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Winter 2017

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CONSULTANT Nina A M Lawford Juviler PUBLISHER AND EDITOR Donald F Bishop II FAX 607 746 3135 CONTRIBUTORS Peter Senterman Robert Titus Johanna Titus Michael Kudish Justin Askins John Rowen Ryan Trapani Larry Gambon Lawrence C Swayne LaVerne Black Francis X Driscoll ART DIRECTOR LAYOUT John Stys and Cathy Roloson PHOTOGRAPHY EDITOR Donald F Bishop II COPY EDITOR Bertha K Rogers CALENDAR OF EVENTS WEB MASTER Cathy Roloson FAX 607 746 3135 SUBSCRIPTIONS Cathy Roloson BOOKKEEPER Sherri Telian PUBLISHER The Delaware County Times Inc web site www kaatslife com e mail info kaatslife com LaVerne Black Digital Subscriptions 20 To get your Kaatskill Life digital subscription Visit www kaatslife com and click on button for subscriptions You can pay with PayPal or you can send a check or money order to Kaatskill Life 56 Main Street Delhi NY 13753 Please be sure to include your name address phone number and email so we can process your order Back issues of Kaatskill Life available at 10 each ppd Write your name and full street address or call 607 746 2176 Allow 6 8 weeks for processing Rt 20 23 30 HARIE SCHO AN ASHOKAN CHONOLOGY GREEN 8 23 A 42 DELAWARE 23 ULSTER 213 9 0 2 149 E L AW A R E 97 17 R I VE R SULLIVAN 97 NY STATE THRUW AY 87 28 17 D THE REBIRTH OF BLENHEIM BRIDGE N BRIDGING THE PAST THE GLACIER AND THE GOLF COURSE BRIO S SO MUCH MORE THAN PIZZA PHOENICIA BELLE A ROMANTIC CATSKILL GEM 9W 10 30 TURNWOOD COVERED BRIDGE AT ASHOKAN 4 206 23 21 28 10 E H U D S O N R I VE R 10 28 I 8 EGO 145 23 OTS GOTHAM S WATERWORKS THE COST OF EMPIRE 8 I 8 Locations are approximate 2 Kaatskill Life established in 1986 is published four times yearly by The Delaware County Times Inc Delhi NY Editorial and sales office located at 56 Main Street Delhi NY 13753 phone 607 746 2176 FAX 607 746 3135 Copyright 2017 by The Delaware County Time s Inc All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reprinted or reproduced without the written permission of the publisher Kaatskill Life cannot be responsible for unsolicited manuscripts drawings photographs or transparencies Kaatskill Life reserves the right to accept or reject all submissions advertising or editorial and to edit manuscripts for length clarity and style We accept original manuscripts double spaced and clean typed without corrections or insertions FAXES AND COLUMN FORMATS NOT ACCEPTED PLEASE ALLOW 2 TO 8 WEEKS for responses to submitted material ISSN 1073 9076 front cover courtesy Plattekill Ski Center inside front cover inside back cover back cover courtesy Belleayre Ski Center

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Eliza Shaw

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360 Degrees From The Bench Concert Series DELAWARE C OUNTY Justin Kolb will be hosting his winter concert series January 14 Networking Among the Great Romantics Chapin Hummel Schubert Schumann Mephisto February 11 Gotham Gospel and the Plains American composers with Rhapsody in Blue and March 11 Beethoven Beethoven and more Beethoven with traditional Beethoven compositions plus Liszt transcriptions of Beethoven orchestral works like Ruins of Athens Concerts take place in their home To get tickets for any of these 3pm Sunday performances reservations are required All shows are 70 minutes Ticket price includes a sumptuous repast with appropriate beverages and hors d oeuvres Call 845 341 6806 or email mellonkolb gmail com Plattekill Mountain Opening its doors December 16 Skiing and snowboarding will be on tap for opening weekend as well as 10 lessons to learn to ski or snowboard offered December 16 and 17 at 10am Snowtubing operations begin December 26 Due to the inevitable swings in temperatures that typically prevail in late fall and early winter in the Northeast snowmaking operations at Plattekill often don t start until after Thanksgiving This year was no exception as it looks like winter will be arriving this year during the first full week of December Plattekill s Operations Manager Ken Davie explains When you are a smaller family run mountain you can t afford to risk losing early snowmaking snow you make to a warm up and have to start all over It s simply too costly to have it all melt and too much of a business risk Now the mountain now sees a great window of opportunity for a long range sustained forecast of cold temperatures and snowmaking at Plattekill is set to begin Thursday December 7 Davie further explains that once we start running the snow guns it will be a 24 7 effort in order to get the good base we need to open before the natural snow starts falling Plattekill has been steadily increasing its snowmaking capabilities each year with the most recent improvement being the installation of 21 new snow guns on the popular Shredded Mozzarella trail over the summer Not only will this new addition provide even more snow coverage on the mountain but it will also produce the snow necessary for the mountain to feature a brand new terrain park set to be up and operating early in the season Other improvements include all new rental equipment inventory and a new Junior Learn to Ski or Snowboard Lesson Package which will specifically be offered for children ages 7 12 The mountain will also be offering discounted group rates for groups as small as 6 people whereas in years prior groups were required to have a minimum of 15 people For complete details on all other Plattekill events and offerings for the upcoming season visit their website at www plattekill com or call 607 326 3500 The Roxbury at Stratton Falls Roxbury NY Opening Spring 2019 World renowned and locally revered The Roxbury Hotel in Roxbury NY has become a mainstay of imagination in Delaware County Owners Gregory Henderson and Joseph Messa took their themed room getaway to a new multi million dollar level when they broke ground in October of 2017 on The Roxbury at Stratton Falls just two miles up the road Once renovated the 1848 of Italianate architecture will be a glorious seven room centerpiece to a fantasy Gregory Henderson and Joseph Massa stand for the first time in one of the cottages being built this winter 4

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360 Degrees laden woodland paradise Seven themed rooms will have names like The Beautiful Blacksmith The Dashing Haberdasher and The Fabulous Firkin Factory inspired by the history of the site and the multiple businesses of the original settlers dating back to the 1790 s Each room will be complete with lux bath accommodations and promises to be the picture perfect blend of pure fun and pampered relaxation Eight new construction cottages are being added all with the same level of detail as The Roxbury s current unit called The Archaeologist s Digs Each two story unit will have a living room two bedrooms and two baths along with screened in porches balconies and some with observation decks for star gazing Cinderella s Gown Dracula s Fangs and Wonder Woman s Weekend Home are a few of the suites that will bring fantasy to life The property will integrate water romance and fairytales in every detail of it s surroundings including the heated outdoor pool Crooked Cabana complete with full service spa and sauna secret gardens picnic areas and a meandering trail system that will lead to the base of the falls The growing list of local contractors tasked to build the dream resort include project manager Rob Allison of Catskill Region Surveying Service Wadler Brothers Titan Drilling and Cowan Excavating to name just a few It took three and a half years to bring the project to fruition and we are now in the second month of construction Currently we are scheduled for a Spring of 2019 opening but given the complexity and level of detail of the project that is still a moving target says Henderson GREENE C OUNTY Smithsonian s Senior Program Officer for History and Culture Michelle Anne Dellaney mourns the passing of Karen Deeter Dear members of the West Kill and Zadock Pratt Museum community I would like to express my deepest sympathy to all of you in this sad time following the recent and unexpected passing of our dear friend and history colleague Karen Deeter I consider myself among the lucky ones to have considered Karen a friend fellow historian and passionated comrade in the search for the full story behind the photography of West Kill s own Reverend Levi Hill and his legacy Together Carolyn Bennett and Karen Deeter inspired the 2006 Smithsonian and Getty team to pursue the con Marc Stewart Master Boot Fitter mstewart windhammountain com 518 734 4300 800 754 9463 5

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360 Degrees I will miss my conversations with Karen and only wish I could have had one more time to express my appreciaton for the encouragement and guidance she always offered Warmest regards Michelle Anne Delaney Hunter Mountain Hunter Mountain is the highest mountain peak in Greene County Three distinct peaks offer a wide variety of terrain for all level skiers and riders with spacious topography perfect for first timers to steps and bumps for the seasonal experts Hunter uses half a billion gallons of water each season to create consitent conditions across its skiable terrain all winter long A number of events will be held throughout the season including our New Years Eve Fireworks and Torchlight Parade Celebration www huntermtn com Windham Mountain Ski Center Windham Mountain Ski Center offers the widest range of winter sports options in the Catskills IN addition to skiing and riding they have snow tubing ice skating snowshoeing cross country skiing yoga and dining Windham has a new conveyor lift in the snow tubing acres They have also purchased new fully automatic snow guns along with three miles of new snowmaking pipe A W i n c h C a t h a s b e e n a d d e d to t h e g r o o m i n g f l e e t www windhammountain com Catskill Mountain Country Store 5570 NY23 Windham 518 734 3387 Fresh Christmas Trees Available servation study of the existing Smihtsonian hillotype plates at the Smithsonian s National Museum of American History and discover once and for all the Hill achieved a selection of true color images through his complicated chemical process pursued in the early 1850 s One of the greatest pleasure I had during my tenure as curator of photography was having Karen visit Washington D C to a t t e n d t h e s y m po s i u m o n t h e I n v e n t i n g A m e r i c a n Photography I invited Karen to join me in the Photographic History collection storage room and showed her the original hillotypes and the only known portrait of Rev Hill The joy we shared together in pursuit of history was a bond we carried for the next decade Karen created a warm and welcoming atmosphere whenever I had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o v i s i t t h e W e s t K i l l L e x i n g t on a n d Prattsville to research lecture or meet with the community She even brought Smithsonian and Levi Hill scholars together like never before through her filming project several summers ago Thank you for allowing me to reflect and remember the impact and legacy of a special friend Karen impacted history in the Catskills and the study of one of the national treasures of the Smithsonian Her knowledge and tireless pursuit of history was commendable and her generosity much appreciated OTSEGO C OUNTY Burns and Kristy JANUARY 20 7PM Burns and Kristy bring their own fresh contemporary melodic and fun music to Cooperstown Their Caravan earned this praise One of the most entrancingly beautiful and timeless set of songs to grace a debut album in many years Often performing as a duo this show will feature the full band Otesaga Hotel 60 Lake Street Cooperstown 2018 Winter Carnival FEBRUARY 9 11 Join us in Cooperstown for the 2018 Winter Carnival for family fun and winter activities for all ages It all began when a committee of winter sports enthusiasts representing the Cooperstown Ski Club and Cooperstown Chamber of Commerce got together and planned the first winter festival in late February of 1967 6

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360 Degrees The main attraction for the first of what was to be many carnivals to come was dog sled racing The event drew an estimated 6 000 spectators The next biggest crowd getter was a skimobile baseball game at Doubleday Field The teams were made up of players from Cooperstown and Richfield Springs Popular indoor evening activities included a Bavarian beer party which over the years has been labeled beer blast beer fest and most recently the Winter Carnival Snowflake Shake The Susquehanna Ball a formal dance initiated in 1955 and held in the elegant ballroom of Fenimore House on Lake Road became a part of winter carnival and lasted until 1974 Afterwards many would attend an after midnight or early bird breakfast Now the Cooperstown Lions Club sponsors a pancake breakfast during winter weekend Events such as the snow sculpture contest became a part of winter carnival tradition Although originally worked on for an entire week the snow and ice creations are now completed in just a day Some of the more nontraditional events have included sky diving and figure skating exhibitions airplane rides automobile gymkhanas and 4 wheel drive drag races Themes and queens prizes and surprises the usual and unusual have all been features of winter carnival weekend over the years Designed to rid residents of what had been commonly called cabin fever or the winter doldrums the Cooperstown Winter Carnival has proved to be a continued success year after year in all kinds of weather for folks of all ages Visit www cooperstownwintercarnival com for more updates This year s 51st Winter Carnival will include familyfriendly activities Sport centered activities village strolls tastings sales and much more Official schedule coming out soon

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360 Degrees Deer Run trail was also widened in anticipation of the additional skier and rider traffic generated from the gondola and there are also additional trail connectors which allow for easy access from the west side trails winding down to the lower area and popping out just above Running Bear into Iroquois Belleayre continues to evolve from diesel to electric compressors to power its snowmaking operations and replace its existing lines for greater snowmaking efficiency New low energy snowguns were added to the resort s fleet allowing the mountain to run more guns at one time and pump more water onto the trails using fewer resources While skiers and riders appreciate all of the physical changes at the mountain behind the scenes the resort has focused on what it can do to improve upon the guest experience The staff understands that customer expectations are rising Guests can choose to ski anywhere but it s the little details that truly impress upon our customers Belleayre believes that concentrating on producing an incredible customer experience and embodying the desire to go above and beyond helps the resort to foster enthusiastic advocates out of every visitor Every member of the Belleayre Ski Resort s staff goes the extra mile to help better every skier and rider s experience We truly cannot wait for our guests to experience what s in store for them during the 2017 18 season ULSTER C OUNTY The Thunder Rolls By Alex Sines Belleayre Ski Resort Does skiing change every year Of course it does and so does Belleayre Ski Resort While the resort maintains its family friendly atmosphere great terrain and short lift lines it also made strides in upgrading and modernizing its operations without forgetting about the little things that make Belleayre well Belleayre Guests planning on skiing and snowboarding during the 2017 18 season will notice a host of improvements starting with the most distinct the new Catskill Thunder Gondola Providing warm family fun moments to the top of the mountain for intermediate and expert skiers the 65 cabin eight person high speed gondola spans the lower mountain s Discovery Lodge to the summit in about six minutes The gondola is expected to increase the alpine skier and snowboarder capacity of the resort and also expand its resort s Nordic terrain opening the summit to cross country skiers During the off season the Catskill Thunder will continue to operate and offer year round scenic rides and carry mountain bikers weddings and private party rentals to the summit While much of the off season s work has concentrated on the gondola on hill improvements such trail work and snowmaking continued A skier bridge connects the Deer Run Trail on the west side of the mountain to the Tomahawk parking lots The Congressman Maurice D Hinchey passes at 79 Maurice D Hinchey a former United States representative from New York who championed the environment and blue collar workers in a political career of nearly four decades died on Wednesday at his home in Saugerties in the Hudson Valley He was 79 The cause was frontotemporal degeneration a rare terminal neurological disorder his family said Mr Hinchey a Democrat who retired from Congress in 2013 after 10 terms began his political career as a state assemblyman in 1975 Within four years he became the chairman of the Assembly s Environmental Conservation Committee He served in the Assembly until 1992 when he was elected to Congress During his time on the state conservation committee Mr Hinchey led an investigation into Love Canal an unfinished waterway in upstate New York that became one of the nation s first major toxic dump sites The revelations that emerged would force hundreds of families to evacuate and elevate concerns over toxic waste to national attention As a state lawmaker Mr Hinchey also aided in the 8

