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This timeline follows the happy and sorrowful events that occurred throughout 1945-1999 that have now provided a catalyst for Canadians to strive for equality.

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The Evolution of Canadian Aboriginals


Project by Jacob Mackenzie & Maysa 




Compulsory Attendance in

gruesome Residential

schools ended.

There were major changes made

to the Indian Act to remove a 

number of discriminatory rules,

including a ban on native 

consumption of alcohol 


Indian Act


Through something called

enfranchisement, First Nations

people could give up their Indian

status to vote in a federal election. 

The federal franchise was first

extended to NONstatus Indians, 

then in 1960, to full status Indians.

Right To Vote 

Also known as the 'Assembly Of

First Nations" is a political  

organization that represents approx. 

900,000 first nations citizens

located in Canada. The AFN 

advocates on issues such as


indigenous rights and land and 



National Indian


The white paper was a Canadian

Government Policy. Trudeau and

Chretien's paper proposed that they

should eliminate "Indian" as a

legal status, making First Nations

"equal" to Canadians. The paper

also included things such as

dismantling the Department of Indian

Affairs, repealing the Indian Act,

and destroying treaties between

First Nations and Canada. Trudeau

and Chretien saw the white paper

as a way to eliminate rising costs

of administering Indian Affairs and

treaty responsibilities. This had major 

backlash. The indigenous people 

thought this was another attempt 

to assimilate their people into 

Canadian culture. 


White Paper 

After the ban on residential schools,

the Canadian Government 

started funding schools called

"Band Schools" that brought back

Aboriginal Culture and beliefs. 

In attempts to help Aboriginal

Children get back to their roots

and respect their culture. 


Band Schools



Aboriginal Women gain the 

right to Aboriginal Status even if 

they married non-aboriginals. 

Aboriginal Women 

Bill C-31 was a bill to amend

the Indian act. It was to propose

modifications to various sections

of the Indian Act. to restore Indian

status to those who had it taken

away due to discriminatory provisions,

and to allow bands to control their

own band membership as a step

towards self-government and to 

address gender discrimination of the

Indian act. 


Bill C-31 

Meech lake accord was an accord

that proposed two different parts.

Thefirst part involved a statemnt

saying Quebec was a distinct society.

The second part dealt with various

issues to increase provincial powers

in regards to the federal government.

Certain groups, like aboriginals argued that they were not involved in the negotiations and demanded that the accord be rejected. They wanted more rights and more recognition. 



Meech Lake Accord


The Oka Crisis

The Oka Crisis was a 78-day standoff between a group of Mohawk people and the town of Oka Quebec. This dispute sprung from an attempt to expand a golf course onto a Mohawk burial ground. Once a police officer was killed, tensions were high and the army was called in. 

Royal Commission

The Royal Commision was made to address many issues of aboriginal status and rights. It was a study of the relationships between aboriginals and non-aboriginal people in Canada. This new relationship they would hope to establish would acknowledge and respect Aboriginal cultures and values. 



This accord adddressed the issue of Aboriginal Self- government but provided a waiting period of three yearsbefore the concept would be recognized in law. It as well dealt with Aboriginal Representation in Parliament.

Charlottetown Accord


Residential Schools

Last residential schools closed

Nunavut separated from the North

West Territories on April 1st, 1999. 

The creation of Nunavut was the 

outcome of the largest aboriginal

land claims agreement between the

Canadian Government and the Native

Inuit people. 


Nunavut Territory Created