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Bridging, Healing the Air, August 2020

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CONTENT 1 2 COVER STORY Healing the Air 3 Renewable Hydrogen as a Platform for Sustainability 4 5 Fuel Cell Technologies for Heavy Duty Transportation 6 7 Reference Spray for Aligning the Spray Community 8 9 Outreach Student Experience 11 Publications 10 12 Improving the Environmental Benefit of Emerging Energy Storage Technologies through Life Cycle Analysis UCI Hydrogen Refueling Station History HIMaC2 Update Graduates and Internships Highlights of the 2019 2020 Academic Year

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COVER STORY HEALING THE AIR The devastating effects of the novel coronavirus pandemic have impacted every aspect of our society disrupting entrenched patterns of human behavior and changing how we live work and travel While the crisis is overwhelmingly harmful it does provide a unique opportunity to examine aspects of our world with novel insights and from an altered perspective In this regard one of the most prominent insights is pollution in the air a byproduct of the fossil fuel based energy systems that currently power society As factories have closed cars and trucks removed from the roads and aircraft grounded pollutant emissions from these and other impacted sources have fallen significantly The result has been noteworthy reductions in the atmospheric concentrations of the particle and chemical species that we collectively refer to as air pollution This was first observed in China as extensive actions to combat viral spread led to reductions in pollution including notable drops in particulate matter PM a particularly detrimental pollutant from a human health standpoint 1 Similar reductions are being seen in urban areas worldwide including Madrid Milan Paris and New Delhi These trends are also clearly evident in the U S including Los Angeles which has experienced an estimated 30 percent decrease in PM and oxides of nitrogen NOx in the weeks following the announcement of stay at home orders 2 The clearing of the air has been remarkable and attained widespread attention as it manifests around the globe The suddenly clean skies have given Indian citizens a view of the Himalayas not seen for decades a poignant reminder of the natural beauty that lay hidden behind clouds of pollution 3 The tone of those interviewed was surprise or perhaps even astonishment It serves to highlight that we may not always be aware of the sacrifices that degraded air quality entail and have awoken to a sudden realization of them However the most important outcome by far is the corresponding improvements in human health or perhaps better stated as the avoidance of deleterious health effects that would have occurred if the pollution had not been reduced Exposure to air pollution has long been associated with a myriad of health consequences including heart attacks strokes and episodes of other serious disease burdens 4 In fact it has been conservatively estimated that the cleaner air provided by the pandemic may have prevented up to 20 times more deaths than was caused by the virus itself in China 5 Besides the gravity of avoiding premature mortality cleaner air also means fewer people will require hospitalizations or other medical treatments Similarly fewer employees will need to miss work due to illness or to care for ill children unable to attend school While most have some recognition that air pollution is damaging to health what is less commonly understood is that avoiding these health incidences attains remarkable monetary savings For example the cost of a hospital stay for someone experiencing an air pollution induced illness can range from 400 to 28 000 6 When these avoided costs are aggregated across an exposed population they are often orders of magnitude higher than the cost of implementing measures to improve air pollution 7 Of course under no circumstances should it be rationalized that the COVID 19 pandemic is even indirectly beneficial given the devastation it has wrought on societal health and well being including the severe economic damages that further contribute health detriments Rather the insight it provides is that we have a tendency to ignore or accept environmental degradations that lack immediate and obvious health consequences Often healthy environments have been sacrificed in the name of progress economic growth and the expansion of our societal machinations 1 http www g feed com 2020 03 covid 19 reduces economic activity html https www washingtonpost com weather 2020 04 09 air quality improving coronavirus 3 https www cnn com travel article himalayas visible lockdown india scli intl index html 4 https ourworldindata org air pollution 5 http www g feed com 2020 03 covid 19 reduces economic activity html 6 http www ahdbonline com articles 652 article 652 7 https www epa gov clean air act overview benefits and costs clean air act 1990 2020 second prospective study 2 1 Exposure to air pollution has long been associated with a myriad of health consequences including heart attacks strokes and episodes of other serious disease burdens 4

