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This book is about the Civil War and major events that took place in the war.

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 A Civil War between the North and the South.

A civil war is a war between the citizens of the same country.

The American

Civil War 

By: Christian Badoy

 The Union

      In the North, Abraham Lincoln, the president of the United States during that time, and the citizens of the North tried to bring the South back to the Union. The North were people that are part of the Union during the Civil War. They consisted of trying to bring the Southern states back into the Union. The leaders of the North were Abraham Lincoln, the president of the United States, and Ulysses S. Grant, the Union general.

      The North consisted with the states of Maine, New York, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, California, Nevada, and Oregon.

      The North had advantages and disadvantages that took place during the war. The advantages they had was that they had a larger population than the South. They had more industries that were present due to the Industrial Revolution. They also had more resources than the South to be able to use for the war, a better banking system to help raise money for the war, and they had railroads that helped the Northern citizens to transport from one place to another. The disadvantages they had was that they had to try to bring the Southern states back to the Union, they had to fight in unknown territory occupied with Southern citizens that had high hopes and support for the war.

      The Union's goal was to try to get the Southern states to return to the Union. They had five strategies planned in order to win the war. Their first strategy was to blockade the Southern ports to prevent them from receiving money with the cotton they exported. The second strategy was to control the Mississippi River so that it can separate Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas from the Confederacy states and cut the supply lines. The third strategy was to capture Richmond, Virginia, which was the Confederate capital, to disrupt the Confederacy's command lines. The fourth strategy was to shatter Southern civilian morale by capturing and demolishing Atlanta, Savannah and South Carolina, which was the souce of the start of the secession. The fifth strategy was to have a large amount of Northern troops in order to break the spirits of the Confederate Army.

     The North had some nicknames that people remembered them as. The North were known as The Union. The Union soldiers were known as the Yankees or Yanks. Another nickname given for the North weas the Blue Bellies and Billy Yanks.

The North 


 The Confederacy

     In the South, the states seceeded from the Union, causing a war between the North and the South. The South were the states that seceded the Union and formed the Confederacy. The South also wanted to defend slavery, which started the war. The leaders of the South were Jefferson Davis, the president of the Confederacy, and Robert E. Lee, the Confederate general that controlled the army.

     The South consisted with the states of South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee.

     The South had advantages and disadvantages that took place during the war. An advantage they had was that they were able to fight in familiar territory, which means that if the Union Army enters their territory, they would know where to go to dominate them. Another advantage was that the citizens of the South had a strong tradition of military training and service. Due to this, they had an army that was superior to the Union. A disadvantage that they had was that they had a smaller population than the North. Other disadvantages they had were that they had a small amount of factories to produce weapons and gear, there were less food production than the North, and they lack the railroad tracks, which makes it complicated for transportation.

     The Confederacy's primary aim in the war was to win and be recognized as a separate and independent nation. As an independent nation, they wanted to keep slavery and go on with the traditional way of life they live. Their strategy was to stick to being a defensive strategy to weaken the Northern army. Another strategy they had was that they expected Britain and France to support them in the war in order to win, but it backfired. Britain and France started to gain the cotton from India and Egypt, which resulted to a lack of money for weapons and maintaining the army. As they have their defensive strategy, they would sometimes switch to an offensive strategy in order to weaken the North.

     The South were known with nicknames. The South were known as the Confederacy. The Confederate soldiers were known as Rebels. They were also known as Grays, Johnny Rebs and Secesses.

 The South 

Secession Events and Causes of Civil War 


     In the election of 1860, Abraham Lincoln was up for President as the Republican candidate. His position on slavery was that it would be left alone where it already existed, but would be banned in new territories. Stephen A. Douglas, John C. Breckenridge, and John Bell opposed him. His victory angered the South since it would disrupt the equal representation. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina was the first of the states to secede from the Union.

     Due to the secession, the Southern states started a debate to secede from the Union. On February 1861, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia seceded and formed the new nation of the Confederacy. In the Confederacy, there were beliefs of states' rights where the states have the power to decide on what they want to do such as keeping and defending slavery.

     When Lincoln became president and went through the inauguration, there was a dispatch sent to him by Major Robert Anderson that Fort Sumter was low on supplies and they had to surrender by the Confederates. He had to send the supplies to Fort Sumter with an unarmed expedition to arm the people over there, but Jefferson Davis, the Confederate president, ordered his army to attack Fort Sumter before the supplies got there, which started at April 12, 1861.

