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HERON In this new edition readers of all ages will find derivations simpler and more readable A new introductory section includes a straightforward history of the English language How did it evolve What is Anglo Saxon Old Norse Why are there two words for so many things Where do Greek and Latin fit in These questions and more are answered simply The basic purpose remains the same to provide uncomplicated easily assimilable word derivations that enhance the pleasure of a good read DERIVATION DICTIONARY Originally created for middle and high school students twenty five years ago the broader popularity of this dictionary continues to grow HERON DERIVATION DICTIONARY

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HERON DERIVATION DICTIONARY A Quick Reference for English Language Derivations

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Published by Heron Books Inc 20950 SW Rock Creek Road Sheridan OR 97378 heronbooks com Fifth Edition 1995 2021 Heron Books All Rights Reserved ISBN 978 0 89 739206 8 No part of this publication may be produced without the permission of the copyright owner Any unauthorized copying translation duplication or distribution in whole or in part by any means including electronic copying storage or transmission is a violation of applicable laws The Heron Books name and the heron bird symbol are registered trademarks of Delphi Schools Inc Printed in the USA 11 January 2021

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Contents Introduction to the 5th Edition 1 Why This Dictionary 2 Reading Derivations 4 A Brief History of English 6 Before English Was Born 6 The Birth of Old English 8 The Viking Influence 10 The French Influence 12 The Greek and Latin Influence 14 The Influence of Literature 15 The Influence of Exploration and Trade 17 Today and Tomorrow 18 A Simplified Timeline of the English Language 19 How English Builds Its Vocabulary 20 DERIVATIONS 23 APPENDIX 331 List of Languages 333 Language Map 334 Glossary 337 v

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Introduction to the 5th Edition This dictionary was originally created for middle and high school students learning the value of derivations in understanding words Its 11 447 entries came from a comprehensive list of recommended books for teen readers from Old Yeller A Wrinkle in Time and The Yearling all the way up to Dickens David Copperfield Voltaire s Candide and Plato s Republic As dictionaries for younger readers did not always include derivations or had overly sophisticated derivations the Heron Derivation Dictionary filled a need Within a few years the book s popularity was found to extend beyond teens and this has remained true since the first edition was published in 1995 This new edition retains all the original entries with some minor adjustments while getting an overhaul in design and readability The intention has always been to provide uncomplicated easily assimilated derivations That remains unchanged Whether you are a teen or a reader of any age we hope you find this new edition useful Our wish is simple to enhance the pleasures available to those who enjoy a good read 1

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Why This Dictionary This dictionary is all about beginnings A derivation is where something came from its beginning The wheelbarrow we think was created by a Chinese general almost 2000 years ago to carry military supplies That s its derivation Every object or idea has some kind of derivation Words do too The word muscle for example has a derivation Flex your upper arm and look at your bicep What does it look like Some Roman did this and gave birth to the word we now know as muscle which meant little mouse in Latin the language of the Ancient Romans More recently the creators of Instagram needed a name for their photosharing app They took the words instant camera and telegram and came up with the name Instagram Some word derivations are centuries old Some are quite new Exploring the meanings of words is one of the great joys of learning When learning about a word you might also wonder Why do we say this word for that idea Where was it first used this way Why is it pronounced or spelled this way Does this word come from some other language Is it really old What was the word back then and what did it mean in that time and place Virus for example is another word that comes to us from Latin From ancient records one discovers the word was first used by some Roman roughly 2500 years ago It meant poison or slimy liquid It was useful in describing certain things so others started using it and soon it was part of the language Over the centuries the word virus has moved forward in time making its way into English as we speak and write it today which we call Modern English 2

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Here s another word story The English word vinegar began as the Latin words vinum aigre wine that is soured Vinum meant wine aigre meant sour Later the French combined these into vinaigre to describe sour wine English speakers borrowed that word and changed it to vinegar There are many types of vinegar today but making a red wine vinegar isn t hard just open a bottle of red wine and leave it for several days You might not like the taste but you will have made vinegar This simple derivation can help you understand the word vinegar better And that s why this dictionary was created To help you explore the beginnings of words their derivations 3

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Reading Derivations Every word listed in a dictionary is called an entry This book has 11 480 entries each with a derivation As you look at these derivations you will find them short and to the point Many derivations have fun and fascinating stories behind them and there are books and websites that share these well This dictionary just gives derivations as simply as possible To help you understand how to read the derivations let s look at a few sample entries bold Old English beald brave Old English was the earliest form of English The Old English word beald meant brave Over time this word changed to become our Modern English word bold virus Latin poison slimy liquid In this derivation no Latin word is given This is because the Latin word is the same as the modern English word Compare this with the previous example where the Old English word beald being different from the modern word is given grin Old English grennian In this example no meaning is given for the original Old English word This is because the meaning hasn t changed peel French peler take off from Latin pilare make bald from pilus hair When a word has traveled through different languages the derivation will often show this In this case the word came from Latin to French then into English First was the Latin word pilus meaning hair Later someone used this to create the Latin word pilare meaning making something bald The French changed the spelling and meaning a bit From there it arrived to English as peel 4

