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Livret de grammaire







A utiliser avec les cours d'anglais selon la méthode APAREF et plus précisément avec la partie "Pronunciation English Lesson"



Lesson 1 Table 1



Lesson 1 Table 2




   a  +  a word beginning with    a  =    an ambulance
     e  =    an emergency
   i  =    an identification card
   o  =    an office
   u  =    an unknown child


   a  +  a word beginning with all other letters     =    a bus stop
      =    a car
    =    a father
    =    a man
    =    a wife
    =    a Phone


In the office: an office a large office
At the emergency: an emergency a medical emergency
With the ambulance: an ambulance a licensed ambulance
The card: a card an identification card
The number: a number an insurance number
The day at work: a work day an emergency work day

Lesson 2 Tables



To Be
1 person 2 or more people
I am am I? we are are we?
you are are you? you are are you?
he is is he? they are are they?
she is is she?
it is is it?
To Do
1 person 2 or more people
I do do I? we do do we?
you do do you? you do do you?
he does does he? they do do they?
she does does she?
it does does it?
To Have
1 person 2 or more people
I have have I? we have have we?
you have have you? you have have you?
he has has he? they have have they?
she has has she?
it has has it?
To Go
1 person 2 or more people
I go do I go? we go do we go?
you go do you go? you go do you go?
he goes does he go? they go do they go?
she goes does she go?
it goes does it go?

Lesson 3 Table 1 : VERB TABLE


The verb “To Be” (irregular)

 To … form:   to be
 Command form:   Be
 …ing form:   being
 X been:   It is been is infrequently or never used.
 Present:    I am   /   he (she, it) is   /   you are   /   we are   /   they are
 Past:    I was   /   he (she, it) was   /   you were   /   we were   /   they were

 Future:    I will (shall) be   /   he (she, it) will (shall) be   /   you will (shall) be   /   we will (shall) be   /   they will (shall) be


The verb “To look” (regular)

 To … form:   to look
 Command form:   Look
 …ing form:   looking
 looked:   It is looked   /   It was looked   /   It will be looked   /
 Present:    I look   /   he (she, it) looks   /   you look   /   we look   /   they look
 Past:    I looked   /   he (she, it) looked   /   you looked   /   we looked   /   they looked

 Future:    I will (shall) look   /   he (she, it) will (shall) look   /   you will (shall) look   /   we will (shall) look   /   they will (shall) look


The verb “To watch” (regular)

 To watch … form:   to watch
 Command form:   Watch
 …ing form:   watching
 watched:   It is watched   /   It was watched   /   It will be watched   /
 Present:    I watch   /   he (she, it) watches   /   you watch   /   we watch   /   they watch
 Past:    I watched   /   he (she, it) watched   /   you watched   /   we watched   /   they watched
 Future:    I will (shall) watch   /   he (she, it) will (shall) watch   /   you will (shall) watch   /   we will (shall) watch   /   they will (shall) watch

Lesson 3 Table 2 : “CAN” AND “MAY”


“May” asks permission:


May I see your driver’s license? = I am asking permission to see your driver’s license.


May I see some personal identification? = I am asking permission to see your personal identification.



“Can” asks if someone is able:


Can you tell me where the store is? = I am asking if you are able to tell me where the store is.


Can you tell me where to find groceries? = I am asking if you are able to tell me where to find groceries.




Do you have a phone? May I call you? Can I reach you by phone?

Lesson 4 :

There is no grammar table

for this lesson.

Lesson 5 Table 1





 Who is talking?  …to whom?  Whose is it?
 I talk to them.  He talks to me.  It is my book.  It’s mine.
 He talks to them.  He talks to him.  It is his book.  It’s his.
 She talks to them.  He talks to her.  It is her book.  It’s hers.
 It talks to them.  He talks to it.  It is its book.  
 You talk to them.  He talks to you.  It is your book.  It’s yours.
 We talk to them.  He talks to us.  It is our book.  It’s ours.
 They talk to them.  He talks to them.  It is their book.  It’s theirs.


Its means that it belongs to it.     It is becomes it’s when shortened.


 I will do it by myself.  means,

 I will do it alone.


 He will do it by himself.  means,

 He will do it alone.


 She will do it by herself.  means,

 She will do it alone.


 It will do it by itself.  means,

 It will do it alone.


 You will do it by yourself.  means,

 You will do it alone.


 You will do it by yourselves.  means,

 You and at least one other person will do it together, but no one else will help you.


 We will do it by ourselves.  means,

 I and at least one other person will do it together, but no one else will help us.


