TAPPEH SIALK THE GLORY OF ANCIENT KASHAN  Edited by Jebrael Nokandeh, John Curtis and Marielle Pic
Iran Heritage Foundation, 63 New Cavendish St, London W1G 7LP    contributing authors First edition published in 2019 All ...
Contents  1.  Editors    Foreword  vii  Preface  English   viii  Preface  Persian   ix  An Introduction to Tappeh Sialk  1...
Editors    Foreword  We are very pleased to be able to present in this volume a selection of the papers delivered at the t...
Preface Mohammad Hassan Talebian  Deputy Director of the Iranian Ministry for Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts  ...
-  ix
1  Introduction to Tappeh Sialk JOHN CURTIS  Tappeh Sialk, in the outskirts of modern Kashan in central Iran, is arguably ...
studying archaeology and ancient languages in Paris he was appointed Director of the French Archaeological Mission in Pers...
late 4th or early 3rd millennium  . This is sometimes  Both institutions are part of the National Museum of Natural Histor...
an existing mound  as at Susa . At Persepolis, a raised terrace measuring about 455 m    300 m was cut from the mountainsi...
2  The Chronology of Tappeh Sialk  from Local Development to Globalisation HASSAN FAZELI NASHLI   JEBRAEL NOKANDEH  Introd...
Table 2.1 Cultural Period       Sialk North       Achaemenid Period Iron Age  Bronze Age  Chalcolithic Transitional Chalco...
The transitional Chalcolithic period and the globalisation of the Sialk II culture  The Early Chalcolithic period and the ...
in the central Zagros of Iran and chronologically covers the last quarter of the 5th millennium BC continuing into the ear...
Nokandeh   s study of Tappeh Sialk south  Nokandeh 2010  indicates that from the last phase of Sialk III6-7 we have new fo...
The Kashan plain during the Middle Bronze Age and Iron Age  2.  There is no history of occupation in the 3rd millennium an...
ago onwards  the movement of cattle being dependent on human agency . Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows that hybrid cattle ...
3  Key Issues in the Neolithic Period of Iran and the ROGER MATTHEWS  Introduction  Iran in the Neolithic       The Neolit...
Neolithic transition and dispersal, 11,000   6000  which saw a return to cold and dry conditions across the region. The co...
scenario of a dispersal of Early Neolithic practices to Fars from the Central Zagros is still not ruled out by the earlier...
Iran domesticated tempered and through time show increasing connections with other Late Neolithic communities of the broad...
4  Sialk North  Continuity and Change in Pottery Manufacture ARMINEH KASPARI-MARGHUSSIAN  Introduction  and Abbasnejad  20...
Aims and objectives  Experimental procedure  This paper aims to introduce new insights and approaches into the study of th...
deduced that the Sialk I pottery studied was manufactured using a single resource of clay raw material or clays from very ...
kilns in prehistoric times and the absence of high-temperature phases  such as mullite, anorthite and hedenbergite  in the...
technology, other than requiring more control of the atmosphere of kilns  which of course was an advancement in  been disc...
5  Proto-Elamite Sites in Highland Iran  The State of Research in Tappeh Sialk and Arisman BARBARA HELWING The appearance ...
and the north  Perkins 1949 . Three decades later, Uruk-  Uruk and Susa, paint a rather bleak picture of the sociopolitica...
Archaeological evidence from highland Iran  Tappeh Sialk and Arisman at the end of the 4th millennium  a wide Proto-Elamit...
In 2003, Dr Malek invited me to join the    Sialk Reconsideration Project    to open a new excavation area immediately adj...
the Sialk hinterland remained inconclusive with regard to early periods  Danti 2006 . The Arisman survey data indicates a ...
moulds from Sialk, Arisman and Ghabrestan match well with the types used in Susa, and material analyses support a highland...
6  Notes on the Connections between Tappeh Sialk and Hasanlu MICHAEL DANTI  Introduction  during the Islamic era as a cent...
across northern and western Iran  see esp. Tourovetz 1989  Piller 2003   4  Medvedskaya 1977, 1982 .  Dasht-e Kavir, an ar...
Dyson also relied on Giyan Tepe  Contenau   Ghirshman 1935 , Tureng Tepe 1931  Wulsin 1932 , Hissar IIIc 1931  Schmidt 193...
archaeological culture represented the Medes, who are . Ghirshman therefore asserted that the start of Sialk B must  as we...
graves of Giyan I with iron daggers  see Fig. 6.11  do not contain button-base drinking vessels. At this juncture, Dyson w...
7  Decorative Bricks of the Late Iron Age in Eastern Media  Some Pieces from Sialk REZA NASERI   MEHRDAD MALEKZADEH  The m...