     As the result of the war, after 33 hours, the Confederacy won the battle of Fort Sumter. Due to this, Abraham Lincoln requested for 75,000 troops to fight in the war to make the Union return to one piece. As of the South, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas voted to secede and join the Confederacy, which reveals the start of the Civil War.






 The Start of the Civil War

    In the Battle of Fort Sumter, the Confederacy were hostile to the Union, so they were armed at Fort Sumter. In Fort Sumter, the Union were low in supplies, which gave the Confederacy the advantage, hoping that the Union defending the fort would surrender.

     The Battle of Fort Sumter started on April 12, 1861, which was the day after Lincoln's inauguration. The battle took place at Fort Sumter and it lasted for 33 hours until it was April 14. President Abraham Lincoln and Major Robert Anderson are on the Union's side, while General P.G.T. Beauregard and president Jefferson Davis was on the Confederacy's side. There were 80 soldiers fighting for the Union, while 500 soldiers fought in the Confederacy. The purpose of the war was to encourage the idea that the Confederacy wanted to start a civil war with the North to fight for their own independence with slavery being kept. 

     Lincoln received a message from Anderson that the low supply at Fort Sumter brought high hopes for the Confederacy for the Union to surrender, which made him send supplies to the area. In the Confederate's side, Jefferson and Beauregard ordered to attack the area before the supplies arrived at the area. The first shots were fired at April 12, 1861 and it lasted for 33 hours. The Union garrison tried to defend the fort, but failed. There weren't any casualties that took place in the during the war.

    When the Union surrendered on April 14, when their defenses became weak, the Confederacy won the battle. The Union then evacuated the area, while the Confederacy cheered for winning the Battle of Fort Sumter.  Both the North and the South were preparing to attack each other by asking for volunteers if they want to help out in the war. Abraham Lincoln asked for 75,000 troops to volunteer, which was fulfilled quickly, while the states of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas seceded from the Union and joined the Confederacy. With these actions taken, these events led to the beginning to the Civil War - the war between the North and the South.

Battle of Fort Sumter 

    In the First Battle of the Bull Run, the start of the first major battle in the Civil War, the generals of the Union or the Confederacy were planning to attack each other with distractions and flanks. The inexperienced soldiers followed the plan that each general had in mind, but with errors that weren't expected to happen.

     The First Battle of Bull Run started at July 21, 1861. The battle started at Manassas Junction, which was right next to Bull Run, which was a river. General Irvin McDowell and was part of the Union, while Joseph E. Johnston, P. G. T. Beauregard, James Ewell Brown, and Thomas Jackson were part of the Confederate. About 28,450 inexperienced soldiers fought for the Union, while about 32,230 inexperienced soldiers fought for the Confederacy. The purpose of the battle was to show that it was the first major battle in the Civil War.

     At the start of the battle, the generals of each side were planning to flank each other. In the Confederate side, they were lacking coordination and failing to communicate, while the Union had a plan that required synchronization. The Union's forces started to travel across Bull Run and some separated to Sudley Ford to flank the Confederate soldiers. The Confederate Army was split into a small and a large group, where the small group was to take care of the distraction, while the larger group was to flank the flank that the Union had in mind. As the battle went on, Colonel Thomas Jackson, part of the Confederacy, defended the area of Henry House Hill, which made him known as "Stonewall." Later, the Confederate Army was able to dominate the flank the Union had planned. Colonel James Ewell Brown rushed into the Union battle area, which made them flee towards the rear. During the rush, people were damaging the property and the area, therefore making the Union retreat back to Washington D.C. by July 22. There were about 2,896 casualties in the Union and about 1,982 casualties in the Confederate, making about 4,878 casualties during the battle.

     When the Union retreated, the Confederacy won the battle. Due to this, Abraham Lincoln signed two bills that requested for 1 million troops that would serve for 3 years to participate in the battle. He also recruited George B. McClellan to head the Union army of the East and organize the troops.

First Battle of Bull Run 

     In the Battle of Fort Donnelson, the Union were planning to dominate the area to have a larger fort.