 They will do it by themselves.  means,  Two or more people will do it together, but no one else will help them.

Lesson 5 Table 2




I did it myself.                           means,

I, and only I, did it.


He (or John) did it himself.       means,

He (or John), and only he (or John), did it.


She (or Jane) did it herself.       means,

She (or Jane), and only she (or Jane), did it.


You did it yourself.                   means,

You, and only you alone, did it.


You did it yourselves.               means,

You and at least one other person, and only you and that other person (or those other people), did it.


We did it ourselves.                  means,

I and at least one other person, and only I and that other person (or those other people), did it.


They did it themselves.            means,

Two or more people, and only those two or more people, did it.



“TO,” “TWO,” AND “TOO.”


To  =  →

I gave the book → John.  =  I gave the book to John.


Two   1 + 1 = 2

I gave John 2 books.  =  I gave John two books.


Too  =  excess

I gave John more books than he wants.  =  I gave John too many books.


Too  =  also

I also gave a book to Mary.  =  I gave a book to Mary, too.

Lesson 5 Table 3



Lesson 5 Table 4



Lesson 5 Table 5



   Written  Pronounced
  after …a  -  -
  after …c  -  -
  after …be   bribed   bribd
  after …ge   judged   judgd
  after …ke   liked   likt
  after …pe   hoped   hopet
  after …se   used   used
  after …ue   continued   continud
  after …we   owe   owed
  after …f  -  -
  after …h   reached   reacht
  after …j  -  -
  after …l   called   calld
  after …n   listened   lis’end
  after …p   helped   helpt
  after …r   ordered   orderd
  after …t   waited   waited
  after …u  -  -
  after …w   reviewed   reviewd
  after …y   studied   studied
  after …b  -  -
  after …d   recorded   recorded
  after …ce   pronounced   pronounct
  after …ie   died   died
  after …le   handled   handld
  after …se   promised   promist
  after …te   substituted   substituted
  after …ve   lived   livd
  after …ze   realized   realizd
  after …g   begged   beggd
  after …i  -  -
  after …k   talked   talkt
  after …m   exclaimed   exclaimed
  after …o  -  -
  after …q  -  -
  after …s   dressed   dresst
  after …th   breathed   breathd
  after …v  -  -
  after …x   fixed   fixt
  after …z   criticized   criticized

Lesson 6 Table 1



    (My name)
The thing
(Your name)
Jane and I
John and Mary
table6a go(es) home. I
table6a go(es) home.
They see
table6b (person speaking.)
the car.
(your name.)
Jane and me.
John and Mary.
They see



He promised the house to me.



He promised it to me.

I brought the instructions to you. I brought them to you.
His wife gave Mary the money. His wife gave it to Mary.
They will give the car to you. They will give it to you.
He gave Jane the books. He gave them to Jane.

Lesson 6 Table 2




 He goes.  John   =   he

 John goes.


 We go.  John and I   =   we

 John and I go.


 They go.  John and Peter   =   they

 John and Peter go.


 It comes.  the bus   =   it

 The bus comes.


 They come.  the car and bus   =   they

 The car and bus come together.



 Everyone   =   1 person  she runs

 Everyone runs fast.


 Everything   =   1 thing  it works

 Everything works okay.


 Someone   =   1 person  he is

 Someone is listening.


 Something   =   1 thing  it is

 Something is strange.


 Both   =   2 persons or things  they were

 Both children were good.


 All   =   2 or more  they stand  All the people must stand.

Lesson 7 Table 1




 John‘s book

 The book belongs to John.


 the brothers’ book

 The book belongs to two or more brothers.


 the man‘s car

 The car belongs to one man.


 the men‘s car

 One car belongs to two or more men.


 the witness‘s (or witness’) book

 The book belongs to one witness.


 the witness‘s (or witness’) books

 One witness owns more than one book.


 the witnesses’ book

 The book belongs to two or more witnesses.


 the witnesses’ books

 Two or more witnesses each own more than one book.


 the witnesses are looking at a book

 Two or more witnesses are looking at books they each own.


 the witnesses are looking at their books  Two or more witnesses are looking at one or more books they each own.

Two or more witnesses are looking at two or more books they all own together.


 someone‘s car

 The car belongs to someone.


 something‘s help

 The help belongs to something.


 something‘s open  Something is open.





Some examples of two words becoming one.