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active See act This means the derivation of the word active is essentially the same as the derivation of the word act By going to the entry act you will find a derivation that applies to both words act Latin agere to do At the back of the book is a list of the languages included in the word derivations in this dictionary Below some of these is a sub list of related languages you may run into in other dictionaries Whereas another dictionary might say from French from Old French for simplicity this dictionary will just say from French You will also find a world map Noted on it for the sake of orientation are the locations where all the languages included in the derivations in this dictionary have been or are used It shows locations only it doesn t differentiate relative time periods Lastly a full glossary is given in the back It provides explanations of many different languages including all of those referenced in this dictionary as well as many often found in other dictionaries This can help if you find yourself in a larger dictionary running into languages or other derivation related terminology you aren t familiar with A quick glance at the map or glossary will usually provide you with all the information you need 5

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A Brief History of English BEFORE ENGLISH WAS BORN Though English is spoken today by millions of people around the world it was born on an island called Britannia later Britain Today Britain is the home of England Scotland and Wales For hundreds of years this island was the home of a people called the Britons Around 43 CE however as part of expanding their empire the Romans invaded and took control of the island They introduced many changes including the development of organized towns and proper roads for travelling between them For nearly four hundred years they protected the island from further invasions until the Roman Empire began to fall apart By 410 CE Britain was no longer protected by the power of the Roman army and its soldiers Soon invading tribes began arriving on Britain s shores The largest of these were two tribes called the Angles and the Saxons from parts of what we now call Denmark and Germany Marauding warriors and pirates they seized land and wealth making the island theirs The Britons retreated to Ireland and Wales and with them went the language that had been used in Britain for hundreds of years 6

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Scotland Denmark Angles Saxons England Wales Germany 7

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THE BIRTH OF OLD ENGLISH Anglo Saxon 450 1100 CE The Angles and Saxons spoke a completely different language than the Britons They were a rougher people and their language sounded that way Sometimes we refer to their language as Anglo Saxon They called it Englisc and gradually it became the language spoken throughout Britain by both peasants and kings This was how English was born Old English old meaning the first English spoken is another name used for Anglo Saxon In this dictionary all Anglo Saxon words will simply be called Old English Many of the words we use today come directly from Old English even simple words like I he she you we where who and when Even the word England comes from Angle land It was a fairly simple but lively and descriptive language It had a lot of short punchy words thousands of which we still use 8

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jump break year laugh RED queen CHILD ACORN SCAB MOTHER GHOST NAME BLOOD FIGHT raven free kiss north cat OWL EARTH pig GLOW arrow friend MOON dog hook bruise hand heaven 9

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THE VIKING INFLUENCE Old Norse 800 CE About four hundred years after the Anglo Saxon invasion from the northernmost parts of Europe came new seafaring pirates and traders called Vikings These new invaders also called Norsemen landed in the north of England They spoke a language we call Old Norse For the next 200 years there were continuous battles between the AngloSaxons and the Vikings Naturally some Old Norse words got picked up and added into Old English skull Here are a few words that originally came from Old Norse fellow WHIRL gang SKIP ugly TRUST BERSERK EGG glitter troll anger DIRT 10 freckle sprint sky