The various motifs on the bricks are human, animal  This scene is stamped on four pieces of brick, one piece from the Ghir...
patterns inside two vertical lines on the left side of the image. There is a deep groove on the far left-hand side of the ...
Iconography Animal motifs were previously recognised amongst the decorative bricks of    la grande construction     Ghirsh...
and a long beard and chin. The shape of the head and face, the hairstyle with a lock of hair at the front decorated with  ...
 Vanden Berghe 1959  pl. CIV , Persepolis  Schmidt 1953  191  and Achaemenid Babylon  Seidl 1976 . Such bricks are probabl...
8  A Note on the Late Iron Age Double-Handled Tankards from Sialk STEPHAN KROLL The results of the excavations by Roman Gh...
shown was typically of Median culture  Curtis 2005 . This was another newly found Median site. Of course, the speaker deni...
9  Archaeobotanical Report about Tappeh Sialk, North Mound  First Impressions HENGAMEH ILKHANI, ALEXANDRA LIVARDA   HASSAN...
yet and, therefore, more plant material might be added to the current dataset in the future. Plant remains were  of glume ...
glume wheat and barley both in the form of grain and  Contexts 5073 and 5079  all samples collected from the Transitional ...
the botanical remains from Sialk indicate the exploitation threshing wheat grows better on irrigated and more fertile soil...
Table 9.1. Ubiquity of each plant taxon and type within the Neolithic and Transitional Chalcolithic assemblage  Total numb...
10  Tappeh Sialk Human and Animal Osteological Collections at the National Museum of Natural History of Paris MARJAN MASHK...
In Necropolis B the graves were covered with six to eight slabs of stone or terracotta. No stone walls were built inside t...
distortion to the skull. The skulls from the most ancient  sheep, Ovis aries and cattle Bos taurus. This collection is sum...
 Table 10.3 . It is important here to stress the fact that discriminating factors do not always work and errors of  The ca...
109  27271  110  27272  111  27273  1  27274  Age  HV Vallois   27270  Excavation year  108  IVth millennium  Inscription ...
8  27290  9  27291  10  Inscription on the skull  Occupation  Archaeological dating      10th   9th century Occupation 6  ...
38-6, Sialk, Iran, fouille Ghirshman,  1937  Adult 30   40 years old  37305  4  fragmented cranium, fragmented mandible an...
I  I  I  I  I  Exacation  Sector  I  I  Excavation  Level  I  Cheville osseuse  Cheville osseuse  Cheville osseuse  Chevil...
II  I  I  I  I  III  III  Excavation  Level   Laterality  Cheville osseuse  Cheville osseuse Cheville osseuse Cheville oss...
I  II  Excavation  Level  II  Pr  molaire inf  rieure ou Molaire inf  rieure Pr  molaire inf  rieure ou Molaire inf  rieur...
Table 10.3 Measurements of animal remains in the IPH collection Measurements after Ducos 1963 Code IPH  Species  21  Hemio...
11  Tappeh Sialk in the Louvre  Material and Archives from the Ghirshman Excavations FRAN  OIS BRIDEY   JULIEN CUNY Becaus...
Iranian government gave the mus  e du Louvre permission to explore the sites of Darab and Kulik Tappeh, but French archaeo...
 Ghirshman 1935 . At that time Ghirshman only distinguished three main periods of occupation, compared with  On the South ...
Proto-Elamite remains whose architectural features were drawn by Hardy  Fig. 11.8 , as well as to the seven underlying lev...
 Fig. 11.15 . This humble display of the Sialk material remained unchanged until the early 1990s, despite some minor rearr...
12  The Challenges in Preserving Tappeh Sialk MOHSEN JAVERI  The site of Tappeh Sialk site in Kashan is acknowledged to  D...
protection of the area against encroachment and damages by various people due to the presence of archeologists on the site...
13  The Restoration of Historic Buildings in Kashan HOSSEIN MAHLOUJI  Launched in 1993, the Kashanica Foundation is a priv...
                                                                         Houses with central courtyards, which were popula...
                    preparation. These coins are now kept in the collections of the National Museum of Iran, the Museum of...
Appendix Papers delivered at the 2017   2018 Tappeh Sialk Conferences  Tappeh Sialk  the Glory of Ancient Kashan 31 March ...
Revisiting Tappeh Sialk and Ancient Kashan 2   3 July 2018 Asia House, London Dr John Curtis,    An introduction to Tappeh...
Bibliography  Alden, J. R., 1982.    Trade and politics in Proto-Elamite Iran   , Current Anthropology 23  613   40. Alden...
Vatandoust, A., Parzinger, H.   Helwing, B.  eds , Early Mining and Metallurgy on the Western Central Iranian Plateau  Rep...