 I + am = Iam = I’m  I’m fine.
 it + is = itis = it’s  It’s fine.
 he + is = heis = he’s  He’s fine.
 she + is = sheis = she’s  She’s fine.
 we + are = weare = we’re  We’re fine.
 you + are = youare = you’re  You’re fine.
 they + are = theyare = they’re  They’re fine.
 that + is = thatis = that’s  That’s okay.
 I + will = Iwill = I’ll  I’ll pay the money.
 he + will = hewill = he’ll  He’ll pay the money.
 she + will = shewill = she’ll  She’ll pay the money.
 it + will = itwill = it’ll  It’ll pay the money.
 we + will = wewill = we’ll  We’ll pay the money.
 you + will = youwill = you’ll  You’ll pay the money.
 they + will = theywill = they’ll  They’ll pay the money.
 that + will = thatwill = that’ll  That’ll be fine.
 this + will = thiswill = this’ll  This’ll be fine.
 I + have = Ihave = I’ve  I’ve taken the money.
 he + has = hehas = he’s  He’s taken the money.
 she + has = shehas = she’s  She’s taken the money.
 we + have = wehave = we’ve  We’ve taken the money.
 you + have = youhave = you’ve  You’ve taken the money.
 they + have = theyhave = they’ve  They’ve taken the money.
 I + would = Iwould = I’d  I’d like to go.
 he + had = hehad = he’d  He’d like to go.
 she + had = shehad = she’d  She’d like to go.
 we + had = wehad = we’d  We’d like to go.
 you + had = youhad = you’d  You’d like to go.
 they + had = theyhad = they’d  They’d like to go.
 will + not = willnot = won’t  It won’t work.
 do + not = donot = don’t  They don’t work.
 does + not = doesnot = doesn’t  It doesn’t work.
 did + not = didnot = didn’t  She didn’t go.
 should + not = shouldnot = shouldn’t  She shouldn’t go.
 could + not = couldnot = couldn’t  They couldn’t go.
 would + not = wouldnot = wouldn’t  We wouldn’t go.
 can + not = cannot  You cannot go.
 cannot = can’t  We can’t go.
 are + not = arenot = aren’t  You aren’t starting.
 had + not = hadnot = hadn’t  They hadn’t started.
 have + not = havenot = haven’t  They haven’t started.



Ain’t is never correct.

 am + not = ain’t  I ain’t listening.
 is + not = ain’t  He ain’t listening.
 are + not = ain’t  They ain’t listening.

Lesson 7 Table 2




Lesson 8 Table 1




  big   bigger   biggest
  black   blacker   blackest
  dark   darker   darkest
  dull   duller   dullest
  early   earlier   earliest
  fast   faster   fastest
  fat   fatter   fattest
  few   fewer   fewest
  fine   finer   finest
  good   better   best
  grand   grander   grandest
  hard   harder   hardest
  healthy   healthier   healthiest
  holy   holier   holiest
  hot   hotter   hottest
  kind   kinder   kindest
  large   larger   largest
  late   later   latest
  little   littler   littlest
  long   longer   longest
  near   nearer   nearest
  old   older   oldest
  rich   richer   richest
  short   shorter   shortest
  sick   sicker   sickest
  sleepy   sleepier   sleepiest
  slim   slimmer   slimmest
  small   smaller   smallest
  smart   smarter   smartest
  straight   straighter   straightest
  tall   taller   tallest
  thin   thinner   thinnest
  tiny   tinier   tiniest
  ugly   uglier   ugliest
  white   whiter   whitest
  young   younger   youngest


  angry   angrier   angriest   angrily
  bad   worse   worst   badly
  bold   bolder   boldest   boldly
  bright   brighter   brightest   brightly
  clean   cleaner   cleanest   cleanly
  clear   clearer   clearest   clearly
  close   closer   closest   closely
  cold   colder   coldest   coldly
  cool   cooler   coolest   coolly
  deep   deeper   deepest   deeply
  full   fuller   fullest   fully
  great   greater   greatest   greatly
  happy   happier   happiest   happily
  heavy   heavier   heaviest   heavily
  high   higher   highest   highly
  light   lighter   lightest   lightly
  loud   louder   loudest   loudly
  mean   meaner   meanest   meanly
  neat   neater   neater   neatly
  nice   nicer   nicest   nicely
  noisy   noisier   noisiest   noisily
  quick   quicker   quickest   quickly
  sad   sadder   saddest   sadly
  sharp   sharper   sharpest   sharply
  shy   shyer   shyest   shyly
  slow   slower   slowest   slowly
  smooth   smoother   smoothest   smoothly
  strict   stricter   strictest   strictly
  strong   stronger   strongest   strongly
  sweet   sweeter   sweetest   sweetly
  tight   tighter   tightest   tightly
  warm   warmer   warmest   warmly