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360 Degrees Hinchey said I know that I m a better fighter than most people and I m happy to employ those skills on their behalf Matthew Haag and Christopher Mele contributed reporting A version of this article appears in print on November 24 2017 on Page A24 of the New York edition with the headline Maurice D Hinchey 79 Environmental Advocate preservation and cleanup of the Hudson River and helped pass the first law in the country aimed at controlling acid rain He also spent 10 years leading an investigation into organized crime s control of the waste hauling industry During his two decades in Congress Mr Hinchey served a district that spanned eight counties from the Hudson Valley to the Finger Lakes region and included both troubled industrial cities and tourist resorts To serve his diverse constituents he pursued an agenda that made the environment a priority and positioned him as an advocate for economic development He became a fierce critic of hydraulic fracturing known as fracking and an equally strong proponent of renewable energy a sector that he saw as critical to the economy and that he hoped could build a hub in upstate New York Although he had an unassuming demeanor and kept a relatively low profile Mr Hinchey came to be known as a reliable Democratic vote and wielded influence with a seat on the powerful Appropriations Committee where he routinely inserted money for his district and state into federal spending bills Maurice Dunlea Hinchey was born on Oct 27 1938 in New York City to Maurice and Rose Hinchey He moved to Saugerties with his family as a boy After graduating from Saugerties High School in 1956 he enlisted in the Navy serving from 1956 59 He later worked as a laborer at a Hudson Valley cement plant for two years A biography provided by his family said that Mr Hinchey put himself through the State University of New York at New Paltz working as a night shift toll collector on the New York State Thruway He graduated in 1968 He also earned a master s degree at the university in 1970 and did advanced graduate work in public administration and economics at the State University of New York at Albany Mr Hinchey is survived by his wife Ilene Marder Hinchey his children Michelle Joseph and Reese Hinchey his sister Patricia his brothers Michael and John and four grandchildren Senator Chuck Schumer of New York the Democratic leader said in a statement on Wednesday that he had known Mr Hinchey since the two served together in the State Assembly in the 1970s Mighty Moe as I used to call him was a man of great conviction principle endless energy and rare legislative ability Mr Schumer said adding that Mr Hinchey had been passionately committed to the preserving the priceless open and wild spaces of the Hudson Valley and Southern Tier Speaking in 2000 to The Times Herald Record of Middletown N Y about his career in public service Mr Nevele Resort Spa l Nevele ProSport Campus Ellenville NY Opening March 2020 Anchored by an ambitious vision to create an experience like no other the Nevele Resort Spa and Nevele ProSport Campus will provide guests with 500 wellappointed rooms and suites and six restaurants says Wendy Beck Vice President of Operations Without a doubt the resort will be a go to destination for weddings There will be more than 50 000 square feet of exceptional venue space for meetings and events of all shapes and sizes and a host of recreational opportunities including indoor and outdoor pools golf horseback riding and a mountain slide Also in the works are an aerial adventure park complete with a ropes course zip line and trapeze as well as spa services Digital rendering of plans for Nevele Resort Spa and Nevele ProSport Campus Phase one of the ProSport Campus will deliver nine lighted synthetic ballfields offering tournament level play and a 14 court tennis center providing both indoor and outdoor venues multiple surfaces and stadium seating All this and more if you can imagine will be found just 90 minutes from mid town Manhattan and sheltered by the natural forests of the Shawangunk Mountains the gateway to the Catskills 9

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GOTHAM S WATERWORKS The Cost of Empire by Lawrence C Swayne MD photography by author Although virtually all empires grow by the Watershed communities have to be your part forcible extension of dominion over others the ner in protecting the system and there s no most successful empires have maintained long amount of mechanical systems or science that s term control by encouraging subordinated going to protect the water unless people in the groups to participate voluntarily in the larger watershed are your partner in protecting it imperial community Marilyn Gelber Former Commissioner NYC Department of Environmental Protection Historian Fred Anderson 2005 O n October 14 1842 New York City celebrated the opening of the Old Croton Reservoir and Aqueduct with cannon firing a grand parade and fireworks At the time former mayor Phillip Hone wondered how cheerfully citizens acquiesce in the enormous expense which will burden them and their posterity with taxes to the last generation Hone s prediction proved prescient Over the next one hundred and twenty five years ending with the completion of the Cannonsville Reservoir in 1967 the city s modern water network progressively expanded to become one of the largest on earth Although the NYC Department of Environmental Protection DEP formally announced no additional water sources will be necessary for the next 50 years in 1997 the city s combined water and sewer rates increased nearly 15 fold from 1980 2016 due to infrastructure repairs and compliance with new environmental regulations The first of two articles see Kaatskill Life Fall 2017 surveyed the design and development of Gotham s waterworks while this article will explore its costs and unintended consequences culminating in the signing of the New York City Watershed Memorandum of Agreement MOA and its aftermath The NYC water system a 95 gravity driven and 90 filtrationfree engineering marvel delivers a billion gallons of clean water daily to nine million city residents and 70 additional local communities Not surprisingly the cost was considerable A total of 469 workers were killed and 21 240 11 injured during construction of the Catskill and Delaware aqueducts and the six Catskill reservoirs Ashokan Schoharie Neversink Rondout Pepacton and Cannonsville which supply 90 of the city s water The Catskill and Delaware aqueducts alone cost 372 million dollars A disproportionate sacrifice was born by the 5 807 Catskills residents who were dispossessed of their homes farms businesses and some of the world s finest fishing streams In seizing homesteads for watersheds through eminent domain NYC also created a significant reservoir of resentment Even after its water empire was constructed Gotham remained a poor neighbor Recreation access to city property was severly restricted and promised regulated

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dam releases to enhance flood control riparian ecology and fishing were quickly washed away by harsh realities Frigid water releases from reservoir bottoms created fog and mildew in upstate communities made local waters too chilly for swimming and warm water small mouth bass and caused cold water trout to refuse to bite Preferential release from the Cannonsville Reservoir with heavier phosphorous loads from agricultural runoff produced fish killing algal blooms An inadequate release from the Shandaken Tunnel in October of 1974 killed 10 000 rainbow trout in Esopus Creek with a similar failure occurring in the East Branch one year later These disasters spawned an early activist movement among fisherman and subsequent watchdog groups such as Catskill Waters Lower Esopus Watershed Partnership and Friends of the Upper Delaware which with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation demanded increasing accountability from NYC In 2005 an engineering analysis indicating the Gilboa Dam spillway posed a potential hazard to downstream communities 12 during an extreme flood event initiated another advocacy group Dam Concerned Citizens An ongoing 400 million dam rehabilitation project includes placement of stabilizing post tensioned anchoring cables addition of several hundred million pounds of concrete a redesigned spillway construction of a bypass shunt into the Schoharie Creek and upgrades to the Shandaken Tunnel Although Hurricane Irene prompted a mandatory evacuation of the towns of Middleburgh and Schoharie in 2011 the dam held Concerns about other NYC dams emerged in 2006 after

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opposite page Ongoing repairs to the Gilboa Dam spillway below Model of a tunnel which is displayed at the Time and the Valley Museum in Grahamsville 13 forged Neversink and Merriman dam safety documents were discovered and recently in 2017 after test bore drillings released turbid water at the base of the Cannonsville Dam but ultimately proved unfounded The city also continually engaged in tax disputations in 2015 NYC paid 157 million for its upstate holdings a significant revenue source for local governments while simultaneously neglecting maintenance of reservoir roads and infrastructure The state was forced to intervene in 1980 to build a new multimillion dollar bridge across the Ashokan Reservoir and again with some city funding to purchase 37 Warwarsing parcels flooded by a 35 million gallon day MGD leak from the Delaware Aqueduct as of 2015 An earlier 1940 Works Progress Administration study revealed 400 000 leaks in water mains and faulty plumbing wasting an astounding 200 MGD 20 of daily delivery Financial limitations environmental law and the dawn of modern grass roots activism finally ended Gotham s imperial reign The US Environmental Protection Agency EPA rules under the 1986 Clean Water Act Amendments and the 1989 Surface Water Treatment Rule require filtration of all surface water drinking sources unless strict requirements are met With an estimated filtration plant cost of 8 10 billion the city attempted to impose restrictive rules to circumscribe development and control pollution in its watershed to qualify for a Filtration Avoidance Determination FAD awarded to only 1 of applicants Believing its agricultural base and prospective economic development were in serious jeopardy municipal

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ities from 5 Catskill counties formed the Coalition of Watershed Towns chaired by Perry Shelton now deceased Although the city agreed to bankroll regional farms capital improvements old suspicions were rekindled over a NYC plan to acquire 80 000 acres possibly through eminent domain The tide turned when newly elected NYC Mayor Rudy Giuliani appointed Marilyn Gelber as the DEP Commissioner Gelber developed a personal relationship of trust with Shelton and assembled a new team with a perspective of respect for local issues Under the guidance of Michael Finnegan Chief Counsel to Governor George Pataki with input from the EPA environmental interests and many others a collaborative consensus building process was established resulting in the 1 000 page MOA document which was signed on January 17 1997 The agreement increased the city s presence within the watershed constrained by federal state and local activism and consultation requirements The city acquired its coveted five year FAD and a state permit to purchase 355 000 acres The EPA obtained a city commitment of 1 2 billion 2 billion had been spent by 2017 for septic and 14 wastewater treatment plants water shed protection stream repairs and land acquisition The watershed communities gained an any willing seller land acquisition program at market rates with a prohibition of eminent domain financial payment for locally run environmental economic and education programs a 60 million dollar economic stimulus and 11 million in good neighbor payments Under the current agreement underpinning a 10 year FAD through 2017 the city was required to secure additional land prioritized with natural features and watershed munici

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opposite page West Branch of the Delaware River below the Cannonsville Reservoir this page Fishing on the Ashokan Reservoir Recreation is by permit only as the sign indicates Non mechanized boating and fishing are permitted on the Cannonsville Pepacton Neversink Ashokan and Schoharie reservoirs palities were allowed to increase land holdings off limit to city acquisition The city also agreed to provide continued funding and to desist from further tax disputes The specific MOA provisions were instituted with an emphasis on local input The Coalition of Watershed Towns continued in its regional advocacy and watchdog capacity while the Watershed Protection and Partnership Council was constituted for 15 settling disputes The Catskill Watershed Corporation comprised of 12 local representatives 2 appointees by the state governor and one by the NYC mayor is tasked with implementing the city funded watershed environmental policies economic development and educational plans The Catskill Fund for the Future provides revolving lowinterest loans to stimulate economic viability Six kiosks describing the history of lost towns were erected at reservoir sites in 2002 renovated in 2010 and 26 road signs were placed in 2004 commemorating the locations of sub

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below A DEP police car The DEP maintains jurisdiction in fourteen counties including the five counties of New York City DEP police patrol the watershed by foot bicycles allterrain vehicles motorcycles boats and helicopters opposite page Guide to PURE CATSKILLS is a Watershed Agricultural Council publication Featured here are Amelia and Michael Hegeman owners and chefs of Zephyr Restaurant in Pine Hill with their young son Grayson Zephyr specializes in innovative dining using local produce meats and fish left to right Alan Rosa Marilyn Gelber and Perry Shelton at the 2007 dinner marking the 10th anniversary of the NYC Watershed Memorandum of Agreement MOA merged towns Monies were allocated to the Grahamsville Time and Valley Museum and the new Catskill Interpretative Center in Mount Tremper to promote tourism The Watershed Agricultural Council implements best management plans for regional farms 93 voluntary participation and forests distributing 235 million to 322 farms from 1993 2015 Pure Catskills fosters ecologically sustainable growth promoting the Catskill brand through a widely distributed catalog Between 2003 and 2011 the DEP doubled the available land for recreation to hiking fishing and hunting The Cannonsville Pepacton Neversink and Schoharie reservoirs were opened to non mechanized boating while fishing only is permitted on the Rondout and Ashokan reservoirs A Flexible Flow Management Program facilitates regular water releases below the dams Today the DEP has nearly 6 000 16

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employees including almost 1 000 scientists engineers surveyors watershed maintainers and other professionals in the upstate watershed and has a robust capital program with over 14 billion in investments planned over the next 10 years In recent years several largescale infrastructure projects have been completed including a 3 6 billion Croton filtration plant 1 6 billion ultraviolet facility Stage 1 of City Tunnel 3 with the Van Cortland distribution center as well as the Manhattan portion of Stage 2 The Delaware Aqueduct repair a 1 billion 2 5 mile bypass between Newburgh and Wappinger is slated for completion in 2022 Initiation of water conservation measures efficient toilets metering and a leak notification program decreased consumption by 30 from the 1990s to 2014 The historic MOA hailed by Mayor Giuliani as a model for the future has been internationally recognized for its innovative payment for environmental services Environmental law citizen activism and transparent discussion successfully created what author David Soll has described as a living landscape where people farm log harvest bluestone shop hunt hike and fish can produce some of the country s highest quality water Author s Notes For more information see Empire of Water An Environmental and Political History of the New York Water Supply by David Soll and Liquid Assets A History of New York City s Water System by Diane Galusha or visit the Time and Valley Museum in Grahamsville The Black Raven The perfect mix of colonial and primitive style goods and accessories for your home The Black Raven Handmade primitive furniture shelves and early lighting 2 Wind Place Whitesboro New York 315 941 3766 17

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An Ashokan Chronology Long before the white man Native Americans hunted and fished along the banks of the Esopus Creek There was activity at a fording place across the creek below the falls now Winchell s Arrow heads have been found along the banks of the stream above the falls Then in about 1731 Jacobus Bush purchased land and the right to dam the stream from the town of Marbletown This was the frontier and conflicts with the Native Americans were common members of the Bush family were kidnapped by Indians for ransom Jacobus Bush the son inherited the property in 1754 and by the early 1770s a mill was developed After the Revolution in 1785 Lemuel Winchell a New Englander who immigrated through Dutchess County purchased the farm Lemuel the elder built a house and tavern on the old Bush house foundation The creek at the falls was dammed and a grist saw and carding mills were top Logo on the entry way to the center was designed by Andrew H Angstrom Back in the Day Angstrom Archive center Native American artifacts found in Indian Orchard field bottom Hatchet head and metal contact period arrowhead made into a pendant 18

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Angstrom Archive built later a forge blacksmith shop and store were developed Lemuel was active in local civic affairs serving as a school board member in the town of Marbletown and as a town board member of the Town of Olive when it was separated from Marbletown in 1823 All this commerce was supported by the traffic on the early road crossing the Esopus nearby Lemuel the elder died in 1827 Lemuel the son continued to operate the inn and oversee the industrial and commercial activity at Winchell s Falls In 1857 Lemuel sold the farm to John Gordon an Irish immigrant who had worked in a nearby Tannery Gordon farmed the land and took in summer boarders The mill site appears to have been abandoned there is no record in industrial census for the period In 1887 the Hudson River Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Co based in Corinth in the Adirondacks acquired the water rights to the creek and possibly a wood pulp mill They were the largest producer of newsprint in the country branching out into other forested areas to create more pulp for an expanding papermaking business The old mill was destroyed by fire and rebuilt a new dam and a second pulp mill were constructed in 189597 In 1898 Hudson River Pulp and Paper Manufacturing Co along with 16 other enterprises was consolidated into the International Paper Company top Jacobus Bush the elder s gravestone was very simple just two initials Angstrom Archive left Andrew Angstrom posted the Winchell to Gordon property transfer on a USG5 topographical map Note black lines lower left along the Esopus 19

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Angstrom Archive In 1905 Eastern Dynamite Co took over the pulp mills on the Esopus The Dynamite Co had been formed in 1895 by Eugene Dunpont and others using Alfred Noble s 1867 patented invention to make a less volatile explosive than traditional black powder a mainstay of Dupont s business The wood pulp was a medium in which the explosive materials in dynamite could be suspended so pulp mills were needed Eastern Dynamite merged with Dupont in 1912 by that time the mills were not active because the construction of the Ashokan Dam upstream significantly restricted the flow of the Esopus Creek Eastern Dynamite sued the New York City Bureau of Water Supply for damages When John Gordon died in 1899 the farm was conveyed to Henry Wright an Englishman who had immigrated in 1894 After 20 years Wright sold to Joseph Brennan who remains something of a mystery man In 1932 Brennan sold to Lester Ahrend Moehring 1892 1947 who was Comptroller of the Chrysler Corporation of Detroit Moehring was born in Brooklyn his grandparents had immigrated there from Germany Lester married Barbara Darling 1886 1953 a Kingston native and daughter of masonry contractor William W Darling Jr By 1920 the married couple was living with Barbara s widowed mother Ella in Kingston where Lester was an auditor in a boatyard In the mid 1920s the Moehrings relocated to Michigan In 1937 Lester with the guidance of prominent historic preservation firm Harry Halverson and partner Morgan S Teller restored and expanded the Winchell Inn The old house was stabilized and sensitively designed with colonial revival replicas introducing modern conven 20 iences and creating a genteel living space The distinctive two storey tavern porch was preserved and bluestone terraces were constructed around the house using grind stones salvaged from the pulp mill top An early glass plate photo of the Winchell Inn at Ashokan opposite page top Rebuilding the Dam Note Penstocks on left opposite page center An earlier Wood Pulp Mill Note buildings on hill mill and water tower on left and Inn on right Lower left note stacks of cordwood opposite page bottom A postcard of an apparently improved Wood Pulp Mill Dam appears larger and more cat walks behind the mill as well as a water tower on the hill

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21 Angstrom Archive Angstrom Archive Angstrom Archive

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Angstrom Archive Angstrom Archive top It took two horses to haul bales of wood pulp to nearby Brown s Station Ulster and Delaware Railroad Stop above Beginning of construction of the main Ashokan Dam that ended Mill operations on the Esopus 22

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Larson Fisher Associates Larson Fisher Associates Larson Fisher Associates Turnwood Covered Bridge 1938 39 the Turnwood Covered Bridge was originally located in Turnwood town of Hardenburgh NY near Lew Beach and spanning the Beaverkill The location was so named because of a small hand turning mill owned by Hopper Trip at that location near the intersection of Beaverkill and Cross Mountain roads It was built in 1885 by Nelson Tompkins from Barkaboom an engineer with a crew A Margaretville newspaper mistakenly attributed the work to Frank Mead but handpainted marks by Thompkins as well as Ward Hermann s book Spans of Time refute this claim Apparently Mead s father William laid out Halls bridge in 1869 Nelson Thompkins worked on that bridge with him The road approaches to the bridge were a tight turn more suited 23 to horses than automobiles so when in 1938 a flood eroded the abutments Ulster County built a new steel bridge downstream and disposed of the previously declared unsafe cov top A 1959 photo of Haggerty s Genteel Country Place above right and left Colonial replica restoration mantel and Dutch barn beams installed in the Inn in 1937

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above Glass Blowing shop built by Reeves and Angstrom more recently used as Blacksmith Shop left Lawyer s office moved from Tillson NY on Reeve s hay wagon It now interprets a print shop opposite page Back new front and front sides of Winchell s Inn as it appears today ered bridge by auction Lester A Moehring the comptroller of Chrysler Corporation won the bid for 1 on the Ulster County Courthouse steps in Kingston Moehring had the lattice work unpegged the trusses taken down and trucked to his town of Olive property for reassembly into a 62foot span shorter than the original Thanks goes to the New York State 24

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Andrew Angstrom reconstructed Town of Olive stone school house brought to the Ashokan Campus Covered Bridge Association and Patricia Bartels Miller author of Timbers of Time and Ward Hermann author of Spans of Time who provided portions of the above information Lester Moehring died in 1947 Barbara L Moehring moved to a smaller stone house at nearby Davis Corners which the Moehring s had restored using the Teller and Halverson Firm She then sold the Winchell property to Mr and Mrs Frank V Banks he was a retired race horse jockey who wished to develop a riding academy but that effort was not successfula It s now 1957 Enter William Hagerty President of State College University at New Paltz He negotiated the purchase of the Winchell Falls property intending to create a college camp for recreation and out door education for both college students and children attending the college campus school Hagerty got the concept from visiting the president of Cooper Union at that school s Green Engineering Campus in Ringwood NJ where the Cooper Union president had a weekend home Hagerty wanted the old Winchells Inn restored and upgraded in the 1930 s for his own use The college built two bunk houses with dining space athletic fields and swimming for students The New Paltz college camp was administered by the principal of the campus school Dr Merrill H Archard who initiated an outdoor education program In 1965 Kent Reeves a graduate of Southern Illinois University where he studied under Lloyd Burgess Sharp 1895 1963 Phd in Physical Education a leading figure in the 26 early development of the fast growing popularity of outdoor education as a means of promoting learning of all kinds outside the classroom In 1925 Sharp was hired by LIFE magazine to oversee fresh air camps for NYC children In 1940 he opened National Camp which continued after LIFE closed their camps in 1951 under a newly created Outdoor Education Association In 1959 Sharp joined the faculty of Southern Illinois University in Carbondale and relocated the Outdoor Education Association to that campus and influenced the establishment of the outdoor experimental education facility Touch Of Nature National Camp closed in 1962 Sharp s belief was that which ought and can be best taught inside the school rooms should there be taught and that which should best

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Angstrom Archive above Outdoor Education Association flyer 1976 note a young Andrew H Angstom on the top of the program Andrew Angstrom s Home Grown graphics right Promoting outdoor education on the Ashokan Field Campus far right Andy went the extra mile and recreated a Native American Effigy himself for a Native crafts flyer be learned from experience dealing directly with native material and life situations outside the classrooms should there be taught Ashokan s first professional director Kent Reeves applied this learning and philosophy to outdoor education He began with the premise that improving a child s familiarity with an outside world natural and 27

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Angstrom Archive above and top and bottom opposite page Andrew H Angstrom Home Grown graphics 28

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Angstrom Archive The construction of the Ashokan dam and the flooding of a vast area for NYC s first reservor obliterated scores of farmsteads and hamlets relocating hundreds of people This assault on traditional Catskills life by the modern city created a resentment that is sustained today It led to a number of instances of summer camps in the region where the occupations music and folklore of this lost era were taught These camps were for progressive even socialist families from the city with Camp Woodland a summer haven for the children of Leftists attending the Little Red Schoolhouse in New York s West Village being best known The proximity to the Ashokan Dam and exposure to the experiences of displacement and relocation of people and buildings suggest that Reeves and Angstrom were influenced by the resulting Preservation Movement 1966 new concrete abutments for the Turnwood Covered bridge were installed by the Ashokan Field Campus to prevent it from collapsing into the stream William Hagerty left his post at the college in 1966 and the Winchell Moehring house went from being a genteel country retreat to camp staff housing with an added tap room consistent with the house s history as a tavern Kent Reeves envisioned a working museum village like Sturbridge Angstrom Archive social was important The field campus as it was then known used its setting to teach about the environment and its protection a relatively new concept at the time The physical remains of culture both historic and prehistoric were used to introduce students to the broad cultural history of the site Farm animals were introduced to provide an understanding of where food comes from The program evolved further from recreation to education Kent Reeves and assistant director Andrew H Angstrom introduced rural crafts to the curriculum This program was described by Larson Fisher Associates in their National Register Eligibility Nomination Materials 29

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Angstrom Archive opposite page center Kent Reeves was creative in finding new sources of income after SUNY New Paltz cut back on funding one avenue was renting aout Ashokan as a set depicting Amish country scenes for The Guiding Light Soap opera pictured is REVA actress Kim Zimmer in costume Village Williamsburg and others Early on Reeves and Angstrom built a blacksmith forge in the Moehring barn basement so campers could understand the craft and the role it played in rural life Next they built a glass blowing facility hiring Nancy Freeman a skilled craftsperson to teach and demonstrate there Next a Tin and Pewter Shop was constructed and an Historic legal office was moved to Ashokan from Tillson on a hay wagon behind Reeves pickup truck The lawyer s office was used to interpret a print shop A broom shop was constructed and a neighbor donated a five hole outhouse that was moved to the site Camp staff constructed other farm related buildings according to designs in Eric Sloan s books including a wagon shed to shelter old farm and domestic machinery Reeves found on area farms all this in an attempt to show campers how things worked When Hagerty was succeeded by Dr James Frost he cut college annual funding to 5000 and changed the name from New Paltz College Camp to Ashokan Campus Reeves modified that to Ashokan Field Campus Reeves developed new sources of revenue from the Nassau County NY Board of Cooperative Education busing fifth and sixth grade students for first hand learning in nature and social studies This was staffed by Midwestern college students fulfilling fieldwork requirements in outdoor education Additionally a summer program for migrant farm children was sponsored by the Southern 30 Ulster migrant action Committee In the mid 80s Reeves and Andrew H Angstrom continued to develop the campus by dismantling an old stone school house in the town of Olive and moving it to campus Angstrom read up on masonry construction and reconstructed the schoolhouse About the same time Angstrom built a replica of a log cabin on an old foundation in a remote area of the camps land By 1980 the first Ashokan Fiddle and Dance Camp was held at the Ashokan Field Campus This event was organized by the well established local folk musicians Jay Ungar and Molly Mason and became a critical part of the campus annual program Then in 2006 SUNY New Paltz wanted to sell the property and Jay

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and Molly teamed with prominent attorney Rosemary Nichols to form the Ashokan Foundation They worked in partnership with the Open Space Institute then presided over by Joe Martens to negotiate the purchase of the campus First Open Space purchased the property from SUNY New Paltz then subdivided it in three parcels two high ground parcels along the Esopus Creek and a third 258 acre parcel along both banks of the Esopus Creek The City of New York DEP purchased the third parcel Open Space then deeded the 127 acre high ground to the Ashokan Foundation along with some of the money received from the 31 below New energy efficient dining hall conference area and dormitory building Note wildflower landscaping

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sale of the 258 acres The Ashokan Foundation used these funds to help build new dormitories and dining facilities that are energy efficient and designed to be models for sustainable development The old SUNY campus was mandated to be removed by DEP in the floodway and it was demolished A reformed Ashokan campus opened in 2008 51 years after it was New Paltz camp and 287 years after Jacobus Bush homesteaded on the Esopus Ashokan preserves the property and offers expanded programming in outdoor education and craft history for regional schools while developing a new vision for the future combining nature history and the arts to rebuild the campus as a model 32 of sustainable energy efficient operation and design as well as many cultural events produced by Jay Ungar and Molly Mason and others An especial thank you to Larson Fisher Associates for their National Register eligiblity nomination that provided much of the above detail

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Turnwood Covered Bridge At Ashokan Restored by Arnold M Graton Associates 2017 An interview with Meg and Arnold Graton pictured here

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Arnold Graton Associates Interview Meg Graton I really enjoyed our time here with the children everyone around was so accommodating It is such a beautiful setting We work in beautiful settings but this is really beautiful and there are so many animals here who are not afraid You see a squirrel and it doesn t run from you Deer beavers We have enjoyed the music and Jay and Molly have been very hospitable Arnold Nature is pretty well preserved here Tom Through the nature of the living classroom here is a great way to preserve nature and history of a place like this It s such a great setting for the bridge Meg It is great to see the children s faces You can see they have never been out of the city before the huge joy of being out here in the country and it s fun to watch them Tom Did any of the kids come through during your work Meg Yes they ask questions when they come through the bridge I was here with my son working he and I were here for two months alone which was nice it was just Tim and I down there getting things shored up and ready to rock and roll Arnold We had one that we took off the river in 63 and stored in our barn for 48 years Finally some folks from Highlands North Carolina were looking for an old bridge to buy We could move it for them but they could not find an old bridge We had to help them This bridge needed a lot of work We dismantled it and got rid of the rotten parts it really needed a lot of work They bought it and we rebuilt it down there in Highlands My father Milton was in on moving that bridge I started in 35 Tom Krueger Filmworks was commissioned by Ashokan to create a video about Turnwood Bridge Project This interview was done to get raw footage for video Tom has worked the motion picture and television industry for many years and is a member of both International Cinematographer s Guild and Director s Guild of America Tom has photographed as well as directed a wide range of projects from feature films live concert films commercials music videos along with several long form 3D projects Tom has shot as well as directed music videos for artists such as U2 David Bowie Stevie Wonder Bruce Springsteen Bob Dylan Public Enemy REM and many more Tom has shot literally hundreds of commercials ranging from Ford Chrysler Chevy Nissan Mazda to Budweiser Coke Verizon AT T and so many more Tom s life passion is to better understand all aspects of the art of cinema and to that end he continues to hone his craft through shooting and directing while also pursuing a deeper understanding of writing editing and acting The more we understand each and every aspect of the filmmaking process the better the work will be and the better we can work with others

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Turnwood covered bridge undressed siding boards removed for its restoration Cat walks along sides allow workers convenient access to the chords an important of the framing business with my father full time when I got out of high school He was a structure mover among other things kind of a Jack of all trades I guess Anyway we got contracts to move some of these bridges out of the flood plain because the flood control dams were being built They all needed work they were 100 years old and neglected for 50 years by that time so they all had rotten ends We started to repair them enough to move and relocate them and it developed into a business Tom Who s in the business with you Arnold You re looking at most of it right now and then Tim and Don Tim s our son and Don may as well be he has been hanging around for a long time Meg He s down in Kentucky working that job we re usually all together This time it s different We re just a small family business We hire if we need to at different job sites We have a couple of guys working with us in Kentucky and Matt up here helps us Tim started with us when he was 12 years old summers going into the business following Arnold around Arnold and his dad started together when Arnold was 18 They started together because it was flood control started taking bridges off the river They were moving them as solid structures Arnold s mother loved to tell the story about Arnold coming home one night in the dark up over old Route Three in New Hampshire towing a bridge all in one piece towing it behind his Ford F800 a 1965 Ford 800 which is still sitting in our shop 36 He towed it all the way up the highway and backed into the yard We reconstructed it years later That s one he was talking about earlier At any rate he and his dad kind of became proponents His father especially had a gift for talking Arnold would be in the background doing the work and his dad advocating for it because he could talk People loved to talk to him So they made a niche in the market That s why New Hampshire has a Milton Graton Day named after Arnold s father he did so much to save the bridges all over the country Arnold was young and his father was getting on in years so Arnold took up a lot of the hard work like Tim does for us now because Tim is young and strong that is the way it cycles from generation to generation Tim started when he was young because when

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A Bailey bridge frame is pushed through the center of this Johnson Creek Covered bridge in Kentucky to provide a skeleton to suspend the bridge for restoration photography by Arnold M Graton you are a small family business to survive everybody works I work I get out there to do a lot of it too not as much as I did when I was younger but still I have to listen to my son say Is that all you got Mum He is 26 and I am 51 you know that is a big difference We have fun like that I always say not many mothers are blessed to work with their sons all day long I am sure he doesn t feel that way but some day maybe he will understand how we feel about it We have to stay together so much you have to love each other to be together as much as we are We are together all the time working and living When we go to a job site we live at the job site like we do here When we are in Kentucky our trailers are at the bridge All the bridges are in beautiful places but this one is in one of the most beautiful places we have ever been They are all rural They are always out in the country Each one has its own culture surrounding it you are in the country with different people from all over the country It s a lot different in Georgia or Kentucky than up here in the Northeast Tom Why build bridges Arnold My thinking is that you are trying to get more and more products to New York City or wherever You ve got milk you ve got to get your produce across the stream or rivers You have a ford not a Ford car but a ford to get across the river but you can only use that when the water is low Once you get a freshet you can t go So what are you going to do Fresh milk lettuce any of these things are going to spoil in a day or 37 two So you make that choice the ford or maybe you have a little ferry powered by horses mules or oxen that pull you across But then you may be waiting for another halfdozen farmers who have to get their produce across I think all those things put together made people realize that they had to have a more permanent dependable way to get across The ferr y in the winter doesn t work The ford in the winter doesn t work you get ice in the wagon wheels and you ve got a mess I think that s why probably they all got together and pooled their resources and energy to build a bridge Tom Why a covered bridge Arnold You can have an open bridge but you need to have access to pressure

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reated timbers for it Back then access to pressure treated lumber was probably available to the railroads so you put the cover on just like you do on your house to keep it dry It keeps the timber frame dry and it keeps the timber frame in your house dry Tom What kind of bridge is this Arnold This is a Town Lattice I think Ithiel Town patented it in January 28 1820 He received Patent 3169x for a truss bridge and again in 1835 He was from New Haven Connecticut but he also did a Town Lattice Truss in North Carolina His patent was a reasonably simple design He would lay the planks par allel in both directions then he had just a series of triangles he pinned them together with tree nails It s a strong and simple design to build There is a lot to laying it out right and that sort of thing though of all the people who were around there had to be someone with the ability to lay things out You would have carpenters and you had to have a lot of farmers who were no more then laborers on the bridge job Tom What is Camber Arnold Camber in the bridge seems to be a gauge of whether the bridge is capable of working So if you have a camber in it it always looks like it is up proud and ready to do its job If you laid it out right straight and it sagged at all it would look like it needed to be replaced Tom What was wrong with this bridge when you got here Arnold It was in pretty poor shape The roof had leaked for years and probably before it leaked this time it had probably leaked at some other point When it was first moved here I suspect there was a lot of rot and probably there was a small budget Their job was to get the bridge from there to here and get it assembled They thought they had all they could do with the money that was available to fix it It had a lot of rot in the ends and all through it the bottom chords At Ashokan long steel beams were bolted together with cross beams all supported by hardwood cribs to suspend the bridge for restoration Note slight camber in chords on the right side of bridge 38

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were bad It leaned a bit water dripped on the bottom chords and it rotted fast It had flying buttresses or elephant ears on all four corners Those had rotted They are exposed to the weather but they are shingled like shingled roofs so every 25 years you have to put new shingles on or they will get wet and rot The bed timbers that the flying buttresses were connected to to keep it from leaning were rotted off That s pretty much it a few floor boards were rotted some of those were kind of poor when it was moved here Tom What s the process Where do you begin when you are going to do this Arnold From start to finish Meg do you want to take it for a while Meg Arnold has been doing this for a long time shoring up the bridge one way or another we used to shore them up from the river using cribbing Did you see the towers that we built down there We used to build these cribs under the bridges and jack them up from there But you would be working in the water which was not well looked on over the years EPA didn t like that much So in 2007 Arnold devised this system of using steel going through to create a skeleton support We actually suspend the bridge onto that skeletal support and as we suspend it we jack it up at several points and shore it at those points It takes it out of compression because all of these components are in compression the bracing and everything When you get it out of compression you can start to wiggle it and get the pieces out that you want to replace When my son and I took out those bottom chords they were loose We were taking them off and pulling them out You saw how tight the new ones in there are now Arnold designed this system of going through the bridge with steel Sometimes we use a steel truss type system It works like another bridge a Bailey bridge We have something similar to that on a job we are doing in Kentucky This job is smaller so we used those pieces of steel and made it so we didn t have to work in the river It s all done from above and you never have to move the bridge I saw one the other day they were rolling a bridge off a river a lot of work This way you work it right in place it never leaves its home So that s how we start by shoring it up stabilizing it relieving the components from the pressure and starting to take it apart to see what s wrong And once we see what s wrong with it Arnold kind of knows when he looks he s like the bridge whisperer we call him that he can walk through and know where the problems are before he sees it because he has seen so many Once we take it apart we know what has to be replaced and that s how it begins Arnold I got a little familiar with grist mill stones when I did a couple of waterpowered grist mills in North Carolina one in Raleigh and another in Hickory I got to know them I built a new frame down in Raleigh and I got to know what the mill stones were all about Tom What are bridges made of Arnold You start with the chords lower and upper chords in this case a lower and secondary chord and then an upper Those are usually made up of in this case three by twelves there are four of those that lap each other by 16 feet With three groups of tree nails which are the nails that hold it all together three groups of tree nails that make the shear between cross 39 sections After the chords come the lattices which are all the crisscrosses that you see They make up the triangles that make up the truss work and then there is another layer of chords when it is all clamped together you bore through the connections and install these two inch tree nails What did I leave out Meg Well in layman s terms the chords sandwich in the timbers to keep the trusses together Tom What year was this bridge made and how did they evolve Meg It was 1885 A lot were built in the 1800s They moved it here in 1939 Tom Tell me about the different styles of covered bridges Arnold There are only about half a dozen different style trusses In New York and New England Town Lattice was popular but there is also a burr arch and multiple king posts queen posts Other than the Town Lattice the others are pretty much the same they were finding something they could patent but they are vertical posts with diagional braces There are a lot of different variations the one we are working on in Kentucky has it s the only one I ve seen with a single member top chord that is mortised and the posts are tenoned up into it Usually you are trying to have a twopiece top chord with the posts sandwiched between Tom When they built did they use hand tools Arnold Hand tools as far as I can see Meg A lot of levers Arnold s built 17 new ones so we have the experience of building a new one and we do

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left The yellow straps fine tune the adjustment of the camber of the bridge using heavy steel beams as a skeleton note cribbing on the end top An old photo of Turnwood Bridge before it deteriorated photography courtesy New York State Covered Bridge Association above Matt shows off his Proud to Work for Graton shirt Right Hardworking Tim and his proud mum Meg 41

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use some modern equipment but we try to replicate the old ways as much as possible So we build them flat on the ground both sides and we raise them using gin poles which are basically just a Fred Flintstone crane that uses a long piece of timber like a telephone pole and we use depending on the length three or four gin poles then rig up with cables so if we crank down the bridge stands upright Then you jack them apart We towed them over the river 17 times using a large capstain winch and oxen because that s how they were done when they built them on one side of the river and moved them into place because it is very difficult to build them over a river We have a lot of fun when we do that We have a festival people come and dance sing sell their wares and watch us pull the bridge over the river It s a lot of fun Tom How long do you think this particular restoration will take from start to finish Arnold We started in May and we should be done around Thanksgiving I think Meg If not before a little bit Tom Were there any particular challenges above Turnwood Bridge deterioration before Arnold Graton pic bottom Turnwood Bridge lower chord after Arnold M Graton restoration Note 3 tree nails fastening an outer chord opposite page top Using gin poles and cables to tip up a side of bridge photography by Arnold Graton opposite page center Oxen and capstain winch are used to move bridges back in place photography by Arnold Graton 42

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Arnold Really not especially Quite often people ask me that but we have done enough of em so nothing surprises you just about know what s gonna be Meg You do the biggest surprise here is when they release water with our staging underneath it it makes us say maybe we will do that tomorrow or the next day because of the water passing underneath That s one reason we raised this one up higher than usual three feet off the abutments We wanted to be out of the water in case they had a big release Arnold We like to get the catwalks on each side We like to get em down so the chord is about waist high You know it s handy to work on too high or too low it s inconvenient it s better to have the bridge up and the walkway down where you can work handy and convenient Tom How long have you guys been working together Arnold Since about 2001 sixteen years Meg We re married Tom What were you doing today 43 Meg We were cutting the new braces those were the existing braces we were re cutting them to fit Tim was inside scribing them and we were cutting the scribes because when you put in the new floor joists you have to adjust the sides of the bridge so we were re cutting them for him and passing them back in We were reusing the existing ones cutting them to the right size Tom What tools were you using Arnold A 16 inch circular saw framing square pencil Tim and Matt were using nail hammers too

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A 16 inch circular saw used to trim timbers Note three tree nails in bottom chord of bridge Tom Molly had a question why covered bridges Arnold Same reason you cover your house to protect the frame Tom When were covered bridges first built Arnold Covered bridges first started in Europe They still have some that are 1500 to 1600 years old Meg And in Asia they are beautiful Arnold Here in this country we started the Bagley Bridge the one we had stored in the barn for 48 years the one that went to North Carolina That was built in 1807 and that was believed to be close to the earliest in the New York New England area maybe in the country You really can t tell for sure Early 1800s Tom Molly asked if our bridge is historically significant and why Arnold I think the main reason that your bridge is historically significant is that we have so few left in the country and I think that makes it pretty important History is pretty important I think Meg Every old covered bridge is historically significant in this country because there are so few left They are beautiful pieces of workmanship from days gone by That is how people got to see their neighbors or their grandma People like the Amish get together to build a bridge because it is for the community They work hard We work hard Still doing what we do And they worked hard in those days They didn t have all the mechanical advantages that we have now If they cut a piece of timber they cut it by hand with a two 44 man saw which we still do sometimes too I think each one is historically significant this one is significant to the area It s a piece of New York Americana not many left in New York Arnold You asked me about the different style bridges There were a lot of different styles they tried but they are not here because they didn t work out like more Truss There s a Howe Truss that we restored in Clairmont NC which is the only one there The reason why it is the only one is that they didn t work out They didn t stand the test of time Tom Molly said you guys showed them a bunch of problems with the reassembly of this bridge Meg We don t want to bash the builder we know how hard they worked to try to put it back together but if you never put together a covered bridge you don t always know They took it apart when they moved it up here but we saw evidence that they had tried to label things to put it back together We don t know but there was some evidence a few things weren t put back exactly the way they should be They may not have understood how the trusses worked and stuff like that They were just a company hired to reassemble it like an erector set thing this one goes here and that one goes here A lot of times Arnold goes back to his bridges and tunes them he checks them fine tuning like you would an instrument making sure that wedges are in place and tree nails are secure You have to understand how all the angles work together so there are a few things they did that probably they weren t aware of at the time Arnold can explain better about some of the bracing and the way they drille d the holes and stuff I am sure they tried to do the best that they could

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Tim Graton shows new L and old R tree nails behind him are some of the 800 tree nails in the Turnwood Bridge Arnold Some of the lattices weren t perfectly lined up where they should have been and when you reassemble a bridge like that it is quite a job to line up all the previously drilled holes before you put your trammels in After a while you might give up and say Well this is close enough I am driving the tree nail in now Especially if you ve got a boss who s after you to get something done and you are not accomplishing it A few little things like that and in the bottom chords they used four tree nails instead of three The problem with four tree nails you cut away so much of the wood you are taking so much that you reduce the strength of that lattice or chord You add strength with the tree nails but you don t have anything for them to grab onto It s a little hard for me to explain but three nails usually work out better then four We have found once in a while a bridge that has four tree nails in the bottom chord but not very often and that may be one of the earlier covered bridges before they found out they were better off with three because you cut the grain in so many places until you take it apart and look at what you have done you don t realize how much you cut away Tom Now that you have done this work how will the bridge be in the future Arnold Now that we have done this really thorough restoration there is no reason that the bridge can t survive for the next three or four hundred years with very little maintenance Just make sure that the metal roof is secured We re securing that with screws so that should stay fine I can t think of anything that is going to need for a long long time 45 Meg Keep it clean like a house you have to get the dirt out of the corners keep the mold out As Arnold says the critters like to get into that mold and dirt and make a home Then you start to get rot in those corners You ve got to keep them clean We suggest blowing them out with compressed air because it gets right down inside of everything and cleans them real well Arnold s always the sweeper of the bridge at the end of the job He likes to sweep it clean the old fashioned way Tom Tell me what you know about the bridge and what its name is Meg It s the Ashokan Turnwood Covered Bridge it was moved here from Turnwood New York in 1939 Arnold Graton Associates is restoring the Ashokan Turnwood Covered Bridge

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Tom What is it like doing this work and passing it on to Tim Arnold Well I like doing it I don t play golf so I am sure it is better then playing golf it s fun it s nice to save something and save it right I guess that s it And it s a way of making a living Tom Tell me about Tim Arnold Our son has taken a great interest in it It is an unusual vocation so I think that helps him to stay interested in it You get to travel around and meet a lot of different people He is doing a good job and seems to be happy doing it Tom Tell me about your own father and working Meg Arnold loved his dad He was a very special intelligent man He wrote a book The Last of the Covered Bridge Builders He ran the shop It was always clean the Gratons are perfectionists and they are perfectionists in how they keep things Before Arnold s dad died he had restored his father s truck for him a 1949 International and the day he died Arnold drove it in the shop and it still sits there He just didn t have the heart to send it back out We are in the family home will be there too it s part of our love the people you love that you will keep near you because it makes you remember thos e days Everyone in town would see Milton riding around in the beautiful old truck Arnold had his gravestone made and his father approved it and saw it before he went He wanted a covered bridge that he and Arnold had built together in town a small covered bridge that is down the street from us and he wanted that on his gravestone It says The last of the covered bridge builders on his stone He was p roud of what he did and proud Arnold was with him And now Tim we are proud of Tim He works hard and has a good work ethic so he adds to our business in that way He studied civil technolo gy and is a very smart young man He doesn t drink or smoke He works and buys big toys big trucks and motorcycles And what more could a mother ask for He is just a good kid he does the right thing and we re very proud of him He works hard and we know he s got our back If we are in Kentucky and give him a call and say we are in trouble he will probably sigh but he will come get us He has a CDL so he drives around the country in our Peterbilt taking supplies to all the job sites we go to He likes doing that I like getting out and doing that with him We bond as a family all the time everyone of us About Arnold Meg I m very proud of this man because he has achieved more then his father because of the length of his career His father was in his 50s Arnold was 18 when he started the length of his careen Arnold is the foremost covered bridge restorer in the country Yankee magazine named him one of their 80 great people in their 80 th anniversary Graton s Peterbilt rig and a special heavy duty trailer hauls steel to create the skeleton to support the bridges The trac skid steer loader does alot of lifting and moving of cribs 46

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issue He was right there next to Stephen King and Toll House cookies I am very proud that he accomplished so very much in his lifetime But he is a very modest humble man that s why he has trouble talking about himself He is one of those humble Yankees People love him everywhere we go Arnold We started doing bigger things since you Meg started working I was only bonded once before I met Meg She started helping me doing paperwork One day I needed help getting a load of hay I think and I needed some help loading some hay I asked Do you want to help me with something and she said Yes and out we went Since then she only takes care of the business end of it but she goes out and helps whatever there is moving timbers or whatever Consequently we were able to get our act together get bonde d and we have had two jobs that were well over two million which is pretty good for a little gang Meg The onset of in the early 2000s requiring bidding documents became more extensive The bid documents to get this job in Kentucky you had to be audited It is a lot of work that goes into getting these jobs The jobs that are private are nice you sign a contract and you are done When you are working for the federal government you sign your life away a couple times over Arnold And you have an awful lot of bosses None of them really know what is going on Meg There are a lot of people who have never worked on em and engineers who have never worked on a covered bridge and are supposed to be in charge of the job After the video interview with Tom Kreuger we were able to meet with Tim Graton the next generaton of the Gratons carrying on the Bridge builders tradition Here he shares his thoughts on covered bridges Tim at the bridge fitting in braces Only some floor joists had wicked twists in them We jack the bridge up on needle beams and make adjustments to get the shape of the bridge where we want it it s called End 0 We re at three and seven eighths inches in the center the support beams are too long to truck so they are bolted together in the center on site We have used these since 1986 they have lifted quite a few bridges A light bridge like this isn t much to lift The biggest job I have been involved with was 300 feet in Hampton New Hampshire This is a pretty neat little project down here It was moved here and they didn t do the best of jobs putting it back together not everyone knows that This is unique this is one of the first times that we have seen We actually took this apart The original bottom chord configuration had four tree nails in it really uncommon You see the rest of these chord members top and bottom only had three that is typical You take too much cross section when you go for the fourth The porcupines had eaten a lot of the lattice we will sister that to make it strong It s still got half its strength but we always try to think about 100 years from now This lumber actually comes from this is Blenheim Covered Bridge in Schoharie County washed out in 2011 We did a lot of preliminary stuff estimating and design for the Blenheim Covered bridge being rebuilt by Arnold s nephew Stan It washed out in 2011 we were working over in Margaretville on the Tuscarorra Hunting Club Bridge when it happened We went to Blenheim and did a lot of salvage work taking stuff out of the river and then FEMA got involved They had a set of plans drawn up back in the 70s but they were pretty outdated not up to current structure floor loading to 85 pounds per square foot for pedestrians up from 60 pounds in the 70s That Blenheim is going to be the longest single span It s a double barrel with a center truss See Rebirth of Blenheim Bridge in this issue Arnold M Graton Tuscarorra Hunting Club Covered Bridge under construction awaiting being pulled back into place when completed 47

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Doug Fir the new stuff the reason we use Doug Fir is that it has really good elastic strength so it makes sense There was hemlock here but modern day hemlock is too fast growth and a lot of it is short because they don t let the trees grow out long enough They are growing trees to make 16 foot lumber now With the Doug Fir they let the forest grow longer It comes from the West coast Washington Oregon That way we can get 40 footers out of it so in this bridge we have four fortyfooters and four 22s overlapping making the eight piece bottom chord Meg The old timbers had a lot tighter grain Tim The way this works we buy from a company called Good Fellows they are the biggest timber supplier in the US and Canada We have been dealing with them for quite a few years since the 70s They buy it all in Oregon Washington and ship it by railcar into Montreal Quebec They have two big mills there So it is a US product milled in Canada and shipped back to us That is how they make their money because everything up there is subsidized You look at all the log trucks down here they have Canadian plates everything goes to Canada Tim He climbs up and checks the date on the top truss 1885 MOVED HERE IN 1939 Tim On the effect of water releases from Ashokan s main Dam We are going to come up about six inches they are not supposed to go over 650 million gallons a day that s what the contract says They can go up to 12 billion but are not supposed to go over 650 million We came down here when they were doing a 650 million gallon release and took measurements from the bottom of the bridge It was 18 inches from the bottom of the sheathing to the water level We are gonna go up another six inches to be safe it should be good I have been down here our staging is about eight inches from the water when they do a big release it s scary it really moves This place is like a war zone when that water gets up around the staging When you are working out there it kind of makes you dizzy it moves really fast The bridge used to be longer I am guessing about 90 feet before they moved it they cut it down one of the telltale signs is the lateral braces If you look up you can see how they cross at the middle and there are what they call marrying wedges at every intersecting part so that if anything ever loosens up on the bridge you can hammer it and tighten it up They are infinitely adjustable The beams up there only work like that when they are eight feet on center Originally the bridge end had the same system but when they moved the bridge they went to four foot on center with the floor joist and just cut the lateral braces off They still left all the wedges and stuff in there so that s one of the signs Another sign is that a lot of the chord pieces have extra tree nail holes in them When the bridge is set back down it will set on three eight by tens with white oak scuffers every 16 inches underneath them We tell people 60 to 70 years on white oak The eight by tens should last longer as long as you keep them clean with good air flow When we jack the bridge up we take initial measurements to see where the bridge is setting documenting all the camber heights Then we lift it up and recheck it to see where we stayed When you are picking it up you put on these big 48 steel beams and then put the perpendicular ones on top of those Then you have to max out the deflection on everything so that you are not changing the shape of the bridge when you lift it The way you do it is you load the center four beams first you put as much load on the steel in the center and that gives you your max then you engage your ends When we get it up we go through and individually gap each perpendicular beam to get the shape we want How we find that is we go through and take measurements but are looking at a lot of things like cracks in the lattices that are starting to open up and tensions on tree nails If you lose tension you have gone too far But you have to remember it s reverse loaded held from the top and it s designed to be held from the bottom so you have to be careful of that too A lot of people when they do this push em too far and when they set em down they lose a lot they don t keep a consistent shape You have to know when to say when it s a balance We work with a lot of engineers they will come on to a bridge and say What are your projected camber numbers for this And I will say I don t know I haven t lifted it yet You don t know until you watch and see what it does It kind of talks to you you know it really does You can hear it moving so a lot of times you will go through and make a bunch of adjustments and wait a couple days and see what it does it is a feel thing White oak tree nails we turn them ourselves if we have a slow winter we have a nine foot lathe that we turn them on That s where we get most of our stock When we do a really big job you see how many tree nails there are in this relatively small bridge we have about 800 tree nails To turn all that would take

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about two months worth of turning We make three inch by three inch blocks put them into the nine foot lathe so if you are making 20 inch tunnels you get five each time and then you just cut them off You have two guys turning on each end or sometimes just one guy turning Tree nails have one thirty second clearance a two inch bit tree nail one and fifteen sixteenth of an inch clean holes a three pound sledge and clamps to align holes and you put the chords together Our biggest mission is to retain whatever possible We only put in new what we have to That s a pretty big part of the game Anyone can come in and take out all the old stuff and put in new Cross members of Doug Fir we replaced only every other one replacing oak maple and hemlock They just used whatever they had but the ones we took out were in pretty poor shape Two were broken right in half they were right on the end It is amazing how far things I am sure you have seen barns and stuff it s amazing how far some things can go before they actually go COST OF JOB DEP is paying for it 373 000 They allocated the money to Ashokan that was part of the deal DEP was supposed to take care of this bridge and they never did They kind of let it go into ruin They are taking action on this now Ashokan doesn t even own this yet The deal with Ashokan is DEP owns it now they are paying to fix it it is going to be their one and final fix they don t want to do any maintenance after this so they are going to gift it to Ashokan after we are done with it The average life of a covered bridge is 300 years This one is getting to be 150 years old and it really wasn t that bad it needed it was neglected Borate fire retardant helps keep insects away too The completed Turnwood Covered Bridge restoration Fall 2017 Note the camber in bottom chord on right hand side of the bridge as well as the covered flying buttresses photography by Arnold M Graton 49

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Arnold M Graton website 50

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The Gratons borrowed Matt from Ashokan to work on the Turnwood Bridge Matt had worked at Ashokan since 2011 with student groups Matt said Jay and Molly approached me with an opportunity and I jumped right on it I m learning an enormous amount a big change for me from working with youth groups opposite page top Restored Ashokan Turnwood Covered Bridge opposite page bottom Lower and secondary chord restorations before siding put back top Arnold Meg Matt and Tim The crew for the Turnwood Restoration above Reused cross member and new Douglas Fir lower chord outside plank Note three tree nails holding it all together 51

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The Rebirth of Blenheim Bridge By Rebecca Andre Many agreed the Blenheim Bridge was the world s longest single span wooden covered bridge before being swept away by the fierce floodwaters of Schoharie Creek during Tropical Storm Irene six years ago The 156 year old historical structure crashed into a Route 30 bridge disintegrating into many irreparable pieces Opened to transportation in 1855 the bridge became pedestrian only in 1932 when a steel truss bridge was built as a replacement In 1964 the bridge received historical landmark status After being reduced to rubble in 2011 the bridge lost its historical landmark status four years later in 2015 Today rising from the river bed the rebuilding of Blenheim Bridge is a feat of engineering and a beacon of hope This is not a scaled down replica Measurements and techniques are true to the bridge s historical counterpart In fact due to efforts of dedicated locals parts of the original bridge 52 that were scattered downstream for miles have been collected and stored Salvaged pieces will be incorporated into the design of the new bridge as a way to memorialize the original covered bridge and to symbolize a community s strength to rise above the destruction that was Irene The timber bridge is built as closely as possible according to the original plans says Jay McKee S E T of GPI and Engineer in Charge of the project The abutments are solid reinforced concrete designed to look like the original abutments which were laid up stone They are at least 10 feet higher than the old abutments built by the Economy Paving Co Inc of Cortland NY the prime contractor for the project An incredible total of 228 feet long including the roof that peaks at 27 feet above the 26 foot wide walkway the covered bridge is being built with a combination of

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power tools and historically accurate hand tools On site you will find handsaws mallets chisels and slicks dating back to1832 True to form is also the process being used to join the massive timbers of Oregon Douglas Fir trees Estimated at 120 feet tall the trees were milled into lengths up to 50 feet and shipped to York PA where framing began in May of 2017 Historical integrity can be seen in the traditional mortise and tenon framing with sawtooth joints the backbone of each truss In charge of the construction of the reincarnated Blenheim Bridge is Stan Graton II of 3G Construction out of New Hampshire This seems appropriate as the group of local businessmen joined together as Blenheim Bridge Company in 1828 also hired a New England craftsman Nichols Montgomery Powers of Vermont For three generations the Graton family has been involved with covered bridge historical restorations and the building of new covered bridges Cousins Arnold JR and Stan were taught by Stan s grandfather Milton S Graton the 1930 s pioneer of new and restored covered bridges We have been working with my Grandfather since we were old enough to lug his tools around for him said Stan opposite page top Histoic memorial sign to bridge that is no longer there Prior to 1939 these markers were placed by the State Education Department opposite page bottom top Stan checking the plumb of the center truss right PBS film crew focusing in on details of truss erection 53

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Stan s grandfather Milton even worked on restoration of the original Blenheim Bridge in 1974 He also wrote a book Last of the Covered Bridge Builders with his son Arnold M Graton the only Master Covered Bridgewright in the country that has built 14 new covered bridges and restored more than 60 according to the book s description on Amazon com So the reconstruction of Blenheim Bridge is in more than capable hands Currently the third and final south facing truss is being constructed horizontally and expected to be lifted into place by a crane before the end of this year As a double barreled bridge with an arched interior truss there are two separate lanes All three trusses are expected to be built married together and ready to be moved off the riverbed and onto the abutments by the end of February 2018 before spring melt Mother Nature will decide whether the green standing seam metal roof will be installed before or after the move The move will be no small feat The Graton s have friends in high places Jerry Matyiko of Expert House Movers Inc the same company hired to transport the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse to higher ground in 1999 will be assisting in the rising of the new Blenheim Bridge The structure will be placed on power dollies and rolled across a top First stage of constructing the trusses flat on ground before tipping them up for final assembly center South facing truss being joined vertically photography by Rebecca Andre left New abutments are 10 feet higher than originals opposite page top North and interior truss joined to form walkway photography by Rebecca Andre opposite page bottom Stan Graton II of 3G Construction photography by Rebecca Andre 54

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local county or town costs There were wild estimates of a cost of up to 25 million circulated on social media all of which proved to be greatly exaggerated The final cost for replacement which included future flood mitigation is 6 7 million The FEMA funds allocated federally and by state were specifically set aside for projects like this for the repair or rebuilding of existing structures and mitigation of future loss This project has no effect on any other FEMA funding private or public No disaster relief efforts were thwarted by the bridge and no negative impacts affecting personal and business flood claims or filings resulted Instead BLTCRC worked hand in hand with FEMA for some six months in bi weekly meetings that also included public information and comment sessions to author the final 88 page Recovery Plan in May of 2012 The rebuilding of the Blenheim Covered Bridge was of primary focus because of the historic temporary bridge upstream of the abutments It will be jacked up to their elevation and then rolled back downstream to where the bridge will be permanently rested on the abutments The entire process will take about three weeks Stan and his crew are proud to be an integral part in restoring craftsmanship and heritage to the area It is his hope that the rebuild will bring a lot of closure to the destruction that happened in the area for a lot of people So captivating is the reincarnation of the iconic bridge that a British film company has been entrusted with documenting the bridge s story for PBS s Nova Yet the rebirth of the bridge was almost doomed from the beginning This has been an unbelievable struggle says Don Airy newly elect ed Supervisor for the Town of Blenheim and Chair of the BLTCRC Blenheim Long Term Community Recovery Committee Due to a sea of mis information floating around the waters of social media the grass roots efforts to preserve Blenheim s main attraction were almost squashed Despite community controversy accusations that monies were being taken from disaster relief efforts and even two denials from the Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA the BLTCRC did not back down from their vision to preserve the past and benefit the future Given the opportunity to set the record straight this is what Don Airy has to say The project is funded federally through FEMA at 75 and 25 from the State of New York There is no 55

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Generations of lovers had carved their initials in its timbers There are great hopes for the bridge to serve as a destination point of interest and a catalyst of support for the area s growing agri tourism economy Now that the project is under construction and is becoming visible there is a rapidly growing excitement about the bridge s completion and its potential benefits to the entire region says the new Town Supervisor For example its integra tion into the proposed Schoharie Creek Trail If properly promoted as a destination the bridge can also help support economic initiatives like the Brewery Trail and local agricultural markets in the Schoharie Valley It was a long and arduous effort but one that was ultimately successful again proving that anything worth anything g is worth fighting for says Don Airy bridge s heritage connection to the Town of Blenheim as well as to Schoharie County and the region as a tourism driver and destination says Don Airy This is the initial reason why Robert Mann the Town of Blenheim Supervisor at the time established Blenheim s long term recovery committee and requested them to cooperate with FEMA s ESF 14 Flood Recovery Project For the Blenheim Bridge had become a proven asset to the community serving as a focus of local events such as the Annual Blenheim Bridge ArtWalk which drew over 3 500 attendees to the area Visitors from as far away as Nairobi had come to see the world s longest single span wooden covered bridge 56 top Stan demonstrates use of slick a heavy duty chisel designed to be pushed to make fine paring cuts above left Handsaw lays atop sawtooth joint backbone of the truss above right Slick dating back to 1932 forged in Rochester NY one of many antique hand tools being used All photos on this page by Rebecca Andre

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BRIDGING THE PAST By Lillian Browne photography by the author unless otherwise noted Originally constructed for horse and carriage traffic time weather increased vehicle weights and traffic speeds have taken their toll on the region s covered bridges At one time there were 250 covered bridges in New York Delaware County with its vast amount of streams creeks and rivers hosted 57 covered bridges Today there are five standing Three are open to traffic and in an effort to preserve their integrity character and structure they are listed on the National Register of Historic Places Those historic bridges are located in the towns of Hamden Delhi and Downsville are owned by Delaware County and maintained by it s department of public works The bridges according to Delaware County Public Works Commissioner Wayne Reynolds were all originally constructed of locally sourced softwoods likely native Hemlock Not only was the timber source prolific during the era of covered bridge construction mid to late 1800s it contained a resin or sap that made it resilient to moisture making it a preferred choice over hardwoods like Maple Oak or Ash that are susceptible to Powderpost beetles The wood used in construction of the covered bridges was treated with creosote to help prevent rot and pro tect against fire Though standing covered bridges have all been rehabbed to some degree those that have not been fully reconstructed still emit a burnt tar odor evidence of original timbers The aged beams cross members and trusses darkened by creosote treatment and weather are also scarred by the carvings of lovers initials and the year of their starry eyed connections a tribute to young love and other historic moments The bridges were covered and topped in many instances with wooden shingles but sometimes metal sheets to further protect the structures from exposure to the elements Hamden Covered Bridge 57

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Fitch s Covered Bridge In rehabilitation history could not be completely preserved and Hemlock was switched out with pressure treated Yellow Pine for its durability The original construction is a testament to the artistry skill and ingenuity of early engineers who could not rely on computers for structural analysis and design or power tools Everything was done by hand including the hand crafted lightening bolt connections that held the timbers together and allowed them to easily transfer weight and tension from one board to the next in a puzzle piece like fit The threats to original bridge construction were flood and fire and many bridges succumbed to those threats The covered bridge which spanned Trout Creek in Cannonsville and was moved to Sidney before the submersion of the town in the creation of the Cannonsville Reservoir fell victim to an arsonist in March 1964 The structure was moved at a cost of 3 000 a hefty price at the time which was raised through donations in hopes of creating a historical site where the bridge would be re positioned That covered bridge was built between 1850 and 1853 a longer time frame than the usual construction season of one bridge per year The 58

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Fitch s Covered Bridge bridge was held together with two and one half inch thick pins boiled in tallow and linseed oil The bridge to its detriment was constructed of White Oak not known for its fire resiliency The Hamden Covered Bridge constructed in 1859 spanning the West Branch of the Delaware River on Basin Clove Road built by Robert Murray at a cost of 1 000 was fashioned with a metal roof because of its proximity to the Ontario Western Railroad The threat from track sparks and floating coal fired embers from its engine motivated bridge contractors to veer from the typical shake shingle design in favor of a metal roof Coal strikes mine failures and the shift to oil for home heating hurled the railroad into bankruptcy in 1937 from which it never emerged In 1957 the lines gained further notoriety as it became the first United States Class 1 railroad to be abandoned The single span long truss 128foot bridge is New York s only covered bridge that incorporates the Stephen Long patented Long truss design that is unassisted by an arch or Queenpost truss The Hamden Covered bridge was rehabilitated in 2001 at a cost of 708 000 The rehab project was a sight to see and Reynolds remembers it as a comedy of errors He feared for loss of his job when the bridge s lift plan went awry a crane mispicked a panel the bridge broke and ended up in the river Reynolds laughs in the retelling of the day s events using technical engi Downsville Bridge 59

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Tuscorora Bridge neering language that includes terms like tipping points unhitching winches pivots and spooling down but he said the crews were easily able to recover from the incident as many of the timbers damaged in the river dunking were already scheduled to be replaced Not willing to risk further damage or mishaps Reynolds implemented an ancient rolling technique to safely reposition the bridge atop an old steel substructure a tried and true method which allowed the bridge to be repaired once affixed to the abutments Once the bridge was securely repaired the temporary steel support was removed The rehab plan called for onepiece structural timber replacement Reynolds found it difficult to maintain historical accuracy by using today s Hemlock or other softwood The wood he explained is not like that of the original structures virgin mature and of Herculean strength and consistency Today s Hemlock tends to become shaky where growth rings separate and cause the wood to lose its structural integrity he said Unable to find satisfactory replacement timber on the east coast Douglas Fir was shipped from the west coast while southern Yellow Pine was used in decking and sides Upgrades to the original struc Livingston Manor Bridge 60

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Built in 1865 by John Davidson A single span of 98 crossing the Beaverkill in Beaverkill State Park Displays a Town truss Rehabilitated in 2009 From Livingston Manor go west on old Rt 7 for 1 5 miles then north on CR 179 for 5 miles then left on Beaverkill Camp Rd to the bridge GPS N41 58 890 W074 50 126 photography on pages 60 and 61 courtesy of The New York State Covered Bridge Association ture added in 1966 include two windows cut into each side to allow more light into the dark interior The bridge was also painted a garish red which has long been removed The structure is now outfitted in natural wood Another county owned functional covered bridge is Fitch s Bridge in Delhi The single span 100 foot Town lattice truss bridge was constructed in 1870 at a cost of 1 900 The bridge was originally erected to carry traffic on Kingston Street over the West Branch of the Delaware River When the bridge was replaced with a steel structure in 1885 the timbers were marked dismantled and carried by wagon three miles upstream to be repositioned in north Delhi A newspaper circulating at that time announced that dismantling work was delayed for several days on account of high water Work crews instead focused on getting the stone ready for the new bridge so work did not come to a complete standstill With a twist the bridge was reerected facing the opposite direction than when it was positioned on Kingston Street The lettering and numbering markings on the old lattice timbers are visible today Fitch s Bridge was rehabbed in 2001 by county employees Like the Hamden Covered Bridge windows were added to allow light into the structure s interior The bridge was lengthened to 113 feet and a new shingled roof and siding were added In order to safely rehab the bridge it was jacked up from the inside rolled onto steel girders and given a face lift Reynolds has a soft spot for Fitch s Bridge because the work was done by his employees The bridge is often at the center of controversy not for its structure or materials but rather its spelling The Fitches or Fitch s argument 61 is one that historians are steadfast in defending It s possessive spelling is correct according to Delaware County Historical Association Archivist Ray LaFever because it was moved to land previously owned by the Fitch family The National Register of Historic Places instead lists the bridge as Fitches whereas The New York State Covered Bridge Society and the Delaware County Department of Public Works spells it both ways Perhaps the most famous covered bridge in Delaware County and New York is the Downsville Covered Bridge which spans the East Branch of the Delaware River on Bridge Street Built in 1854 at a cost of 1 700 by Robert Murray the single span 174 foot bridge is Delaware County s oldest covered bridge It holds the record of being New York s only covered bridge displaying a Long truss The Bridge was rehabilitated beginning in 1998 at

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a cost of 975 000 in which the lower chords were replaced by using three laminated one piece beams joined to form each chord Unadilla Laminated Products designed the beams and now holds the record for the longest one piece laminated beam ever constructed Transporting the beams from Sidney to Downsville was no small feat according to Reynolds who recalls it as one of his most memorable days on the job The transport team started having a bit of difficulty between Masonville and Deposit The beams hung 80 feet off the trailer Rounding a curve the back of the load swung so wide Reynolds said that is nearly tipped the transport over Crews were able to secure the material by driving wedges between the springs on the trucks and continued creeping toward Downsville Once in Downsville the transport crew planned to turn from state Route 30 left onto state Route 206 and then back the load down to Bridge Street However things did not go as planned and when the left hand turn was made onto Route 206 the front edge of the beam got wedged into the building at the north east end of the intersection formerly the Dollar Eagle and now know as Poppy and the back edge of the beam became wedged into the sign at the gas station now known as the Country Store Crews manhandled the beams and were able to twist them enough to free the truck and back it to Bridge Street as planned Robert Murray s great grandson Wilmer Murray celebrated the reopening of the rehabilitated 62 Downsville Covered bridge in 1999 Other bridges which are no longer traversable by vehicle are the Tuscorora and Lower Shavertown Covered Bridges Both bridges are privately owned Built in 1870 the Tuscorora Covered Bridge is a single span 38foot structure that was saved from the bottom of the Pepacton Reservoir and positioned over Mill Brook in the town of Middletown The bridge was washed away in flooding in 2011 and was replaced in 2012 with a 40 foot pedestrian only structure The completely shingled bridge is not open to visitors The Lower Shavertown Covered Bridge once known as the Campbell Covered Bridge is a single span 32foot Town truss structure built in Shavertown in 1877 The structure was purchased in

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2001 for 1 000 and moved to its new location in 1954 A fuel truck broke through the bridge decking and landed in the stream below No one was hurt in the mishap and the bridge was repaired using steel beams topped with oak planks The bridge is also privately owned Like days gone by covered bridges are still threatened by flooding and fire But an active consistent threat to the structural integrity of covered bridges is overweight vehicles and vehicles entering and exiting the bridges at speeds over 5 m p h In order to help preserve the structures and the history of the area adhere to bridge restrictions Reynolds advises Covered bridges are special They were designed in a different era and have survived all of the changes the world has gone through They remain a testament to the engineers and mechanics that built them Reynolds said Only one vehicle at a time should cross a covered bridge including snowmobiles and motorcycles Marchers should break stride while on a covered bridge because of the impact marching has on the structure The boards start acting independently of one another and the structure can not efficiently carry the harmonic action Each time the bridges are rehabilitated a piece of history is removed Materials have been modified Reynolds said and they become less original Governor Andrew M Cuomo announced outstanding projects from New York State Historic Preservation Awards to honor excellence in the protection and rejuvenation of New York s historic landmarks Governor Cuomo said I encourage New Yorkers to get out and explore these historic jewels and I congratulate this year s recipients for their work to preserve the unique character of our state Established in 1980 the state preservation awards are given by New York State Office of Parks Recreation and Historic Preservation each year to honor excellence in the protection and rejuvenation of New York s historic and cultural resources This year s awards were presented at a ceremony held at the New York State Museum in downtown Albany which just unveiled the exhibit Votes for Women Celebrating New York s Suffrage Centennial This year s award recipients include 63 Beaverkill Covered Bridge Rehabilitation Town of Rockland Sullivan County The Beaverkill Covered Bridge was built in 1865 to span the upper Beaverkill Creek and helped provide access to a region that was nearly unpassable until its construction In the 1990s the Friends of the Beaverkill Community formed to advocate for the preservation of several threatened historic sites in the Beaverkill Valley The covered bridge a critical element of the community s identify was the group s top priority A detailed inspection in 2013 revealed major structural problems and the bridge was closed to traffic At that point an extraordinary team came together led by the Friends the Open Space Institute and the Catskill Riverkeeper which together provided essential support and coordination assisted by Sullivan County and the town of Rockland and supported by the Departments of Environmental Conservation and Transportation all of whom worked with the State Historic Preservation Office to implement a preservation plan for the bridge The newly restored bridge preserves one of the town s most beloved landmarks and shows the value of multiple public and private partners working together for the public good New York s State Historic Preservation Office a division of State Parks helps communities identify evaluate preserve and revitalize their historic archeological and cultural resources The SHPO works with governments the public and educational and not for profit organizations to raise historic preservation awareness to instill in New Yorkers a sense of pride in the state s unique history and to encourage heritage tourism and community revitalization

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KaatskillGeologist The Glacier and the Golf Course By Robert and Johanna Titus photography by the authors The upper East Branch of the Delaware River is best known and most fondly remembered from the article that John Burroughs wrote about it in 1881 That was Pepacton A Summer Voyage In it Burroughs described his boat trip down the East Branch which he like many others described as the Pepacton We like that second name it is so much better than the sterile phrase East Branch 64

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Years ago Fall issue 2003 The Kaatskill Geologist followed Burroughs in his route and described the glacier that had long ago led the way on his journey down the Pepacton River Valley Our column focused on the path of the ice extending from Grand Gorge Gap to south of Roxbury Now we would like to continue that voyage by describing the effects the same valley glacier had on the Pepacton in the vicinity just northeast of Margaretville There is a small town in this stretch of the valley called Halcottsville but probably the best known site hereabouts is the Hanah Country Club with its extensive golf course People from all over the world come there to play The course includes holes of varying topography extending from the gentle slopes of the valley up to steeper slopes on the side of the valley wall and back down to follow the course of the Pepacton Its design takes advantage of all the differing terrains from hillsides scoured by the glacier and strewn with glacial boulders to the sandy glacial deposits on the valley floor making a challenging day for any golfer We are going to make what might seem to be a preposterous claim We are going to argue that both Halcottsville and the golf course would never have come into existence had it not been for the Ice Age Both are directly the products of the Pepacton glacier which had its voyage perhaps 15 000 years ago How can we make such a seemingly ridiculous claim We have a lot of explaining to do Let s start with some basic introductory geology some knowledge you might pick up in a 100 level college geology course It all has to do with what happens when a glacier descends an average valley If you get a chance to visit the Pepacton we would like you to find a stretch where the valley is wide open so that you can look north and get a good view fig 1 Now we want you to travel those 15 000 years into the past and continue to watch the valley It won t look much like it does today This was late in the Ice Age and in recent times a glacier had filled the valley When the climate warmed up and it melted back it left a barren cold gray imitation of what we see today We are the mind s eyes and we can see these things There are no trees nor any but the lowest shrubs There is a low slung ground foliage consisting of grass sedges mosses and lichens There are few 65 if any animals We see none on this day except mosquitoes lots of them We the mind s eyes are granted enormous amounts of patience and even greater lengths of time For us time flies by decades and perhaps even centuries pass We can tell that the climate has started cooling down once again and when we look north we see something most remarkable There is a glacier in the far distance It advances but ever so slowly We are the mind s eyes we can wait As it approaches we see that it is bulldozing enormous amounts of earth It is scraping the ground and picking up and shoving forward great masses of earth The glacier continues its approach and we instinctively step backwards Actually we have little to fear this glacier only has so much momentum left in it The climate is passing through still another of its seemingly endless cycles Once again it is warming up opposite page fig 1 A modern view of the Pepacton Valley looking north below fig 2 Cross sectional view of a moraine outwash complex

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Now we watch as the ice melts back beginning a final retreat We find ourselves standing atop the great mound of earth that the glacier had pushed forward and then left behind Ice can melt and retreat earth cannot Our mound is what geologists call a glacial moraine It stretches across the valley east to west Its north to south dimensions are about a mile And it dams the Pepacton Meltwater pouring off the retreating ice is blocked by this natural earthen dam Now the sky turns gray and darkens A nor easter approaches from the south This storm will be a very large event torrential amounts 66 of rain begin pouring out of the sky We watch as before us the valley fills up with water a pond is being born and it is swelling up to become something that perhaps should be called a lake Its name is in fact Glacial Lake Wawaka Its waters gradually rise up the slopes of our moraine and then we watch as some of it passes across the earthen top Those flows of water pick up very large amounts of sand and carry them off to the south We have been transfixed by the image of the growing lake but now we turn around and look south Vast amounts of sand are being transported by the flows of meltwater The dirty waters cannot carry all that sand very far and it quickly is deposited on the landscape just south of the moraine The sand piles up so rapidly that the waters cannot even cut a stream channel into it All this sand is deposited in great sheets of sediment and many many small flows of water crisscross each other as they journey across the new sandy landscape Flows of this sort are called braided streams Small shallow streams cross each other leaving sand in between This sort of stream pattern long ago reminded

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geologists of braided hair hence the name Now we look south and spread out before us is a flat mass of almost bare sand with all those shallow rivulets This is to become a new glacial feature It has a name it is called a glacial outwash The name is a good one the outwash is a sizable and thick sheet of sand that has been washed out of the moraine by the passing waters We have witnessed the formation of what called a moraine outwash complex It is the fundamental landscape product of a valley glacier See our figure two for a cross sectional view of one of them What a privilege it has been for us the mind s eyes to see all this But now it is time for us to return to the present and see the results of all this Ice Age activity We find ourselves in the present day and we are located where we had begun our journey We look north and we do not see a glacier We see the picturesque greenery of a modern agricultural landscape fig 1 We turn south and travel a short distance on Rte 30 We veer to the right at Halcottsville Road Now to our west lies a lake modern Wawaka Lake fig 3 It s actually two categories of lakes at the same time First it is a manmade lake there is a small dam at its southern end But secondly it is also what s left of the lake that the Ice Age had created We had just visited this dur 67 opposite page top fig 3 Modern Wawaka Lake opposite page bottom fig 4 The Pepacton drains Wawaka Lake top fig 5 Halcottsville above fig 6 Rte 30 ascends the gentle slopes of the Halcottsville moraine

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ing our late Ice Age voyage It had not long survived the Ice Age It had drained of its own accord but then thousands of years later man came along and restored it In many ways we have been treated to seeing this same lake at two very different moments in its complex history The modern version lies in the very same basin left behind from the Ice Age We continue south on Halcottsville Road until we turn right on Bragg Hollow Road and pass over the Pepacton where it still drains the old Ice Age lake We park and walk out onto the bridge and look south fig 4 The landscape has abruptly changed there is no lake basin here Instead low hillocks crowd the river banks We have some investigating to do We go back to Halcottsville Road and continue to the south We pass through Halcottsville itself It is a pretty little village fig 5 It does not seem to have changed much in the past century it probably hasn t 68 Soon the road takes us back to Rte 30 and we follow it further to the south We go about a mile and then stop and get out We look north and now we can survey this stretch of the Pepacton Valley fig 6 The road rises northward gradually ascending the moraine as it rises up above the bottom of the valley floor With this recognition comes a revelation Halcottsville was built upon the old moraine The elevation and the sandy sediments of the moraine made for an ideal location to build a village Digging basements in the sands would be easy here and those basements would all be well drained Settlers were attracted to this site probably none of them knowing its Ice Age history Hence the preposterous Ice Age origins of Halcottsville We travel south another short distance and suddenly the golf course

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appears and with it another and very different landscape We knew exactly what we were looking at as soon as we saw it but then we know a lot about the Ice Age history of the Catskills The golf course stretches out a mile or so southward It is characterized by a landscape that gently slopes in that direction fig 7 You can best see this slope at the driving range fig 8 As you get used to what you are looking at you will quickly see what we see when we are there The golf course occupies all of that old Ice Age outwash plain Beneath its lawns lie the sands and gravels of the outwash When those braided streams flowed across this surface they spread out the sands into this gentle slope It was ideal for the future golf course When they needed sand traps they just dug up all the sand they could possibly want And hence the preposterous Ice Age origins of the Hanah golf course Our Journey down the Pepacton is over Once again we have visited a scenic site within the Catskills and once again we have seen an even more scenic geologic past Contact the authors at randjtitus prodigy net Join their facebook page The Catskill Geologist Read their blogs at thecatskillgeologist com Watch for their appearances on wioxradio com opposite page top fig 7 The Hanah Golf Course on the sloping outwash plain opposite page bottom fig 8 The driving range lies on the sloping outwash plain Catsk kill Mountain Railr R oad HSDUWLQJ IURP HVWERRN 6WDWLRQ POL LAR EXPR PRESS Novemberr 17 Dece December emberr 28 ZZZ FPUU FRP Kiingston i NY 12401 1 69

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KaatskillDining Brio s So Much More Than Pizza By Rebecca Andre photography by the author Opened in 1973 Brio s is a family restaurant serving breakfast lunch and dinner daily You may walk into Brio s the mainstay of Phoenicia eateries ready to order a wood fired pizza However once you look at the diverse menu overflowing with owner Mike Ricciardella s family recipes and modern takes on the classics you will realize that the decision may not be easy 70

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For breakfast choose from Country Skillets of local eggs or homemade cinnamon bread French toast Lunch and dinner offerings range from an Apple and Bacon Cheddar Grilled Cheese sandwich with homemade soups to an entrees of Grilled Salmon in a lemon caper mustard sauce or Mike s Homemade Meatloaf Of course the original Neapolitan Pizza piled high with your choice of toppings and wood fired to order is available beginning at noon each day Pizza prices start at 8 for a kid s Personal Cheese Pizza Spend 25 and you will be treated to large specialty pizzas like Everything Neapolitan or Aunt Mary s Friday Night a hand pressed thick crust pizza with crushed plum tomatoes garlic basil sausage mushrooms and fresh mozzarella opposite page Brio s Restaurant Pizzeria 68 Main Street Phoenicia NY above Wood fired Shrimp Scampi Florentine below Welcoming counter at Brio s Daisy one of Brio s smiling servers 71

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top Desserts fresh baked daily by Heavenly Cakes above Peach Pear Spinach Smoothie with homemade blueberry muffin a healthy choice at Brio s In fact pizza is how Mike Ricciardella got his start I have been in the kitchen since I was 12 he remembers and he now owns four restaurants in the area His parents operated Ricciardella s now closed just a few doors down on Main Street One summer with minimal equipment and just one oven Mike sold pizza at the storefront of his parent s restaurant So successful was his first entrepreneurial endeavor that he decided at age 19 to open 72 a little luncheonette called Brio s About twenty years later the wood fired oven was installed as part of the ever growing restaurant But it is not just pizza that Mike and the kitchen serve up from the fire twice a week homemade breads of Italian asiago or cinnamon are baked four loaves at a time on the hot stones Dinner entrees such as fresh fish and chicken specials are also baked in the oven A favorite is the Shrimp Scampi Florentine encrusted in garlic and parmesan and sizzling on a bed of fresh spinach The menu also boasts Black Angus Burgers your choice of an eight ounce patty or a onepounder A must try is the Gorgonzola Burger on a brioche roll w chipotle onions mushrooms All burgers come with fries and a garlic infused Mac Salad that will change your mind about macaroni salad forever Br io s well known Potato Pancakes served with your choice of applesauce or sour cream are served between 7 am and 10 pm is a good time for Brio s well known Potato Pancakes served with your choice of applesauce or sour cream Comfort classics like the French Dip of roast beef cheddar and au jus or the Eggplant Parmigiana Sub are served for lunch or dinner In the mood for something that packs fewer calories The menu presents meal sized salads like the Chicken Pecan Salad with mixed greens avocado feta onions and balsamic vinaigrette One of the salad specials is the Big Crunchy Yakatori Salad of grilled marinated flank steak skewers over bibb lettuce tossed with mandarin orange dressing cucumbers carrots peppers cabbage roasted peanuts wasabi peas and crispy wontons Most dishes are available for take out If you are in a hurry and need a quick energy boost before