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But it does the raise the pivotal question can we have both economic prosperity and clean air The answer is yes although the achievement will certainly not be on the same rapid time scale The replacement of our current fossil fuel based energy systems with clean renewable fuels and zero emission end use technologies represents a true path to sustainable pollution free air APEP research over the past two decades has demonstrated quite emphatically that switching to zero emission vehicles powered by batteries and fuel cells in tandem with transitions to renewable electricity and hydrogen is an effective strategy to diminish atmospheric pollution burdens Figure 1 shows the reductions in ozone from a long term energy scenario High H2 scenario incorporating electrification and transitions to hydrogen within all major energy sectors resulting in deep reductions in GHG and pollutant emissions The air quality improvements are dramatic and have a pronounced effect in highly populated southern California which emphasizes the associated health benefits Indeed lowering the pollution levels leads to health savings of 590 million and 428 million per 10 day episode during peak formation periods in summer and winter respectively Such transitions can be made effectively and economically in the coming decades and represents the ultimate solution for removing the risk associated with exposure to air pollution Baseline Ozone Levels ppb High H2 Ozone Levels ppb Figure 1 Ozone concentrations for business as usual energy systems and for an economy based on the use of renewable electricity and hydrogen and zero emission batteries and fuel cells in all major economic sectors Economic Health Savings 700 Simply stated the remarkable quality of air around the world associated with the pandemic has provided unique and invaluable insight into the air environment to which we aspire with the transition from fossil to renewable fuels Equally profound but not as evident is the dramatic reduction in carbon emission a requirement to reverse the damaging economic and environmental impacts associated with climate change This indeed is a unique glimpse of the environmental quality which current policy goals are attempting to achieve in the second half of this century and causes us to wonder if the goal could not be achieved much sooner through an improbable but not impossible consensus of global leadership Million Episode 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Summer Winter Figure 2 The estimated value of health benefits from AQ improvements for the High H2 Scenario for a 10 day pollutant formation episode 2

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There is growing global consensus among energy experts that renewable hydrogen RH2 can be a key foundation in decarbonization strategies serving as a flexible source of renewable energy available on demand and storable in massive quantities The Advanced Power and Energy Program APEP recently completed a roadmap for the scaling and build out of the renewable hydrogen production sector in California to serve a broad range of applications in the energy and transportation sectors Potential uses for renewable hydrogen include fuel for transportation of all types refining fertilizer production firming of renewable power generation and process heat and domestic heating Hydrogen is a clean and versatile energy carrier that when Million Kilograms Per Year produced from renewable feedstock creates no greenhouse gas emissions and has ultra low conventional emissions in most applications However production capacity for renewable hydrogen is currently minimal in California and hydrogen pump prices for fuel cell vehicles the foundational early market demand source are above 16 per kilogram the energy equivalent of one gallon of gasoline Even with a fuel economy 2 5 times better than conventional combustion engine vehicles the price per kilogram must be reduced So can renewable hydrogen production and supply chain costs come down to the point where the renewable hydrogen sector can be self sustaining The APEP research investigation concluded that the answer is yes and the demand for renewable hydrogen in California could exceed 4 2 billion kilograms Year per year by 2050 California Renewable Hydrogen Demand Renewable Hydrogen Production Technology Pathways and Cost Outlook Renewable hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways The three primary pathways considered in the roadmap were 1 water splitting via electrolysis powered by renewable electricity 2 gasification of woody biomass 3 anaerobic digestion of high moisture content organic material to produce biomethane followed by steam methane reforming SMR Establishing the current cost of producing renewable hydrogen and forecasting costs out to 2050 was a key part of the RH2 production roadmap analysis A variety of methods were used to triangulate the estimates including expert input learning curve analysis and other methods The net result of the analysis is that renewable hydrogen produced by either electrolysis or gasification can reach a cost point below 2 per kilogram in the 2030 time frame and the full dispensed cost of hydrogen for fueling vehicles can reach a cost point of under 5 per kilogram over the long term Annual Additions Million Metric Tons Per Day Aggregate Supply Million Metric Tons Per Day Dispensed Price Per KG Evolution of Renewable Hydrogen Pump Price Building Out a New Sector A major construction program will be needed to meet the future demand for renewable hydrogen Hundreds of new facilities will be needed by 2050 Facility siting will be driven by access to feedstock wind and solar for electrolysis woody biomass for thermochemical systems and wet organic waste for reformed biomethane The Path Forward Year in Operation Renewable Hydrogen Facility Build out Renewable hydrogen can be an important in fact critical part of a broad decarbonization strategy for California and the world Action is needed to make this a reality Research and development are needed to advance key technologies such as electrolysis and thermochemical biomass conversion Policy and regulatory action are needed to adapt electric rate structure to support electrolysis and to recognize and enable the unique cross sectoral benefits of renewable hydrogen fueling multiple applications apep uci edu rh2whitepaper 3

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Improving the Environmental Benefit of Emerging Energy Storage Technologies through Life Cycle Analysis As the electricity system transitions from dependence on fossil fuels and towards renewable energy resources various stakeholders are recognizing the need for energy storage systems to enable higher use of variable wind and solar generation The incumbent energy storage solution for shifting variable wind and solar generation over a period of a few hours is lithium ion battery technology due to its high efficiency decreasing cost and high energy density with significant development experience from their use in electric vehicles With the increasing adoption of variable renewable energy resources and evermore ambitious state wide electricity decarbonization goals the need for energy storage systems that can shift variable renewable generation across longer durations will be needed Flow batteries represent a promising technology for electrical energy storage systems that can potentially fill the need to shift renewable generation on multi day timescales These flow battery systems store energy in liquid electrolytes housed in tanks that are physically separated from the electrodes When undergoing charging and discharging processes these electrolyte solutions are pumped and flowed through the anodes and cathodes as needed These characteristics are in contrast to conventional batteries such as lithium ion where energy is stored in an electrolyte solution that is physically packaged in the same unit as the electrodes Flow batteries enable energy storage installations to size their power capacity and energy capacity independently of each other and to be tailored for specific applications Expanding power capacity involves installing more reaction plate areas whereas expanding energy capacity involves installing more electrolyte storage Therefore these systems can be sized to provide multi day energy storage at potentially lower costs than conventional batteries Both conventional and flow batteries enable reductions in environmental impacts by allowing the electric grid to absorb more renewable electricity generation These systems also contribute towards environmental impacts from the materials extraction manufacturing and end of life stages of their life cycle While significant research data exists for characterizing these impacts for conventional battery chemistries a similar understanding does not yet exist for flow battery chemistries Given that flow batteries may fulfill an important role in enabling the development of a highly renewable electric grid in the future it is critical to gain an understanding of their life cycle environmental impacts and compare these to the environmental benefits these systems provide during their use on the electric grid The Advanced Power and Energy Program APEP was awarded a California Energy Commission research grant for a 3 year project to perform life cycle environmental and human health impact assessment of emerging flow battery chemistries The project involves expertise across UC Irvine on energy systems materials science and footprinting and public health APEP has worked with input from three flow battery manufacturers representing three different flow battery chemistries Vanadium Redox UniEnergy Technologies Zinc Bromide Primus Power and Iron ESS Inc to obtain material composition and supply chain data To date the project has discovered that all three flow battery chemistries provide similar levels of environmental benefits during their use but have widely ranging environmental impacts from other stages of their life cycle and have key materials that are largely responsible for those impacts For example the vast majority of environmental impacts from the Vanadium Redox flow battery are due to the sourcing and production of Vanadium Pentoxide used to produce the battery electrolyte However different pathways for producing these compounds can significantly increase or decrease the extent of impacts from this technology In general materials selection was found to be a key sensitivity for the environmental impact results for these technologies The project is due to be completed in the second half of 2020 The data from this project will allow policymakers and decisionmakers a better understanding of the life cycle environmental impacts of these emerging technologies which can be compared to those of conventional battery technologies This will also provide flow battery manufacturers insight into how to improve their supply chain manufacturing processes and materials selection to reduce the environmental impacts associated with their products in current and future product iterations The Advanced Power and Energy Program APEP was awarded a California Energy Commission research grant for a 3 year project to perform life cycle environmental and human health impact assessment of emerging flow battery chemistries 4

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Fuel Cell Technologies for Heavy Duty Transportation The energy industry is comprised of four major sectors that include residential commercial industrial and transportation The transportation sector consumes the largest amount of energy at the lowest efficiency Electrification of the transportation sector is needed to reduce its reliance on fossil fuels and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions In the United States more than 70 of freight is carried by trucks 1 Medium and heavy duty trucks Class 3 8 use 25 of yearly fuel used by all vehicles 2 Most heavy duty trucks are currently powered by diesel engines that emit nitrogen oxides and high levels of particulates The Energy Information Administration EIA projects that freight trucks travel will increase by 54 by 2050 3 To meet the increased demand for truck freight and to reduce fossil fuel energy dependency battery electric and hydrogen powered fuel cell electric freight trucks pose as a viable solution Fuel cell electric freight trucks utilize hydrogen as a fuel and offer a much higher specific energy than batteries Freight trucks that use hydrogen produced from renewable energy have a well to wheels upstream emissions due to electricity and hydrogen production emissions of 0 Fuel cells also offer high efficiency and fast fueling time as well as fuel storage for long range medium and heavy duty trucks The current challenge is understanding the existing freight trucks drive cycle and designing a fuel cell stack for these driving conditions with a demanding durability requirement of which up to one million miles for the lifetime of the stack is needed for medium and heavy duty trucks In addition longer operation time and greater mileage range require efficient fuel consumption and therefore operation of fuel cells at higher efficiencies higher voltage lower current densities To address these challenges the National Fuel Cell Research Center NFCRC Associate Director Professor Zenyuk and her team partnered with Robert Bosch LLC based in Sunnyvale CA to advance fuel cell technologies for freight truck use The team have set the goal to achieve fuel cell efficiency of 65 and durability of 30 000 hours that are aligned with the Department of Energy DOE targets while keeping platinum Pt loading in cathodes below 0 2 mg cm2 These targets will be achieved by using novel catalysts catalyst support advanced diagnostic modeling and development of accelerated stress tests ASTs that simulate the drive cycle of medium and heavy duty trucks Durability and efficiency are two design criteria that guide development of membrane electrode assembly MEAs for medium duty and heavy duty trucks MEAs are at the heart of fuel cell technologies and consist of polymer electrolyte membrane PEM and catalyst layers that are made up of Pt or 5 Pt alloy electrocatalyst carbon black support and ionomer Fuel cell durability losses are due to Pt dissolution and agglomeration during drive cycle in addition to carbon support corrosion These losses are more pronounced at high potentials Therefore the design of a robust catalyst layer and MEAs is much needed to satisfy the 30 000 hour target The NFCRC will use graphitized carbon black supports that are more corrosion resistant as well as using other additives that can protect Pt from dissolution Efficiency is a measure of fuel utilization which scales with V 1 25 V based on a lower heating value LHV of hydrogen A larger flexibility of fuel cell stack design for heavy duty application allows more relaxed targets on Pt loadings but more stringent requirements for voltage and Faradaic efficiencies To achieve higher efficiencies 65 we will target operation at lower current densities higher potential and higher temperatures However operation at these higher temperatures is not well understood but it is known that degradation mechanisms are accelerated and the NFCRC and partners will study support corrosion rates as well as Pt dissolution The team will also work on developing ASTs at these higher temperatures to better understand the fundamentals of degradation mechanisms and to design MEAs that are efficient durable and meet the ambitious goals set by the DOE 1 U S Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics and Federal Highway Administration Freight Analysis Framework version 4 4 1 2018 https www bts gov topics freight transportation freightshipments mode 2 Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2017 Transportation Energy Data Book 36 tables 4 1 4 2 5 1 and 5 2 3 U S Energy Information Administration 2018 Annual Energy Outlook 2018 Transportation Sector Key Indicators and Delivered Energy Consumption Table Reference Case accessed May 10 2018

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UCI Hydrogen Refueling Station History Since 2003 the National Fuel Cell Research Center NFCRC has operated the first U S publicly accessible hydrogen refueling station HRS During this period the UCI HRS supported all vehicle manufacturers in the early pre commercialization years evaluating the fuel cell electric vehicle FCEV The inaugural station GEN I funded by Toyota featured 1 an Air Products Chemicals Inc APCI SFC 2 fueling system with a two fill per day design capacity at a fueling pressure of 350 MPa 2 a gaseous hydrogen supply from a locally sited 280 kg capacity tube trailer and 3 an enclosed and secured 10 foot high screened perimeter fence Drivers were required to wear personal protective equipment and ground the vehicle before dispensing fuel Reliability issues were common and a total of 76 successful fills were completed before the station was upgraded The second generation station GEN II also funded by Toyota was commissioned in November 2003 with an APCI Series 100 fueling system that featured an increased capacity of 2 3 fills per day and a smaller more space efficient tube trailer with a 110 kg hydrogen storage capacity The dispenser was updated to simulate a gasoline dispenser and that station provided hundreds of successful fills before it was retired in June 2006 The third generation station GEN III opened in November 2006 Figure 1 Funded by the South Coast Air Quality Management District the U S Department of Energy Toyota Honda and BMW the station was the first in California to feature both 350 bar and 700 bar fueling While the station was designed to dispense 25 kg per day dispensing up to 60 kg on peak days was common Unlike the first two generations hydrogen was delivered and stored at the station as a liquid As needed the liquid was vaporized and delivered to an APCI Series 200 fueling system featuring a main compressor to fill the storage tubes and a booster compressor to achieve the 700 bar fills Aesthetically the third generation station simulated a retail fueling station with a dispensing island and canopy to provide station users protection from the elements The station provided in excess of 18 000 successful fills and supported FCEVs in the NFCRC fleet Figuree 1 GEN III Figur III Hydroge Hy Hydrogen drogenn Refuelin Ref Refueling uelingg Station Station at Night Night Photo Photo Cred Credit it Paul Kenne Kennedy dy OEM test fleets from Toyota GM Hyundai Honda Mercedes Benz BMW and Mazda Figure 2 shows the annual number of fills and quantity of hydrogen dispensed for the third and fourth generation UCI HRS The fourth generation station GEN IV opened for retail sales in November 2015 The station design implemented 1 infrared wireless communication for 700 bar fills to replace a wired communication cable 2 a dispenser with a retail ready point of sale POS capability and 3 a 180 kg per day design capability compliant with SAE J2601 In addition to light duty passenger vehicles LDV the station has also served two hydrogen fuel cell electric buses FCEBs one operated by the UCI student Anteater Express bus service and the other operated by the Orange County Transportation Authority 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Yearly Total Fills x1000 Yearly H2 Disp tonnes The GEN IV station has supported the first five years of FCEV commercialization with daily hydrogen dispensed increasing to levels exceeding 300 kg a maximum one day record of 397 kg over one hundred vehicles per day on average and often two fuel FCEBs filled per day Designed for 180 kg day with one fueling position the station has been understandably taxed 100 45 This notwithstanding the early adopters of FCEVs 40 kg have been remarkably supportive and accommodating 80 35 given the various issues with fueling availability and of Fills 30 60 dependability that are inevitable at this formative 25 stage 20 40 15 Planning for GEN V HRS is underway with a design 10 20 5 goal to dispense up to 1200 kg daily with two 0 0 dispensers and four fueling positions Gen III Gen IV Figure 2 UCI HRS historical hydrogen dispensed and total fills in each year since 2007 across two generations of HRS equipment installed at UCI 6

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Institute for Mobility and Connectivity2 UPDATE Last year in Bridging 2019 we introduced the plan for constructing and launching the HORIBA Institute for Mobility and Connectivity2 HIMaC2 a joint initiative of HORIBA and APEP to provide an advanced research and educational platform to address the critical grand challenges at the nexus of energy and the environment Mobility encompasses the future of transportation with the evolution of zero emission vehicles operating on plug in electricity hydrogen and a combination of plug in electricity and hydrogen Connectivity encompasses the following two distinct research thrusts in the future of mobility The emerging paradigm of connecting mobility with the electric grid e g G2V V2G and connecting hydrogen with the electric grid for 1 long duration of energy storage and 2 providing fuel for both mobility and power generation The communication connection between vehicles V2V and vehicles and the infrastructure V2I When opened the Institute will encompass the following four laboratories in addition to a grand main entrance and reception A Vehicle Evolution Laboratory VEL to address the development and deployment of next generation zero emission vehicles A Grid Evolution Laboratory GEL to explore the next generation smart 100 renewable electric grid and in combination with the VEL explore the emerging paradigm of connecting mobility to the electric grid A Connected and Autonomous Mobility Laboratory CAML for state of the art research in V2V and V2I connectivity as well as sensors and perception and An Analytic Laboratory AL with the latest instrumentation in support of electrochemical materials research associate with zero emission vehicles and zero emission distributed energy power generation and storage COVID 19 has not slowed the construction of the four laboratories main entrance and reception However the commissioning of equipment may be delayed a few months due to travel restrictions 8

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Outreach Student Experience Graduate student researchers GSRs at the Advanced Power and Energy Program APEP volunteer their time at Elementary Middle School High School and Community Colleges around the region for presentations at career days science fairs classroom visits and other programming events The GSRs provide information on APEP s clean energy research and on careers in Science Technology Engineering and Math STEM Each graduate student that participates in these visits not only provides valuable information for their audience but returns to APEP with new insights and experiences outside the lab GSR s shared the impact these events can have on themselves and the audience and provided insight into these experiences In my first year as a Graduate student at APEP I had the opportunity to attend a Career Day at Richard L Graves Middle School in Santa Fe Springs We presented on STEM career opportunities and how the research we perform in our lab has a positive impact on society and the environment While presenting to the group I mentioned that I did my undergrad back in Mexico at CETYS University Suddenly a student exclaimed with excitement That s where my mom did her undergrad too The atmosphere of the classroom changed We made a connection with the students on another level and they were more curious and engaged about our presentation we successfully piqued their interest We continued with the presentation on the hydrogen economy and a plethora of questions quickly arose The students came to the realization why hadn t we adopted hydrogen already In the end we left the school with an incredible sense of satisfaction and realized that representation for underrepresented groups really matters Why is this so important As a member of a minority group seeing yourself reflected in someone that is positively impacting society is meaningful in its effect to empower oneself to pursue great achievements Representation of underrepresented groups benefits society as a whole A diverse group of people ensures a variety of perspectives that lead to better decisions The renewable energy economy will benefit those who are disadvantaged by lowering pollution and empowering them with local power autonomy and more control of their own lives Melina Arriz n One of my favorite outreach moments was in 2019 when we hosted Columbus Tustin Middle School s magnet program of which I am a graduate It took a couple months of planning on both sides but we were able to bring over 30 students to APEP for a tour and presentations on APEP research Before coming onto campus the teachers had tasked the students to research different sustainable energy topics ranging from fuel cells to alternative fueled vehicles so they came poised with lots of questions It was so exciting to see their interest in renewable energy and sustainability Not only did my fellow graduate students and I share our research we also talked about our individual journeys to graduate school and engineering as a career It was such a rewarding experience to give back to my community and hopefully inspire the next generation of engineers Kate Forrest As I sat at a desk in the crowded gym of a school on Ask A Scientist Night a budding young sixth grade scientist approached and sat down flanked by their parents and younger sibling This was the student s chance to ask me for advice on their Science Fair project before the final judging a few months away The student began to explain their project idea a trash sorter that could separate food waste from recyclables and other categories of trash My first thought was This is a wonderful idea that some of the smartest people in the world are working on but I m afraid the scope might be a bit too aggressive for a single sixth grade student to accomplish in the next four months I held that thought back and started to engage with the student and was immediately impressed by the depth of planning they had already done Things like machine learning and image processing were all part of the plan They clearly understood the general approach to solving the problem At this point I started to make some suggestions to narrow the scope Each little suggestion I made the student would eagerly come back with a way to accomplish the general goal in a more achievable manner The student was hungry to get to back at the design and could not wait to make a working prototype for the Science Fair That sense of discovery was beautiful to see and I could tell the parents were proud as well Unfortunately I never did get to see the final project However I am confident that no matter how it evolved the student will continue to work hard at solving the world s problems and inspire others to do the same just like they inspired me Blake Lane 9

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Graduates and Internships 2019 2020 Master of Science Graduates Alice A lice Li Li Shan Sh han T Tian ian 2019 2020 An Experimental Investigation of High Velocity Non Spherical Polydisperse Particle Laden Flows Alejandra jandraa H Hormaza ormaza M Mejia Environmental Benefit Detriment Thresholds for Flow Battery Energy Storage Systems Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Methane Mixture Leakage from Low Pressure Natural Gas Infrastructure Ph D Graduates Van V an V Vifvat ifvat Blake B lake LLane ane Zero Emission Shared Use Autonomous Vehicles A Deployment Construct and Associated Energy Grid and Environmental Impacts Kate Forrest Laura Novoa Optimal solar PV battery storage and smart inverter allocation in zero net energy microgrids considering the existing power system infrastructure Zero Emission Heavy Duty Vehicle Integration in Support of a 100 Renewable Electric Grid 2019 2020 Alternative Light and Heavy Duty Vehicle Fuel Pathway and Powertrain Optimization Internships Matthew Mat tthew Clower Clower Jennifer Jen nnifer LLee ee Disney Imagineering 2019 2020 Southern California Edison Summer 2020 Alireza irezza Saeedmanesh Saeedmanes SSarah arah Wang Wang 174 Power Global Summer 2020 Schneider Electric Spring 2020 10

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2019 2020 ACADEMIC YEAR HIGHLIGHTS SUMMER 2019 US National Combustion Conference June 2019 The UC Irvine Combustion Laboratory participated in the 11th U S National Combustion Conference held in Pasadena CA The UCICL students presented papers on an array of combustion research topics APEP Hosts Student Tours July 2019 Students from Mark Keppel High School and Alhambra High School visited the UC Irvine Combustion Lab for a presentation and tour of the UCICL test laboratories UC Global Climate Leadership Council July 2019 Members of the UC Global Climate Leadership Council visited the Advanced Power and Energy Program for a presentation on research and a tour of APEP s connectivity lab power to gas research and the BluGen integrated SOFC system FALL 2019 Korean Electric Power Corporation September 2019 Representatives from Korean Electric Power Corporation KEPCO visited the Advanced Power and Energy Program for a combination of lectures on vehicle electrification hydrogen for transportation and tours of the APEP laboratories and the APEP UCI power to gas demonstration site Camp TechTrek October 2019 Camp TechTrek students visited the Advanced Power and Energy Program for a lab tour and hands on experiments to learn about Hydrogen Fuel Cells Scialog Fellow Award November 2019 NFCRC Associate Director Iryna Zenyuk was selected for a third year as a Scialog Fellow and attended an invitation only workshop titled Scialog Advanced Energy Storage by Research Corporation for Science Advancement RCSA The workshop provided a platform for 50 junior and mid career faculty to collaborate on innovative energy storage projects the top projects were selected and then awarded funding Professor Zenyuk s team was selected by RCSA and its funding partner the Alfred Sloan Foundation for an award on their project titled Data Driven Discovery of Bifunctional Metal Air Battery Cathodes This project will open new routes to the design of energy storage interfaces and improve the efficiency of zinc air batteries WINTER 2020 UC Irvine Fuel Cell Bus December 2019 The UC Irvine Fuel Cell Bus was featured on the U S Department of Energy s website for the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program The bus was part of the first ever zero emission bus fleet in California International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells January 2020 The NFCRC participated in the 16th International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in Kyoto Japan Graduate student researchers presented research on the integration of solid oxide fuel cells UC Irvine Hydrogen Fuel Station Record Year January 2020 For 2019 a total of 89 007 kilograms of hydrogen were dispensed which is 23 6 more output than in 2018 The majority of the output was into light duty fuel cell electric vehicles SPRING 2020 Norwegian University of Science and Technology February 2020 The NFCRC hosted Professor Odne Burheim from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology for a presentation and talk on the use of electrochemical technologies in Norway and technical details of thermal conductivity measurements Career Exploration Day February 2020 APEP graduate student researchers participated in a career exploration day at Richard L Graves Middle School in Whittier The GSRs presented on the importance of STEM workers and sustainable growth in developing countries UCI Sustainability March 2020 UCI Sustainability undergraduate students visited the Advanced Power and Energy Program for research presentations on the UCI Microgrid blending hydrogen with natural gas in cooking and heating appliances and fuel cells for data centers California Air Resources Board Delegation March 2020 A delegation from the California Air Resources Board that included representatives from government and industry visited APEP for an in depth presentation on fuel cells used for backup power The group also toured the UC Irvine Hydrogen fueling station and a fuel cell installation at Kaiser Permanente SoCalGas and Future Fuels CRC of Australia March 2020 Representatives from the Southern California Gas Company and Future Fuels CRC of Australia visited APEP for a presentation on research and a discussion on hydrogen innovation projects The group also toured the NFCRC Fuel Cell lab and UCICL hydrogen blending project 12

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Advanced Power and Energy Program University of California Irvine Irvine California 92697 3550 NONPROFIT ORG U S POSTAGE PAID Santa Ana CA Permit No 1106 www apep uci edu The Advanced Power and Energy Program APEP encompasses three organizational elements the National Fuel Cell Research Center the UCI Combustion Laboratory and the Pacific Rim Consortium on Combustion Energy and the Environment APEP advances the development and deployment of efficient environmentally sensitive and sustainable power generation storage and conservation At the center of APEP s efforts is the creation of new knowledge brought about through fundamental and applied research and the sharing of this knowledge through education and outreach APEP is affiliated with The Henry Samueli School of Engineering at the University of California Irvine and is located in the Engineering Laboratory Facility Building 323 near East Peltason Drive and Engineering Service Road The connection of APEP s research to practical application is achieved through our close collaboration with industry national agencies and laboratories to bridge engineering science and practical application For additional information please contact William Gary Manager Outreach External Relations Advanced Power and Energy Program 949 824 7302 x11131 wmg apep uci edu