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Civil War

North (continued)

South Carolina- first state to secede

By February 1861: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee all seceded


Secession was the triggerpoint of war. Once the South seceded, the Confederacy, led by Jefferson Davis, was formed. The two opposing sides were now laid out, and war was about to begin. The Yankees versus the Rebels.


Secession events and cause of civil war


Many events caused secession, such as the election of Abraham Lincoln. The south felt threatened and feared that he would ban slavery once he became President. This of course was not entirely the case, but once secession occured, he had no choice. Another event was Bleeding Kansas. Hostile acts began between the North and the South  during Bleeding Kansas. This violence was a foreshadow of future events.




April 12th, 1861


The Confederate forces have opened fire on Fort Sumter. The walls are collapsing in as volleys of cannonballs fly over our heads. We are unable to receive relief from Union Ships, as the tides are too high. We are ordered not to surrender, though I doubt the command will last long.


April 14th, 1861


It has been thirty-three hours, and we have finally surrendered. There were no casualties on our side, and I doubt we hit anybody in this chaos. Word has it that their President, Jefferson Davis, ordered them to siege the fort before our supplies were scheduled to arrive. This attack was so sudden, and we were unprepared. Is this what war is like? This must be the start of the Civil War, and the Confederate’s first victory.


Battle of Fort Sumter


The first major battle of the Civil War occurred on this day on July 16, 1861. The event took place in Northern Virginia, about five miles from Manassas Junction. Our troops had the edge in the early fight, but the Rebels suddenly rallied to their general, Thomas Jackson, and surged forward roaring and terrifying us. After this “Rebel yell”, our generals ordered a retreat. We did not seemed outnumbered, but I request more soldiers for our army to guarantee a win for the Union.

                                                           -Union General


Estimated Casualties:


Union: 2,700

Confederate: 2,000


Battle of First Bull Run


February 6, 1862 – February 16, 1862


Union Perspective



Gain Control of the Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers to split the Confederacy and hinder their transportation of supplies.


Log of events:


With the help of Ulysses S. Grant we moved against Confederate forces in Kentucky and Tennessee. With the aid of ironclad ships, Grant was able to capture Fort Henry and  Fort Donelson. At Donelson, Grant would not accept any terms except “unconditional surrender” and led his army to secure the Tennessee River.




The Union secured the Tennessee River, and opened a path  to march into Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama.



Union: 2,600 | Confederate: 13,800

Battle of Fort Donelson


When? March 8, 1862 – March 9, 1862


Why? The confederates, using the Virginia, attacked union ships off the coast of Virginia


Where? Sewell’s Point, Virginia

Battle of Hampton Roads AKA Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack

           Battle of Ironclads



After unsuccessful attempts to damage the Virginia, the Union created their own ironclad ship named the Monitor

Salvaged the Merrimack and replated it into metal and renamed it the Virginia.




The union subdued the Virginia so it would no longer threatened them. In addition to a victory for the North, the battle marked a new age in naval warfare: metal-covered ships


Casualties:      Union: 500

Confederate: 100


Battle of Hampton Roads

Date: April 6-7, 1862


Led by General Grant, union troops headed towards an important railway junction. The Union army set up camp 20 miles from a church named Shiloh, when the Confederates surprised attacked the camp.


Day 1. The Yankees were driven back to the Tennessee River

Day 2. The Yankees gain reinforcements from Nashville and gunboats on the river


Results: Union Victory + control of Corinth

=large control of the Mississippi River


Casualties: more than 20,000 on either side including Confederate general Johnston

Battle of Shiloh

Date: August 29-30, 1862


Location: Manassas


Events: McClellan's army moved south to join John Pope in preparation. Stonewall Jackson attacked Pope’s supply base at Manassas. The Yankees were defeated and the Confederates gained a valuable advantage.


Outcome: Confederate victory; Lee’s army stood 20 miles from Washington, D.C.