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your next Catskill hike or trip back to the city beverage choices abound Sip a Peach Pear Spinach Smoothie or a cup of locally roasted coffee Feeling adventurous Try a Nitro Brew cold brew coffee steeped for three days strained kegged attached to nitrogen and dispensed through a beer tap an exclusive Brio s offering Beverages for your dining in experience include more than 14 local beers available in the adjoining bar and grill Sportsman Alamo Cantina On tap are Catskill Brewery and Roscoe Beer Co to name a few Saving the best for last are the three yes three in house bakers responsible for everything from your morning blueberry muffin to highly decorative and decadent Heavenly Cakes that grace the display case daily Speaking to Brio s success and 44 years in business Mike Ricciardella reflects I grew up on Main Street and I have stayed here I have the 73 clientele I first started with and now their grandkids come here I just enjoy making my own destiny in my own town Brio s Pizzeria Restaurant 68 Main St Phoenicia NY 112464 Hours 7 days a week 7am to 10pm and until 11pm on Fridays and Saturdays Pizza starts at 12pm every day To make reservations call 845 688 5370 Visit online www Brios net

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KaatskillLodgings PHOENICIA BELLE A Romantic Catskill Gem By Rebecca Andre photography by the author 74

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Tucked away in the ever popular hamlet of Phoenicia Ulster County there is the Phoenicia Belle Bed Breakfast a place that seems like a destination in a different time The B B is now in its fourteenth year Owners Tom and Dana Fraser did not intentionally set out to own a B B let alone one that is sometimes booked a year in advance during peak weekends Leaving Brooklyn 25 years ago with two toddlers and a clothing business in tow they landed in Phoenicia renting a property for their retail store in town When 73 Main Street came on the market they saw both a retail space and an investment opportunity For seven years the house hosted their store on the bottom floor and tenants above Eventually when the couple decided to leave the clothing business they found themselves wondering what to do with the building Dana a painter was surprised to find herself inspired at the concept of decorating a bed and breakfast an activity that became an artistic outlet for her Soon she and Tom a former art teacher were enmeshed in a renovation that spanned most of 2003 Creativity is expressed in every corner of the 1875 restored Victorian I painted all the walls and even skim coated the ceilings recalls Dana They only hired contractors for the big jobs like adding two bathrooms from scratch Eventually the building s exterior also received a opposite page 73 Main Street Phoenicia NY top Owners Tom and Dana Fraser above Ardrey s Suite historically correct makeover in hues of violet burgundy and mint with special attention given to the gingerbread trim and covered front porch Our guests have spent hours sitting on the porch and watching what s happening in town says Dana and no wonder as Phoenicia Belle is centrally located on Main Street A warm greeting and offering of tea awaits as guests step into the foyer and on to the curved 75 staircase which is adorned with royal red carpet To the left is the common area a lounge adorned in roses antiques original artwork a working fireplace and the breakfast table To the right is Ardrey s Suite which encompasses the entire remainder of the ground floor A brightly lit front room contains generous seating and a luxurious daybed that converts into two singles or another queen size

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Sylvia and her parents Violet and Sparrow Sylvia s Room is bright and romantic with a quilt covered sleigh bed that takes center stage among floral papered walls Sparrow s Room is cheerful and airy inspired by songbirds and accented with gingham These two rooms share a full bath and guests sometimes rent this combination of rooms as a suite 105 per night 10 per person breakfast option The belle of the ball is Violet s Suite This ensemble of rooms includes a bedroom of periwinkleright The Belle s vintage charm bed Bay windows and an accompanying window seat beckon to the weary traveler Through double solid wood doors is the queen size bed room and private bath 155 night 10 per person breakfast option Upstairs all of the rooms are named after previous tenants 76 below Phoenicia Belle lounge area opposite page top Sylvia s Room opposite page bottom Violet s Suite washroom

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vintage clothing and the work of local artists along with the art of the Fraser children Chance and Viva Separating themselves from the phenomenon that is Air BnB Tom and Dana Fraser promise that you will never arrive to a cold empty house We cater to couples says Tom We take pristine care of our guests Phoenicia Belle 73 Main St Phoenicia NY 12464 To book call 845 688 7226 Visit online www PhoeneciaBelle com or email PhoeniciaBelle earthlink net painted walls and crisp white linens A retro inspired kitchenette complete with miniature versions of all appliances adjoins to the suite s private beach themed bath 140 per night 10 per person breakfast option Even in the crisp clean washrooms no detail is left to chance from the framed embroidery to the clawfoot soaking tubs ensconced in whimsical shower curtains and the locally crafted organic soaps to the stylish black and white floor tiles For those who bring their work with them Tom and Dana have hosted several writers looking for a quiet Catskills workplace Wifi is available Not to be forgotten is the breakfast at Phoenicia Belle Tom is famous for his small batch oventoasted granola and cranberry apple walnut breakfast muffins all made with organic ingredients There are also homemade oatmeal yogurt fresh fruit tea and locally roasted coffee Choose from these and other options by filling out the clipboard menu the night before The owners recognizing the draw local eateries have for foodies offer this optional breakfast for 10 per person An added treasure as of this year is TaDa a tucked away shopper s delight opened by Dana situated just behind the house it features high end 77

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KaatskillForest Historian opposite page This photo shows a typical mature black spruce crown with discontinuous tufts of live branches surrounded both above and below by dead branches or none at all left Black spruce has the smallest of cones of the seven species of spruce native to the United States They are about 3 4 inch long and about as wide below An eastern larch crown is in the center of the photo distinctive by its sparse delicate foliage and slender flexible branches These two species in the Catskills region are boreal relicts i e northern species that were left behind They must have been at the heels of the melting Wisconsinan ice sheet as it retreated from the Catskills between 15 000 and 14 000 years ago They were most likely abundant throughout the region at a time when there was still open tundra with scattered groves of trees But because of their extreme intolerance of shade they were quickly and easily replaced by shade tolerant species as the latter moved north closely behind mainly red spruce Picea rubens balsam fir Abies balsamea eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis and yellow birch Betula alleghaniensis 79

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The only places where eastern larch and black spruce sur vive today in the Catskills are sites that the shade tolerant species have not conquered These are expansive wetlands i e bogs from several acres to several hundred acres in size that have remained open and sunny to this day These bogs have heath shrub mats often surrounding persistent ponds Nearly all of them are in the periphery of the Catskills where there is plenty of flat terrain among lesser hills Most are in Sullivan County and in 80 central Delaware County What about the High Peaks region in Ulster and Greene Counties Although there used to be almost one hundred ponds in the High Peaks these ponds were small averaging one acre in size Many were as tiny as a tenth of an acre to half an acre These ponds were therefore able to quickly fill in with fen and swamp forest of red spruce balsam fir eastern hemlock and yellow birch wiping out any eastern larch and black spruce that might have arrived first

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BLACK SPRUCE ON THE GREENE COUNTY MOUNTAIN TOP The folks at the Mountain Top Arboretum near Tannersville have named a portion of their lands Black Spruce Glen It is the Glen that is dark and black not the spruce The spruce is red Black spruce is likely to have been there for a millennium or so after the ice sheet melted but when red spruce balsam fir eastern hemlock and yellow birch invaded the area between 13 900 and 13 700 years ago the black spruce disappeared it could not have withstood the competition In a detailed well researched article in the Early Spring 2014 issue of The Hemlock newsletter of the Mountain Top Historical Society of Greene County Jim Planck wrote of the popularity of spruce beer in the Catskills region in the eighteenth century This includes Ashley s beer manufacturing plant along what is now Mary s Glen a tributary to North Lake where spruce was and still is abundant Planck cites a number of eighteenth and nineteenth century writers who claim this spruce was black but these writers were historians not botanists and could have misidentified the species The only botanist whom Jim Planck cites Peter Kalm is noncommittal about which spruce was used There has always been confusion between red and black spruces closely related and similar in many ways even among professionals When I was teaching dendrology tree identification to forestry students at Paul Smith s College forestry faculty members would frequently come up to me and cautiously look around to be certain that there were no students within hearing Then they would whisper in my ear How do you separate red from black spruce The spruce described on the Mountain Top was and is red not black This writer has yet to be shown a single native black spruce population there It is extremely unlikely that black spruce had died out during the last two hundred or so years and left no trace more than 13 000 years ago is very likely but not two hundred 81 Red spruce grow naturally near the tops of mountains except in the valley near the MountainTop area Tannersville Hunter Red spruce are almost never planted they grow pretty slowly people seem to prefer Norway white or blue

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PAST DISTRIBUTION OF EASTERN LARCH THE MAP SYMBOL IS A TRIANGLE How do we know that eastern larch was once widespread in the Catskills Preserved in the peat of six 302 315 381 394 396 and 409 on the map bogs are what look like larch needles These needles are often so decomposed that their identity is tentative Matching these needles carefully under the microscope with fresh eastern larch needles might confirm their identification Radiocarbon dates on the peat samples are from the Beta Analytic laboratories of Miami Florida 302 West Settlement Lower Bog Town of Roxbury Delaware County Ca 11500 years ago 315 West Settlement Upper Bog Town of Roxbury Delaware County From 13800 to 10000 years ago 381 Arena Bog Town of Middletown Delaware County Ca 11000 years ago 394 Mongaup Pond Southeast Bog Town of Rockland Sullivan County Over 13300 years ago 396 Federal Hill Bog Town of Delhi Delaware County 14100 to 13650 years ago 409 Rock Rift Bog Town of Tompkins Delaware County 11500 years ago In 409 I found also a preserved larch cone 11 500 years old informing me without any question that larch was once there In 302 two larch cones were found at about 11 000 years Unfortunately I have not yet found fossils of black spruce but if and when I do there will be no question that this conifer also once was abundant throughout the Catskills PRESENT DISTRIBUTION AND MAP LEGEND Most Kaatskill Life readers have little difficulty in identifying trees but Black spruce needles most often are glaucous covered with a bluish white wax Red spruce lacks the glaucous wax Black spruce branches with cone 82

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they may struggle a little with the natural distribution of tree species within the greater Catskill region why each species is where it is and why it isn t where it isn t Perhaps I can be of assistance In this article I will concentrate on two conifers Many folks have asked me why eastern larch also known as tamarack and black spruce are rare in the Catskills This is in contrast to the Adirondacks northern New England and into Canada where both species are abundant In the latter three regions there are expansive flatlands with extensive bogs accommodating eastern larch and black spruce but in the Catskills there simply is no room for large flat boggy areas in the High Peaks It s too steep I have observed eastern larch Larix laricina in only eight locations in the greater Catskills region and black spruce Picea mariana in only four locations Three of the locations have both conifers EASTERN LARCH OR TAMARACK A general view of Pacama Vly 349 in my bog catalog which contains both black spruce and eastern larch It is located 2 5 miles southeast of the hamlet of Samsonville and 1 5 miles southwest of Kromville The Ulster County Towns of Olive Marbletown and Rochester all meet in this great wetland FEATURE 1 2 inch long or less Look on tree Cone size the most reliable feature or on ground beneath it About 3 8 for I D inch wide small Most are less than 1 inch long Median 7 8 inch Rarely over an inch long often only 1 2 to 3 4 inch Scaly thin like spruces Needle Length Bark on mature tree EUOPEAN AND JAPANESE LARCHES 3 4 to 1 inch long and about as wide Large Most are over an inch long median 1 1 4 inch some up to almost 2 inches Thick forming ridges and furrcut or irregular plates like pines Michael Kudish for Kaatskill Life winter 2017 2018 The table also assists Kaatskill Life readers in separating black spruce from red spruce This spruce separation is taken from Dendrology Guidelines a booklet I had prepared at Paul Smith s College to help students identify trees 83

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Eastern larch needles beginning to turn yellow This is our only deciduous Catskills native conifer Following is a list of locations shown on the accompanying map The 300 and 400 series numbers on the map are my bog catalog numbers Only one bog with black spruce but no eastern larch The map symbol is a single square 399 Clapper Lake Bog Town of Harpersfield Delaware County Three bogs with both black spruce and eastern larch The map symbol is a double square Close up of eastern larch bark It is scaly and much resembles that of spruces 330 Mud Lake Bog off 96 Road Town of Davenport Delaware County 349 Pacama Vly straddling the Olive Marbletown town line Ulster County 358 Grassy Swamp Pond Bog Town of Tusten Sullivan County Five bogs with eastern larch only no black spruce The map symbol is a circle 362 Mud Lake Bog in Riddell State Park Town of Davenport Delaware County 369 Cooley Bog straddling the Rockland Liberty town line Sullivan County 370 Cedar Swamp off Dowe Road Town of Warwarsing Ulster County The following two bogs I have casually observed but not studied and not catalogued They are lettered A and B A North Pond also known as Elko Lake Town of Rockland Sullivan County 84 B Filippinis Pond Town of Bethel Sullivan County Two bogs with eastern larch reported by others I have not yet visited these two and therefore cannot confirm eastern larch identfication and presence The map symbol is a circle with a question mark They are lettered c And d C Barbourville north of Cannonsville Dam Town of Deposit Delaware County D Pine Hole Bog Ohioville Town of New Paltz Ulster County ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This article first appeared in the fall 2017 issue of the CFA News and is reprinted here much revised with permission of the Catskill Forest Association Photographs are by Ryan Trapani Director of Forest Services for the Catskill Forest Association and regular contributing author to Kaatskill Life

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KaatskillTrees 86

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TOWERING WHITE PINE By Ryan Trapani Director of Forest Services CFA photography by the author This might seem strange for someone that climbs trees both recreationally and for work but I do share a fear of heights to some degree I guess it has somewhat to do with which tree species I m climbing Spruce trees aren t always fun since they have so many branches that must be hurdled over or removed Maples can be great but also can have thick and full crowns with many branches to navigate a line through Black locust has really thick bark that makes walking upon difficult Ash is my least favorite especially with the recent explosion of Emerald Ash Borer rolling across the area ash becomes particularly brittle near the top and poses unique hazards to a tree climber Apple trees although short in stature are fun once they ve been tamed Wild ones seem to hold the climber in place like a bug caught in a spider web its suckers and small branches grab at clothing like Velcro White oak can be good but its bark can scratch you if you get too close Now red oak is my favorite and is a blast to monkey around in Its branches are well spaced making movement throughout the tree fun and easy The rope slides without much friction between its smooth bark Squirrels remain at its branch tips amused to find humans in such precarious positions In addition to red oak is another tree offering unique climbing opportunities Its crown doesn t spread like red oak and its branches are far more brittle especially when one pendulums out onto its branch tips But its mast or sheer height make up for its demerits White pine Pinus strobus is perhaps the tallest tree species in New York State reaching heights of 120 to 200 feet It looms above the main forest canopy sticking out like natural observation towers amongst a sea of green Unfortunately I had to remove one of these tall white pines that was threatening a home and indoor pool Before tackling it I knew it would be the tallest tree I d been in As mentioned earlier I do share a healthy fear of heights Normally I work in trees that top out at 70 feet or so This white pine buried the length of my climbing line and reached upwards of 120 feet or more I wondered how I might fare when this tree s altimeter exceeded my familiarity CLIMBING THE WHITE PINE White pine bark is smooth Its needles are soft and when they whip you in 87 the face it not a big deal The needles are unique from red and scotch pine in that they have five needles per fascicle As one child pointed out to me each needle spells its name W H I T E White pine lets you know when you re handling it in fact your equipment will have plenty of souvenirs and mementos to take home afterwards Climbing lines hands and saws bring back plenty of sticky sap to opposite page White pine s other common name is old field pine since it can be found pioneering recently abandoned fields especially where soil conditions are on the sandy side above The branches of white pine grow in whorls Each whorl is separated by one year s growth By counting the whorls on younger trees one can roughly measure its age