     The Battle of Fort Donnelson started on February 11, 1862. The battle was located at Fort Donelson. Andrew Hull Foote and Ulysses S. Grant were in the Union, while Hideon J. Pillow, John Buchanan Floyd, and Simon B. Buckner were in the Confederacy. About 24,531 soldiers participated in the Union, while 16,171 soldiers participated in the Confederacy. It lasted until February 16, 1862. The purpose of the battle was to capture the Confederate fort, Fort Donelson.

     At the start of the battle, Henry Halleck approved General Ulysses S. Grant's plan to attack Fort Henry first, then attack Fort Donelson to have a larger fort. The plan was created at February 6, 1862, then Grant expected to capture Fort Donelson by February 8. His expected date was then shifted to a later date due to challenges the Union faced. They faced poor winter weather, reinforcements that held them back, and the movement of the ironclads to Cumberland.

     While the Union move towards Fort Henry, the Confederate's plan was to keep more soldiers on the site. Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston appointed General John B. Floyd and had about 17,000 soldiers and revamped artillery positions, which encouraged the Confederacy to win. As time passes by, the Union Army arrived at Fort Donelson by February 13. They surrounded the perimeter of the fort, making it complicated for the Confederate Army to escape and forcing them to fight their way to freedom. On the 15th, the Confederacy were dominating the Union, making the Union be sent back on Dudley's hill. The Confederacy were then ordered by Gideon Pillow to return the offense force back to their territory. During the night of the 15th and the morning of the 16th, the Confederate leaders were debating and ended up with the conclusion to surrender. Later during the 16th, the Union charged to Fort Donelson, but was shocked to see a surrender flag above the fort.

     Due to the surrender flag above Fort Donelson, it proves that the Union won this battle. There were a total of 16,537 casualties, where 2691 Union casualties and 13,846 Confederate casualties took place. General Simon B. Buckner  met with Ulysses S. Grant and talked about the terms of surrender. Grant then said that he doesn't accept the immediate surrender and plans to move into Fort Donelson. As soon as they discussed the terms of surrender, there was an avalanche of people claiming to become the bridge general from Point Pleasant, Ohio.

Battle of Fort Donelson 

    In the Battle of Hampton Roads, it was a battle of two ironclads attempting to dominate each other, but ends up not making a dent into each other with the projectiles.

     The battle started at March 8, 1862. The battle took place at Norfolk, Virginia. John L. Worden commanded for the Union, while Franklin Buchanan commanded for the Confederate. About 1,400 Union soldiers participated, while about 188 Confederate soldiers participated. The battle lasted until March 9th. The purpose of the battle was to blockade the Southern ports to make the Southern community  have trouble in gaining supply from trading in order to make them have a short supply on materials. Along with that, it changed the future of the warships fighting each other with the iron plates they used in this battle.

     In the start of the battle, the Confederates salvaged the Merrimack, which was an abandoned Union warship, and revamped it into the Virginia. Virginia was a wooden ship covered in iron plates that could prevent any projectile from damaging the core. With the advantage of an iron plated warship, they were able to destroy the Cumberland with the iron ram they had. Unfortunately, the iron ram broke after the strike and sank down with Cumberland. They then targeted the USS Congress and won with the signal of the flag being brought down at USS Congress.

     Due to the damage they have caused, the Union built their own iron-clad ship named Monitor and went in war with the Virginia. On March 9, they exchanged the fires until they were both out of ammunition. They weren't able to make a hole into each other, but only dents. Both the Virginia and the Monitor retreated to safety.

     As the result of the battle, neither the Union nor the Confederate won the battle. There were approximately 393 casualties, where 369 Union casualties and 24 Confederate casualties took place during the war.The only difference that changed the future of warships was that they were to build more ironclads to increase the strength.

Battle of Hampton Roads 

    In the Battle of Shiloh, the war was full of gory fighting with one another that contains suprise attacks and casualties of about 23,746 in total.

     The battle started on April 6, 1862. It took place at southwestern Tennessee, which is right next to Corinth, Mississippi. Don Carlos Buell and Ulysses S. Grant commanded for the Untion, while Albert Sidney Johnston and P. G. T. Beauregard commanded for the Confederate. There were 65,085 Union soldiers that participated, while 44,968 Confederate soldiers that participated. The battle ended at April 7, 1862. The purpose of the battle was for the Union to gain control of Memphis, Tennessee to be a step closer to controlling the Mississippi River.