Casualties: Union: 14,000 | Confederate: 8,000


Battle of Second Bull Run


Sharpsburg, Washington County, Maryland


September 17, 1862


Union: Major General George B. McClellan

Confederate: General Robert E. Lee

Soldiers Engaged

Union Army: 75,300

Confederate Army: 52,000

McClellan waited four days before he attacked the Confederates, despite the special intel recovered by his soldiers, which allowed Lee’s army to gather most of his army and clash on September 17th. The Battle of Antietam is the bloodiest battle of the Civil War. Neither army was destroyed, but both had heavy losses. Lee retreated to Virginia, and the Union claimed victory. The President had ordered to destroy the rebel army, but McClellan did not pursue them. This triggered the president into firing him.



Battle Of Antietam Casualties

Union: 12,400

Confederate: 10,300

The british were ready to intervene in the war to help the south...if they won the battle. → they didn’t = no British.

Battle of Antietam


Date: December 13th, 1862










Confederate: John Lee Union: Ambrose Burnside/Joseph Hooker

The Union had a larger army, but Lee’s army was entrenched. Burnside persisted, but too many soldiers fell, and he resigned. The replacement was Joseph Hooker who would rebuild his army and command his troops in an assault against Lee.


Reason: n/a

Outcome: Confederate victory

Battle of Fredericksburg



Confederate:                             Union:

Robert E. Lee                            Joseph Hooker


Hooker campaigned against Lee’s army. Before he could order a major attack, Lee attacked at Chancellorsville. The victory was in favor of Lee once more, but the fight cost the lives of many of his troops including Stonewall Jackson. Jackson died after he was shot in the arm by a confederate soldier, and died after amputation.


Date: Early May 1863









Outcome: Confederate victory with heavy losses on both sides


Battle of Chancellorsville

May 18-July 4, 1863


Location: Vicksburg


Reason: Vicksburg stood at a high bluff above the Mississippi. Needed to be captured to gain control of the river.


Events: Grant laid siege for weeks upon the town. On July 4th, Vicksburg surrendered.


Outcome: Union victory. The Union now had full control of the Mississippi River and cut off Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas from the Confederacy. The war turned in favor of the Union as they  drove Lee’s army out of Pennsylvania




Union: 4,800

Confederate: 3,300 with nearly 30,000 captured



Image on next page


Assault on Vicksburg

Date: July 1, 1863




Union                                  Confederate

George Meade                      Robert E. Lee


Location: Gettysburg, Pennsylvania


Reason: the Union tried attacking the rebels whilst they were collecting schools


Events: Union Cavalry surprise attacked the rebel infantry, but the Rebels outnumbered them and caused the Union to retreat. The next day, the Rebels attacked the Union army again and they barely survived. Robert E. Lee commanded General George Pickett to finish off the Union army and got cocky. Barely half of the rebels that were in “Pickett’s Charge” returned. Lee took full responsibility.


Outcome: unsuccessful assaults against each army.




Union: 23,000

Confederate: 28,000

Battle of Gettysburg

April 9, 1865


“There is nothing left [for] me but to go and see General Grant, and I [would] rather die a thousand deaths.”

-Robert E. Lee

Voices of the Civil war


After Lee tried linking up with one of his army’s, he realized his escape routes were blocked and his situation was hopeless. He and his troops surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House.


Terms of Surrender


Confederate soldiers must lay down their arms, but were free to go home. They were allowed to keep their horses so they could put in a crop to carry them and their families through the winter. Also, three days worth of food was sent to Lee’s troops. After Lee’s surrender troops in North Carolina conceded too. Then on May 10th, Jefferson Davis was captured and the Civil War was over.

Image on next page

Surrender at Appomattox and Terms of Surrender

Ulysses S. Grant 

Robert E. Lee

Important Figures

Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809 in Hodgenville, Kentucky. He became the 16th president of the United States despite the South’s seclusion of his name on their ballots. After putting up formidable verbal fights against Jefferson Davis and winning the popular vote with 40%, he was elected president.

