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PSK 4UE - Summative Task  

St. Mark Senior Boy's Baseball Team 

By:Grace Petschenig



Page 3: Part1, Profile 


Page 4 & 5: Part 2,  8 Week Training Program 


Page 6: Part 3: Common Baseball Injuries 


Page 7: Part 4: Teaching A Skill



Table of Contents  

Part 1: Profile - Senior Boys Baseball Team


History of Baseball In Canada:

The first baseball game to ever be recorded was in Beachville, Upper Canada Ontario, on June 4th 1838. The first ever baseball Canadian team was formed in 1854 and called the Young Canadians of Hamilton. Back then there were two types of baseball games played. The “Massachusetts” game rules were favoured a lot more. Soon after in 1859 the New York rules were brought to Ontario which included only playing with 9 players instead of 10-11. Even though baseball was played a lot throughout Canada, the Americans didn’t allow the Canadians to join the major leagues until 1969 when the Montreal Expos became part of the MLB. Soon after, the Toronto Blue Jays joined the same league in 1977. Since the Montreal Expos moved to Washington,DC, the blue jays are currently the only Canadian team playing in the MLB. In 2003, Canada tried to make it a Canadian Baseball league but was not successful and failed halfway through its first season. Baseball is still known to be the United States national game but is still very popular throughout Canada. The Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame open in the year of 1983 right in the heart of Toronto and has many known baseball players inducted such as Ferguson Jenkins, John Hiller, and Reggie Cleveland.


 Description and General Rules:

Baseball is popular at all age levels and many different parts of the world. Kids at the age of 4-5 start off by playing T-Ball and then gradually move up as they get older to coach pitch, then to player pitch, league pitch, highschool, college, and then possibly the major leagues. Baseball is a team sport that needs many different skills to become successful. Some players excel in pitching and making the ball harder to hit while others are best at hitting home runs.


The rules of baseball are quite straightforward but can become difficult to understand when you’re not playing the game. You can divide the rules up into 4 different categories: 1: The playing field 2. Game structure 3. Hitting and pitching 4. Getting an out.  Here are 10 important rules to follow when playing the game of baseball:

  1. Keep the batting order the same.

  2. Keep helmet on while hitting or running the bases.

  3. Cover the strike zone.

  4. Run hard to first base wherever the ball goes.

  5. Three strikes and you’re out.

  6. Get to the base before the ball does!

  7. To get a runner out you must tag them with the ball or get the ball to the base before they do.

  8. Player has to keep one foot on the mound while pitching.

  9. A player must touch each base to get a run in.

  10. sportsmanship - Major league players cannot dispute with an umpire about ball and strikes.




Typical St. Mark Male Baseball Athlete:


  • These athletes are between the ages of 14-18. (gr.9-gr.12)

  • Fast to get from base to base

  • Strong

  • Has determination

  • Gives time and commitment

  • Has self confidence

  • Great sportsmanship





Training Program

Fitness Goals Over The 8 Weeks: Strength, Power, and Speed

Week 1:

Exercise Type

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3


Mobility Training


- 1x5 Double Leg Glute Bridge

- 1x5 Single Leg Glute Bridge

(each leg)

- Repeat both on 6 in box)



- Forward, Lateral, Alternating, Bear Crawl.


- Up & Down, Side to Side, Figure 8s



- Forward, Lateral, Alternating, Bear Crawl.


- Up & Down, Side to Side, Figure 8s


Movement Training


- High knees

- Side shuffle

- Side shuffle quick change

- 360 Jumps

- Sprint to backpedal


- High knees

- Side shuffle

- Side shuffle quick change

- 360 Jumps

- Sprint to backpedal


- High knees

- Side shuffle

- Side shuffle quick change

- 360 Jumps

- Sprint to backpedal


Jump Training


- Single leg box hops 2x5 each leg

- Single leg hops

- Hurdle hops 2x5

- 180 Rotational Jumps


- Mountain Climbers 20 each leg

- Burpees 10

- Yoga Push Up 10


- Skipping 1 minute

- Single Leg Hops 5

- Skipping 1 Minute

- Single Leg Hops 5

(each side)


Strength Training


































-Single Arm Med-Ball Push Ups 1x5 each arm

- Single Arm Alternating Med-Ball Push Ups 1x5 each arm

- Chest Push Ups on Med-Ball 1x5 each arm

- Russian Twist 1x10 each side











- Med-ball Chest Passes 1x10

- Rugby Passes 1x10 (each side)