     When the battle started, the Union army stayed at Pittsburg Landing, which was right next to Shiloh, a church. At Pittsburg Landing, they took the time to recruit more people and wait for reinforcements of Major General Don Carlos Buell's Army to get to where they were at. Meanwhile, Albert Sidney Johnston planned to strike Grant's army first before their reinforcements arrive. On the morning of April 6, the Confederate army gave them a suprise attack. They were able to send the unprepared Union army down to the "Hornets Nest," where they were able to dominate the Union with massed artillery. Later that day, Buell's army arrived and set up a defense. Both sides kept fighting until night. Until then, Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston was killed in the battle, which left General P. G. T. Beauregard in control of the Confederate army.

     The Union army outnumbered the Confederate army with 40,000 Union soldiers and less than 30,000 Confederate soldiers. On April 7, Buell's army sent attacks, while Beauregard's army sent counterattacks. With Beauregard knowing that he was outnumbered, his army retreated. Therefore, the Union won the battle. There were about 23,746 casualties during the battle, where 13,047 Union casualties and 10,669 Confederate casualties took place. The Union was able to gain control of Corinth and Memphis, Tennessee. They were closer to controlling the Mississippi River. A few weeks later after the Battle of Shiloh, they were able to capture New Orleans and gain control of most of the Mississippi River.

Battle of Shiloh 

     In the Battle of Second Bull Run, it was the struggle for the Union to defend the Northern land to prevent the Confederacy to enter the Northern lands.

     The battle started at August 28, 1862. It took place at Prince William County, Virginia. John Pope commanded for the Union, while Robert, E. Lee commanded for the Confederate. Approximately 70,000 soldiers fought for the Union, while 55,000 soldiers fought for the Confederate. The battle lasted until August 30th. The purpose of the battle was to move the Confederate army into Northern territory.

     When thew battle started, the Lincoln administration chosen John Pope to lead the forces in northern Virginia. He also had to protect Washington. In the Confederate side, Robert E. Lee sent "Stonewall" Jackson to Gordonsville to counter Pope's actions of traveling to central Virginia. McClellan's Army travelled to northern Virginia to join forces with Pope. Confederate General Robert E. Lee ordered James Longstreet's Army to join Jackson's army to foil Pope's plans. On August 15, Lee's goal was to dominate most of Pope's army, but ended up failing to do so due to Pope withdrawing behind the Rappahannock on August 19. On August 25, Jackson tried to make Pope move away from his defensive positions by flanking around the Union to lower Pope's supply line, which was at Manassas. Jackson's army marched for 55 miles to get to the supply area. Soon, it succeeded and he was able to torch the supplies and slip away into northrn Groveton, which was near the first Bull Run battlefield.

     On August 28, Pope ordered his army to attack Jackson's army before he escapes. On August 29, Pope's army was striking Jackson's army, but they keep getting pushed back each time. On August 30, Pope had high hopes that the Confederates were retreating, so they did a pursuit on them, but failed due to Jackson's forces hiding. Porter's and John Hatch's army attacked Jackson's forces, but failed due to the artillery support. Lastly, Robert E. Lee and Longstreet's army created a large counterattack that dominated the Union.

     Longstreet's army attempted to prevent Pope's army to escape by traveling to Henry Hill. Union's forces then attempted to retreat back to the Washington defenses, but the Confederate flank of Henry Hill made it complicated for them to escape, creating a small battle at Chantilly on September 1. They were later able to escape. As a result, the Confederates won the battle.  There were 13,824 casualties in the Union, while there were 8,353 casualties in the Confederate. The Confederate army was able to step onto Northern land, into Maryland.

Battle of Second Bull Run 

    In the Battle of Antietam, it was the bloodiest 12-hour battle that helped the Union in gaining an advantage.

     The battle started at September 17, 1862. It took place at Sharpsburg, Maryland. George B. McClellan commanded for the Union, while Robert E. Lee commanded for the Confederate. There were about 87,000 Union soldiers and 45,000 Confederate soldiers. The battle lasted for a rough 12 hours. The purpose of the battle was to support the Union and Abraham Lincoln to prepare the Emancipation Proclamation, which would change the future of the American Civil War.