     The South seceded from the Union in fear that Lincoln would abolish slavery. During the civil war, President Lincoln strategically maneuvered his troops and words to keep the nation in peace while also winning the war. Lincoln had plans to end the war early, and could have if George B. McClellan had listened to his plan on destroying the Rebel army. Throughout the war, Abraham Lincoln showed intellectual strength over the Confederates and managed to win the war.

     On April 15, 1865, he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. That is a negative for both parties, because Lincoln was the best person that could “bind up the nation’s wounds.” Lincoln’s vice president, Andrew Johnson became the new president.



Abraham Lincoln

Robert E. Lee

Robert Edward Lee was an American general known for commanding the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. Lee and his army achieved great success during the Peninsula Campaign and at Second Bull Run (Manassas) and Fredericksburg, with his greatest victory coming in the bloody Battle of Chancellorsville. In the spring of 1863, Lee invaded the North, only to be defeated at the Battle of Gettysburg. Lee had won many battles but was finally captured at Appomattox. He surrendered, and was sent back to the South with his army. With no active military, the surrender at Appomattox ended the Civil War.



Women- During times of war, women fill different roles. They helped the soldiers in the war by rolling bandages, weaving baskets, and making ammunition. Some also became spies. Harriet Tubman was a spy for the North. Rose O’Neal Greenhow was a confederate spy, but was caught. Women spies would sneak into enemy territory and would gather intel, then pass it onto their allies.


Children- Young boys played an important role in the war. Not only did they make up nearly 50% of the population, but their jobs influenced the outcome of the Civil War. The children would take up jobs such as drummer boys. Drummer boys were essentially the commanders during battles. In the midst of battle it is difficult to hear one person’s voice. So, the soldiers and drummer would remember certain drum beats that represent certain orders given by the commander.


African Americans- The Civil War revolved around them. The war began over whether ownership of another person was right or wrong. Naturally African Americans would fight against the confederacy, so when white soldiers ran low, the Africans took their place. With immense numbers of freed slaves and the spirit of freedom energizing them, African Americans in battle were one of the turning points of the North.

Life during the Civil War

Results of the Civil War

The Civil War ended on May 9, 1865. The south surrendered after their main army commanded by Robert E. Lee was captured. The yankees had won the war and the Confederates were brought back into the Union. “But The Civil War was  America's bloodiest conflict .It cost nearly 1,100,000casualties and claimed more than 620,000 lives. The campaigning armies left destruction in their wake, particularly in the Southern states that bore the brunt of the fighting.” - Civil War Statistics

    Families were torn apart, as was the locations of confrontations. The war caused brother to turn against brother, father against son, and neighbor against neighbor. But there was a silver lining. The United States were once again united, and slavery was dying down. The nation could have been easily repaired had Abraham Lincoln not been assassinated. Lincoln’s death hit the Union hard, because he was a great man with potential. Lincoln was able to keep the Union together despite secession being inevitable. The Civil War was a hell of a war.


Dear Mrs. O'Hara,


This is an amazing site with awesome end-results, but has many flaws. It is difficult to make text go how you want(it is impossible to tab) and sometimes pictures go crazy. Also, the background style disappears when not editing the book, so it looks less pretty. It is a difficult site, so teaching your students how to use it will save the first 3 days of this project. Also there are so many pages to create, so adding maybe one more week should ensure no complaints(especially for the switch class who gets less UA time with you. Or maybe even setting goals for each week (like: reach page 7 by this date) would be benificial.  I have spent about 3 hours on this today at home, and I just copy and pasted my info from google docs. It is very time consuming to add a picture and page, and make sure it looks nice, so please take my advice on making this project more organised.These are just suggestions that I thought you should think of because I know that we are the first class to do this project. Thank you.

                                                                                 -Mason Cook

Note to the Teacher