  attractive   more attractive   most attractive   attractively
  beautiful   more beautiful   most beautiful   beautifully
  clever   more clever   most cleaver   cleverly
  cruel   more cruel   most cruel   cruelly
  deceitful   more deceitful   most deceitful   deceitfully
  famous   more famous   most famous   famously
  furious   more furious   most furious   furiously
  jealous   more jealous   most jealous   jealously
  peaceful   more peaceful   most peaceful   peacefully
  personal   more personal   most personal   personally
  powerful   more powerful   most powerful   powerfully
  public   more public   most public   publicly
  religious   more religious   most religious   religiously
  responsible   more responsible   most responsible   responsibly
  shameful   more shameful   most shameful   shamefully
  wicked   more wicked   most wicked   wickedly
  worthy   more worthy   most worthy   worthily

Lesson 9 Table 1




“Will” indicates certainty.

  I will go tomorrow.
  He will talk about the emergency.
  It will be a large amount of money.

  They will do all of their work.


“May” or “Might” indicates doubt.

  Stronger Possibility   Weaker Possibility
  I may go tomorrow.   I might go tomorrow.
  He may talk about the emergency.   He might talk about the emergency.
  It may be a large amount of money.   It might be a large amount of money.
  They may do all of their work.   They might do all of their work.


will go tomorrow.   (It is certain.)

may go tomorrow.   (I will decide later.)

might go tomorrow.   (But I probably will not.)

Lesson 9 Table 2



Helping verbs that do not change form.


  can  I can go.  I am able to go.
  could  I could go.  I have permission to go.
  may  I may go.  It is possible that I will go.
  might  I might go.  I could go but probably will not.
  must  I must go.  I will go because I do not have a choice.
  shall  I shall go.  It is inevitable that I will go.
  should  I should go.  I should go but don’t want to.
  will  I will go.  It is certain that I will go.
  would  I would go.

 I would go if I could, but I cannot.



These helping verbs do not change form with person or time. For example: I might go. He might go. You might go. We might go. They might go.



Helping verbs that change form.


  Verb   Regular forms   Negative forms
  TO DO   do, does, did   don’t, doesn’t, didn’t
  TO HAVE   have, has, had   haven’t, hasn’t, hadn’t
  TO BE   be, am, is, are, was, were, being, been

  isn’t, aren’t, wasn’t, weren’t


These helping verbs change form with person and time. For example: I do go. He does go. You do go. I did go. We did go. They did go. I have gone. He has gone. We have gone. I had gone. She had gone. We had gone.

Lesson 10 Table


  He doesn’t have no money.   He doesn’t have any money
  He has no money
  We didn’t do nothing yesterday.   We didn’t do anything yesterday.
  We did nothing yesterday.
  You don’t know nothing about it.   You don’t know anything about it.
  You know nothing about it.
  They won’t see no one one there.   They won’t see anyone there.
  They will see no one there.
  We aren’t going nowhere tomorrow.   We aren’t going anywhere tomorrow.
  We are going nowhere tomorrow.
  I didn’t get none of it.   I didn’t get any of it.
  I got none of it.
  We didn’t see nobody there.   We didn’t see anybody there.
  We saw nobody there.
  I don’t have neither money or food.   I don’t have either money or food.
  I have neither money nor food.

Lesson 11 Table 1


  women agree  The women from that group always agree to control it.
  group agrees  That group of women always agrees to control it.
  students learn  The students in this school learn English.
  school teaches  This school for men teaches English.
  children take  The children from this family take a part with us.
  family takes  This family with three children takes a part with us.
  Peter runs  he runs  Peter sometimes runs.
  John and Peter run  they run  John and Peter sometimes run together.
  car is  it is  The car is on the road.
  car and bus are  they are  The car and bus are on the road.
  hand was  it was  His hand was hurt.
  hand and arm were  they were  Both his hand and arm were hurt.


  another is     (one person)   Another man is strong.
  others are     (two or more people)   Others are strong.
  the other is     (one person)   The other man is strong.
  the others are     (two or more people)   The others are strong.

Lesson 11 Table 2 : THE FAMILY


Lesson 12 Table 1




Two past actions happened at the same time.

    Two actions happened together.  
  She   said “hello” when she entered   the house.
  The car   ran out of gas and stopped.  
  We   sent the gift when we knew   she left.