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school Old English scol place of learning from Latin schola from Greek schole scare Old Norse skirra frighten schooner Modern English colonial New England perhaps from Scottish scon send over water skip stones scarf French escarpe a purse hung from the neck from Latin scirpa pouch from scirpus a water plant used in making baskets scarlet French escarlet from Latin scarlatum scarlet cloth from Arabic s qirlat red dress scarp Italian scarpa scathe Old Norse skathi harm scatter Middle English skateran scavenger French scawage a tax collected from foreign merchants from escauwer inspect scenario Italian from Latin scaena stage scene scene French from Latin scena stage from Greek skene stage scent Middle English senten from French sentir feel smell taste perceive from Latin sentire feel sense perceive scepter French sceptre royal staff from Latin sceptrum from Greek skeptron schedule French from Latin schedula small sheet of paper from scheda strip of papyrus scheme Latin schema shape from Greek schema schism French scisme from Latin schisma split from Greek schisma sciatic Latin sciaticus from ischiadicus from Greek iskhiadikos from iskhias pain in the hips from iskhion hip joint science French knowledge from Latin scientia scimitar Italian scimitara origin uncertain scion French scion scissors French cisoires shears from Latin cisorium cutting tool from caedere cut scoff possibly from Old Norse skopa scold Old Norse skald scolia Greek bent or curved scone Scottish from Dutch schoonbrot fine bread scoop Dutch schope bucket and schoppe shovel scope Italian scopo target from Greek skopos scope Latin scopium from Greek skopion from skopein view examine scorch Middle English perhaps from Old Norse skorpna shriveled score Old Norse skor count by using marks schizophrenia Latin from Greek schizein separate phren the mind scorn Middle English from French escarn make fun of schmaltz Yiddish shmalts melted fat from German smalz related to smelzan melt scorpion French from Latin from Greek skorpios schnapps a kind of Holland gin from German Schnaps a mouthful gulp scoter origin uncertain scholar Latin scholaris about a school from schola See school SC OU ND R EL scarce French escars not many from Latin excerpere select scoundrel Middle English skowndrell probably from French escoundre from Latin condere hide 269

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SC OU R scour1 scrub Dutch schuren clean from French escurer from Latin ex entirely curare take care of scour search Old Norse skyra rush in 2 scourge French escorgiee from Latin excoriare strip off the hide from ex from corrium hide scringe unknown origin script French from Latin scriptum something written scripture Latin scriptura writing scout French escoute spy from escouter listen from Latin auscultare listen to scrivener French from Latin scriba a writer scowl Middle English scoulen probably from Scandinavian scrotum Latin scrabble Dutch schrabbelen from schrabben scrape scramble possible combination of scamp er scrabble scroll French eschrowe strip of parchment scrounge American scrunge rummage perhaps from scringe pry about scrub Dutch schrobben rub scrumple German krumpel scrapple See scrap scruple French scrupule from Latin scrupulus small sharp stone from scrupus from being uncomfortable by having a small stone in the shoe scratch probably from Middle English scracche scrutiny Latin scrutinium search from scrutari scrawny probably from Scandinavian scry See descry scream Middle English screamen from Old English scr man scuba s elf c ontained u nderwater b reathing a pparatus screech Old Norse skr kja scud perhaps from Middle English scut rabbit rabbit s tail origin uncertain scrap Old Norse skrap scrapings scrape Old Norse skrapa scratch screed Old English screade screen Dutch scherm screw French escroue the hole in which a screw turns from Latin scrofa sow from the threads of a screw looking like the curl of a sow s tail scribble Latin scribillare write quickly from scribere write scribe Latin scriba secretary from scribere write scrimp Scottish also skrimp origin uncertain 270 scrimshaw American nautical scrimshander scrimshonting origin uncertain scuff Old Norse skufa shove scuffle See scuff le scull Middle English a kind of oar origin uncertain scullery French escuelerie from escuelle dish from Latin scutella tray scullion See scullery sculpture Latin sculptura a carving scum Dutch scume foam froth scupper Middle English origin uncertain

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secret French secre from Latin secernere put apart from se apart cernere separate scurrilous Latin scurrilis like a buffoon clown secretary Latin secretarius confidential officer from secretus See secret scurry See hurry secrete Latin secernere See secret scurvy probably from Scandinavian sect French secte from Latin secta school of philosophy the study of right and wrong scutage Middle English from Latin scutagium from scutum shield scutcheon See escutcheon scuttle1 sink a ship Middle English skottell opening in a ship s deck from French escoutille from Spanish escotilla hatchway scuttle2 run quickly probably from Old Norse scud scythe Old English sithe from Latin scindere cut sea Old English s seal pledge French seel formal way to stamp documents to prove they were real from Latin signum sign 1 seal2 animal Old English seolh seam Old English sear Old English searian from sear dry search French cenchier from Latin circare explore from circum around season French saison time of the year from Latin satio time to plant from satio planting seat Old Norse s ti chair seaton Latin setonem from seta silk Seccotine probably from Italian secco dry secede Latin secedere go away secesh See secede SEGR EGAT E scuppernong American from a river in North Carolina section Latin secare cut sector Latin the geometric figure from secare cut secular French seculer from Latin saecularis worldly from saeculum age secunda Latin secundus secure Latin securus from se free from cura care sedan possibly from Latin sedere sit sedate Latin sedare quiet sedentary French sedentaire from Latin sedentarius from sedere sit sedge Old English secg sediment French from Latin sedimentus from sedere sit sedition French from Latin seditio from sed apart itio from ire go seduce Latin seducere from se apart ducere lead sedulous Latin se apart dolo trickery seed Old English s d seek Old English secan seethe Old English seothan boil segashuate See sagacious seclude Latin secludere shut off segment Latin segmentum a piece cut off from secare cut second French from Latin secundus from sequito follow segregate Latin segregare from se apart grex flock 271