Dyson, R.   Voigt, M.  eds , 1989.    East of Assyria  the highland settlement of Hasanlu   , Expedition 31 2   3 , specia...
Fazeli, H., Coningham, R. A. E., Young, R. L., Gillmore, G. K., Maghsoudi, M.   Raza, H., 2007.    Socio-  D., Massy, K., ...
Gopnik, H., 2011.    The Median citadel of Godin Period II   , in Gopnik, H.   Rothman, M.  eds , On the High Road, The Hi...
H.  eds , The Neolithization of Iran  the Formation of New Societies, Oxford  189   201. Kroll, S., 2013.    Notes on the ...
Malekzadeh, M., 2004a.    A stone structure of Vasun, a structure of Median period    , Report on primary visit and survey...
Mousavi, A., 1994.    Une brique    decor polychrome de l   Iran occidental  viii   vii s. av. J.-C.    , Studia Iranica 3...
Popper, K., 1957. The Poverty of Historicism, 2nd edn, London. Popper, K., 1976. Unended Quest  an Intellectual Biography,...
Koshi Esfandagheh-Jiroft   , Journal of Research on Archaeometry 4 2   61   79.  Neolithic cremation at Tappeh Sialk, Iran...
Voigt, M. M., 1983. Hajji Firuz Tepe, Iran  the Neolithic Settlement, Philadelphia, PA. Voigt, M. M.   Dyson, R. H. J., 19...
2. Hassan Fazeli Nashli   Jebrael Nokandeh  Fig. 2.1 Aerial photograph of Tappeh Sialk North and South  Fig. 2.2 Sadegh Ma...
Fig. 2.3 Aerial photograph of Tappeh Sialk North  80
Fig. 2.4 Section drawings from Tappeh Sialk North and c14 dates, Late Neolithic and Transitional Chalcolithic periods  81 ...
Fig. 2.5 Ceramic forms and decoration, Tappeh Sialk North, Late Neolithic period  Ghirshman 1938   9  I, pls XXXVIII and X...
Fig. 2.9 Aerial view of Tappeh Sialk South  Fig. 2.10 Typical Qara Tappeh ceramics  Kaboli 2005 . Nos 1, 2, 3 and 4 repres...
Fig. 2.14 Middle Chalcolithic ceramics from Tappeh Sialk South,    Sialk Reconsideration Project   . The top picture shows...
Fig. 2.17 Stamp seals from Tappeh Sialk  Ghirshman 1938   9  I, pl. LXXXVI   Fig. 2.18 Two Middle Chalcolithic stamp seals...
Fig. 2.21 Late Chalcolithic pottery beaker, Tappeh Sialk South  National Museum of Iran   Fig. 2.22 Late Chalcolithic pott...
Fig. 2.25 Sialk IV ceramics, Uruk style  Ghirshman 1938   9  I, pl. LXXXIX   Fig. 2.26 Sialk IV ceramics  Ghirshman 1938  ...
Fig. 2.29 Iron Age ceramics, Tappeh Sialk Cemetery B, 1st millennium  National Museum of Iran   Fig. 2.30 Iron Age ceramic...
Fig. 2.32 Radiocarbon dating of the south part of the Sialk    ziggurat     89
90  Fig. 3.1 Map of Neolithic sites in Iran and surrounding area  3. Roger Matthews
4. Armineh Kaspari-Marghussian  Fig. 4.1 Map of the central plateau of Iran showing the location of the prominent prehisto...
Fig. 4.3a SEM microstructure of a Sialk I pottery sherd  Fig. 4.3b SEM microstructure of a Sialk II pottery sherd  92
Fig. 4.4 SEM microstructure and an elemental map showing the surface of a Sialk II specimen covered with a red coating ric...
Fig. 4.5 A typical elemental spectrum of a Sialk II Sample with a red coating   a  core  4.782 wt  Fe   b , exterior surfa...
5. Barbara Helwing  Fig. 5.1 Map of Iran, indicating Proto-Elamite sites and select reference sites for Uruk period  map m...
Fig. 5.3 Tappeh Sialk, view over Ghirshman   s trench 1 towards the new excavated area, photograph taken at the very begin...
Fig. 5.9 Arisman, copper smelting furnace in area A  photograph by B. Helwing for DAI   Fig. 5.10 Arisman, proto-Elamite c...
6. Michael Danti  Fig. 6.1 The mound of Sialk South from the North Mound, with the Karkas mountains in the distance  Fig. ...
Fig. 6.7 The remains of an early modern mill located in the rural hinterland of Old Kashan  Fig. 6.8 Urban development in ...