One past action happened before the other.



 The first past time.   The second past time.   The completed action.
  She had already   entered the house   before she said “hello.”
  The car had run out of gas   before it stopped.  
  We had already sent the gift   before we knew   she left.

Two future actions will happen at the same time.



    Two actions will happen together.  
  She   will say “hello” when you enter   the house.
  The car   will run out of gas and stop.  
  We   will send the gift when we know   she is leaving.

One future action will happen before the other.



  The first future time.   The second future time.
  She will have said “hello”   before you enter the house.
  The car will have run out of gas   before it stops.
  We will have sent the gift   before we know she is leaving.

Lesson 12 Table 2





Where is used to ask a question about a place.

Where will they go tomorrow?

Where is my book?

Where is the closest bus stop?



Where can be used to identify a place.

This is the place where we will stand.

He followed the men to the house where they were meeting.

He will show the officer where the woman was hurt.




When is used to ask a question about time.

When will we leave?

When does the bus arrive?

When did he finish his work?



When can be used to identify the time something happened.

They were afraid when we left.

We don’t know when it will be finished.

I need to leave when my car is fixed.

Lesson 12 Table 3


        (Past) = past tense,       (Present) = present tense,       (Future) = future tense.


When something is true. (Present + Future)

1. If we take(Present) this road, we will go past (Future) the hospital.

The hospital is on this road.


2. If we continue(Present) working, we will finish(Future) the lesson today.

We will be able to finish the lesson today if we do not stop working.



When something depends on something else (Present + Future)

1. If you study(Present) the lessons, you will learn(Future) to speak English quickly.

If you study, you will learn to speak English quickly.

But if you don’t study, you will not learn to speak English.


2. If we walk(Present) quickly, we will arrive(Future) on time.

If we walk quickly, we will not be late.

If we walk slowly, we will be late.



An unlikely possibility (Past + Future)

1. If I had(Past) the time, I would go(Future) home.

But I don’t have the time, so I probably will not go home.


2. If we had(Past) enough money, we would build(Future) a new house.

But we don’t have enough money, so we will not build a house.



An event that did not happen (Past + Past)

1. If they had had(Past) the time, they would have gone(Past) home.

But they did not have the time, so they did not go home.


2. If I had fixed(Past) my car yesterday, I would have arrived(Past) on time.

But I did not fix my car yesterday, so I was late.




Something that is contrary to what is happening (Past + would, could, or might)



1. If we were driving(Past) the car, we could take the other road.

But we are not driving the car, so we cannot take the other road.


2. If we had worked(Past) more quickly, we would already be finished.

But we worked slowly, so we are not finished.


3. If I had read(Past) the book, I might have understood the lesson.

But I did not read the book, so I do not understand the lesson.

Lesson 13 Table 1




  “This” is one thing close by.   John needs this   table13b   book.
  “These” are two or more things close by.   He needs these table13ctable13i  books.
  “That” is one thing farther away.   He needs that   table13d   book.
  “Those” are two or more things farther away.   He needs those table13etable13i   books.




  Normal emphasis   Stronger emphasis
  Do you speak English?
Yes, I speak English.
  You don’t speak English, do you?
Yes, I do speak English.
  Does he speak English?
Yes, he speaks English.
  He doesn’t speak English, does he?
Yes, he does speak English.
table13k   Do you speak English?
No, I don’t speak English.
  Does he speak English?
No, he doesn’t speak English.
  Did you speak English?
No, I didn’t speak English.
  Did they speak English?
No, they didn’t speak English.

Lesson 13 Table 2




       (the) table13h year
before last table13h year
this week next table13h year
    (the) table13h year
after next
day before yesterday   |   yesterday   |   today   |   tomorrow   |   day after tomorrow



(Theyear before last was very cold.
Last year was warmer.
Last month was cooler.
Last week was nice.
(Theday before yesterday was Monday.
Yesterday was Tuesday.
Today is Wednesday.
Tomorrow will be Thursday.
(Theday after tomorrow will be Friday.
Next week will be windy.
Next month will be hot.
Next year should be warm.
(Theyear after next may also be warm.

Lesson 13 Table 3




  1 person   I, me, you, she, her, he, him, it
  2 or more people   we, us, you, they, them

The sentence indicates the number of people.

John, will you come with me?   =       (I want only John but not Mary to come with me.)

John and Mary, will you come with me?   =       (I want both John and Mary to come with me.)

Or, Will both of you come with me?   =       (I want both John and Mary to come with me.)


  1 person   my, mine, your, yours, her, hers, his, its
  2 or more people   our, ours, your, yours, their, theirs

The sentence indicates the number of people.

John, this is your coat. I think it is yours.   =       (This coat belongs to John, not to Mary.)

John and Mary, these are your books. These books are yours.   =       (These books belong to both John and Mary.)

Or, These books belong to both of you.



  1 person   I, me, theethou, she, her, he, him, it
  2 or more people   we, us, theeye, they, them


  1 person   my, mine, thythine, her, hers, his, its
  2 or more people   our, ours, thythine, their, theirs

thyself = yourself     (1 person)

Lesson 14 Table 1




When someone is doing the action. When something is receiving the action.
 Everyone knows that.   That is known by everyone.
 We promised the work to those men.   The work was promised to those men.
 Did she already spend her money?   Was her money already spent?
 Tomorrow we will read this book.   Tomorrow this book will be read.
 We will take the younger children.   The younger children will be taken.
 Did the leader give a clear message?   Was the leader’s message clear?
 The man started his car early.   The man’s car was started early.
 We called the children by name.   The children were called by name.
 They chose the shortest book.

  The shortest book was chosen.




  How high is that mountain?   Its height is over 11,000 feet.
  How wide is their house?   Its width is almost 50 feet.
  How deep is the water?   Its depth is about 100 feet.
  How long is this bed?   Its length is about six feet.
  How thick is that book?   Its thickness is greater than any of the others.
  How strong is that boy?   His strength is very great.
  How powerful is this car?   Its power is greater than that one over there.
  How weak is that woman?   Her weakness is extreme.
  How dark is it inside the house?   The darkness is more than we can stand.
  How hot is the fire?   Its heat is very high.

Lesson 14 Table 2



Lesson 15

No table for this lesson

Lesson 16 Table 1




  to break up   They broke the meeting up at noon.
  They will break up at noon.
  to bring up   She brought the children up by herself.
  He will bring the topic up during dinner.
  to call off   They called the meeting off this morning.
  They called off the meeting.
  to call up   The officers were called up last week.
  to clean up   We cleaned the house up quickly.
  to do over   They did their lesson over.
  to drop in   Please drop in if you can.
  to drop off   He will drop the lesson off at my house.
  to fill out   You must fill the insurance form out now.
  You must fill out the insurance form.
  to get on   They got on the airplane together.
  to get up   She will get up early tomorrow morning.
  to give back   We need to give the money back to them soon.
  We must give back the money.
  to go over   I went over to his house yesterday.
  to hand in   Hand in your lesson before you leave.
  to hang up   He hung the phone up very quickly.
  He hung up quickly.
  She hung her clothes up this morning.
  She hung up her clothes.


  to look over   I looked the lesson over rather quickly.
  to look into   I must look into that problem.
  to look up   Look that word up in your book.
  to pick up   You will need to pick him up at the airport.
  Pick your lesson up before you leave.
  Pick up your lesson as you leave.
  to put away   Put your clothes away before you leave.
  to put on   Put your clothes on before you leave.
  to put out   Put the animals out if they cause any problem.
  to run across   He ran across an important book.
  to show up   He will show up at the meeting.
  to take off   She took her coat off because she was hot.
  We took off about noon.
  to take out   He took her out to see the city.
  Please take the groceries out of the car.
  to think over   Please think it over before you say anything.
  to try on   Try these clothes on before you decide.
  to turn in   He turned his lesson in before he left.
  He already turned in his lesson.
  He turned in early because he was tired.
  to turn off   Always turn the machines off before you leave.
  to turn on   You must turn the machines on when you first arrive.
  to turn out   Turn the lights out before you leave.
  Please turn out the lights.
  to turn up   Turn the heat up if you want.

Lesson 16 Table 2




  I wanted to go yesterday, but I couldn’t.     =     I did not go yesterday.
  I wanted to go yesterday, however I wasn’t able to.     =     I did not go yesterday.
  I wanted to go yesterday. Nonetheless I didn’t make it.     =     I did not go yesterday.
  Even though I wanted to go yesterday, I couldn’t.     =     I did not go yesterday.



  It’s late. However, let’s go anyway.     =     We will go.
  Even though it’s late, I still want to go.     =     We will go..
  It’s late, but let’s still go.     =     We will go.
  It’s late. Nonetheless, let’s go.     =     We will go.