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SEGU E segue Italian from Latin sequi follow seine Old English segne from Latin from Greek segene seismic Greek seismos earthquake from seiein shake seize French seisir from Latin sacire seldom Old English seldan select Latin seligere choose self Old English self own sense French sens from Latin sensus feeling from sentire perceive feel sensitive French from Latin sensitivus from sensus See sense sensor See sensory sensory Latin sensorium from sensus See sense sell Old English sellan hand over for money sensual Latin sensualis from sensus See sense seltzer German Selters the name of the village in Germany where it was first made sentence French opinion from Latin sententia from sentire feel selvedge See self edge sententious Latin sententiosus full of meaning from sententia from sentire feel semantics French s mantique from Greek semantikos from sema sign sentient Latin sentire See sentiment semaphore Greek sema a sign phoros from pherein produce sentiment French sentement from Latin sentimentus opinion from sentire feel semblance French appearance from sembler seem from Latin simulare make like sentinel French sentinelle sentry from Latin sentire feel semi Latin half partly sentry See sentinel seminal French from Latin seminalis relating to seed from semen seed sepal French s pale from Latin sepalum seminar See seminary seminary Latin seminarius of seed from semen a seed Semitic German from Latin Semiticus from Greek Sem from Hebrew Shem the oldest of Noah s three sons senate French senat from Latin senatus the ruling body of ancient Rome from senex old man send Old English sendan cause to go seneschal French senile Latin selilis from senex old senior Latin senex old 272 sennight Old English seofon seven niht night separate Latin separare from se apart parare arrange sepia Latin kind of fish from Greek cause to rot The liquid from the fish is used in the process of making the color seppuku Japanese from setsu fuku from Chinese qie cut with a sword or knife f belly September Latin September seventh month in the early Roman calendar in which March was the first month from septem seven septum Latin saeptum a fence from saepire hedge in from saepes hedge fence sepulcher French sepulcre tomb from Latin sepulcrum from sepelire bury

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sequence Latin sequentia that which follows from sequi follow sequester Latin sequiestrare remove from sequester trustee person put in charge of another s property sequin French from Italian zecchino from zecca a mint from Arabic sikkah a stamp servile Latin servilis from servus a slave servitor French from Latin servitor from servire serve servitude French from Latin servus a slave session Latin sessio meeting from sedere sit set Old English settan place settle Old English setl a seat sequoia Native American Sequoya several French separate from Latin separ different seraglio Italian serraglio enclosure severe Latin severus strict serape Spanish sew Old English siw i an fasten together with thread sere See sear serenade French from Italian serenata from Latin seremus clear serene Latin serenus serf French from Latin servus slave serge French from Latin sericus silken probably from Chinese se silk sergeant French sergent officer from Latin servire be a servant series Latin serere join together serious Latin seriosus earnest from serius earnest sermon Latin sermo speech serve serpent Latin serpens creeping thing from serpere creep serrate Latin serratus from serra a saw serried French serrer crowd from Latin serare sewer French esseweur from Latin ex out aqua water sex Latin sexus either male or female sextant Latin sextans sixth part because it has the shape of a sixth of a circle sexton French segrestein from Latin sacrista from sacer sacred shabby Old English sceabb itch shack Origin uncertain possibly from US slang shackly rickety shaky shackle Old English seceacul fetter chain put on the feet to slow movement shad Old English sceadd shade Old English sceadu shadow shadow See shade shaft Old English scealf shah Persian kshayathiya king serum Latin watery part of something shake Old English sceacan move quickly servant French servir serve from Latin servire See serve shale Old English sceulu a shell serve Latin servire be a slave or servant serviette French servir serve SH ALLOP sequel French sequelle from Latin sequela result from sequi follow shall Old English sceal shallop French chaloupe from Dutch sloep sloop ship 273

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Buy the Heron Derivation Dictionary

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HERON In this new edition readers of all ages will find derivations simpler and more readable A new introductory section includes a straightforward history of the English language How did it evolve What is Anglo Saxon Old Norse Why are there two words for so many things Where do Greek and Latin fit in These questions and more are answered simply The basic purpose remains the same to provide uncomplicated easily assimilable word derivations that enhance the pleasure of a good read DERIVATION DICTIONARY Originally created for middle and high school students twenty five years ago the broader popularity of this dictionary continues to grow HERON DERIVATION DICTIONARY