- Side Passes 1x10 (each side)

- Over the Back Passes 1x10


- Plank Knee Drives 1x10

- Side Plank Knee Drives 1x10

- Reverse Plank Knee Drives 1x10

- Plank Leg Lifts 1x10

- Side Plank Leg Lifts 1x5 (each side)

- Reverse Plank Leg Lifts 1x10



Part 2: Training Program

Explanation of Some Exersices:

Bench press is an exercise to gain strength through the chest. I kept it at low reps to increase the amount of weight put on the bar which increase intensity, to help with the strength fitness goal. This is a great exercise to gain upper body strength.

Med-ball chest passes are good to help warm up and activate the chest muscles to get ready for the lift. Doing 10 reps ensures to chest is fully activated to avoid injury during the workout. Also, doing chest passes in the warm up would help with my power and strength fitness goals.


20 yard sled pushes are a great exercise to target the baseball team’s fitness goals of power and speed. I kept the push to only 20 yards because that way you can put more weight on the sled and which also increases the intensity of the exercise. Also, keeping the sled push to a shorter distance is more game specific to hockey and the first three quick strides in hockey.

40 yard sprints are an awesome exercise to build speed. A short sprint like this helps with their fitness goal of speed by training the fast twitch muscles in the leg, which increases speed.


Hang cleans are a great full body exercise to help increase power through practicing triple extension in the legs. This exercise is kept at low reps so you can increase the weight on the bar which will help with our power fitness goal. Also, this exercise should be done with speed which will help benefit our speed fitness goal.

Barbell hip thrusts are a good exercise to train fast twitch muscles in the glutes and hamstrings. Improving these fast twitch muscles will increase speed, and power through the legs. This exercise should be done fast and with force.

Weight Training


Day 4


Day 5


Day 6





- Hang Cleans 4x4

- Barbell 4x5

- Overhead Squats 3x5

- Trap Bar Jump
Shrugs 3x6
- Barbell Hip Thrusts

- Exercise Ball Core Rotation 2x10 (each way)

- Single Leg V-ups 2x8 (each leg)

- Dumbbell Straight Leg Deadlifts 2x6

- 6inch box hamstring holds 2 x 20 seconds (each leg)

- Single Leg Box Squats 2x8


- Band Y’s 3x8

- Push Ups 3x10

- Bench press 4x5

- 3D Pec Stretch 4x5 (each way)

-Single Arm Rows 4x6

- Childs Pose 4x30sec

- Jack Knives 2x12

- Regular Sit-Ups 2x20

- Double Leg V-ups 1x8

Gun Run

- 30sec Reps

- 30sec Hold

- 30sec Reps

- 30sec Hold

(Repeat Once)


- 40 Yard Sprint 6x1

- Two Legged Broad Jumps 4x4

- 20 Yard Sled Push x5

- 20 Yard Reverse Sled Pulls x5

- Hill Sprints Forward x4

- Lateral Hill Crossovers x4

- 150 Yard Shuttle x2

-Stretch & Roll Out


Rest Day

Part 2: Training Program 

Part 3: Common Baseball Injuries 

First Common Injury: Rotator Cuff Tear - affects ball-and-socket joint


Definition and description: The rotator cuff is is made up of a group of tendons that connect the four muscles of the shoulder to the bone. The four muscles are the Supraspinatus muscle, the Infraspinatus muscle, the Subscapularis muscle, and the Teres minor muscle. These muscles connect to the scapula and the tendons then connect them to the humerus. The group of tendons and muscles allow the arm to move up and down and also allows it to rotate. When the rotator cuff is torn these movements are impossible. Usually, not being able to do these movements is a good indicator that the rotator cuff is torn and/or the symptoms of “SHARP” are occurring. (Swelling, Heat, Altered, Redness, Pain). This injury can happen overtime with age or there could be a sudden movement such as an angular motion when applying torque.


How to prevent the injury: To prevent ever tearing the rotator cuff you should be strengthening the four shoulder muscles over time. Since this injury is common in seniors they should avoid lifting objects over their head. It is very important to stretch the muscles before starting any regular activity.