  I don’t have much money, however, I still need to buy it.     =     I will buy it.
  Even though I don’t have much money, I still must buy it.     =     I will buy it.
  I don’t have much money, but I think I will buy it anyway.     =     I will buy it.
  I don’t have much money. Nonetheless, I’m going to buy it.     =     I will buy it.

Lesson 16 Table 3




  You shouldn’t do that.   →   Maybe you shouldn’t do that.
  You need to leave.   →   Don’t you need to leave?
  You need to choose something.   →   Can I help you choose something?
  Listen to what he is saying.   →   We need to listen to what he is saying.
  Sit down.   →   Please sit down.
  Listen to me.   →   May I please have your attention?
  You need to know this.   →   I think you will want to know this.
  We have finished our discussion.   →   Have we finished our discussion?
  You are wrong.   →   I don’t think that is correct.
  Get out of my way.   →   May I please come through?
  That isn’t any of your business.   →   I don’t believe that concerns you.
  It’s none of your business.   →   I’m sorry, but we will take care of that.
  I want to talk now.   →   Excuse me. May I say something?
  Be more careful with that.   →   I would be more careful with that.
  You don’t need to know.   →   I don’t want to answer that just now.
  Don’t do that.   →   Please wait.
  You are late.   →   I think we need to hurry.
  He is coming and you are not ready.   →   Isn’t he coming soon?
  Do it this way.   →   Let me show you how to do it.
  We don’t know that.   →   We don’t really know that.
  He is always wrong.   →   Sometimes we think he is wrong.
  I don’t want to do it now.   →   Could we do it another time?

Lesson 16 Table 4




to break
to break away
to break in
to break out
to break through
to break up
to bring
to bring away
to bring down
to bring out
to bring up
to build
to build on
to build up
to burst
to burst in
to burst out
to buy
to buy out
to buy up
to call
to call away
to call off
to call out
to call up
to clean
to clean out
to clean up
to clear
to clear out
to clear up
to cry
to cry out
to cry over
to die
to die away
to die out
to do
to do again
to do away
to do over
to drop
to drop in
to drop off
to drop out
to drop through
to fall
to fall across
to fall away
to fall in
to fall into
to fall out
to fall over
to fill
to fill in
to fill out
to fill up
to find
to find out
to follow
to follow through
to follow up

to get
to get ahead
to get away
to get down
to get lost
to get on
to get ready
to get up

  to give
to give away
to give back
to give in
to give up
to go
to go away
to go back
to go down
to go forward
to go in
to go out
to go over
to go through
to go under
to go up
to go with
to hand
to hand in
to hand out
to hand over
to hang
to hang around
to hang on
to hang up
to keep
to keep apart
to keep away
to keep in
to keep inside
to keep on
to keep out
to keep outside
to keep together
to keep up
to let
to let down
to let go
to let in
to let through
to let up
to lie
to lie down
to look
to look away
to look down
to look in
to look into
to look over
to look up
to make
to make away
to make over
to make into
to make up
to make do
to pay
to pay attention
to pay in
to pay out
to pick
to pick over
to pick out
to pick through
to pick up

to pull
to pull ahead
to pull away
to pull in
to pull into
to pull off
to pull out
to pull over
to pull through
to pull up

  to put
to put away
to put in
to put on
to put out
to put through
to run
to run across
to run away
to run in
to run into
to run out
to send
to send away
to send in
to send out
to show
to show off
to show through
to show up
to spread
to spread out
to spread over
to spread under
to take
to take action
to take away
to take control
to take off
to take on
to take out
to take over
to take up
to think
to think about
to think out
to think over
to think through
to try
to try on
to try out
to turn
to turn away
to turn in
to turn off
to turn on
to turn out
to turn up
to work
to work on
to work over
to work through
to work under

Lesson 16 Table 5



accept, except:

to accept   =   to receive;   He accepted the book even though it was damaged.

to except   =   to exclude;   I will except payment for the damaged book.


adapt, adopt:

to adapt   =   to become accustomed;   She adapted well to the hot climate.

to adopt   =     to take as one’s own;   They adopted the baby after his parents died.


adverse, averse:

adverse   =   unfavorable;   His response to the suggestion was adverse.

averse   =   opposed;   He was averse to the suggestion.


affect, effect:

to affect   =   to influence;   He wanted to affect change in the school.

effect   =   the result;   The effect of the change will be important to the school.


all ready, already:

all ready   =   completely prepared;   I was all ready to take my exam.

already   =   previously;   I had already studied for the exam.


all together, altogether:

all together   =   everyone gathered;   They will be all together at the airport.

altogether   =   entirely;   It is altogether possible that the plane will be late.


allusion, illusion:

allusion   =   reference;   They made allusion to the emergency.

illusion   =   false impression;   The smoke gave the illusion of a serious accident.


anyone, any one:

anyone   =   any person at all;   Anyone who was waiting over there may go in.

any one   =   a particular person in a group;   Any one with a ticket may go in.


beside, besides:

beside   =   at the side of;   He was standing beside the house.

besides   =   except;   He took everything besides the things inside the house.


capital, capitol:

capital   =   city or wealth;   Washington, D.C. is the United States’ capital.