     In the start of the battle, Major General Joseph Hooker's Union unit attacked Robert E. Lee's left flank. There were constant Union attacks and Confederate counterattacks being sent to each other. Major General Abrose Burnside's unit attacked through a stone bridge at Antietam Creek and was able to deal damage to the Confederate right. Confederate A.P. Hill's division was able to counterattack the Union's attacks, which makes the Union outnumbered with two Confederates. Later, Robert E. Lee sent his whole unit to attack, while McClellan sent one-third of his army. Later that night, Lee was still attacking McClellan's army even though most of them were wounded.

     Towards the end of the battle, there were many soldiers wounded and neither side were destroyed nor won. There were about 12,401 Union casualties and 10,316 Confederate casualties. Although neither side won, the Union and Abraham Lincoln claimed victory. Abraham Lincoln fired McClellan from his command in November and replaced him with General Ambrose Burnside. The Battle of Antietam helped Abraham Lincoln acheive the victory he needed before sending the Emancipation Proclamation, which is the freeing of slaves that are within the Confederate states.


Battle of Antietam 

    In the Battle of Fredericksburg, it was the first battle location to be in an urban location and the Confederate army had the advantage location that brought the Union into a disadvantage.

     The battle started at December 11, 1862. It took place at Fredericksburg, Virginia. Ambrose E. Burnside commanded for the Union, while Robert E. Lee commanded for the Confederate. There were about 100,007 Union soldiers and 72,497 Confederate soldiers. The battle ended at December 15. The purpose of the battle was to end the campaign against the Confederate Capitol of Richmond.

     When the battle started, Burnside had a plan to use 60,000 soldiers of Major General William B. Franklin's unit to attack the flank Lee had, while the rest of his army was to hold back Longstreet and the Confederate unit back in the same spot. The attack on Jackon's unit brought little success until they counterattacked, which made no difference in the strategic battle, except for the loss of about 9,000 soldiers combined. Later, the Union army attempted to attack at a higher area, but failed due to the rifle and artillery shots the enemy were firing.

     With the higher advantage and the similar stonewall the Confederates had, they were able to dominate the Union. As a result, the Confederate side won the battle. There were about 13,353 casualties in the Union and 4,576 casualties in the Confederate. Six weeks after the battle, Abraham Lincoln fired Abrose E. Burnside from the commander position of the Army of the Potomac and was replaced by Joseph Hooker.

Battle of Fredericksburg 

      In the battle of Chancellorsville, Lee's army faced its longest odds by fighting in the wilderness of Virginia.

     The battle started at April 30, 1863. It took place at Chancellorsville, Virginia. Joseph Hooker commanded the Union, while Robert E. Lee commanded for the Confederate. About 97,382 soldiers fought for the Union, while 57,352 soldiers fought for the Confederate. The battle ended at May 6th. The purpose of the battle was to deal damage on the command structure of the Northern Virginia army.

     When the battle started, General Joseph Hooker, the general that replaced Burnside, was able to recover his unit to full strength. With that, he then attacked Lee's army during late April. He then hoped to attack Lee's left side, but overswinged and got lost in the wilderness. On May 1, Lee's unit slowly pushed Hooker's units towards Orange Turnpike and Orange Plank Road. On May 2, Jackson took about 30,000 soldiers to attack through and behind the Union army, while Lee held the Union's position. Later that day, Jackson was able to shift the Union army back two miles. Three hours later, Jackson's own men shot Stonewall Jackson's left arm, so they had to amptuate it. On May 3rd, a Confederate artillery smashed a pillar onto Hooker, which made him unconsious for half an hour. Later that day, they were able to break the resistance the Union had. On May 4, they captured Hooker's defeated army.

     On May 6, Hooker's army left Chancellorsville, defeated. As a result, the Confederate side won. There were about 17,304 casualties in the Union and 13,460 casualtiesd in the Confederate. Stonewall Jackson died a week later since the day of his left arm being shot.


Battle of Chancellorsville 

    In the assault on Vicksburg, it was the key for the Union to gain control of the Mississippi River.

     The battle started on May 18, 1863. It took place at Vicksburg, Mississippi. Ulysses S. Grant commanded for the Union, while John C. Pemberton commanded for the Confederate. There were about 77,000 Union soldiers and 33,000 Confederate soldiers. The purpose of the battle was for the Union to gain control of the Mississippi River.

     When the battle started, The Union army attacked the Confederate stronghold on May 19 and 22. John C. Pemberton's army has been defending, while the Union continued to lay siege to the city for 47 days.

     On July 4, 1863, Permberton's forces became weak and surrendered. Therefore, the Union won the battle. There were 4,910 casualties in the Union and 32,492 casualties in the Confederacy. They were able to gain full control of the Mississippi River, which cuts the Southern supply lines and divided the Confederate states.

Assault on Vicksburg 


    In the Battle of Gettysburg, it was the turning point in the Civil War, where the Union is winning.

     The battle started on July 1, 1863. The battle took place at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. George G. Meade commanded for the Union and Robert E. Lee commanded for the Confederacy. There were about 93,921 Union soldiers and 71,699 Confederate soldiers. The batte ended on July 3, 1863. The purpose of the battle was to make the turning point in the Civil War, where the Union is winning and the Confederacy is losing.

     When the battle started, the Union and the Confederacy encountered each other at west Gettysburg on July 1. The Confederate soldiers were able to gain more reinforcements, making a total of about 30,000 soldiers defeating 20,000 Union soldiers. Due to this, they were shifted backwards into Cemetery Hill and Culp's Hill. On July 2, the Union were in a defensive stance with 90,000 soldiers. The Confederacy then surrounded them with 70,000 soldiers and attacked the Union flank. As time passed by, fighting took place at the battlefields of Devil's Den, Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, the Peach Orchard and Cemetery Ridge. Towards the end of the day, the Union still held a strong ground even if the Confederacy were at offensive mode.

     On July 3, at Culp's hill, the Confederate army had an assault on the Union soldiers at Cemetery Ridge. The assault was then repelled by Union rifles and the artillery fire. Due to this, Lee's army had to retreat. As a result, the Union won the battle. There were about 23,049 casualties in the Union and 28,063 casualties in the Confederacy. Four months later after the end of the Battle of Gettysburg, President Lincoln went to a Gettysburg ceremony to dedicate the Union soldiers that died in the war. He also beautifully expressed the purpose of the battle in the Gettysburg Address.

Battle of Gettysburg 

Surrender at Appomatiox & Terms of Surrender


    In the surrender at Appomatiox, it was the last battle in the Civil War that made the Confederacy surrender.

     On April 9, 1865, at 8:00 a.m., the Confederate army traveled to Appomattox County, Virginia. There was a small battle that the Confederacy won, but there were more Union reinforcements surrounding Lee's army. As the Union soldiers outnumbered Lee's army, he ordered his troops to retreat through the village. Over time, the pockets of the Confederacy's freedom became smaller and smaller. At 10:00 - 11:00 a.m., Lee's army surrendered because he didn't want to sacrifice the lives of his soldiers for no reason. With this surrender, it became the conclusion of the Civil War.

     With this conclusion of the Civil War, the Union had generous terms of surrender. These terms went under the decision of Grant. His terms were that they had to lay down their arms. After that, they were free to go home, but with three days' worth of food sent to Lee's troops. As days passed, the Confederate forces surrendered in North Carolina. The Civil War ends at this point of time.


Important Person - Abraham Lincoln


    Abraham Lincoln was an important person in the Union side of the Civil War. He was born on February 12, 1809 in Hardin County, Kentucky. He was the president of the United States from 1860 to 1865. He plays a role in the Union as commander-in-chief.

    Before he became a president, he studied law and campaigned for the seat on the Illinois State Legislature. By 1834, he won the position and served as a Whig. Later, he practiced being a lawyer at Springfield, Illinois. Over there, he met Mary Todd. Later, they became married to each other in 1842. With the practice of being a lawyer and knowing how to do law, he joined the newer Republican party that had an agrument over sectionalism as of the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act. In the presidential election of 1860, Abraham Lincoln win the nomination with the help of the Northern states and no Southern states. He was unpopular in the Southern states due to his anti-slavery platform.

     As soon as he went through the inaugural address, there was a bombardment at Fort Sumter with the Confederates attacking, which began the Civil War. As the Civil War passed by, he had the role of commander-in-chief. As a commander-in-chief, he had to have strategic planning, weapon testing, and promotion and demotion of officers due to them failing to help bring success to beat the Confederates. The people he demoted were McDowell, Fremont, McClellan, Pope, Buell, Burnside, and Rosecrans.  As time passed by, in the Battle of Antietam, he was able to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, which was the freeing of slaves in the Southern states.

