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Classroom180 Look Inside

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Classroom A Framework for Creating Sustaining and Assessing the Trauma Informed Classroom Heather T Forbes LCSW with Deanna Maki BEd SPED Beyond Consequences Institute beyondconsequences com

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CONTENTS Foreword by Richard D Lavoie MA MEd xi Introduction 1 Organization of Classroom180 Field Testing This Book sidebar The Evaluation Tool Classroom180 Rubric Overview of Help for Billy sidebar Trauma Informed Is for ALL Students One Last Thought Domain 1 Relationships and Family Culture 15 1 Family Culture 19 Establish and Teach Hierarchy Set Love Based Limits and Boundaries Demonstrate a Forever Commitment Hold Regular Family Meetings Establish and Display Classroom Values Establish Traditions Post Pictures of Students 2 Teacher Student Relationships 33 Smile and Be Authentic Welcome Students into the Classroom Address Students by Name Create Dedicated Connection Times Ask Students What They Need Let Students Get to Know You Protect and Respect Their Dignity Relate to Students Beyond Academics Interact with Students Outside of Class Increase Cultural Competence 3 Student Student Relationships 46 Establish and Enforce a No Bullying Policy Create an Inclusive and Judgment Free Environment Create Intentional Student Student Relationship Building Activities Use Relationship Based Language to Identify Classmates Distinguish Between Laughter with and Laughter at Model Nonjudgmental Behavior

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4 Teacher Parent Relationships 53 Take Initiative to Build the Teacher Parent Relationship Use Various Communication Channels with Parents Respond Promptly Explain Education Processes Explain Acronyms Refer to the School Social Worker When Needed Domain 2 Regulation 61 5 Physical Environment 64 Be Well Organized and Clutter Free Create Soft Lighting Use Calm Colors Offer Flexible Seating Create a Calm Corner Play Background Sounds Use Background Sights Use Aromatherapy Decorate with Nature and Pleasing Textures Keep Pets 6 Universal Proactive Supports 72 Hold to Predictable Schedules and Routines Use Visuals to Decrease Stress Use Pleasing Sound Signals Incorporate Regulatory Strategies That Focus on the Body Incorporate Regulatory Strategies That Focus on the Mind Manage Sensory Surprises Use Various Communication Styles and Learning Activities Chunk Content and Manage Workload Give Students Their Voice and Encourage Questions Circulate Among All Students Convey Teacher Readiness 7 Transitional Support 87 Provide Support Before the Transition Provide Support During the Transition Provide Support After the transition 8 Individual Interventions 91 Provide Nourishment Provide Water Encourage Using the Calm Corner Offer Weighted Options

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Offer Movement Options Offer Multisensory Options Offer Sensory Decreasing and Soothing Options Chunk Individual Assignments Offer Breaks from the Classroom Provide One on One Teacher Student Interactions 9 Awareness 102 Monitor Students Well Being with Emotional Check Ins Give Students Permission to Have Their Feelings and Express Them Use Open Responses to Embrace and Validate Students Perspectives 10 Window of Stress Tolerance 108 11 Teacher Self Regulation 109 Teacher Models Self Regulation to the Students Teacher Uses I Statements to Model How to Own Feelings Teacher Is Self Validating and Confident Teacher Avoids Power Struggles Teacher Demonstrates an Awareness of Her Own Triggers and Reactivity Teacher Asks for Assistance When Needed Domain 3 Language of Trauma 125 12 Communication Shift 128 Interpret Negative Language Understand the Lens of Fear Take Mindful Steps Before Responding 13 Right Brain to Right Brain De Escalation 134 Relate to Students Perspectives Use Nonjudgmental and Nonblaming Language Give Attuned Responses Use We and I Statements Respond Instead of React 14 Affect Tolerance 142 Feel with the Student Stay Open and Receptive Exhibit Confidence Stay in a Discovery Mode with the Student 15 Nonverbal Communication 148 Use Body Language That Is Congruent with Spoken Words Be Attuned to Students Reactions to Body Language Relax on Requiring Eye Contact Be Cautious with Hand Gestures

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Be Aware of Tone of Voice Maintain a Posture of Certainty Notice Misinterpretations of Facial Expressions Match Tempo of Speech with Students Processing Abilities Be Aware of Perceived Speech Volume Use Touch Cautiously Gauge Proximity Based on Students Signals 16 Positive Language 153 Conversations Daily Weekly and Incident Reports Individualized Education Programs and 504 Plans Behavior Intervention Plans Report Cards Domain 4 Safety 171 17 Universal Safety Practices 174 Establish Safety as the Number One Rule Practice Mantras Establish the School as a Safe and Distinct Environment Openly Discuss Suicide Protocol Develop and Follow a Disclosure Response Plan Develop and Practice a Room Clear Plan 18 Identification of Individual Safety Issues 185 Identify Students with Known Histories of Aggression Identify Students Patterns and Triggers Tune In to Students with Safety Concerns Empower Identified Students with a Safe Place Plan 19 Responding in a Moment of Crisis 189 Focus on Safety Shift from Being Empathetic to Businesslike Offer Students without a Safe Place Plan an Immediate Exit Strategy Use Mantras Implement a Last Resort Physical Intervention Plan Domain 5 Discipline and Empowerment 197 20 Regulatory Based Discipline 201 Be Free of Corporal Punishment Be Free of Emotional Negativity Be Free of Seclusion Room Punishment Be Free of Behavior Based Tracking Systems