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remember this tree by The sap is used by the tree to seal off wounds When it hardens it turns white and smells pretty good too perhaps a derivative of this tree s name The sap is apparently antimicrobial and can be used too on your wounds or as a glue for various projects like boats or baskets Besides its height white pine is easier to climb than other evergreen or softwood trees due to its branching pattern Branches grow in whorls along the trunk Typically each year translates into another whorl of branches The faster the growth the farther each whorl is spaced apart These whorls can be used as ladders to ascend the tree to its top or you can count them on younger trees to measure its age Counting whorls on older trees becomes more difficult since lower branches on white pine normally die off due to lack of sunlight Also some white pines are just too tall to see that high anyway As previously mentioned white pine casts its lower branches due to shade White pine is fairly shade tolerant when young it can grow beneath the shade or canopy of other trees with as little as 20 full sunlight As white pine matures it seems to become far less tolerant of shade Lower branches are cast away due to shade from other trees as well as shade from branches growing above Selfishly at least for a tree climber this branch casting makes for easier climbing Some white pines might be branch free for the first 60 feet or so Once branches are finally encountered they can be climbed like a ladder to its top In other words despite being the tallest tree I ve yet climbed I hardly noticed the height due to white pines forgiving smooth bark easily navigable branch free trunk and ladder like branches These are long lived trees that persist between 200 and 400 years old A healthy tree with plenty of sunlight can be over 40 in diameter at 88 breast height making for a stable tree too that doesn t sway in the wind something that calms the nerves when a 20 mph gust strikes at 125 feet OTHER USES I m not the only one that notices or takes advantage of its natural towering stature According to one study in Minnesota black bear mothers with cubs spent 95 of their time in April May within 600 feet of either above White pine is commonly seen towering above the rest of the forest canopy It is the tallest tree species in New York State opposite page The bark of white pine is smooth gray when younger becoming dark and thick with long ridges with maturity

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lemons by dry weight The needles were used to stave off scurvy for those same British sailors before refrigeration and cheaper transportation made fruits and Vitamin C available all year long I use white pine for my sapwood It burns extremely hot and fast an excellent trait for burning wood used for boiling maple sap down to syrup The white pine I had to cut down was unfortunate but I did learn a lot mainly a perspective of the forest from 120 feet high These white pines stick out like long hairs above the main forest canopy Many of these white pines grew up in abandoned fields white pine s other name is old field pine White pine is especially abundant where farm abandonment occurred in soils that are poor or sandy The white pine I cut down began growing about 125 years ago almost 25 years after the Civil War White pine requires plenty of sunlight to grow and relies upon fast growth to get a head start above the others Over time more shade tolerant species have grown beneath and around white pine reducing its numbers gradually over time and whittling it away branch by branch until only a small head of live needles remains far above So if you like white pine ensure it has plenty of sunlight Planting white pine is easy since it doesn t have much of a tap root But bear in mind plant this tree far from dwellings and property it grows in a hurry and drops plenty of needles and large cones white pine or eastern hemlock They use these tall trees to climb in case escape from predators is warranted Osprey and bald eagles also use these tall trees to build their nests in Remember those whorled branches They make excellent scaffolding for these large bird nests When large white pine trees die and begin to hollow out they serve as abundant cavity condominiums for a plethora of small mammals and birds as well Before steam power the British sought out America s white pine for use in their tall ship masts Apparently the taller the mast the faster the boat for sailing with White pine s towering height is what gave the British their unique speed in the high seas and in part perhaps their 18th Century superpower status Native Americans used the inner bark as food during time of need The needles are extremely high in Vitamin C supposedly five times higher than 89 43469 St Hwy 28 Arkville New York 12406 www catskillfor www catskillforest org est org cfa catskillforest org

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The Improbable Community Camp Woodland and the American Democratic Ideal By Bill Horne A Review by Ginny Scheer Everyone has something to teach Part of Norman s the camp director s genius was not to make us believe that we were better than everyone else that we held some sort of secret that set us apart On the contrary we had much to learn from all the pople around us and we didn t have to look talk or think like them to learn from them and to enjoy each other s company This camper Pat Lamanna is referring to Camp Woodland a progressive camp for children that existed for over two decades in Woodland Valley near Phoenicia The camp is the subject of a book The Improbable Community Camp Woodland and the American Democratic Ideal Its above Orson Slack told Woodlanders about how log colts like this one were lashed together to float down the Upper Delaware River from Lumberville now Arena to Hancock New York Used by permission from the Equinunk Historical Society The Improbable Community p 35 left Mike Todd demonstrates how to use a shingle shaving horse M E Grenander Studer Papers The Improbable Community p 228 opposite page top Author Bill Horne presenting a talk about his book at the Middletown Historical Society opposite page bottom Woodlander s enter Orson Slack s carpentry shop in Arena M E Grenander Studer Papers The Improbable Community p 33 90

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author is Bill Horne who published the book himself in 2016 It is available locally at the Catskill Mountain Artisans Guild in Margaretville and from the usual on line sources Bill Horne who grew up in Queens NY went to Camp Woodland as a camper from 1950 to 1960 from age 7 to 17 in the second decade of the camp In a departure from a common approach to writing a history Horne s treatment is more thematic than chronological The book is divided into two eras in the life of Camp Woodland 1939 1950 and 1950 1962 each defined by two generations of Catskills tradition bearers who were the focus of the Camp s curriculum In each section Horner weaves the story of the charismatic Camp Woodland director Norman Studer the impact on 91

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Nellie Bly Ballard Catskill artist talks with Norman Studer about her painting process M E Grenander Studer Papers The Improbable Community p 143 the Camp program of his early experiences in farming and the development of his political ideals that led him to teaching and eventually to cofounding Camp Woodland Contrary to his rural Mennonite upbring Studer thrived in the reformist environment at Oberlin College which he left to campaign for the Progressive Party presidential candidate in 1924 and ended up editing a student activist newspaper in New York City There he completed his education at Columbia University where he was strongly influenced by John Dewey the philosopher and educational theorist who helped him get started as a teacher Studer gained a position at New York s progressive Little Red School House where Children were treated respectfully firmly and above all as persons with unique moral mental and creative potential At Little Red School House inspired by Dewey s philosophy that a school should be community based and draw its curriculum from the larger world Studer established a Black studies program anticipating its broad acceptance by more than 30 years Studer s participation in the school s June Camp a month long field trip to the country for the entire school planted the seed for Camp Woodland where relationships would deepen emotional strategies would develop to adjust to strange environments campers would learn to bond with people from different cultures and where the curriculum would be shaped by Dewey s philosophy of art as cultural communication of hands on learning and of learning in the community Together with a group of like minded idealists Norman Studer co founded Camp Woodland and it opened for its first session in 1939 with meager accommodations for 60 children eventually growing into facilities for over 200 campers Within the first few years the direction of the Camp Woodland program took shape with Sunday meetings on topics of camp wide concern and introducing visitors such as Pete Seeger who frequented Camp Woodland 92 starting in the 1940s and counselors who had been activists in the Civil Rights sit ins in North Carolina There were weekly hikes music in small and large groups and field trips to meet neighbors in the surrounding mountains to document their songs tunes and stories and to learn about their culture and history These included Catskills residents in Samsonville where campers learned about the mountains ongoing lumber industry and the history of rafting logs to market visiting a nearby resident whose livelihood was eliminated by the construction of a reservoir and learning about the Catskills AntiRent War from the 1840s The fieldwork program led to the founding in 1940 of the Folk Festival of the Catskills to which neighbors like George Edwards an elderly singer of traditional ballads were invited building bridges between urban and rural people and bringing them together in the Camp Woodland community Other neighbors featured at Festivals included Etson Van Wagner singer fiddler and dancer Orson Slack carpenter with memories of lumber rafting George Van Kleeck blacksmith accordionist square dance caller Marvin Yale singer George Swartout stories of Boney Quillen Aaron Van De Bogart NYS Forest Ranger rattlesnake lore Harry and Beatrice Robinson fiddler and hand spinner respectively Mike Todd bear hunter fire spotter musician Al Koss and his son John Coss Sr fiddler Grant Rogers fiddler and singer songwriter and Nelly Bly Ballard folk painter Folk Festivals took place every year except 1947 and at their height in more and more public venues a reflection of their importance as a bridge between the camp and its surrounding communities Starting in 1945 Folk Festivals often included cantatas which were orig

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inal compositions by the music director Herb Haufrecht Norman Cazden and Bob De Cormier based on campers field studies in the Catskills including one about Catskills native Sojourner Truth Commitment to racial diversity and tolerance was exemplified at Camp Woodland in two ways First there was an early reliance on camp scholarships to enable campers to attend who would not have joined Camp Woodland otherwise for economic reasons At first these were persons of color mainly African Americans first from the city and then including African Americans from the South and later including Puerto Rican children Second there was a policy of diversity in the hiring of camp teachers and counselors many of whom were musicians bringing their culture with them in their songs tunes and dances Diversity pluralism as it was called included hiring in the U S not only from communities of color in other regions and a wide variety of races and ethnicities but it also meant the diversity of the global community including on the staff a Muslim counselor from French Morocco a visiting musician African drummer from Nigeria and Takashi Ohta construction couselor The development of the democratic person at Camp Woodland meant not only celebrating Independence Day with skits and recitations but also acting on egalitarian principles with campassion and understanding of other ethnic groups races and religions and valuing the contributions of this diversity to American life while cherishing those of his or her own group This priciple was also applied within the camp in which representative Camp Councils one for each age group participated in camp governance where they could take part in planning and also question or criticize adult decisions A raft of log colts on its way down the Delaware River 93

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The camp s affirmative steps toward social justice included a persistent policy of diversity a program that created a sense of community with the surrounding mountain residents and also maintained a global outlook and an egalitarian approach to camp governance When injustices were perceived within the camp there was a strong basis for dealing with them face to face in a way that allowed each side to sense that they were heard and that their feelings were valued But what of the world outside camp The same priciples of consideration and face to face interaction were applied For example when African American parents could not find a place to stay overnight for camp visiting day the camp decided to first go talk with the hotels and boarding houses that excluded them Finding no change they asked all camp parents to patronize only establishments with an open policy Subsequent surveys revealed that a number of the hotels and boarding houses had changed their practices and welcomed all in fact Camp Woodland s recommended list of establishments became the object of some competition Campers went on to practice Camp Woodland principles in their lives and careers Some pursued professions such as Liz Fink who became a prominent lawyer fighting for prisoners rights Bill Horner the author of The Improbable Community also became a lawyer specializing in trade regulation health care public construction and Civil Rights law Others spread the influence of traditional culture through music Eric Weisberg trained himself to play blue grass and is famous for his performance of the Duelling Banjos in the film Deliverance He went on to become an important session musician for many luminaries in commerical folk music such as Judy Collins Another camper John Cohen was a founding member of the New Lost City Ramblers who went to the Newport Folk Festival and changed the direction of the 1960s folk music revival away from commercialized performances and toward authentic styles John who also co founded Friends of Old Time Music in NYC may be best known as a professional filmmaker of The High Lonesome Sound a film about Roscoe Holcomb in eastern Kentucky Camper Mickey Vandow who with Eric Weissberg attended Pete Seeger s wing dings in the city became a folk singer Camp counselor Joe Hickerson became a folk singer and songwriter and for much of his career was the director of the Archive of Folk Song at the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress Joe is also noted for having composed the final verses to Pete Seeger s rendition of Where Have All the Flowers Gone the verses that bring the song full circle In the end Camp Woodland suffered the fate of institutions founded by charismatic leaders whose personalities drove innovative programs Even though the philosophy and practice of the camp avoided elitism and paternalism and shared agency among a community that was diverse in race ethnicity economic status gender and age in the end competing interests and disagreements about founding a folk museum removed Norman Studer the linch pin of all the influences that brought together community culture childcentered teaching and social justice The other members of Camp Woodland s founding group took over the camp and within a short time it had ceased to function But the streams of progressive education and social justice survived in following decades in the movement to create private alternative schools 94 based on racial and economic diversity One was the Manhattan Country School founded in 1966 with a mission derived from Civil Rights ideals Like Camp Woodland it had a strong scholarship program but which shortly turned into a sliding scale tuition plan In fact a number of early supporters of MCS on the board of trustees and as parents were Camp Woodland graduates Also like Camp Woodland MCS s curriculum includes experience with agriculture and nature study at its Farm in the Catskills Little Red School House which inspired Studer to take his students to the Catskills continues its country curriculum at the Manhattan Country School s Farm in Roxbury which has just expanded to accommodate a larger student population More recently the principles that exemplified Norman Studer s work resulted in the development of alternative schools within the public school system and many of them have included experiences on farms and in the Catskills Arising in the field of public folklore has been the practice of cultural conservation through organizations like Catskills Folk Connection that persist in celebrating and presenting the current generation of tradition bearers with respect and dignity in Norman Studer s beloved Catskills The challenge in all these educational and cultural institutions however is to find and strongly support the linch pin that maintains the connection between urban social justice and rural tradition bearers culture between progressive education and diversity Sometimes what it takes is one charismatic insightful person like Norman Studer who brought together his agrarian background social and political activism and educational philosophy to create The Improbable Community that was Camp Woodland

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Upstate Cauldron Eccentric Spiritual Movements in Early New York State By Joscelyn Godwin SUNY Press Excelsior Editions soft cover 376 pages 29 95 To order this book call 877 204 6073 Reviewed by John Rowen then twenty four miles by sleigh to Edmeston in Otsego County arriving in time for tea and a s ance The next 22 chapters follow a standard format each opens with an original statement by the subject of the chapter a credo or an account of an extraordinary happening Godwin then describes the person or organization and why they are important Godwin finds Mormonism on the western edge of the Catskills Joseph Smith discovered the golden tablets the basis of the religion in Palmyra near Rochester but his close friends Josiah Stowell and Joseph Knight lived in respectively Afton and Ninevah Broome County Smith designated Knight s house the first branch of his church and performed his first miracle there ridding Knight s son Newel of an evil spirit Andrew Jackson Davis described by Godwin as a patriarch of the spiritualist movement was born in Blooming Grove in Ulster County Davis inspired a light witty critique of magical seers He awoke from a trance holding a book manuscript In his introduction to this book Universalist minister William Fishbough explained that he edited Davis s words causing a reviewer to comment the Revelation which brought to an uneducated man the secrets of Science might have brought him grammar too Trout Creek in Delaware County is the birthplace of Cyrus Teed who practiced medicine using natural and botanical remedies Teed also believed that the Earth is hollow and that people live inside it In the book s last chapter which has the most Catskillrelated content Godwin reports on contemporary spiritual matters For example he includes a biographical sketch of Father Frank who presided at the Church of the Holy Transfiguration of Christ on the Mount in Woodstock Upstate Cauldron leads readers outside the book to learn more about its subjects throughout the book Godwin tells readers where to find landmarks for the people and organizations he describes information enhanced by several clear and understandable maps that his son Ariel prepared Godwin reports on his subjects clearly impartially and in a non judgmental manner It is he states for the reader to wonder at these outer reaches of human experience which some call lofty others the broaching of boundaries between worlds In Upstate Cauldron Joscelyn Godwin offers an encyclopedic tour of the founders of new religions mediums utopians craftsman and some social reformers who populated Upstate New York and the Catskills from 1778 to 1914 Godwin a Professor of Music at Colgate University has a parallel specialization studying mysticism and Western esoteric traditions Many of the people and places in this book are outside Kaatskill Life country yet a significant number of subjects of this book were located in the Catskills Godwin s interest in what he calls the spiritual archaeology of Upstate New York began in Woodstock when Stephanie Allfree Godwin his mother introduced him to Woodstock s Old Catholic Archbishop Father Frank and to devotees of Meher Baba Ms Godwin was a long time Woodstock resident who had lived in Kelmscott Manor the former home of William Morris the inspiration for the Byrdcliffe enterprise and the Arts Crafts movement in general When Godwin inherited his parents surviving papers and artwork he used them in writing a book about their life at Kelmscott Published in 2015 The Starlight Years Love and War at Kelmscott Manor 1940 1947 includes colored illustrations of his parents paintings and drawings and excerpts from their letters and journals Upstate Cauldron opens with two excellent chapters about the historic and religious structure of Upstate during the time of his book this background is essential to the understanding of the people and organizations described in subsequent chapters Godwin s history chapter reminds readers that canals and railroads gave Upstaters more mobility than we automobile addicted people might think For example on a February day in the 1800s Paschal Randolph a medium and occultist traveled from Syracuse to Utica by train and 95 BOOKS IN REVIEW Innovative Spiritualism Creativity in Upstate N Y

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IM A G E S O F T H E N O R T H E R N C AT S K I L L S Fine landscape photography by Francis X Driscoll Fran Driscoll at his gallery talk at Tannersville Antiques Tannersville Antiques Artisan Center 6045 Main Street Tannersville for more information 518 589 5600 A new book by Francis X Driscoll The Great Northern Catskills Our Back Yard will be available by the end of 2018 www francisxdriscoll com Phone 518 734 5192

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