume of each song for the sake of continuity. When finished I captured the analog signal with Lavry analog to digital converters and recorded
them into my SADiE mastering software. From there I was able to trim the tops and tails to prepare them for output to CD quality wave files and also high resolution wave files
for a possible audiophile release.” Dave Harris @ Studio B Mastering, Charlotte, NC
The Tracks
I'm Coming Virginia [2:49] - Lionel Hampton Orchestra WRITERS: Will Marion Cook/ Donald Heywood - PUBLISHERS: EMI Robbins Music Corp. (1927-54)
Hamp The Champ [2:16] - Lionel Hampton Orchestra WRITER: Frank Hunter - PUBLISHER: Retnuh Music Co. (1976)
The Doctor [2:16] - Lionel Hampton Orchestra WRITER: Bill Titone - PUBLISHER: Glad-Hamp Music Inc. (1976)
I've Never Been In Love [3:12] - Lionel Hampton Orchestra WRITER: Frank Loesser - PUBLISHER: Frank Music Corp.
She [3:23] - Lionel Hampton Orchestra WRITER: Bill Titone - PUBLISHER: Glad Hamp Music Corp. (1976)
Cool Charlie [2:16] - Lionel Hampton Orchestra WRITERS: Bill Titone / Elizabeth Firestone - PUBLISHER: Glad-Hamp Music Corp. (1976)
Carol You're A Gorgeous Thing [2:42] - Lionel Hampton Orchestra WRITER: Bill Titone - PUBLISHER: Glad -Hamp Music Corp (1976)
Lionel's Train [2:51] - Lionel Hampton Orchestra WRITERS: Bill Titone / Jane Jarvis - PUBLISHER: Glad-Hamp Music Corp. (1976)
Wait No More [3:50] - Lionel Hampton Orchestra WRITERS: Elizabeth Firestone / Johnny Mercer - PUBLISHER: Glad-Hamp Music Corp. (1976)
How High The Moon [2:07] - Lionel Hampton Orchestra WRITER: Nancy Hamilton / Morgan Lewis - PUBLISHER: Chappell & Co. (1940)
Twilight In The City [3:03] - Lionel Hampton Orchestra WRITERS: Johnny Brandon / Johnny Warrington / Ruby Fisher - PUBLISHERS: Glad-Hamp Music Corp. / Song Sellers
Inc. (1964)
Who Am I To Say [3:43] - Lionel Hampton OrchestraWRITERS: Johnny Willison / Cartlon Bates - PUBLISHER: Glad-Hamp Music Corp. (1976)
Lionel Hampton Orchestra - The Musicians
RAY BECKENSTEIN - Tenor Sax - Beckenstein was one of the founding members of the New York Sax Quartet. Beckenstein played many session dates with a diverse line-
up including: George Benson, Lee Ritenhour, Janis Ian and Phoebe Snow as well as Urbie Green, Antonio Carlos Jobim, Gil Evans, Stan Getz and Lena Horne.
FRANK FOSTER - Tenor Sax - Foster was a renowned sax player, arranger and composer. He was part of much collaboration with the Count Basie Orchestra where he was
lead say player for years. Foster then took over the running of the ship when Basie died. He also played with Elvin Jones group, Thad Jones-Mel Lewis Big Band and Cecil
Bridgewater. Mr. Foster also co-led a quintets in the early eighties with fellow sax player Frank Wess
FRANK WESS - Alto Sax - Mr. Wess was equally well known as one of the first major jazz flutists. Wess was a Basie protégé but before playing with Count Basie he played
with the Billy Eckstine Orchestra and with R&B Star Bull Moose Jackson. Wess also played with Clark Terry’s Big Band and with the New York Quartet.
PAUL MOEN Alto Sax - Moen gigged around Seattle for a while before attending Berklee College of Music. Artists he worked with included vibraphonist Bobby Paunetto
in the mid-1970s. Moen also worked with the likes of Ray Mantilla, Dizzy Gillespie and Cab Calloway well into the 1990s.
BABE CLARKE - Baritone Sax - Arthur “Babe” Clarke aside from this session played on other sessions of noted artists during the sixties and seventies. He recorded with
Cannonball Adderley, Hubert Lawes, Grover Washington, Jr. George Benson and Mel Torme
VICTOR PAZ Trumpet - Victor was a regular member of numerous Lionel Hampton recording sessions throughout his recording career. In addition he is credited playing
with or recording for: Buddy Rich, The Funk Jazz Brothers, Deodato, Benny Goodman, Dizzy Gillespie, Astrud Gilberto, Bob James, Eddie Kendricks, Eric Gale, Tito Puente.
MEL DAVIS Trumpet - Mel Davis was a multi-talented musician and arranger, best known for his trumpet playing. In addition to trumpet, he played piano, violin, drums,
tuba, bass, accordion and ocarina as well as being one of the original and long-time Sesame Street band-members, where he stayed for seventeen years. Davis also
appeared on the "Tonight Show" with Doc Severinsen.
IRVIN MARKOWITZ Trumpet - Irvin "Marky" Markowitz played early in his career in a number of big bands, including those of Charlie Spivak, Jimmy Dorsey, Boyd
Raeburn, and Woody Herman. He worked primarily as a studio musician during the 1960s. Marky was a "first call" trumpeter for many top artists of the 1960s, 1970s,
and 1980s, including Paul Simon, Aretha Franklin, Stevie Wonder, the Young Rascals, Frank Sinatra, Tony Bennett and Dionne Warwick.
DOMINICK ALOI - Trumpet - Most notable for work with Ray Barretto, Aloi was also a A List NYC session player throughout the 1960's and the 1970's and on into the
SANTO "SONNY" RUSSO Trombone - Santo "Sonny" Russo grew up in a musical family; both his father and grandfather were professional horn players. He started out
with Buddy Morrow in 1947, and then played Art Mooney, Tito Puente, Buddy Rich, Neal, Jimmy Dorsey and Tommy Dorsey and Maynard Ferguson (1956). From 1967 to
1973 he was a member of The Tonight Show orchestra
WARREN COVINGTON Trombone - Warren Covington played early on with Isham Jones, then with Les Brown Gene Krupa. Later on he became a staff musician for CBS
radio for two stints. After Tommy Dorsey died suddenly the Tommy Dorsey estate approached Covington to form a new Tommy Dorsey band, which he led
PAUL FAULISE Bass Trombone - Paul Faulise first became known to jazz audiences for his work with Kai Winding's trombone septet but can also be heard on the
recordings of such jazz luminaries as Cannonball Adderley, Oscar Peterson, Art Farmer, Jimmy Smith, Quincy Jones, and Benny Goodman. His discography includes Freddie
Hubbard, Maynard Ferguson, Sarah Vaughan, Charles Mingus, Donny Hathaway, Deodato, George Benson, Quincy Jones, Antonio Carlos Jobim, Dizzy Gillespie, B.B. King,
Judy Collins, Chaka Khan and Jimmy Smith .
WAYNE ANDRE Trombone - He played with Charlie Spivak in the early 1950s before spending some time in the U.S. Air Force. In 1955 he joined the Sauter-Finegan
Orchestra, and in 1956 played with Woody Herman. From 1956 to 1958 he played with Kai Winding and attended the Manhattan School of Music. His solos may be heard
on such albums as Liza Minnelli's "More Than You Know" on Liza with a Z, Bruce Springsteen's Born to Run and "BlueTurk" on Alice Cooper's School's Out album
FRANK OWENS Piano - Frank Owens played on Bob Dylan's "Highway 61 Revisited", which launched a successful career as a session player. He recorded with Tony
Orlando & Dawn, Neil Sedaka, David Clayton-Thomas, Jackie Wilson, Teresa Brewer and Elton John.
AL CAIOLA- Guitar - Al Caiola is a guitarist who played jazz, country, rock, western, and pop music. He has been both a studio musician and stage performer. Caiola has
recorded over fifty albums and worked with some of t he biggest stars of the 20
century, including Elvis Presley, Buddy Holly, Mitch Miller, and Tony Bennett.
REUBENS BASSINI Percussion - Bassini was a percussionist, who played bongos and congas above all. He also played with Judy Collins, João Gilberto, Sérgio Mendes,
Chuck Mangione, Dom Salvador, Carly Simon, Spyro Gyra, Eumir Deodato and Dave Grusin.
JIMMY JOHNSON JR Drums - Drummer Jimmy Johnson, because of his diversity was able to play on a broad variety of sessions including: Albert King, Big Mama
Thornton, Bo Diddley, Bobbi Humphrey, Carly Simon, Duke Ellington, Garland Jeffries, George Benson, Grady Tate, Jimmy Smith, Mongo Santamaria, Marlena Shaw,
Quincy Jones, Ray Bryant, Shirley Scott, Sonny Stitt, Sun Ra and Yusef Lateef
MILT HINTON Bass - Milt The Judge Hinton was regarded as the Dean of jazz bass players. In l936, Milt joined Cab He was also featured on numerous recordings
accompanying Benny Carter, Benny Goodman, Lionel Hampton, Coleman Hawkins, Billie Holiday, Ethel Waters, and Teddy Wilson - to name just a few. Most of these
sessions have become jazz classics. Milt has played with virtually every jazz and popular artist from Ellington, Coltrane and the Marsalis Brothers to Streisand, Midler and
LIONEL HAMPTON Vibraphone & Bandleader
JOHN MICEL - Copyist
JANE JARVIS - Contractor
RICK NASH - Producer
MARK WILLIAMS - Mix Engineer
DAVE HARRIS - Mastering Engineer
Respectfully submitted,
Rick Nash, Hampton Project Producer @ Muzak Archives
Fort Mill, SC