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Be Free of Threats to Call Home to Get Students to Behave Have an Internal Focus Ensure Teaching Moments Happen After the Incident Use Time Ins Instead of Time Outs 21 Consequences with Relational Support 216 22 Repair and Healing 220 Give Students a Voice through Conversations Use Restorative Practices for Classroom and Small Group Conflicts Use Mediation for One on One Conflicts 23 Developmental Deficits 224 Identify Skill Deficits Address Language Deficits Address Cognitive Deficits Address Lagging Organizational Skills Address Listening Skills Address Strategic Thinking Skills 24 Grades 234 Separate Out Grades for Students Effort and Achievement Identify Supports and Resources to Improve Test Scores Refrain from Grade Shaming Refrain from Comparing Students and Their Grades and Achievements Assist Students in Forming a Plan for Improving Grades Refer Students with More Severe Needs for Testing and One on One Services 25 Social and Emotional Learning 240 Teach Basic Feeling Words Model Emotional Expression Allow and Encourage Social Emotional Expression Address Social Skills Deficits Coach Students on How to Socially Interact in Real Life Incorporate SEL and Brain Science into the Curriculum Implement and Modify a Comprehensive and Systematic SEL Program 26 Self Image and Identity Development 254 Use Affirmations Offer a Sense of Purpose Cultivate Hope 27 Reflection and Ongoing Growth 270 Be Reflective Seek Out Professional Development Opportunities Inspire Others Find the Joy

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Using the Classroom180 Rubric 277 Step 1 Learn the Classroom180 Framework Step 2 Gather the Evidence with a Classroom Observation Step 3 Consolidate the Evidence Step 4 Debrief and Finalize the Rubric Step 5 Complete the Teacher Reflection and Growth Plan Appendix A Classroom180 Rubric Resources 295 Classroom180 Framework Room Scan Classroom180 Rubric Running Record Post Observation Debriefing Template Levels of Scoring for the Classroom180 Rubric Teacher Reflection and Growth Plan Getting into the Shoes of Billy Reflective Questions Appendix B Classroom Tools 321 Emotional Target Domain 2 What to Say Cheat Sheet Domain 3 Beyond Consequences Sequence Domain 5 Let s Work Through This Domain 5 Peace Path Domain 5 Clip Left Clip Right System Domain 5 Monkey Feelings Domain 5 Plutchik s Wheel of Emotions Domain 5 Notes 335 About Us 339

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FOREWORD The only antidote to fear is trust EPICTETUS S everal years ago I was on a cross country speaking tour and had a brief layover at Chicago s O Hare airport My connecting flight had been delayed and I was hustling to Terminal 2 I would barely have time to make my next flight so I hopped on the fabled people mover a horizontal conveyor belt with annoying new age music I was frazzled As I boarded the conveyer I immediately regretted my decision Once you board the belt it is impossible to get off and my path was blocked by a young man surrounded by his luggage He was studying his boarding pass as we moved along I shifted my weight from my left foot to my right heaved several audible sighs and cleared my throat loudly but he failed to respond to any of my nonverbal signals I was becoming increasingly frustrated The fairly simple social convention of stand to the right walk to the left seemed lost on him Suddenly I looked down and saw that his right leg was encased in an oversized walking cast My mind immediately recalled the two months that I had spent negotiating airports wearing a similar apparatus My mindset shifted immediately I went from being anxious and apprehensive to being accepting and accommodating I asked him if I could help him with his luggage when we got to the end of the walkway Thanks man he responded with a relieved smile I had no idea how I was going to get all this stuff to the gate I successfully got him to his gate parted with a handshake and made my flight Karma That incident represents a paradigm shift I viewed the situation very differently based on new information I went from thinking that the young man was a problem to recognizing that he had a problem In Classroom180 Heather Forbes asks you to make numerous paradigm shifts and provides you with the knowledge and techniques you will need for the journey A followup to her acclaimed Help for Billy series this book provides detailed readable and remarkable advice for teachers of children who have experienced trauma Heather is viewed as one of the pioneering leaders in the trauma informed TI movement FOREWORD xi

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Relationships and Family Culture 5 1 4 2 3

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DOM A IN 1 DOMAIN 1 Relationships and Family Culture D O M A I N 1 R E L A T I O N S H I P S A N D F A M I LY C U L T U R E 15

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R E L AT I O N S H I P S A N D FA M I LY C U LT U R E 1 Family Culture 2 Teacher Student Relationship 3 Student Student Relationship 4 Teacher Parent Relationship

