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Winter 2018

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CONSULTANT Nina A M Lawford Juviler PUBLISHER AND EDITOR Donald F Bishop II FAX 607 746 3135 CONTRIBUTORS Peter Senterman Robert Titus Johanna Titus Michael Kudish Justin Askins John Rowen Ryan Trapani Larry Gambon Lawrence C Swayne Lillian Browne Rebecca Andre LaVerne Black Francis X Driscoll ART DIRECTOR LAYOUT John Stys and Cathy Roloson PHOTOGRAPHY EDITOR Donald F Bishop II COPY EDITOR Bertha K Rogers CALENDAR OF EVENTS WEB MASTER Cathy Roloson FAX 607 746 3135 SUBSCRIPTIONS Cathy Roloson BOOKKEEPER Sherri Telian PUBLISHER The Delaware County Times Inc web site www kaatslife com e mail info kaatslife com Rebecca Andre Digital Subscriptions 20 To get your Kaatskill Life digital subscription Visit www kaatslife com and click on button for subscriptions You can pay with PayPal or you can send a check or money order to Kaatskill Life 56 Main Street Delhi NY 13753 Please be sure to include your name address phone number and email so we can process your order Back issues of Kaatskill Life available at 10 each ppd Write your name and full street address or call 607 746 2176 Allow 6 8 weeks for processing Rt 20 SCHO 8 G 30 42 DELAWARE 23 23 A 4 28 17 ULSTER 213 9 0 2 149 D E L AW A R E 97 17 R I VE R SULLIVAN 97 NY STATE THRUW AY 87 10 23 21 28 206 10 URBAN MEETS UPSTATE AT NEW SCRIBNER S CATSKILL LODGE H UNTER REENE N FOREST HISTORY OF BELLEAYRE MOUNTAIN H IGHMOUNT KOUSA DOGWOOD SUPRISINGLY TASTY C LARYVILLE THE KAATSKILL GEOLOGIST ON THE RADIO R OXBURY 9W 23 30 HARIE H U D S O N R I VE R 10 28 I 8 EGO 145 23 OTS HANFORD MILLS MUSEUM HOSTS NATIONAL SPOOM CONFERENCE E AST M EREDITH 8 I 8 Locations are approximate 2 Kaatskill Life established in 1986 is published four times yearly by The Delaware County Times Inc Delhi NY Editorial and sales office located at 56 Main Street Delhi NY 13753 phone 607 746 2176 FAX 607 746 3135 Copyright 2018 by The Delaware County Time s Inc All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reprinted or reproduced without the written permission of the publisher Kaatskill Life cannot be responsible for unsolicited manuscripts drawings photographs or transparencies PLEASE ALLOW 2 TO 8 WEEKS for responses to submitted material ISSN 1073 9076 Kaatskill Life reserves the right to accept or reject all submissions advertising or editorial and to edit manuscripts for length clarity and style We accept original manuscripts double spaced and clean typed without corrections or insertions FAXES AND COLUMN FORMATS NOT ACCEPTED front cover Belleayre Ski Center inside front cover Hunter Mountain Ski Center inside back cover Plattekill Ski Center back cover Windham Ski Center

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360 Degrees Roxbury to Bloomville on the former rail bed Visit catskillscenictrail org for a map and additional information DELAWARE C OUNTY Silver Sleigh Flyer Rolls Saturdays Sundays from December 1 to 23 at the Delaware Ulster Ski Plattekill Plattekill Mountain is excited to announce that its electrical infrastructure has gone through some major upgrades which will allow for a higher volume of snowmaking and has paved the way for the installation of permanent snowmaking guns on its most popular beginner trail Powder Puff Additionally in celebration of its 25th year in operation under the current ownership Plattekill Mountain has updated its brand with a new logo website and email communications www plattekill com courtesy of Plattekill Mountain The Silver Sleigh Flyer will roll along the tracks of the Delaware Ulster D U Railroad on Saturday s and Sunday s from December 1 st to 23rd taking passengers on a magical scenic winter wonderland train ride The special holiday run of the Silver Sleigh Flyer will roll out of the Arkville station at 12 Noon and 3 00 PM starting December 1st and continuing through Sunday December 23rd The special theme ride will include Santa Claus joining us on the train to visit with children of all ages as the Flyer rolls through winter landscape of the Western Catskills Along the way passengers will be treated to a Hot Chocolate or coffee tea and Gingerbread people along with a special treat to take along home to remember their visit with Santa from our friends Santa s Helpers at Rhinecliff Catering The Silver Sleigh Flyer is a developing story by Delaware Ulster Railroad General Manager Wes Coates and Halcottsville resident Sharon Seuss and tells how a passenger train in the Catskills helped Santa complete his rounds when a winter storm forced him to make an unscheduled landing along the tracks The D U will be transformed into the Flyer for this special series of rides Tickets can be purchased on line at www durr org and reservations are required for all trains Children 3 12 years of age fares will be 24 00 and 28 00 for adults and seniors Children under the age of 3 will be the guests of the railroad Tickets can also be reserved by calling 845 586 3877 or at stationmaster durr org The Delaware Ulster Railroad scenic train ride is located at 43510 State Highway 28 Arkville For more information please call 845 586 3877 845 5862929 visit durr org or e mail director durr org The Catskill Revitalization Corporation operates the Delaware Ulster Railroad and also oversees the Catskill Scenic Trail a 26 mile hiking biking trail running from courtesy of Plattekill Mountain View from the top of Sundown Youth snowboarder jumping on Lower Face 4

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360 Degrees New Year s Eve Celebration Fireworks GREENE C OUNTY Ring in the New Year on the mountain DJ Brian will get the party started on the patio at 2pm before kicking things off in Seasons Seasons Restaurant will be seated on a first come first serve basis and the regular menu will be available The best party band in the Hudson Valley Probable Cause will play from 8 30pm until 12 30am in Seasons taking a break for the3Grand 33 3 3 3at 10pm 3 3 3 Fireworks 3 3 Celebration Windham Mountain Resort 19 Resort Drive 3 33 3 3 3 3 33 3 Windham 518 734 4300 info windhammountain com 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 www windhammountain com 3 33 3 33 33 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Hunter Mountain Peak Resorts 3 3 Mountain 3 3 3 announced 3 Hunter Peak Resorts in April exiting plans for a 9 million expansion during the 20182019 season The expansion deemed Hunter North is located on acreage of the north facing slope between Hunter Mountain and Hunter West There will be five Marc Stewart Master Boot Fitter mstewart windhammountain com 518 734 4300 800 754 9463 5

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360 Degrees All of our Holiday Trains will be bursting with colorful lights displays and Christmas Spirit Trains will be heated if the weather warrants it but passengers are advised to dress warmly Reservations and Prepayment are Required Group discounts available Most major credit cards are accepted For more information or to make reservations call the LRHS office at 607 432 2429 leave a message on the answering machine and we will return your call Seating is limited on these very popular trains Leatherstocking Railroad Milford Burns and Kristy JANUARY 20 7PM Burns and Kristy bring their own fresh contemporary melodic and fun music to Cooperstown Their Caravan earned this praise One of the most entrancingly beautiful and timeless set of songs to grace a debut album in many years Often performing as a duo this show will feature the full band Otesaga Hotel 60 Lake Street Cooperstown new trails and four new glades along with a new entrance and parking area connected by a waking bridge to the new Northern Express their second high speed 6passenger chairlift With this addition Hunter Mountain is the only resort in New York State to feature two 6 passenger chairlifts This updated Leitner Poma chairlift has the capacity to move 2 400 passengers per hour Guests experiencing Hunter North this season will be treated to a brisk 3 minute ride from bottom to top allowing you to get plenty of laps in on the new terrain this year This expansion adds a third more terrain primarily for intermediate and beginner The mountain opened to skiers the day before Thanksgiving Hunter Mountain Peak Resorts HunterMtn com 2018 Winter Carnival FEBRUARY 9 11 Join us in Cooperstown for the 2018 Winter Carnival for family fun and winter activities for all ages It all began when a committee of winter sports enthusiasts representing the Cooperstown Ski Club and Cooperstown Chamber of Commerce got together and planned the first winter festival in late February of 1967 The main attraction for the first of what was to be many carnivals to come was dog sled racing The event drew an estimated 6 000 spectators The next biggest crowd getter was a skimobile baseball game at Doubleday Field The teams were made up of players from Cooperstown and Richfield Springs Popular indoor evening activities included a Bavarian beer party which over the years has been labeled beer blast beer fest and most recently the Winter Carnival Snowflake Shake The Susquehanna Ball a formal dance held in ballroom of Fenimore House on Lake Road Themes and queens prizes and surprises the usual and unusual have all been features of winter carnival weekend over the years Designed to rid residents of what had been commonly called cabin fever or the winter doldrums the Cooperstown Winter Carnival has proved to be a continued success year after year in all kinds of weather for folks of all ages Visit www cooperstownwintercarnival com for more updates This year s 51st Winter Carnival will include family friendly activities Sport centered activities village strolls tastings sales and much more Official schedule coming out soon OTSEGO COUNTY Santa Express Saturdays and Sundays December 1 2 8 9 15 16 There s no better way to celebrate the Holiday Season than a train ride with Santa and his helpers The train is beautifully decorated from the lights strung along the outside to the garland and ornaments on the inside Bring a small gift with your child s name attached to be given as a surprise from Santa himself on the train Sneak it behind the Depot to the Reindeer Shack the day of your ride First enjoy an afternoon train ride with Santa and Mrs Claus and their helpers on our Santa Express Trains departing from the Milford Train Depot on NYS Route 166 East Main Street at 1 00PM Santa and Mrs Claus will be entertaining kids of all ages on board our beautifully decorated train and there will be Holiday music goodies and refreshments for everyone s enjoyment Our fun filled Santa Trains run about 2 1 2 hours 6

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360 Degrees S CHOHARIE OUNTY C ULSTER C OUNTY Belleayre Ski Center Your purchase purchaase Bridge t shirt of a Blenheim t shirt with reconsttruction of the bridge parkk area We have been busy during the summer months with upgrading our snowmaking system with more guns compressors and replacing lines We will also have bigger and better terrain parks replacing the Kidscamp Magic Carpet with longer surface lift expanding the ski and snowboard rental equipment fleet new Overlook Lodge deck locker room and a new ecommerce store We are super stoked for all the enhancements taking place and cannot wait for the winter season to start S ULLIVAN COUNTY Catskill Thunder transports skiers Catsk kill Mountain R Railroad POL LAR EXPR RESS Novem mber r 17 December Deceember r 28 www w cmrr co om Kiingston i NY 12401 7

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Hanford Mills Museum Hosts National 2018 SPOOM Conference by Rebecca Andre photography by the author unless otherwise noted

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The annual gathering of the Society for the Preservation of Old Mills SPOOM took place in Delaware County for the third time in 20 years Conference attendees included SPOOM members from across the country Like most affinity groups SPOOM brings together a cross section of different ages and backgrounds united by a common interest in this case to preserve the history of and promote interest in old mills and Americana Chartered in Maine in 1972 the society is an international non profit organization with a membership of about 800 Members include millers architects mill owners contractors writers photographers government affiliates teachers and historians Enthusiasm for milling can grab ahold of anyone at any age said SPOOM President Charles J Yeske the Historic Properties Manager for the County of Bucks in eastern Pennsylvania He expertly oversees historic landmark sites like the Moravian Pottery and Tile Works the Erwin Stover House and the StoverMyers Mill and is well known for promoting the preservation of old mills for 40 years Yeske remembered back to the 1970s when he was a member of the Tinicum Civic Association Its headquarters was the Stover Mill and Yeske was struck by its beauty This was the beginning of his fascination with old mills With his wedding on the horizon he asked if he could get married there The answer was no as he was relatively new to the area But just a few short years later he was spearheading the restoration project for the Mill and the rest is history The history of mills has a direct parallel to the advancement and growth of American society said Yeske As there were advancements made in transportation and agriculture along with population growth there was a call for opposite page Hanford Mills is partially powered by steam top Variable speed mill powered by a 1926 water wheel Speeds from 8 to 85 rounds per minute depending on the water level of the mill pond above 1926 Fitz overshot water wheel powered by water diverted from and returned to the Kortright Creek 9

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more flour for the people and more feed for the animals Milling was a business not a hobby Yeske stated that around the time of the Civil War switching to a roller mill process to produce finely milled flour from which all nutritional value was stripped became fashionable Today stone ground flour is making a comeback as whole grains have been proven to be more healthy top Wooden pulley storage at Hanford Mills left SPOOM conference tour buses pull up to Hubbell Farm 10

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Over the years SPOOM conferences have been held at historic venues in California Indiana Ohio Michigan Pennsylvania and Virginia In 2019 the conference will be hosted in Georgia and in 2020 Massachusetts Hanford Mills was pleased to be approached by the SPOOM board to host this year s conference Yeske has been to Hanford Mills several times Every time I return I learn something or see something in a new light This most recent time was not a disappointment The conference was wonderfully organized and well run and received rave reviews from all attendees said Yeske There is a camaraderie between all the members who greatly enjoy each other s company while visiting the varied historic sites and venues The Museum is a more than suitable host for lovers of Old Mills It boasts a mill that has been operating since 1846 owned primarily by the family of David Josiah Hanford who purchased the mill in 1860 According to the Museum s website the Mill grew into a rural industrial complex that included a sawmill gristmill feed mill woodworking shop and hardware store In 1898 Hanford Mills harnessed the waters of Kortright Creek to provide the town top Robert Dianich Hanford Mills Operations Manager demonstrates the water powered shingle mill built by the Chase Turbine Mfg of MA 1889 right Warming up the Orr Sembower 12 horsepower small vertical bottle steam engine built in 1880 11

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opposite page Scott Gravelin Hanford Mills Interpreter and Steam Team Leader tends the fire in the Mill s horizontal return tube boiler Built by Troy Boiler Works in 2003 for Hanford Mills with a heating surface of 632 square feet and a maximum working 100 PSI this boiler can eat up to a face chord of wood per day above An 1860 Lane 1 sawmill installed at Hubble Farm in 1870 is still in use today right Appreciation for old mills can start at any age 13

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Burr Hubbell pours apples into the apple washer the first step in the three story cider pressing operation that takes place on autumn weekends with its first electricity Through time the Hanfords also used steam and gasoline engines to power the mill and its electric dynamo The Mill closed in 1967 re opening later that year as a museum In 1973 Hanford Mills Museum was chartered by the State of New York Its significance as one of the last nineteenth century mills to survive intact earned it a place on the State and National Registers of Historic Places Appropriately the kickoff for the conference was Millers Training all day Wednesday Oct 17 This was an opportunity for anyone studying to be a millwright to gain some extra training and insight and also a chance for those interested in the intricate workings of a historic mill to quench their curiosity Dawn Raudibaugh Mill Operations Manager Emeritus was on hand to answer questions and assist with the tours Her partner Scott Gravelin Hanford Mills Interpreter and Steam Team Leader tended to the fire and the steam engines The entire staff contributed to demonstrations of everything from a milk crate handle lathe to a butter tub cover mill Thursday was a trip to the other side of Delaware County to visit Hubbell Farm and their mill and cider press Attendees witnessed the work 14 ings of the 15 horsepower single cylinder Fairbanks Morris gas engine that had replaced the Mill s steam engine in 1980 The 1860 Lane 1 sawmill original to the Hubbell property in 1870 was also demonstrated Today the sawmill runs for educational purposes and sometimes produces for local historic properties for example the restoration rebuild of the Round Barn located on Rt 30 outside of Halcottsville just a couple miles from the Hubbell Homestead Perhaps the favorite demonstration of the day was that of the white pine apple cider press and the tasting of both fresh pressed and hard cider

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Charles J Yeske SPOOM President and Burr Hubbell oversee the spreading of crushed apples onto the double sided white pine cider press that followed With the exception of the apple washer that was installed in the 1990s the rest of the cider mill equipment built by Boomer Boschert of Syracuse NY dates back to the 1880s The process of transforming apples into an intense sweet and frothy liquid includes washing grinding pressing and bottling and takes up three stories in the main barn From early September to the first hard freeze members of the community bring their own apples to the farm for pressing paying a small fee for bottling and so the tradition continues Thursday also included an exclusive charter trip on the Delaware Ulster Railroad streamliner Attendees boarded the train across from Hubbell Farm and enjoyed a short ride along the picturesque East Branch of the Delaware River before arriving at the Roxbury Station Once de boarded they had an opportunity to visit some of Roxbury s landmark sites including Kirkside Park and Jay Gould Memorial Reformed Church When the train returned to Arkville in the afternoon passengers took a few minutes to explore the DURR rail yard Friday saw the group on an adventure in an entirely different direction to the Fly Creek Cider Mill Orchard in Otsego County NY 15 just outside of Cooperstown Famous for developing orchards from apple trees first planted by Johnny yes Appleseed the cider mill is operating in its 162nd year started by entrepreneur Hosea Williams He harnessed the power of Fly Creek using a turbine to run a grinder and water hydraulic press as an efficient way to make cider He also added a wood shop and used wood shavings for the storage and sale of ice along with a grist mill to grind corn and wheat Despite the changing of owners Prohibition and the passage of time the mill and winery are still a favorite among locals and visitors due to the ability of the current own

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ers Brenda and Bill Michaels to blend modern improvements with the historic facilities That afternoon the group visited another living history museum the nearby Farmers Museum The land the Museum occupies was once owned by James Fenimore Cooper and had been part of a working farm since 1813 It provides students and tourists of all ages a chance to peer into an all but forgotten way of nineteenth century life The enjoyable activity culminated on Friday with an evening banquet at the Morris Conference Center on the campus of SUNY Oneonta and meetings there and at Hanford Mills on Saturday October 20 the final day of the conference Liz Callahan Executive Director of Hanford Mills Museum was thrilled with the event and happy to be an integral part of tying mills into the bigger picture of the area s history and agriculture SPOOM brings people together said Callahan Everyone from those who have experience preserving and operating old mills to those trying to learn together brings a little knowledge to the table She continued The transfer and sharing of historic knowledge helps people to even better preserve and operate old 16 mills the more passion you can generate the more likely it is places like Hanford Mills will carry on through out the country If you would like to inquire about membership to SPOOM or plan a trip to one of the above sites please visit them on the web as listed below spoom org hanfordmills org farmersmuseum org flycreekcidermill com FB HubbellFarm

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SPOOM Conference visit to the Fly Creek Cider Mill included Overview of restoration of the turbine Cardish Machine in Waterford NY completely refurbished the Lestner Turbine Blades Fly Creek CM purchased a new silo from UNALAM in Sidney NY and lined the pipe with an epoxy hardened liner The Silo cement foundation was restored and we replaced the turbine s shaft Fly Creek CM uses the turbine to power the1889 Boomer Boschert water hydraulic press Annually Fly Creek Cider Mill produces 20 000 gallons of cider all sold at the Mill Tour of the FCCM s 2016 renovations Mill added a second story learning center This involved removing the south roof and east wall on the original building to allow for greater viewing of the cider making process Introduction of future plans Removing the old grinder and turn table and installing a small grist mill in its place FCCM owner Bill 17 Michaels asked SPOOM participants for feedback on how to handle the installation Michaels plans to drive the stone with either Fly Creek s turbine or the 1924 Waterloo Boy Engine Improving the CIDER POWER panel in the gallery to include more specific information on the turbine and a glass floor and top on the turbine so people can see how it works down below

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photography this page and previous page courtesy Hanford Mills Join us for Winter s Coolest Tradition Logo Design Q Cassetti 2019 Saturday February 2 10 AM 3 PM Harvest ice from the Mill pond using historic tools enjoy a hot soup buffet take a horse drawn sleigh ride and much more Kids 12 Under Get in Free 51 County Highway 12 East Meredith NY 13757 607 278 5744 www hanfordmills org 18 The foundation in the rear of the Mill is phase two of a 2005 boardwalk project This last phase will include a pavilion to showcase the Mill s engine collection that operates some old equipment with flat belts FCCM visit also featured Charlie Michaels operating some apple parers in the learning center and Barb Michaels interpreting the Mill Bill Michaels also treated SPOOM participants to cider hot or cold and a cider donut from the Snack Barn

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Round barn in snow Rebecca Andre

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Urban Meets Upstate at the New Scribner s Catskill Lodge by Rebecca Andre The Greene County site that hosts today s Scribner s Catskill Lodge has been welcoming travelers for three centuries Beginning in the nineteenth century grand hotels dotted the mountain landscape The Hunter Mountain Prospect House was built in 1881 just in time for the arrival of the railroad Folks from New York City summered in the cooler Catskill Mountains and resort towns like Hunter became their social center By the 1920s a downturn in tourism occurred in the Catskills Catskill historian Timothy J Mallery pointed to several reasons in Catskills Archive the website he founded An article titled A Brief History of Hunter explained People could travel farther and faster than in the nineteenth century so vacationing in the Adirondacks or North Carolina was possible in the same time it used to take to get to the Catskills Also hotels were made of wood with simple stone foundations that were increasingly difficult to maintain with each passing winter With miniature rooms not much bigger than the size of a steamship cabin and shared bathrooms their appeal waned Then there was the arrival of unscrupulous gangsters who sold insurance to hotel owners and rewarded those who refused to pay with flames With a short summer season and fewer visitors once grand hotels across the Catskills went out of business The newer modern hotels being built in southern Sullivan County attracted the weekenders while the older hotels fell prey to neglect or fire 20

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KaatskillDining Lodgings Read McKendree For Hunter the scrapping of the railroad in 1941 finished Hunter s tourism It was snow often times man made and the opening of Hunter Mountain Ski Bow in January of 1960 that brought Hunter back to life The first few years of the ski area were rocky Mallary wrote of a turning point in January 1964 Kitty Falger a Hunter Mountain ski instructor top Outdoor dining at Prospect Read McKendree bottom Pool and mountain views 21

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Read McKendree appeared on the Tonight Show to teach Johnny Carson how to ski The hilarious 20 minute sketch gave Hunter Mountain national exposure and the ski area has been expanding ever since Today it is known as the snowmaking capital of the world and virtually all commerce in the village of Hunter centers around the ski area and its year round activities wrote Mallery Directly across the street from the Ski Bow is Scribner s Catskill Lodge the reincarnation of the playful but outdated Scribner s Motor Lodge that had been built in the 1960s by Guy Chirico Sr on the site of the previous Prospect House Words such as 22 boutique minimalist bespoke luxury and mountain chic are used to promote the completely renovated property and attract Manhattan and Brooklyn based young professionals looking for an escape and chance to recharge in the fresh mountain air Our interior couldn t be more different said Scribner s press agent Sarah Simon regarding the extensive modern upgrades which was led by a Brooklyn design group Studio Tack Originally the vision of Marc Chodock Scribner s Catskill Lodge re opened in November 2016 as a member of Design Hotels a worldwide collection of specialty hotels with a design focus Chodock is the managing partner of the independently operated 38 room luxury hotel Perched high above Rt 23A on 20 acres with a sprawling view of Hunter Mountain slopes the Lodge presents as unique and modern but does not forget history The experience begins at check in which takes place indoors on the brick road once used for loading and unloading visitors cars Choose from several outdoor and indoor event spaces to host a wedding or business gathering There is a wildflower meadow bluestone patio or the cocktail party ready library lounge complete with a two story skylight And no two rooms are exactly alike Eleven room layouts are available With lofts offering king beds and floor to ceiling windows or suites that sleep up to seven with sunken living rooms built in fireplaces terracotta flooring and mountain view ter left King Bungalow sleeps 2 4 top right Mountain Double sleeps up to 5 bottom right Summit King with Loft sleeps 2 4

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races there is sure to be a room fitting anyone s style Per night price points begin at 199 in the off season Booking is easily done via their website ScribnersLodge com Other offerings at the hotel include Wellness Weekends complete with yoga and holistic herbalism classes access to the infrared saunas and seasonally inspired communal meals Scribner s has its own publication Scribner Hollow Post created with a view to showcasing the beauty and talent of the people and places of the Catskills PROSPECT The in house restaurant Prospect could easily stand on its own New chef Alex Napolitano a young bearded Brooklynite just recently relocated to the Catskills is excited to experience country life and bring his international flair to the locallysourced menu Napolitano has a resume that reads of the French Culinary Institute now the International Culinary Center two years spent living and working in Romgana Italy at a Michelin Star restaurant and a decade of working in New York City s top restaurants Then he decided he needed some fresh air I ve always loved being in the outdoors and in the city I felt choked said Napolitano It s great to come here and spend time with nature and get closer to where our food comes from His goal is to opposite page Handcrafted terracotta tiles and custom bath amenities Douglas Lyle Thompson right Catskill Suite sleeps 6 8 24

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25 Douglas Lyle Thompson

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Nicole Franzen Nicole Franzen The bar at Prospect Sun drenched library 26

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Sidney Bensimon Cozy dining corner 27

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28 Rebecca Andre

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Rebecca Andre deliver the finest quality food with the least amount of pretension Napolitano also recognizes the need to serve up a menu that is relatable both to NYC based hotel guests and locals alike The chef spent about three weeks creating Prospect s current menu Importance was placed on continuing or cultivating relationships with local farms and purveyors Free range poultry comes from Snowdance Farms in Livingston Manor NY All beef and pork products are sourced from Schoharie County s family run Highland Hollow Farm During the growing season an abundance of herbs and vegetables including kale lettuce squash tomatoes beans and pumpkins can be gleaned from Scribner s own garden tended to by Master Gardener Andrew Koehn The menu evolving monthly consists of small plates starters and big plates meals Begin with a soup of roasted potato leek creme fraiche and chive or a Caesar kale salad The cheese plate was built by Napolitano to include cheeses from Miracle Springs Farm and Sprout Creek Farm accented with whole local honeycomb and sourdough bread For dinner the Prospect Burger is a go to with local white cheddar and truffle aioli or choose from a roasted chicken with bacon charred onion an d celery root or 90 day opposite page Alexander Napolitano Prospect s new chef top Local Cheese Plate with dijon pickled beets olives and sourdough bread Rebecca Andre right Dry Aged NY Strip with taleggio cipollini onions and sweet chili relish 29

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above Steelhead Trout with marble potatoes house sauerkraut and whole grain mustard below Heritage Pork Chop with smoked apple butter and red endive Rebecca Andre 13 Scribner Hollow Rd Hunter NY 12442 T 518 628 5130 E hello scribnerslodge com Rebecca Andre aged ribeye for two Offerings also include steelhead trout with marble potatoes and house sauerkraut or a heritage pork chop with smoked apple butter After dinner there is a variety of top shelf and local spirits along with house baked deserts to finish the Prospect dining experience Simon recommends reservations and early booking Our destination is a four seasons location and we are happily full all year round To reserve a table or a room and for detailed information on Scribner s Catskill Lodge please visit their beautifully designed and easy to navigate website at ScribnersLodge com 30

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Does in snow Rebecca Andre

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KaatskillGeologist The Kaatskill Geologist on the Radio Robert and Johanna Titus We have been with Kaatskill Life for 27 years now and it has been an enormously rewarding experience But print is just one facet of the media and not an especially healthy one in recent years So when we got the chance we started work on a radio show That program is called Know Your Watershed It airs alternate Tuesdays from 6 00 to 7 00 pm on WIOX Community Radio at 91 3fm and wioxradio org We didn t start the program that was mostly the work of our very good friend the late Howard Bartholomew We knew Howard for decades and considered him one of our closest friends Howard and his late wife Sheri were very fine citizens of the Catskills You may have known of them from their extensive work with the civic group Dam Concerned Citizens DCC They led the way in successfully pressing New York City to upgrade the Schoharie Reservoir 32

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Howard and his son Dr Alex Bartholomew began Know Your Watershed several years ago Howard was a lifelong resident of Middleburgh always a devoted fisherman and along with his work with DCC he developed an extensive interest in and knowledge of the Schoharie Creek basin hence the name of the radio show And hence the focus of most of the programs in its first year Alex is a professor of geology at SUNY New Paltz so the program has always had a strong geologic flavor That got the two of us invited to go on the air with them from time to time After Howard s passing we joined Alex as full time cohosts We found it just plain fun to enter into this new for us medium of radio and we rather think we have quickly adapted to it Have you listened to WIOX It s time that you checked it out WIOX was at first an affiliate of WSKG in Binghamton a major regional voice of Public Radio The Roxbury station was founded in 2010 and at first it broadcast at a relatively low power But it could be listened to online giving it access to listeners around the world We have one listener an old student who lives in Taiwan The FCC has recently approved WIOX s expansion increasing its fm reach and allowing the station to better serve the Catskills and beyond WIOX Community Radio has become the radio voice of the Catskills and we it is something that our region has long needed It bills itself as a wildly diverse and we don t think that is an exaggeration in any way Its many program hosts are Catskills residents who reflect the very wide variety of interests found in our community WIOX describes its programming as user generated by of and for a hyper local and growing worldwide audience of volunteers and contributors The programming reflects the interests of the people who put together the shows and is always aimed at those who listen The music can be rock jazz folk country classical or Irish you name it it s there There are lots of talk programs on WIOX and much of that is aimed at our Catskill audiences The current schedule is posted at their website wioxradio org So where exactly do we fit in Well if you enjoy our articles in Kaatskill Life you will certainly enjoy our program The three of us always start out with a summary of news stories about current geological events There usually seems to be an awful earthquake somewhere or a horrible storm that has generated flooding Big volcanoes have a nasty habit of erupting too You get the picture there is never a lack of news worth talking about But we understand those stories better than most of the regular journalists who attempt to cover them We like to think that we can explain this sort of news better than most We for example devoted a whole program to Hurricane Florence We needed all that time to really explain the sequence of events that unfolded as that storm collided with the Carolinas We felt that we could put together a broad and true picture of such a hurricane We wanted our listeners not just to know about this sort of hurricane but to understand it After current events we like to move on and base the rest of each program on a single theme We always intend to maintain the wildly diverse tradition of our station We look for inspiration in choosing a topic Here s an example Last year Cedar Grove the Thomas Cole Historic Site in Catskill presented a display of paintings by Hudson River School of Art painter Sanford Robinson Gifford We picked several 33 of the best landscape paintings in the exhibit and described how Ice Age history had actually created that landscape We love the art but honestly feel that understanding the geology makes it better to appreciate it Now that s wildly diverse Other recent themes included a series of visits to prominent locations in the Catskills These included for example the Wall of Manitou Kaaterskill Falls Vroman s Nose in Middleburgh and a host of others We talked about their geological heritages and tried to explain just how these scenic locations came to be what they are We have done specials on John Burroughs and his interest in geology along with how Catskills geological history produced the landscapes that the many other Hudson River School artists painted so well We devoted several shows to Catskill waterfalls and mountaintops always trying to explain how their geological histories made them into the picturesque features we love so much today We even did a Halloween special last year There are many fascinating subjects for us to explore These mind you are not lectures the three of us do a back and forth and spontaneous banter Each of us contributes thoughts about the subjects under discussion We like to think that because of that conversational tone our hour long shows pass quickly We think that you will find it to be the same Have you enjoyed our articles in Kaatskill Life Then listen to us on the radio We are there every other Tuesday from 6 00 to 7 00 pm We will be taking a hiatus during the upcoming winter months but we will be back in March Contact the authors at randjtitus prodigy net Check out the WIOX website at wioxradio org

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Early Industries Forest History of Belleayre Mountain KaatskillForest Historian by Michael Kudish photos and map by the author unless otherwise noted Belleayre Mountain has had a diverse forest history all kinds of events have happened to it because of its proximity to a turnpike and a railroad It is not unique among Catskills peaks in this regard however there are a few other diverse peaks such as Plateau Mountain see Kaatskill Life winter 2016 issue pages 48 55 But Belleayre is unique in all the Catskills in having its first growth forest broken up into chunks for recreational purposes ski slopes 34

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The Catskills Environmental Research and Monitoring Conference occurs at Belleayre every other year to bring together those doing scientific research in the region This year during the fifth conference something new was scheduled field trips I led a forest history interpretive field trip and had prepared a map for the participating hikers I thought that this map modified here might make the basis for a Kaatskill Life article Boundary between first and second growth forest along a ski slope at about the 2 900 foot level First growth in the foreground is marked by old deformed large trees Second growth downslope cut by Belleayre Conservation Company 1914 1918 is marked by younger smaller straighter trees Postglacial History From radiocarbon dated peat in more than 100 bogs in the Catskills region unfortunately none on Belleayre Mountain we know that the Wisconsinan Ice Sheet was melting about 15 000 years ago By 13 700 years hemlock and yellow birch were abundant throughout the region Beech and black cherry came in later probably about 8 000 to 7 000 years ago with sugar maple most likely a little later Balsam fir although it is present on Balsam Mountain barely two miles to the south bypassed Belleayre in its postglacial migration see Catskill Forest Association s CFA News Fall 2012 Winter 2013 issue pages 12 to 14 Instead of marching north over Belleayre the firs turned east from Balsam Mountain toward Panther Mountain and the high peaks of the eastern Catskills Red spruce never came close to invading Belleayre Mountain at all Natural Disturbance Natural disturbance has been going on on all Catskills peaks for millennia Wind wet snow and ice damage has been especially severe along the Belleayre summit ridge stunting the hardwood forest Lightning fires are very rare floods touch only the mountain s base and the slopes are not steep enough for frequent landslide activity Defoliation by native insects occurs occasionally but on a local level Only in the last century and a half do we have the influx of Eurasian insects and fungi that threaten the forest Native Americans and burns Native American activity decreased upstream along the Esopus Valley from its maximum in the Hudson Valley so that near the hamlet of Big Indian at the east base of Belleayre the probability of repeated frequent burns over millennia is moderate Remnant burn species American chestnut northern red oak black birch bitternut hickory and maple leaved viburnum occur on the lower slopes of Garretson Ridge the long southeast spur of Belleayre up to elevations of 2 400 feet Above only the oak suggests minor fire history The last fires were at least 250 to 300 years ago probably more No evidence of forest fires exist in the written records since European settlement just prior to the year 1800 European Settlement and Farms Pastureland once climbed the north base of Belleayre Mountain as high 35 as 2 275 feet above what is now Discovery lower Lodge Stone walls still mark the pastures which extended to and wrapped around the northwest end of the peak up to an elevation of over 2 600 feet along Galli Curci Road On the southwest side of Belleayre above Hanley s Corners they reached elevations of 27 00 to 2 900 feet in places In the summer 2018 issue of Kaatskill Life pages 70 to 75 I wrote about the high elevation pastures along the Belleayre Eagle Range A friend later asked me why fields were carved out of the forest so high up on the slopes where climate soil and access conditions were so poor My response was that the earliest farmers had settled the best sites the valley bottoms and lower slopes at the very end of the 18 th century and into the beginning of the 19 th When additional settlers came in the late 19 th century there was little good farmland left to be cleared The only places where they could attempt to settle were the poorquality high elevation gentle slopes These farms were abandoned first typically during the first third of the 20 th century Tanning Three tanneries surrounded Belleayre Mountain along its east base two large and one small Tanning the production of leather from hides by using hemlock bark was the first major industry to follow European settlement and agriculture Augustus Guigou s Empire Tannery catalog number T47 from The Catskill Forest A History Purple Mountain Press 2000 and 2015 page 159 opened in 1831 It was located in Guigou Hollow just upstream from Pine Hill Lake and the old Ulster Delaware railroad trestle Guigou s bark peelers must have worked the adjacent Birch Creek

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Valley and up Guigou Hollow to about an elevation of about 1 900 feet I suspect that they barked up Woodchuck Hollow to about 2 220 feet and Cathedral Glen to an elevation of about 2 450 feet Hemlock ceases at these elevations today but there is no guarantee that this was the upper hemlock limit in the 19 th century The Empire Tannery closed in 1858 the name of the hollow where it sat was later corrupted to Giggle Hollow Smith s Tannery catalog number T48 was located in Smithville in the vicinity of where Rochester Hollow joins the Birch Creek Valley part way between the hamlets of Big Indian and Pine Hill Smith s Tannery ran from 1844 into the 1860s Wey s Tannery T49 in the catalog opened in 1835 along Esopus Creek just downstream from where County Route 47 Firehouse Road crosses it outside the hamlet of Big Indian Wey s bark peelers worked primarily up Esopus Creek in the Big Indian Oliverea Valley including its major tributary valleys such as Lost Clove In Lost Clove they probably worked along the south base of Garretson Ridge up to about 2 480 to 2 540 feet Wey s tannery closed about 1870 36 below Col H D Snyder s Woodland Tannery in its prime Oil painting c 1860 in a private collection The tannery was located on Woodland Creek just above the Panther Kill Looking at this spot now one would never guess such a huge enterprise existed there Photo courtesy of Brown Gillespie printed with permission Reprinted from an article by Paul Misko in Kaatskill Life Winter 2013 the Woodland Valley Forest An environmental disaster with a happy ending opposite page Excelsior Mill from a distance Photo courtesy Shandaken Historical Museum

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Railroad The Rondout Oswego Railroad reached the Big Indian Pine HillHighmount area in late 1870 and early 1871 After two reorganizations it became the Ulster Delaware in 1875 The railroad made it much easier and quicker to ship goods and people in and out of the Catskills than the previous Ulster Delaware Turnpike It was after the railroad arrived that other major forest product industries could expand charcoal and logging The railroad after two more reorganizations ceased freight service in 1976 Passenger and mail service had stopped in 1954 Charcoal Charcoal was made in two areas around Belleayre each area using a different kind of kiln In the valleys stone or brick beehive kilns were used but up on Garretson Ridge small flat terraces were carved out of the hillside and the wood burned on them The peak period for charcoal manufacture was from the 1870s when the railroad arrived through the 1890s Hardwoods of almost any size and species were burned Most of the charcoal was shipped by rail to the Millerton Iron Works in Dutchess County as fuel for their furnaces In Big Indian hamlet along the railroad about 2 mile west of where 37 County Route 47 joins State Route 28 were three beehive kilns catalog numbers K563 to K565 in The Catskill Forest A History page 178 In Pine Hill there were two more beehives K556 and 557 along a road leading to a former dump within 200 feet south of of the railroad and a few hundred feet east of Woodchuck Hollow Road I have read that there were two more kilns at Highmount K554 and K555 but have not been able to locate them On Garretson Ridge I have located six kilns numbering them 1 through 6 just below the junction of the present Pine Hill West Branch

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and Lost Clove Trails up to an elevation of 2 820 feet The Lost Clove Trail might have begun as a Wey bark road but was extended later up the ridge to haul charcoal down to the railroad As a result of the charcoal cutting the forest had been opened up sufficiently to allow white ash and northern red oak to enter In the early 1980s Crossroads Ventures was logging these as the trees approached maturity The boundary between charcoal cut and first growth forest is very striking at 2 870 feet along the Pine Hill Trail about midway between the Lost Clove Trail junction and the Belleayre Mountain Lean to the ash and oak abruptly stop here Sawmills Cruickshank s factory catalog F467 in The Catskill Forest A History page 174 was located behind the railroad station in Big Indian about where the post office is today It ran from 1908 to about 1952 manufacturing barrel heads bread and soap boxes milk crates and pallets for strawberries and cauliflower I do know that at least some of their wood supply came from the south side of Lost Clove on Balsam Mountain But it is possible that some wood also came off of Belleayre In 1914 the Belleayre Conservation Company built a sawmill catalog F459 on the site of what is now Discovery Lodge the lower of the two main ski lodges and 38 below A charcoal terrace on Garretson Ridge Marked by the flat grassy area in the middle of the photo Taken May 16 1987 One can still find charcoal under the soil opposite page Recently logged area on the crest of Garretson Ridge by Crossroads Ventures in early 1980s Photo May 16 1987 Trees cut were mainly oak and ash established after charcoal was made in the late 19th century

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proceeded to log the northeast slopes of Belleayre up to an average elevation of 2 900 feet They took primarily sugar maple for flooring Today as one hikes or rides up the mountain one observes that the forest changes drastically at this elevation younger second growth ash basswood and oak are left behind while ancient deformed first growth yellow birch black cherry and beech replace them The Belleayre Conservation Company closed in 1918 and sold its lands to New York State With a knowledge of specifically which lots were sold we have a good idea of exactly where Belleayre Conservation Company had logged see accompanying map A non forest product industry was once located 1 mile along the railroad northwest of Station or Depot Road crossing in Pine Hill The Crystal Spring Water Company catalog 2720 in Where Did the Tracks Go in the Catskills Purple Mountain Press 2011 page 996 ran from 1885 to 1933 Its trackside loading dock and conveyor belt foundations still exist Crossroads Ventures logged Garretson Ridge multiple times in the twentieth century In 1987 I noted that stumps and log roads just below the junction of the present Pine HillWest Branch and Giggle Hollow Trails were still fresh I estimated the date of cutting as about 1980 They cut primarily ash and oak that had come up as a result of the charcoal 39 making a century before This portion of the ridge was recently sold to the state on December 6 2011 New York State Land Acquisition A few lots on the south shoulder of the mountain were acquired in the late 19th century As stated above the Belleayre Conservation Company sold many of the lots on the northwest slopes to the state in 1918 while Crossroads Ventures sold some of their lands in December 2011 Recreation Trails Lean tos and a Lake Shortly before 1896 the Crosby Observatory was built on the 3 375foot southeast summit of Belleayre with a trail to it from Woodchuck Hollow In 1909 New York State

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began using this tower as a fire tower but the land beneath it was not acquired until 1918 The tower was rebuilt in 1930 and was removed in 1985 In 1935 the trail to the tower from Pine Hill was improved for skiing A communications tower was built between June 1995 and May 1996 on the ridge on private lands at the 2 980 foot level just northwest of the then recently abandoned Highmount Ski Center The Hanley s Corners trail was the first trail to be built by New York State on Belleayre in 1925 It was a bridle path running across the entire ridge of the mountain all the way to the fire tower In recent years a remnant segment of this trail from Summit Sunset Lodge to the fire tower site has been known as the Belleayre Ridge Trail The network of main state hiking trails throughout the Catskills was established in the 1930s The Pine Hill West Branch Trail was begun in 1931 using the fire tower trail out of Woodchuck Hollow and then extending it southward over Balsam Haynes and Eagle Mountains It was extended still farther over the shoulder of Big Indian Mountain in 1953 where it joined an older trail running from Seager to the West Branch Neversink The Lost Clove Trail was established about the same time as the Pine Hill West Branch Trail i e 1931 using the old charcoal haul road and connecting with the latter 40 below First growth forest dominated by sugar maple Along Pine HillWest Branch Trail on south shoulder of the mountain opposite page A ski lift at the Belleayre Ski Center The Center opened in 1948 1949

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Sometime between 1931 and 1935 the Cathedral Glen Trail was built In contrast to the older trail system established in the 1920s and 1930s the Giggle Hollow corruption of Guigou Hollow Trail was built in 2006 I first hiked it in January 2007 when it was new The upper end of it along the crest of Garretson Ridge follows one of Crossroads Ventures 1980s log roads There are two lean tos also known as open camps on this peak The Belleayre Mountain lean to was built about the time the Pine Hill West Branch Trail opened in 1931 But the Hirshland Lean to near the top of Cathedral Glen opened much later between 1971 and 1974 Thirty five acres of land were acquired in 1985 by New York State for a new recreation area at the foot of Guigou Hollow The area was opened to the public in 1986 including Pine Hill Lake Recreation Skiing Belleayre Mountain is probably known to the greatest number of folks for its two ski centers Highmount Ski Center privately owned opened in 1946 1947 and closed about 1993 It was located at the northwest end of the ridge off Galli Curci Road The state run Belleayre Ski Center opened in 1948 1949 30 years after the lands were acquired with Overlook Upper Lodge built in 1954 Strips of forest were cleared for the ski slopes and lifts Above an average elevation of 2 900 feet the forest between these strips remains in first growth this feature first growth forest dissected into small blocks for recreational purposes is unique in all the Catskills The ski center has been expanded periodically with more lifts and ski slopes reducing the first growth forest a chunk at a time For example in 1995 the summit ridge was cleared of first growth forest between Sunset also known as Summit Lodge and the 3 420 foot northwest summit for the Handle Bar lift This lift lasted only several years and is now gone The new gondola lift opened for the 2017 2018 season it extends from the lower Discovery Lodge to the highest summit on the ridge 3 420 feet at the northwest end What is Left Over First Growth Forest That forest that has never been cut or removed is often called first growth or virgin timber First growth on the entire southwest south and southeast side of Belleayre Mountain extending down from the summit crest to elevations of 3 030 to 2 860 feet remains intact The north side as already described has had a very different history 41

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Men and teams of horses in front of the excelsior mill Simpson s mill Because the Guigou Tannery burned in 1858 that substantial two generation enterprise left little trace of it s exitance To show how extensive the industry was and how much land was clear cut Here are some images of Simpson s operations in nearby Woodland Valley just down stream a few miles These show a similar operation although from a later period note telegraph pole 44

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This Woodlabnd Valley ledger from 1861 shows a crew of fifty men working nearly every day in January Winter was the time to easily skid logs for processing Thanks to Shandaken Historical Museum Pine Hill for images on these two pages Four more information on the impact of logging the forest check out the Paul Misko video https vimeo com 239193158 45

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Snow covered sap buckets Rebecca Andre

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KaatskillTrees Kousa dogwood Surprisingly Tasty by Ryan Trapani Director of Forest Services CFA photography by the author

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My first daughter Metta Mae was born in August of 2013 at the Neugarten Family Birth Center in Rhinebeck Dutchess County Since this was our first child we took full advantage of our stay at the hospital which lasted several days Naturally I got sick of remaining inside and took a walk Directly adjacent to the entrance was a tree that gained my attention it had round one inch in diameter spiky s pheres that hung off the tree like cherries Since I m always on the prowl for fruit I wanted to know more This multi stemmed tree had a beautiful round crown of dark green leaves with gray brown slightly exfoliating bark The fruit was large and I wanted to investigate more before taking a chance and tasting it The twig pattern is opposite which indicated that it must be a species within the fami lies of Maple Ash Dogwood Caprifoliaceae or Horse chestnut This secret acronym M A D Cap Horse is used to narrow the explorer s search in identifying trees Trees that contain opposite twigpatterns like your arms when spread apart must be maple ash dogwood a shrub inside the Carprifoliaceae family or horse chestnut The leaf of this particular tree was simple meaning there was one single le af instead of multiple leaflets per stem Trees with multiple leaflets or compound leaves include ash and horse chestnut It couldn t be a shrub since this was more tree like than shrub To be honest I kind of had a hint already from the leaves The arcuate venation pattern in each leaf was a give away it had to be a dogwood opposite page Kousa dogwood is often more upright than flowering dogwood It is a small tree and often multi stemmed right The bark is grayish brown and begins to exfoliate with maturity 49

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Tasty for a Dogwood The tree I saw was kousa dogwood or Cornus kousa I ll be honest though the fruit threw me off I knew the leaves resembled dogwood but the fruit did not The more common and native dogwood is flowering dogwood Cornus florida The fruit of flowering dogwood are inedible small smooth and elongate too In contrast these fruits were dark pink extremely spiky and round I squeezed one with my fingers and smelled the inside it The leaves of kousa dogwood are simple and ovate to elliptically shaped with arcuate venation 50

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smelled like a cross between raspberry and mango so I had to taste Yes it tasted just like it smelled I don t normally just eat stuff before identifying it but for some reason was feeling adventurous the fruit was great After confirming this tree s identity I learned how unique it was from other dogwoods First it s the only one with extremely tasty fruit Cornelian cherry dogwood Cornus mas is another foreign dogwood known for having edible fruit but the fruits are sour and much smaller in size In addition kousa dogwood also contains all the shapely and flowery features of flowering dogwood Both dogwoods have very large and beautifully white fourpetaled bracts that resemble large flowers The actual flowers are inconspicuous and yellowish green Kousa dogwood flowers are pointed while flowering s are rounded Both are small trees or sometimes large shrubs that are ideal candidates for planting near houses or other structures Their dark green leaves pack a punch when it comes to casting shade too where shade and privacy matter A Hardy Tree Too Besides the fruit kousa dogwood contains other advantages over flowering it is more resistant to the leafdisease anthracnose Discula destructiva In addition it is more tolerant of colder temperatures I have seen kousa dogwood growing in the highest residential areas of the Catskill Mountains One CFA member has also grown fond of this tree and has planted several of them near Claryville Ulster County He is located above 2 500 feet The largest kousa dogwood I have ever seen is located at the entrance sign for Prattsville in Greene County It was simply loaded with fruit A Potential Valuable Immigrant As you might imagine kousa dogwood isn t native to North America Its other common names are Korean dogwood Chinese dogwood and Japanese dogwood The tree does not appear to be invasive in any way I recognize that many people are wary of non native plants 51 However I would contend that each plant be judged on its benefits or impacts relative to the site and ecosystem it is placed in If a tree is disease resistant and offers abundant fruit for humans and wildlife without the use of costly pesticides and fertilizers then these should be weighed fairly with any potential impacts regardless of native born status If you wish to plant kousa dogwood or flowering dogwood plant it in a spot that receives about six hours of sunlight or partial shade throughout the day Unlike other trees such as apple or river birch that demand full sunlight this one has fewer pest issues if planted in partial shade This is a great tree to have near the house since it will be less likely to grow too large and hazardous in the future However you should have planted this tree 10 years ago It is a slow grower but ultimately offers beautiful green leaves and pseudo flowers brilliant red fall foliage and tasty raspberry like fruit too www catskillforest org

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IM A G E S O F T H E N O R T H E R N C AT S K I L L S Fine landscape photography by Francis X Driscoll Tannersville Antiques Artisan Center 6045 Main Street Tannersville for more information 518 589 5600 A new book by Francis X Driscoll The Great Northern Catskills Our Back Yard will be available by the end of 2018 www francisxdriscoll com Phone 518 734 5192

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