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American Revolution
By: Kevin Stockless
Also known as the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms, the
Declaration of Arms was a statement by the Second Continental Congress meeting in
Philadelphia setting forth the causes and necessity of their taking up arms but, importantly,
did not declare immediate independence. It was agreed to July 6, 1775 following the
breakout of fighting at Lexington and Concord, and the battle of Bunker Hill. The Declaration
of Arms is primarily a combination of the writing of Thomas Jefferson, John Dickinson and
possibly John Rutledge.
America's most cherished symbol of liberty, the Declaration of Independence was drafted by
Thomas Jefferson with the assistance of John Adams, Roger Sherman, Benjamin Franklin
and Robert R. Livingston. It announced to the world that the 13 American colonies, then at
war with Great Britain for more than a year, were no longer part of the British Empire or
under the rule of King George III through 1760-1820, and provided a formal explanation for
their actions. On June 7, 1776, at the Second Continental Congress meeting in Philadelphia,
Richard Henry Lee introduced a resolution urging independence which was agreed to July 2,
1776. The Second Continental Congress then approved the Declaration of Independence two
days later, July 4, 1776.
Also known as the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union,the Articles of
Confederation was drafted by the same Second Continental Congress that passed the
Declaration of Independence, and established a firm league of friendship between and
among the 13 American states. Individual states retained sovereignty, freedom and
independence, and instead of setting up executive and judicial branches of government,
there was a national legislature composed of representatives from each state comprising the
Congress of the Confederation also known as the United States in Congress Assembled.
Also known as the Paris Peace Treaty, the Treaty of Paris signed by American and British
representatives ended the American Revolutionary War, recognized United States
independence and granted the new country significant western territory. It was signed at
the Hôtel de York September 3, 1783 with John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and John Jay
representing the United States and David Hartley, a member of British Parliament,
representing King George III (1760–1820). The Treaty of Paris was ratified by the Congress
of the Confederation January 14, 1784 and by Great Britain April 9, 1784. Ratified versions
were exchanged in Paris May 12, 1784.
Also known as An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States,
North-West of the River Ohio, and as the Freedom Ordinance, the Northwest Ordinance is
considered one of the most significant achievements under the Articles of Confederation. It
told the world that the land north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi would be
settled and eventually become part of the United States. It more importantly provided for
the creation of not less than three or more than five states and, importantly, prohibited
slavery in the new territory.
Also known as the Constitution of the United States of America and commonly abbreviated
as U.S. Constitution or US Constitution, the United States Constitution is the supreme law of
the nation. It defines the three branches of the federal government, a legislative branch
with a bicameral Congress, an executive branch led by the President and a judicial branch
headed by the Supreme Court, and carefully outlines the powers and jurisdiction of each.
The constitution also reserves numerous rights for the individual states and lays out the
basic rights of citizens. A federal convention was set in Philadelphia May 14, 1787 to amend
the failing Articles of Confederation, and a vote of seven states was achieved May 25, 1787.
Over the summer the delegates decided to abandon the old Articles and fashion a new
government framework. The resulting constitution was agreed to September 17, 1787 and
ratified June 21, 1788.
The Declaration of Independence marks the first such document declaring the equality of
men. This video is a recount of how the declaration was started, formed, and finally passed.
It also taught me that Colonel John Nixon gave the first public reading of the Declaration of
Independence July 8, 1776, to a crowd at Independence Square in Philadelphia. Although
the Declaration first stating that all men are created equally, there were still some african
american slaves that were being mistreated. Also, a total of five delegates, Elbridge Gerry,
Oliver Wolcott, Lewis Morris, Thomas McKean, and Matthew Thornton, signed on a later
Some facts that I learned from this video are Former British Prime Minister William E.
Gladstone in 1887 said the United States Constitution was "the most wonderful work ever
struck off at a given time by the brain and purpose of man." It had a preamble and seven
articles and was later ratified by conventions in each the 13 American states. The United
States Constitution is the oldest federal constitution still in existence and has been amended
27 times since ratification, the first ten amendments being known as the Bill of Rights. Also
a fun fact was that the first national Thanksgiving Day November 26, 1789 was established
by George Washington as a way of giving thanks for the United States Constitution.
Alexander Hamilton was born circa January 11, 1755 or 1757 the exact date is unknown, on
the island of Nevis, British West Indies. In 1777, Hamilton became General George
Washington's assistant. He was also a part of the Continental Congress. In 1788, he
convinced New Yorkers to agree to ratify the U.S Constitution. He then served as the
nation's first secretary of the treasury, from 1789 to 1795. An important fact about
Alexander is that on July 12, 1804, in New York City, Hamilton died of a gunshot wound that
he sustained during a duel with Aaron Burr.
Born January 1, 1735, Paul Revere was a silversmith and ardent colonialist. He was principal
rider for Boston's Committee of Safety. In that role, he devised a system of lanterns to warn
the minutemen of a British invasion, setting up his famous ride on April 18, 1775. His ride
on April 18, 1775, that entered his name into history, especially after it was brought to the
attention of the public in works of art and writing. At 10 that night Revere rode to Lexington
to warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams of the approaching British. The Battle at
Lexington ensued, and with it, the American Revolution. Some facts about Revere were that
he donned many different hats during the battle, he manufactured gunpowder and cannon
for the Continental Army, printed the country's first money, and commanded Castle William
at Boston Harbor.
Benedict Arnold was an American Revolutionary War general best known for his defection
from the Continental Army to the British side of the conflict in 1780. On May 10, 1775,
Arnold partnered with frontiersman Ethan Allen to seize New York’s Fort Ticonderoga.
Returning home after the battle, he learned that his wife had died earlier in the month. He
married again and in the summer of 1779, decided to commit treason by providing the
British with troop locations, as well as the locations of supply depots. Arnold and André met
in person on September 21, 1780, to discuss the operation. Several days later, André was
captured carrying papers detailing revealing Arnold’s role in the West Point surrender plot.
This evidence was sent to General Washington. Arnold then fled downriver past British lines.
American Founding Father Samuel Adams helped organize the Boston Tea Party and signed
the U.S. Declaration of Independence. Among his accomplishments, in 1775 he founded
Boston's Committee of Correspondence, which like similar entities in other towns across the
Colonies proved a powerful tool for communication and coordination during the American
Revolutionary War.Adams served as a Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress
until 1781. In that role, he urged a final break from Great Britain and signed America's
Declaration of Independence alongside his second cousin, future U.S. President John Adams.
George Washington was a leader of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, and
was the first to become U.S. president. In May, Washington traveled to the Second
Continental Congress in Philadelphia dressed in a military uniform, indicating that he was
prepared for war. On June 15, he was appointed Major General and Commander-in-Chief of
the colonial forces against Great Britain. As was his custom, he did not necessarily run for
the office of commander, but he faced no serious competition in gaining that power because
of his skill and superiority. His strategies on the battlefield were trumped by none other
than himself. He led his troops to many victories throughout the Revolution eventually
kicking the British out.

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"The Articals of Confederation: The First Constitution of the United States"