Fig. 6.10 Sialk A Tomb IV  adapted from Ghirshman 1938   9  II   Fig. 6.11 Giyan I Tombs 3, 5 and 23  adapted from Contena...
Fig. 6.12 Finds from the    Solduz Necropolis     adapted from Ghirshman 1938   9  II   Fig. 6.13 Dyson Chart  adapted fro...
7. Reza Naseri   Mehrdad Malekzadeh  102
Fig. 7.2 Table of motifs on decorated bricks from Sialk  103
104  Fig. 7.3 Geometric motifs on Sialk bricks
Fig. 7.4 Comparison of decorative brick motifs from the Sialk platform with the motifs on pottery and seals from Cemetery ...
Fig. 7.5 Sialk painted pottery with anthropomorphic motifs  Fig. 7.6a  Median akinakes  106
Fig. 7.8 Decorative bricks found on the central plateau of Iran, a  example discovered in Qolam Tappe-ye Ja   farabad  Nas...
Fig. 7.9 Examples of decorated bricks with zoomorphic, anthropomorphic and geometric patterns from Qoli-Darwish  d., p.2 ....
Fig. 7.11 Lion attacking a bull, comparison of motifs on bricks, pottery and seals from Sialk with Qoli-Darwish.  a  Photo...
8. Stephan Kroll  Fig. 8.1 The double-handled tankards from Sialk  Ghirshman 1938   9  II, pl. IV.   Fig. 8.2 Typical    M...
111
112
Fig. 8.9 Nor-Armavir, Armenia, post-Urartian burial  photo courtesy of Nvard Tiratsyan   Fig. 8.10 One of several tankards...
9. Hassan Fazeli Nashli, Hengameh Ilkhani   Alexandra Livarda  Fig. 9.1 The location of a domestic hearth within the resid...
10. Marjan Mashkour   C  line Bon  Fig. 10.1 Grave excavated by Roman Ghirshman  from Ghirshman 1935   Fig. 10.2a Skull  2...
Fig. 10.6 Faunal remains from Sialk published in Vaufrey 1940  pl. 32  Fig. 10.7 Equid and cattle teeth and bones from Tap...
Fig. 10.9 Wild sheep horncore from Tappeh Sialk in the IPH collection. Ovis orientalis, a  medial and b  lateral views and...
11. Fran  ois Bridey   Julien Cuny  Fig. 11.1 Ghirshman   s 1934 sketchbook. Necropolis A, tomb V. Written in Russian  Sia...
Fig. 11.2 Members of the 1934 expedition in Kashan. Standing, left to right  Souren Malhossian, Roman Ghirshman, Georges C...
Fig. 11.4 Proto-Elamite tablet found on 25 November 1933, now housed in the Louvre  inv. AO 18173   Sialk expedition archi...
Fig. 11.6 Necropolis A, sketched by Ghirshman, written in Russian  Sialk expedition archive    D  partement des Antiquit  ...
Fig. 11.8 South Mound, Trench 1P, plan of the remains of Period IV 1  see Ghirshman 1938   9  I, pl. LX   drawn by Hardy, ...
Fig. 11.11 Hardy   s 1937 sketchbook. Necropolis B, tombs 136 and 135, October 1937  Sialk expedition archive    D  partem...
of the collection. The black band separates two equal selections of objects. The numbers 1 and 2 are visible in the backgr...
Fig. 11.15 Showcase with objects from Sialk in the Louvre, Room V, undated  1950s       Archives du d  partement des Antiq...
12. Mohsen Javeri  Fig. 12.1 Aerial photograph of the Sialk site  from Ghirshman 1938   9  I, pl. I   Fig. 12.2 Registrati...
Fig. 12.5 Location of 2015 sondages  TT test trench   Fig. 12.6 Aerial photograph showing the Sialk site surrounded by bui...
Fig. 12.7 Encroachment of agricultural land and new buildings at Sialk  Fig. 12.8 Construction of an illegal building, 201...
129  Fig. 12.12 New proposition for the boundaries of the Sialk site
13. Hossein Mahlouji  Fig. 13.1 The Ameri House, before and after restoration  Fig. 13.2 The Tabatabaei House, before and ...
Fig. 13.4 The Al   Yassin House, before and after restoration  Fig. 13.5a The Abbasian House, before and after restoration...
Fig. 13.6 Traditional loom technique  Fig. 13.7 Women creating handicrafts at the House of Handicrafts of the Blind  132  ...
Appendix  Participants in the 2017 Tappeh Sialk conference  Back row, from left  Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis, Nima Nezafati, Rob...
Participants in the 2018 Tappeh Sialk conference  Back row, from left  Astrid Johansen, Vahid Alaghband, Barbara Helwing, ...
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