     In 1864, he became president again. On Marh 4, 1865, in his second inauguration speech, he said that his goal was to set peace between the North and the South. A month later, the Civil War ended. On April 14, 1865, he was then assassinated by John Wikes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. The day after the assassination, he died. 

Important Person - Jefferson Davis

    Jefferson Davis is an important person in the Confederate side of the Civil War. He was born on June 3, 1808, in Fairview, Kentucky. He was the only Confederate president in the Confederate States of America. He plays the role as the chief in the Confederate army.

     Before the Civil War began, he was fighting in the Black Hawk War in 1832. As he was stationed at Colonel Zachary Taylor, he was able to meet Sarah Knox Taylor. They became married at 1835, but she died 3 months after the wedding due to malaria. He secluded himself in Davis Bend, Mississippi for 8 years. During those 8 years, he realized how important slavery was to him in his life. In 1853, he was nominated to be the U.S. Secretary of War. On January 21, 1861, he left his position due to Mississippi seceding from the Union. A month later, he became the president for the Confederacy. As a president, he had to face challenges that didn't suit him. He had arguments with the Southern people and he was plagued by chronic illness during the Civil War.

    On May 10, 1865, the day after the end of the Civil War, he was captured by Northern soldiers. The soldiers then imprisoned him for two years at Monroe, Virginia. Once he was released, he moved to the Mississippi gulf. Over there, he wrote about his war experiences. On December 6, 1889, Jefferson died at New Orleans, Louisiana.

     During the Civil War, the lives of many Americans were different than the Americans that lived before it all started.

     The lives of soldiers were dull due to the repetitive amount of days they live their life through. They would go through boredom, fear, horror, and discomfort inside of camps and fear and horror outside in battle. There would be days where they would starve due to the lack of food and days where they would be sick from rain. In the battlefield, they tend to run away due to fear and sickness.

     The lives of women covered for the men who were in the army and new jobs were created. Some Northern women would bandage the soldiers, some would make ammunition, and others would get medicine and food for the troops. The women would try to keep in touch with their husband, hoping that they didn't die in battle, which builds anxiety and grief in them. As of the Southern women, they were struggling to get supplies to recover the injured soldiers. Some women would act as spies to gain information about the plans each side had as of attacks. With the struggle of the war, some women would disguise as men and partake in the war or they would become nurses to aid the injured.

     The lives of children during the Civil War were changed due to people describing to them about why they need to win. The children that were under the age of 18 followed their elders by becoming an enlisted soldier, which would increase the number of soldiers needed in the war.  By the time they were age 18, they would partake in the war.

     The lives of the African Americans became different than their past when the Emancipation Proclamation was passed. Before it was passed, they were used as slaves to work in the plantations or they worked as nurses at the South. The white Southerners denied to use them as soldiers because they needed money to get more supplies. At the North, they weren't allowed to serve int he Union army, but were allowed to serve in the Union navy because they could work as spies to find out what was happening in the Confederate side. When the proclamation was passed in 1862, they were able to join the Union army. There were 200,000 African Americans that partook in the war, although they were separate from the white Union soldiers.

Life During the Civil War 

     Before the Civil War ended, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. As the Civil War came to an end, the United States of America struggles to return to a stable state and tried to reconstruct into normal conditions. The Confederacy surrendered and the Union won the war.

     As of the end of the Civil War, there were an estimate of more than 600,000 soldiers that died. The damage caused from several battles made bridges, railroads, and shattered structures useless and costed billions of dollars. The South's economy system was about to shatter with all of the damage made from the war.

     There were changes in the United States after the Civil War. They had a stronger federal government and they were able to save the Union. When Abraham Lincoln passed the Emancipation Proclamation, it was able to free the African Americans from slavery. Another change that all of the Americans were considered about, after four years being in war, was that they had to repair all of the damage they had, find out how to bring the Southern states back into the Union, and find a way to place the African Americans in society. They were able to fix the situation through the Reconstruction Era. The Reconstruction Era was the period of time where it repairs the Southern United States and gives the African Americans a status in American society.

The Result of the Civil War



- Discovering Our Past: The Amrican Journey to World War I (pages 543 - 613)