What treatment is required? It is essential to not continue to use the shoulder a lot once you have a rotator cuff tear. Using the shoulder after this injury despite gradual pain may cause more damage. It is common for the year to get larger over time if not properly treated. For nonsurgical treatment follow the RICE steps (rest, ice, compression, elevation). Also, anti-inflammatory medication will help reduce healing time. In some cases, surgery may have to happen in order to recover. This option would be best if pain has not gone away after 6-12 months, if the tear is large(more than 3 cm), or if arm is unmovable.  

Is there any rehabilitation required? Yes, after shoulder is free of pain strengthening exercises should begin right away. This will help the injury form not reoccuring again.

Where is this injury most likely to occur? This injury is very common in baseball. Many pitches with strong arms or “good” arms can eventually tear their rotator cuff due to the high demand of throwing a good pitch.



Second Common Injury: Tennis Elbow - Overuse Injury


Definition and description: Tennis elbow, otherwise known as lateral epicondylitis is a very painful condition that involves the tendons that attach to the bone on the lateral part of the elbow. The functions of the tendons is to attach the muscles to the bones. The main muscle involved in this condition is called the extensor carpi radialis brevis which function is to flex, extend, and support the movements of the wrist. Overuse of this muscle causes strain on the tendons which attach the muscle to the elbow. This causes pain in the area when the person is active. This injury is called tennis elbow because it has been a major issue in tennis but it also happens in many other sports that sometimes overuse the arm such as baseball.

How to prevent this injury: The main causes of this injury is overuse and trauma. To avoid either of these actions from happening the best thing to do is to stretch and strengthen the arm muscles so they can support the activities the person is doing. Also, when learning a new skill it is important to use the correct movements and techniques so this way no improper strain is being put on the muscles.

What treatment is required? There are a few ways to help the healing process of tennis elbow move a little faster and they are:

- Reducing activity

- Take anti-inflammatory medications  

- Using a brace while in physical activity

- Shockwave therapy (last option before surgery)

In some cases the tendons around the elbow will tear and if they are big enough surgery is needed to put them back together. During the surgery the dead and non responsive tissue is removed.

Is there any rehabilitation required? Yes, recovering from surgery involves physical therapy in order for the muscles to gain their strength back and to help the arm with widening its range of motion. Rehabilitation may take about 4-6 weeks before returning to activities.




Third Common Injury: Spondylolsis


Definition and Description: This injury is a very common cause of lower back pain in baseball. This injury is a small stress fracture in one of the vertebrae that make up the spinal cord. Usually it in the fifth lumbar vertebrae in the spinal cord that is affected and sometimes the fourth. This condition causes so much pain that the athlete will stand improper for the duration of the sport and this can cause the vertebrae to slip out of place. This injury is called spondylolisthesis. If too much movement of the vertebrae takes place the bones will start to put pressure on the nerves and surgery will be necessary to fix this problem.




How to prevent the injury: This condition is not preventable mostly because people who have this back pain don't know that they are fractures but an athlete can take steps to reduce the risk of getting spondylosis. Keeping the lower back and abdominal muscles strong can help support the back and prevent more stress fractures. If an athlete has this condition it is important to stay active with sports that do not put stress on the back such as biking and swimming. If lower back pain does not go away see a doctor right away for medical attention. The earlier the treatment of spondylitis the better the outcome will be!


What treatment is required? The first steps of treating this injury would be to rest and allow for the fractures to heal and have the pain be reduced. Anti-inflammatory drugs are recommended to help reduce the swelling around the lower back which will subsequently lower the pain level. Some cases of spondylitis a back brace will be needed to shift the vertebrae back in place and help the healing process.


Is there any rehabilitation required?  Yes, just like recovering from any other injury steps for strengthening the area affected should be taken before returning back to physical activity.




Part 4: Teaching A Skill

(Expand to fit screen)

 "Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis -OrthoInfo - AAOS." Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis -OrthoInfo - AAOS. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2016. 
 "Bench Press Perfection Wellness&Fitness 0." World Sports Culture Bench Press Perfection Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2016. 
 "Tennis Elbow - Lateral Epicondylitis." N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2016. 
 "Common Baseball Injuries - Michael A. Gleiber, MD." Michael A. Gleiber, MD. N.p., 2015. Web. 20 June 2016. 
 "Baseball & Softball." Sports Medicine. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 June 2016. 

Works Cited: