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American Revolution Scrapbook
By Liz Abell
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War, also known
as “The Seven Years War,” was a
struggle between Britain and France over
the Ohio River valley. When the French
began to expand their land into the Ohio
River valley, conflict began with the British
colonies. After a series of battles, Britain
officially declared war in 1756. The war
lasted from 1756 to 1763. The expansion
of the French caused issues because
everyone wanted to be in control of the
Ohio River valley for its direct access to resources and for trading fur. The French in this area
were most commonly fur traders. The British coming to the area also were commonly fur traders
as well. During the war, the British were helped financially by future Prime Minister William Pitt.
The British had victories at Louisbourg, Fort Frontenac, and Quebec. Finally, at the peace
conference in 1762, British received Canada from France, and Florida from Spain.  France kept
their West Indian sugar islands and Spain received Louisiana. The war was ended with the
Treaty of Paris in 1763. This treaty strengthened the American colonies by removing their
European rivals to the north and south of them, but it also opened the Mississippi Valley for
westward expansion.
Proclamation of 1763
The Proclamation of 1763 was a
proclamation that forbade settlement to
the west of the Appalachian Mountains.
The Purpose of this was to hopefully settle
any anger the Natives had against King
George II from the French and Indian
War. This proclamation also declared that
land would be given to the soldiers that
fought in the French and Indian War. Even
though settlement was illegal past the
Appalachian Mountains, some people
continued to expand further and further
west. However, the British hardly ever
made an effort to enforce the
proclamation. The colonists would disregard the proclamation because they had no fear of
being punished.
Boston Massacre
The Boston Massacre was a street fight that
broke out in Boston between the British and the
colonists on March 5th, 1770. Several colonists
were killed in this fight and many others were
wounded. At the time, the presence of British
soldiers was unwelcome in the city. The riot
began when a British soldier was attacked and
he later called in additional help to fend off the
patriots. Soon after, the soldiers opened fire
into the mob of people. After the event a town
meeting was called and the consensus was
that the British would be removed, and Captain
Preston would be put on trial, along with his
men, for murder. The painting created by Paul
Revere a short time later was a piece of
propaganda used during this period against British rule.
Battle of Bunker Hill
The Battle of Bunker Hill took place on June 17, 1775. The battle is called “The Battle of Bunker
Hill,” but in fact the battle actually took place on Breeds Hill. The American commander was
Israel Putnam, and the British commander was Thomas Gage. It was a victory for the British. On
June 13th, the colonists had learned that the British planned on sending troops into Charleston,
so 1,200 colonial troops occupied Bunker Hill. By the 16th, strong fortification was created on
Bunker Hill and Breeds Hill. On the next day, the british attacked causing about 1.532 casualties
all together. This is where the famous saying, “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes,”
is heard. It was said by the American officer WIlliam Prescott. The colonists were so low on
ammunition, they were told not to fire at anyone until they were close enough to their enemies.
The Townshend Acts
The Townshend Acts were a series of measures introduced by the British to impose on the
colonists. The British created taxes on various different goods such as glass, lead, paints,
paper, tea, and more. The colonists believed that this taxation was an abuse of power therefore
there was a passage of agreements to limit the import of goods to Britain. Later in 1770,
Parliament decided to repeal all of the taxes, except for the tax on tea. This lead to a sort of
truce between the colonies and Britain, but in the years before the revolution, resistance to the
tax on tea became a symbol of American patriotism.
The Declaration of Independence
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed
by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the
pursuit of Happiness.”
The Declaration of Independence was a document written by Thomas
Jefferson in 1776 to show that the United States had separated
themselves from Britain. The document was divided into five sections.
The introduction, the preamble, a body (with two parts), and a
In the document, Jefferson explained how a large body of people has
every right to change forms of government if it becomes oppressive.
Independence was officially declared on July 2nd, 1776, congress
approved the document on July 4th, 1776, and the document was
signed on August 2, 1776.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The battle of Lexington and Concord was the first
battle of the American Revolution. It took place
on April 19, 1775 in Lexington, Massachusetts.
Seven hundred soldiers were marched into
Lexington and were ordered to confiscate weapons that were hidden there. In the meantime,
seventy seven militiamen waited in a tavern for the British soldiers to arrive. The colonists were
warned by spies that the British would be coming. When the soldiers arrived, no one knew what
to do so an unknown person fired the first shot and the battle began. There was no clear winner
of the battle, but the majority of the time the colonists are given the victory.
Battle of Fort Ticonderoga
The battle at Fort Ticonderoga
happened on May 10th, 1775. Fort
Ticonderoga is located on the shores of
Lake Champlain. Ethan Allen and
Benedict arnold commanded one
hundred sixty eight Green Mountain
Boys and the New England militia
captured the fort on May 10th. They
had snuck into the fort while the men
were sleeping and they later demanded
surrender from them. Commander
Captain William DeLaPlace
surrendered the fort to his men and no
one died in the raid. Here, the Americans placed a cannon facing Boston which later scared the
British out of the city on May 17, 1776. Finally, the Americans gained control of Boston again.
Battles of Trenton and Princeton
The battle of Trenton and Princeton occurred on
December 26, 1776. The Americans had won the
battle. It was lead by General George Washington
and British commander Lieutenant General William
Howe. Battle, Washington had to cross the Delaware
River with his men. Many of them died in this journey
due to the fact that there was a horrible storm. He
had evaded Howe until his army was safely over the
river. Only 2,400 of Washington’s men had survived
and they only had eight cannons left. It was a small,
yet strategic win for the American side of the battle.
Battle of Saratoga
The Battle of Saratoga was the battle
which is seen as the turning point in the
revolution. There were two battles which
were fought and they lasted from
September 17, 1777 to October 7th, 1777.
This was a victory for the colonists.
Benedict arnold had persuaded Horatio
Gates to let him lead Colonel Daniel
Morgan’s men into battle. He kept on
bringing more and more men into battle
until gates made him stop, but the British
gained control over Freeman’s Farm.
Arnold then joined another fight and
captured key people to the British that
forced the British to retreat to Saratoga, where they were encircled by the Americans and forced
to surrender.
The Stamp Act
The stamp act was put into place in 1765 by Britain. It said that stamps had to be put on all
official documents in the colonies. It was intended to help repay British debt from the French
and Indian war, and pay for continuing defence of the colonies. This act created a rise in
colonial opposition and outrage which lead to the first effort made by the colonists to resist the
British. The act was repealed the following year but this act became one of the first steps
towards the revolution and independence from England.
The Sugar Act
The stamp act was put into effect on April 5th, 1764. It was a law that attempted to reduce the
smuggling of sugar and molasses in the colonies. It was introduced by the new Prime Minister,
George Grenville. Another reason for introducing the act was to pay off debt from the French
and Indian War. It was also designed to crack down colonial trade with countries other than
Britain (especially France and Spain). In response to the act, there were protests that heavily
affected the colonies. Nevertheless, boycott was promoted by the colonists against British
luxury goods in most of the colonies.
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