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DOM A IN 1 DOMAIN 1 Relationships and Family Culture A s human beings we are social creatures When we are connected we are happy and able to function at our highest levels Unfortunately today s students are growing up in a world where there is a tremendous amount of disconnect Many factors contribute to this but certainly technology and a heightened level of stress within families play a large role The result is that our students are coming into our schools more disconnected than ever While parents and families form the first level of a child s relationships it is the school that forms a child s next level of relationships Community entities such as after school programs agencies YMCA Girls and Boys Clubs Big Brothers Big Sisters etc religious organizations medical facilities child protective services CPS and law enforcement form the third level of relationships The radial diagram in Figure 1 1 illustrates this concept CPS Religious organizations Agencies Family Government Medical facilities Law enforcement School After school Community Figure 1 1 Radial diagram showing the three levels of relationships children experience D O M A I N 1 R E L A T I O N S H I P S A N D F A M I LY C U L T U R E 17

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EXERCISE Getting into the Shoes of Billy Reflective Questions 1 Family Culture Do I feel like I belong Do I want to be in this classroom or leave Am I valued and appreciated Do I feel emotionally safe in this classroom Is my teacher authentic and genuine or is she just going through the motions because someone told her to be trauma informed Am I watching the clock just waiting for the bell to ring so I can go to my next class 2 Teacher Student Relationships Do I feel safe enough to ask a question regarding the assignment content Do I feel comfortable approaching my teacher on a personal issue Does my teacher authentically care about me Does my teacher know anything about me Do I know anything about my teacher 3 Student Student Relationships Do I feel connected to my classmates or do I feel like an outsider Do my classmates include me in group work Do my classmates notice when I m disconnected Do they initiate connection to include me 58 C L A S S R O O M18 0

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DOM A IN 1 Do my classmates appreciate my uniqueness or do they see me as a weirdo Do I have to pretend to be somebody I m not just to fit in If I wasn t here would anyone miss me 4 Teacher Parent Relationships Do my two worlds of home and school feel completely opposite and unrelated Does my teacher view my parent s with respect Does my teacher only send negative messages home to my parent s Things are beautiful if you love them JE A N A NOUILH D O M A I N 1 R E L A T I O N S H I P S A N D F A M I LY C U L T U R E 59

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5 1 4 2 3 Regulation

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DOM A IN 2 DOMAIN 2 Regulation D O M A I N 2 R E G U L AT I O N 61

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R EGUL AT ION 5 Physical Environment 6 Universal Proactive Supports 7 Transitional Support 8 Individual Interventions 9 Awareness 10 Window of Stress Tolerance 11 Teacher Self Regulation

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DOMAIN 2 Regulation DOM A IN 2 R elationships are the backbone of a trauma informed platform because most trauma happens within the context of relationships Thus it is only logical that the healing from trauma happens where the pain originally occurred within the context of relationships The well being of children depends on the health of the relationships they have with the adults in their lives The deepest and most profound relationships children develop occur in predominately two environments home and school For children coming to school with healthy relationships at home they still need connected and loving relationships at school For children coming to school with unhealthy and strained relationships at home the need for healthy and loving relationships at school is paramount to their success at school Domain 1 Relationships and Family Culture is a precursor to Domain 2 which focuses on regulation Regulation is the ability to handle stress calm the nervous system and sustain one s focus and emotional balance The trauma informed platform is a co regulatory model meaning it takes strong connected and loving relationships to help students be able to regulate Domains 1 and 2 work hand in hand Simply giving students a fidget and telling them to get regulated is ineffective if the students are not connected and emotionally secure with the adults around them This idea of a co regulatory model is biologically based From the time children are born they depend on the adults around them to help them regulate As children grow their developmental journey involves a progression of relying less on the adults in their lives to regulate while they move closer to self regulating on their own Brain science is showing that this journey takes about twenty five years in an optimal environment Hence the need for adults to be present in students lives to help them regulate is necessary from preschool through high school and beyond D O M A I N 2 R E G U L AT I O N 63

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Trauma interrupts this linear progression of developing a strong and self sustained regulatory system When adults are unable to meet the relationship and regulatory needs of young children and when life events for these children become overwhelming and scary they enter school with compromised regulatory systems and view life from a lens of fear As a result they are unable to handle stress calm down and adequately self soothe when becoming overly stressed Their regulatory systems are also patterned to react at high levels of intensity from living in sustained states of survival The solution lies in building relationships with these children Domain 1 Relationships and Family Culture and offering classrooms that provide regulatory supports Domain 2 Regulation When these two are successfully implemented the changes can be dramatic Students are better able to handle stress their behaviors improve and they are more ready to learn It takes both relationship and regulation which are interconnected by the basic concept that regulation is relationship dependent in children In the classroom there are numerous ways to support students in their regulation From the 27 components of Classroom180 Domain 2 Regulation includes components 5 through 11 5 Physical Environment Universal Proactive Supports Transitional Support Individual Interventions Awareness Window of Stress Tolerance Teacher Self Regulation Physical Environment Children s brains are in the process of developing Their executive functions responsible for filtering out and prioritizing information are solidifying Their undeveloped brains take everything in all at once so a classroom that has too much visual stimulation or is overly disorganized can interfere with their ability to focus and concentrate It overwhelms their brains This is especially true for children impacted by trauma Years ago the practice of feng shui became very popular While it may have been a fad its intention was to help harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment Feng shui can be thought of as the art of placement within a space designed to bring balance and harmony Students impacted by trauma are so internally chaotic and out 64 C L A S S R O O M18 0

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DOM A IN 2 of balance that creating an external environment of harmony and balance becomes of great importance to self regulation Although a trauma informed approach is not about implementing feng shui it does require being mindful about how the physical environment influences students regulation and balance For instance how different does it feel to walk into a Chuck E Cheese compared to a day spa Different environments will activate a person s nervous system differently and from one extreme to another Classrooms should be warm and lively yet not too sterile or overwhelming The following strategies show how teachers can create a trauma informed classroom at the physical level Be Well Organized and Clutter Free A classroom that is well organized and free of clutter offers students an external environment of calm If the teacher s desk is neat and tidy it subconsciously conveys the message I m regulated in balance and I ve got things together Conversely if the teacher s desk is disorganized and a mess the message conveyed becomes I don t have time for you I m in the middle of my tasks As can be seen in Figure 2 1 the overabundance of boxes stacked to the ceiling desktops that are cluttered and an overall feeling of disorganization makes it difficult for dysregulated students to gain a sense of regulation and order from their external environment Figure 2 1 A chaotic and disorganized classroom D O M A I N 2 R E G U L AT I O N 65

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5 1 4 2 3 Language of Trauma

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LANGUAGE OF TR AUMA 12 Communication Shift 13 Right Brain to Right Brain De Escalation 14 Affect Tolerance 15 Nonverbal Communication 16 Positive Language

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DOMAIN 3 Language of Trauma T rauma changes how students perceive themselves and how they perceive themselves DOMAIN 3 in this world It shifts students to a deep perspective of fear Thus working with students impacted by trauma requires us to learn to view everything from this lens of fear Everything we say everything we do everything we perceive everything has to be viewed from this lens of fear if we are going to be successful in relating to these students Domain 3 reflects this concept of relating to students impacted by trauma through this lens of fear It requires us to shift how we communicate with students how we use language to describe their behaviors and challenges and how we stay aware of our nonverbal communication In essence it is about learning to speak the language of trauma Behavior is a form of communication Instead of dealing with challenging behaviors which are only a symptom we have to learn to interpret students behaviors to get to the root cause of what is driving them Our ability to relate to students and to understand what is being said by their behaviors determines our effectiveness in helping them in the long term In a trauma informed classroom we must learn to speak trauma as evidenced in the following components Communication Shift Right Brain to Right Brain De Escalation Affect Tolerance Nonverbal Communication Positive Language DOMAI N 3 L ANGUAGE OF TR AUMA 127

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12 Communication Shift Our students communicate with us all the time whether in appropriate or inappropriate ways both verbally and nonverbally Learning how to interpret what they are saying beyond the surface meaning of their language is a vital part of being trauma informed It means being mindful of how we interact with students when they are being inappropriate by taking a proverbial step back to reflect and not react but respond It requires learning to interpret negative behaviors and understanding that behavior is a form of communication It also requires making a 180 degree shift to get behind the lens of fear to demonstrate to students the lens of love In short it requires learning to speak trauma Interpret Negative Language Too often the language students use is taken at face value while the deeper meaning behind the language is lost For example if a student says I don t care about this assignment our first reaction is to think You need to care about this assignment Trauma runs deep within the heart of students so it demands that we too go deeper into understanding the words and expressions students use A simple statement such as I don t care about this assignment often has an entire childhood history behind it Perhaps Too often the language this comes from a student who was told I don t care about you by his parents or the adults in students use is taken his life either explicitly or implicitly at face value while the If students get the message that someone significant in their life does not care about them deeper meaning behind then why would they in turn care about anything in their life When children are nurtured and the language is lost lovingly cared for they respond to academic work with interest and concern They are reflecting in their academics what was given to them it is a blueprint that follows them throughout each day and into each activity they do Students like Andy have had someone take interest in them and thus have the ability to reciprocate and take an interest in their academics However if someone like Billy has not been the recipient of this type of care and nurturing it will show up in Billy s language and behavior in the classroom Learning to interpret the language of trauma is about getting into Billy s perspective to be able to truly hear and understand him Billy does not have the ability to express 128 C L A S S R O O M18 0

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his deeper truths nor does he desire to be vulnerable enough to share them What he is really saying here is I don t know how to care about this assignment because no one has ever really cared about me I don t have a frame of reference for knowing what it feels like to be cared for or to care for something myself It is a concept I am unfamiliar with But if you care about me and take interest in me I will be able to experience what this feeling is all about and it will motivate me to care about this assignment in the future Yet the teacher hears an utterly negative statement from Billy I don t care about this assignment so her perception of him is painted in a negative light Instead of reacting to these types of negative statements it takes learning to listen DOMAIN 3 carefully to what Billy is saying and then responding accordingly Table 3 1 gives examples of negative language interpretations On the left hand side is a list of what students typically say On the right hand side are the true interpretations of what the students are really saying Table 3 1 Negative language interpretations Interpreting the Language of Trauma Student s Comment Trauma Interpretation I hate you I hate myself You re really pissing me off I need you to know that I m about to hit my breaking point This sucks My life sucks I don t care I m too scared to try or I m too overwhelmed to try This assignment is stupid I feel stupid and this assignment is only going to make me feel more stupid She gets on my nerves My nervous system is overwhelmed You re not in charge of me I m scared you ll hurt me or reject me F ck off The only way for me to be OK right now is to disconnect DOMAI N 3 L ANGUAGE OF TR AUMA 129

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5 Safety 1 4 2 3

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SAFETY 17 Universal Safety Practices 18 Identification of Individual Safety Issues 19 Responding in a Moment of Crisis

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DOMAIN 4 Safety T he top priority in any classroom is student safety It is every child s birthright to be safe at school and a safe environment is essential to learning If children do not feel safe they have no capacity to learn it is that basic Physically unsafe behaviors often grow out of emotionally unsafe environments In DOMAIN 4 SAFETY DOMAIN 4 other words physical safety requires emotional safety with strong emotional connections The feeling of being emotionally safe in the classroom is vital to keeping the classroom physically safe Thus to reduce if not eliminate unsafe behaviors in the classroom teachers must work proactively to successfully implement and execute the identified components discussed in Domains 1 2 and 3 Yet even with these proactive measures in place every classroom whether it is a classroom that implements a trauma informed platform or not has to talk about safety Universal safety issues for all classrooms include such things as fire safety anti bullying protocols chemistry and science safety and unfortunately active school shooter safety The components in Domain 4 Safety however are specific to trauma informed classrooms The reason there is an entire domain devoted to safety is that the very nature of trauma is defined by the experience of feeling unsafe To ensure that the trauma informed classroom is a safe environment safety as it relates to trauma has to always remain the number one priority Incidents of explosive and unsafe behaviors in the classroom have been on the rise for the past several years It is not uncommon to ask a teacher who has been teaching for two or three decades if she has seen an increase in the level of violence coming from students and to hear her emphatically answer Yes This yes response about violence in the classroom is not isolated to one particular state or region in the United States It is pervasive throughout the nation and the world To properly address safety in the classroom the following three components require attention and execution 173

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Universal Safety Practices Identification of Individual Safety Issues Responding in a Moment of Crisis 17 Universal Safety Practices Students impacted by trauma have a greater propensity toward violence than other students This is not limited to only older students sometimes it can be the youngest ones who do the most harm The level of violence that some of our Billys are capable of can be unnerving and hard to comprehend That is the nature of trauma When children do not have their needs met are rejected and abandoned are physically emotionally and or sexually abused experience in utero trauma or undergo medical trauma the result is often physical outbursts that go far beyond typical childhood behavior Children with a combination of both sexual and physical abuse are often the children who demonstrate the highest intensity of aggression and violence Many students coming out of chaotic homes and those with early childhood trauma can easily slip into a deep state of dysregulation and become unsafe in the classroom within milliseconds Many of our students are simply wired for aggression and violence For Students impacted some the dominant type of connection that they have experienced and or witnessed is a violent by trauma have a one Thus their blueprint for relationship love greater propensity and connection is aggression toward violence than Even with this understanding that trauma breeds violence in our Billys physical assaults other students on teachers by their students are never OK and they have to be stopped It is never acceptable for a teacher to be hurt by a student or for other students in the class to be hurt by their classmates The classroom should never be a danger zone Ever It is important to remember that Billy s outbursts and violent tendencies go far beyond making a bad choice Children who have been hurt in some capacity often project their pain onto others It is a learned behavior and it is a deep blueprint within them that cannot be undone by traditional disciplinary measures such as time out or suspension and most certainly not by seclusion These types of isolative measures only serve to worsen violent behavioral tendencies in our Billys They are measures that do not offer 174 C L A S S R O O M18 0

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support in helping students regulate their systems back down and they can easily trigger students past experiences of rejection and abandonment When a student is being violent the typical interpretation is that the bad student is endangering the other good students While this is one perspective it is also true that the student being violent is being hurt as well It is incredibly unnerving for these children when they are violent toward others When children reach the point where they are this out of control it is extremely scary for them scary to be so far outside the realm of safety to realize they are capable of hurting others without the ability to stop themselves When students get to this point of violence they truly do not have the ability to stop their behavior in the moment and they need someone to lovingly step in to help them end their destructive outburst DOMAIN 4 Establish Safety as the Number One Rule The boundaries of safety are enmeshed and unclear for many children living in chaotic home environments They do not have a clear understanding of where the line of safety ends and where the line of violence begins hence they do not always have clarity of when they cross over it In their experience the line between the two is blurred What we consider to be abuse can be what they consider to be love What we consider to be pain can mean love to them What we consider to be violence they often consider to be love Trauma is an upside down world as in Figure 4 1 One key principle to understand is that any form of connection is love whether it is positive or negative Figure 4 1 The definition of love for many students impacted by trauma DOMAIN 4 SAFETY 175

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Discipline and Empowerment 5 1 4 2 3

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DOMAIN 5 Discipline and Empowerment DOMAI N 5 DOMAI N 5 DISCIPLI NE AN D EMPOWERMEN T 197

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DISCIPLINE AND EMPOWERMENT 20 Regulatory Based Discipline 21 Consequences with Relational Support 22 Repair and Healing 23 Developmental Deficits 24 Grades 25 Social and Emotional Learning 26 Self Image and Identity Development 27 Reflection and Ongoing Growth

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DOMAIN 5 Discipline and Empowerment B eing trauma informed does not mean that students are merely given a hug after DOMAI N 5 DISCIPLI NE AN D EMPOWERMEN T DOMAI N 5 they break a rule and then everyone lives happily ever after in peace joy and love It is quite the opposite Children impacted by trauma need help changing their maladaptive behaviors They need guidance in improving their skill sets to function appropriately and be compliant in school and ultimately to be successful in the real world Implementing a trauma informed platform requires making a massive shift in understanding the true nature of Billy s struggle and how to approach discipline Billy s struggle is not with the outside world his struggle is not with the rules of the classroom or with the power his teacher holds over him Billy s struggle is with his internal world We must help Billy calm the storm that brews inside him and we must empower him with better skills and coping mechanisms For lasting change and long term healing discipline has to focus on changing Billy from the inside out It requires an internal focus not an external focus that relies heavily on outside controls laced with fear It requires being regulatory focused rather than behaviorally focused Figure 5 1 illustrates that being trauma informed is a matter of implementing life giving internally focused consequences that teach and empower instead of dead end punishment based externally focused consequences that give unpleasant experiences intended to force students to behave in a particular way When we get to the root cause of negative behavior we have the ability to help our students in the long term rather than simply punishing them to stop a behavior in the short term Short term changes in behaviors do nothing to curb the ever rising number of student suspensions drop out rates and cases whereby students end up in the juvenile justice system this has been proven with the failure of zero tolerance policies adopted 199

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by schools In the past schools worked primarily to implement policies that reduced the symptomology of behavior rather than implement policies and practices to promote healing and growth Being trauma informed works to accomplish long term versus shortterm change for students and it requires understanding the communication behind students behaviors Traditional Negative Behavior Trauma Informed Negative Behavior Punishment to Create Change Identify the internal deficit or conflict n n n n n SEL Academic Regulatory Voice Self Image Teach and empower to create change Figure 5 1 Traditional discipline punishes to create change while trauma informed discipline empowers to create change The word discipline comes from the Latin word disciplina which means to receive instruction from someone It is derived from the word discere which means to learn Thus discipline is not about punishment it is about teaching and training It is about receiving instructions within the context of a relationship to learn how to do life in a more positive and productive way Billy is a student even when it comes to discipline and our job is to lovingly teach and empower Billy to make changes Billy is already in a battle with himself Let us not increase the battle between him and those around him through punitive based discipline that sets up an us against you dynamic We must help Billy solve the internal conflict within himself by empowering him and equipping him with stronger relationships better skills an improved identity and a positive belief system 200 C L A S S R O O M18 0

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There are numerous ways to move from a punitive based system to an empoweringbased system It takes a willingness to see the following components from a new perspective 20 Regulatory Based Discipline Consequences with Relational Support Repair and Healing Developmental Deficits Grades Social and Emotional Learning Self Image and Identity Reflection and Ongoing Growth Regulatory Based Discipline Traditionally the protocol has been to punish children in the name of discipline to get them to change and to hold them accountable for their actions The problem with this is that Billy s patterned ways of behaving are deeply rooted in fear and they stem from reactive patterns developed from living in survival These patterns are neurologically woven into his nervous system such that no amount of punishment or even positive behavioral rewards will modify them Adding more fear to a student who already lives in fear will only result in more resistance anger and hatred toward himself and the world Fear plus more fear does not equal love or good behaviors Fear plus more fear results in more fear and more negative behaviors See Figure 5 2 DOMAI N 5 FEAR FEAR LOVE FEAR FEAR MORE FEAR Figure 5 2 Fear based discipline promotes more fear in students who already live in fear DOMAI N 5 DISCIPLI NE AN D EMPOWERMEN T 201

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Discipline and Empowerment Safety Relationships and Family Culture 5 1 4 2 3 Language of Trauma Regulation

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Using the Classroom180 Rubric 277 USIN G THE RUBRI C U S I N G T H E C L A S S R O O M18 0 R U B R I C

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S T E P S T O U S I N G T H E C L A S S R O O M18 0 R U B R I C 1 Learn the Classroom180 Framework 2 Gather the Evidence with a Classroom Observation 3 Consolidate the Evidence 4 Debrief and Finalize the Rubric 5 Complete the Teacher Reflection and Growth Plan

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Using the Classroom180 Rubric D omains 1 through 5 describe in detail the framework for what it takes to become a trauma informed classroom Their twenty seven components serve as a roadmap for any teacher who wants to create a trauma informed classroom Once a teacher has developed an understanding of each of the components in the framework the Classroom180 Rubric can then be used to assess her level of implementation The Classroom180 Rubric provides an easy to use rating scale with criteria for different levels of performance It summarizes and simplifies the observable indicators from the framework The Classroom180 Rubric is not meant to be used for summative teacher evaluations Rather its purpose is to define classroom characteristics provide feedback to teachers and offer practical strategies to build skills one domain at a time It gives teachers a starting point on a growth continuum Teachers can use it as a self assessment to reflect on their own The Classroom180 Rubric can also be used by others to support teachers Administrators can do classroom walk throughs and observations focused on specific or all domains Mentors can assist new teachers by having coaching conversations and recommending new strategies that have been identified on the rubric Fellow teachers can use it with one another It can be a tool for curriculum specialists and other support personnel when working with teachers The Classroom180 Rubric is therefore a multipurpose analytic tool to be used for the following purposes Self assessments Peer observations Classroom observations Coaching conversations U S I N G T H E C L A S S R O O M18 0 R U B R I C 279 USIN G THE RUBRI C

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Steps to Using the Classroom180 Rubric There are five main steps in completing the Classroom180 Rubric see Figure A Step 1 Learn the Classroom180 Framework Step 2 Gather the Evidence with a Classroom Observation Step 3 Consolidate the Evidence Step 4 Debrief and Finalize the Rubric Step 5 Complete the Teacher Reflection and Growth Plan 1 2 3 4 5 Learn the Classroom180 Framework Gather the Evidence with a Classroom Observation Consolidate the Evidence Debrief and Finalize the Rubric Complete the Teacher Reflection and Growth Plan Figure A Sequential process for using the Classroom180 Rubric Step 1 Learn the Classroom180 Framework Prior to using The Classroom180 Rubric it is critical that the user become familiar with the entire contents of this book Skipping straight to the Classroom180 Rubric with the intention of using it as an assessment tool without a comprehensive understanding of the entire framework discussed in this book is ill advised The rubric is only a summation of what to look for when doing an observation or assessment of a classroom The indicators listed under each component are there simply to remind the observer of what is meant by each component It is not a comprehensive list Thus the user must be fully familiar with each component in its entirety Step 2 Gather the Evidence with a Classroom Observation As with every assessment tool it is imperative to gather objective and measurable evidence to assign and substantiate levels of performance Evidence gathering requires going into a classroom and carefully observing from an objective and unbiased perspective 280 C L A S S R O O M18 0

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what is happening at all levels within the classroom Teacher evaluation expert Charlotte Danielson describes evidence as what one sees and hears in the classroom the things the teacher and students say and do To gather evidence when conducting a classroom observation the teacher will need to have the following three forms in hand Room Scan Running Record Classroom180 Rubric These forms are shown below and can also be found in Appendix A Room Scan The Room Scan is designed to help observers quickly gather evidence from the physical environment When first walking into a classroom and looking around observers can look for and check off the basic tangible and concrete items within the classroom These are labeled as visual indicators on the Room Scan form see Figure B When first walking into a classroom the observer might look for visual indicators that give evidence as to how the physical environment is organized what visuals are posted on the walls and what regulatory items are available to students Classroom180 Rubric ROOM SCAN 1 1 Relationships and Family Culture Job chart buddies Photos of students Teacher s desk area personalized photos interests Visuals Hierarchy poster Visuals Class Values Visuals No bullying policy Other Language of Trauma 4 Safety 5 Discipline and Empowerment 2 Component 1 1 2 1 1 3 Regulation continued Visual Indicators Component n Regulatory Options n Weighted blankets lap pad vests wristbands shoulder wraps headbands Movement swings rocking chairs desk pedals resistance bands pacing area n Multisensory fidgets and soft tactile items n Shelves clutter free n Singing bowls chimes n Student seating flexible options n Teacher s desk clutter free n Visuals Predictable schedules routines n Visuals Check in chart n Other n 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 5 6 8 5 5 6 9 Regulation Visual Indicators n n n n 3 Teacher ___________________________________ Grade _____________________________________ Topic of Lesson ________________________________ Relationships and Family Culture 2 Regulation Date _____________________________________ Time _____________________________________ Observer _____________________________________ Visual Indicators n n n n n n n 2 Aromatherapy Background sights streaming video calming scenes Background sounds music white noise low volume Calm corner furnished with sensory and regulatory items visual boundary visual of strategies boundaries and expectations of its use are clear no timer privacy Colors subdued Furnishings plants rugs pillows Headphones Lighting subdued lamps dim natural string lights Nourishment snacks water Pets Privacy screens Readiness whiteboard supplies activities extra pencils teacher n n n n n n n n Component 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 8 5 6 8 5 6 8 6 4 Safety Visual Indicators n n n 5 Component Visuals Safety rules Visuals Mantras Other 17 17 Discipline and Empowerment Visual Indicators n n n Component Absence of public point charts Visuals Affirmations Other 20 26 Beyond Consequences Institute All rights reserved U S I N G T H E C L A S S R O O M18 0 R U B R I C 281 USIN G THE RUBRI C Figure B Room Scan form See Appendix A for a printable copy

