31. One is near the Ghihon spring in the Kidron Valley, the other just south of the Temple, outside the wall.
32. Josephus, Jewish Wars, 335.
33. Studies in Scriptures: Gospels, 5:121).
34. Gaskill, Sacred Symbols, 39. Tertullian (160–225 AD) explained that what we do to the body is really for the Spirit: “e
esh, indeed, is washed, in order that the soul may be cleansed; the esh in anointed, that the soul may be consecrated;
. . . the esh is shadowed with the imposition [or laying on] of hands that the soul may be illuminated by the Spirit.”
35. Mishnah, Abot 5:21, outlines stages of the ideal male life “At 5to Scripture, 10 to Mishnah, 13 to religious duties, 15 to
Talmud, 18 to the wedding canopy, 20 to responsibility for providing for a family, 30 to fullness of strength, 40 to under-
standing, 50 to counsel, 60 to old age, 70 to ripe old age, 80 to remarkable strength, 90 to a bowed back, and 100—he is
like a corpse who has already passed and gone from this world.”
36. Brown, John, 57.
37. Brown, Anchor: John, 389. “In particular, Ezek xxxiv, which, as we shall see, is the most important single OT background
passage for John x, served as the haphtarah or prophetical reading in the general time of Dedication in the second year
of the cycle.”
38. John W. Welch, ed., Reexploring the Book of Mormon, 248.
39. Kent Jackson, and Robert Millet. Studies in Scriptures: Gospels vol 5 (SLC, UT: Deseret Book, 1986), 140.
40. Brown, Anchor: John, 386.
41. Joachim Jeremias, Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1969), 374. Women were considered dis-
honest and the source of all sin since Eden.
42. B. H. Roberts, Seventy’s Course in eology, 1:57. In 198 B.C., “Aer a series of contests Palestine was taken from Egypt
by Antiochus the Great, annexed to Syria, and divided into ve provinces, viz., Judea, Samaria, Galilee (W. of Jordan),
Peraea [sic], and Trachonitis (E. of Jordan). From this time, owing to its position between the two great powers Egypt
and Syria, this country [Israel] became a frequent prey to both, until Antiochus Epiphanes took Jerusalem (B. C. 170),
foully polluted the temple, and compelled the Jews to sacrice to idols. He erected the statue of Jupiter on the altar of
burnt-oering, committed all books of scripture to the ames, and prohibited the worship of God. e high priests, cor-
rupted by Greek licentiousness, prepared the way for declension, and encouraged the adoption of foreign customs. But
the attempt to nally stamp out Judaism produced a recoil. It culminated in the attempt of Antiochus to force the Jews
publicly to eat the esh of swine sacriced on God’s altar to the honor of Jupiter. One aged scribe refused, was followed
by a mother and her seven sons, who all suered martyrdom with the extremes of torture. is was followed by Mat-
tathias, a priest of the Hasmoaean family, who killed both a renegade Jew, when about to oer idolatrous sacrice, and
the royal ocer who presided. Aided by his ve sons, he rallied the faithful round him, threw down the heathen altars,
ed to the mountains and raised the standard of liberty, on which were inscribed M. K. B. I., the initials of their Hebrew
war-cry, Mi-Kamoka Baelim, Ihovah, ‘Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods?” (Exodus xv: 11), from which the
insurgents got the name of ‘Maccabees,’ whence the eldest son and successor of Mattathias is known in history as Judas
Maccabaeus. Under him they were victorious. Antiochus died of a loathsome disease, stricken by God.”
43. Josephus, Antiquities, xii, 7:7.