There is enough capital on hand to finish the project.

capitol   =   government building;   The capitol is in Washington, D.C.


censor, censure:

to censor   =   to remove;   The school librarian censored the book.

to censure   =   to criticize;   The librarian censured the students for talking.


cite, site:

to cite   =   to quote;   She did not cite enough references in her article.

site   =   a place;   Her article described a site in New York.


climactic, climatic:

climactic   =   highest intensity;   It was the climactic event of the day.

climatic   =   weather;   The climatic conditions were excellent.


coarse, course:

coarse   =   rough;   The road is covered with coarse rocks.

course   =   a study;   The course will include everything to the advanced level.


complement, compliment:

to complement   =   to go with;   That hat will complement her new coat.

to compliment   =   to flatter;   I complimented her on her hat.


conscience, conscious:

conscience   =   moral principle;   His conscience bothered him after he said it.

conscious   =   aware;   He was conscious of his mistake.


continual, continuous:

continual   =   repeated regularly;   The noise was continual throughout the day.

continuous   =   extended without interruption;   It was a continuous problem.

elicit, illicit:

to elicit   =   to bring out;   The police officer finally elicited the truth from him.

illicit   =   unlawful or immoral;   He sold illicit drugs before.


emigrate, immigrate:

to emigrate   =   to leave a country;   Their entire family emigrated from Russia.

to immigrate   =   to enter a country;   Three of the brothers immigrated to the U.S.


eminent, imminent:

eminent   =   outstanding;   The symphony’s performance was eminent.

imminent   =   about to happen;   The conductor’s entrance was imminent.


everyone, every one:

everyone   =   unspecified number of people;   Everyone was waiting.

every one   =     each individual;   Every one will need a ticket to enter.


farther, further:

farther   =   distance;   The house you are looking for is farther from here.

further   =   quantity or degree;   It is still further up the road.


imply, infer:

to imply   =   to suggest;   The author implied that his book was finished.

to infer   =   to conclude;   We can infer that it will be another good book.


in, into

in   =   location;   The house is in that direction.

into   =   direction;   We walked into the house together.


lie, lay:

to lie   =   to recline or rest;   Go ahead and lie down on the bed.

to lay   =   to put or place;   You may lay your things over there.


loose, lose:

loose   =   not securely fastened;   The money in his pocket was loose.

to lose   =   to misplace;   If you are not careful, you will lose your money.


maybe, may be:

maybe   =   possibly;   Maybe I can find another book if I hurry.

may be   =   might be;   That may be the book you are looking for.


precede, proceed:

to precede   =   to come before;     Her part in the play preceded the music.

to proceed   =   to go forward;     They proceeded with the play even though it was late.


principal, principle:

principal   =   head of a school;   The principal spoke to the students yesterday.

principle   =   a basic truth;   He suggested that fairness be a principle of all behavior.


raise, rise:

to raise   =   to move upward;   He raised the flag at sunrise.

to rise   =   to go up;   You will need to rise early to see the sunrise.


respectfully, respectively:

respectfully   =   showing respect;   The children respectfully helped their parents.

respectively   =   each in the order given;   Their father and mother died respectively.


set, sit:

to set   =   to put or place;   They set the plates on the table.

to sit   =   to be seated;   They will sit at the table when they eat.


sometime, some time, sometimes:

sometime   =   at an unstated time;   I will be here sometime before noon.

some time   =   a period of time;   It was some time before she finally arrived.

sometimes   =   now and then;   They sometimes arrive early.


there, their, they’re:

there   =   place;   Why don’t you set the books there on the table?

their   =   ownership;   They will want to get their books from off the table.

they’re   =   they are;   They’re supposed to have their own books.


weather, whether:

weather   =   climate;   I think the weather will be nice tomorrow.

whether   =   choice;   Decide tomorrow whether or not you want to come.


your, you’re:

your   =   ownership;   I think this is your coat.

you’re   =   you are;   You’re not leaving your coat there, are you?