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APPENDIX A Classroom180 Rubric Resources A P P E N D I X A C L A S S R O O M18 0 R U B R I C R E S O U R C E S 295

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A P P E N D I X A C L A S S R O O M18 0 R U B R I C R E S O U R C E S 299 Puts school to home strategies in place Evidence Teacher Parent Relationships Promotes inclusive and judgement free environment Creates Intentional relationship building activities Ensures students work cooperatively and positively with each other Evidence Student Student Relationships Welcomes students into the classroom Creates dedicated connection times Relates to students outside of academics Addresses students with respect Evidence Teacher Student Relationships Establishes and teaches hierarchy Roles are defined and posted Incorporates family values traditions pictures meals jobs meetings Shows overall warmth and genuine concern Evidence Family Culture 2020 Beyond Consequences Institute All Rights Reserved n 4 n n n 3 n n n n 2 n n n 1 Domain 1 Relationships and Family Culture 3 2 2 Some indicators of a family culture Many strategies are used to create a positive school tohome connection and engage with parents 3 Students connect with one another in a positive manner Many effective strategies are used to build and promote student student relationships 3 Some strategies are used to communicate with parents 2 Some strategies are used to build student student relationships 2 Some strategies Many strategies are used to make are used to make personal connections personal connections with all students Teacher student relationships are genuine and a priority 3 Several indicators of family culture are evident The teacher is genuine and clearly in charge of the students well being 1 0 No strategies are used to connect or engage with parents Unacceptable damaging and or inappropriate 0 Unacceptable damaging and or inappropriate 1 0 1 Unacceptable damaging and or inappropriate 0 Unacceptable damaging and or inappropriate No strategies are used to build student relationships The teacher does not make personal connections The teacher student relationship is mainly business 1 No indicators of family culture are observed or felt N A Not observed or not applicable N A Not observed or not applicable N A Not observed or not applicable N A Not observed or not applicable

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300 APPENDIX A Provides support before the transition Provides support during the transition Provides support after the transition Evidence Transitional Support Maintains sense of order with predictable routines and schedules Uses visuals Incorporates regulatory strategies that focus on the body Incorporates regulatory strategies that focus on the mind Manages sensory surprises Varies communication styles and learning activities Chunks content and manages workload Gives students their voice encourages questions Teacher circulates among all students Conveys teacher readiness Evidence Universal Proactive Supports See Room Scan for evidence Physical Environment 2020 Beyond Consequences Institute All Rights Reserved n n n 7 n n n n n n n n n n 6 5 Domain 2 Regulation 3 1 0 2 Some transitional support is provided It is mostly effective 3 Transition support is provided before during and after a transition Teacher is attuned to students who need extra assistance with transitions Support is effective 0 Transition support is Unacceptable limited or inconsistent damaging and or inappropriate 1 0 Unacceptable damaging and or inappropriate 1 Some regulation strategies are used but are not a part of the culture of the classroom 2 Unacceptable damaging and or inappropriate Whole classroom regulation strategies are used with some success and are starting to become an integral part of the classroom Limited regulating elements are present Classroom layout does not promote connection 3 Some adjustments made to create a more regulating environment 2 Whole classroom regulation strategies are used effectively The teacher is organized proactive and attuned to students needs Overall sense of calm and balance Clearly defined work areas N A Not observed or not applicable N A Not observed or not applicable N A Not observed or not applicable

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR Heather T Forbes LCSW is the owner of the Beyond Consequences Institute and author of numerous books on the topic of working with children impacted by trauma Coming from a family of educators Heather has a passion for helping children in the classroom Trauma robs children of their curiosity and Heather s passion is to help these students return back to their innate love for learning She consults and lectures extensively with both general and special education schools around the nation Her signature style is to bridge the gap between academic research and when the rubber hits the road classroom situations giving teachers and school personnel the understanding and tools they need for even the most challenging of students Heather has worked in schools with trauma impacted students and knows firsthand how challenging it can be on a daily basis with these students Much of her insight on understanding trauma disruptive behaviors and developmental delays comes from her own experience of raising two internationally adopted children and mentoring a severely trauma impacted young adult ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Deanna Maki BEd SPED is an education consultant and co founder of E Impact Consulting in Kelowna Canada She has worked in the field of education since 1994 As a former special education teacher she is passionate about working with at risk students empowering children and building community After starting her family she worked as an education consultant and trainer for numerous curriculum and school software programs where she was able to refine her skills in teacher training Currently Deanna serves as the vice president of Educational Impact an online professional development company based in Philadelphia Pennsylvania As a subject matter expert in special education teacher evaluation social and emotional learning and trauma Deanna has authored over 200 online courses for educators Through a collaboration with Heather T Forbes LCSW and the Beyond Consequences Institute the Trauma Informed Online Academy was created to provide a step by step training program for schools to become trauma informed Deanna s contribution to the development of the Classroom180 Rubric were invaluable She helped to shape and develop it into an evaluation tool that is clear relevant well organized and concise ABOUT US 339

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