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The consumption of heroin affects the brain's function by causing clouded mental functioning, periods of slipping in and out of consciousness known as “nodding off”, and confusion, at short-term. At long-term, this habit's effects on the brain's function include agitation, anxiety, and chronic insomnia.

Effects of Drugs

 In addition, it wounds the reproductive system by creating irregular menstruation cycles in females, and by causing sexual dysfunction in men. Furthermore, it deteriorates the cardiovascular system by collapsing veins.

The utilization of heroin can also affect the user's behavior. Behavioral signs of heroin abuse and addiction involves lying or other deceptive behavior, avoiding eye contact, or distant field of vision, substantial increases in time spent sleeping, increase in slurred, garbled or incoherent speech, sudden worsening of performance in school or work, decreasing attention to hygiene and physical appearance, loss of motivation and apathy toward future goals, lack of interest in hobbies and favorite activities, repeatedly stealing or borrowing money from loved ones, or unexplained absence of valuables, hostile behaviors toward loved ones, Decline in self esteem or worsening body image, wearing long pants or long sleeves to hide needle marks, even in very warm weather

Some benefits acquired from abstaining from heroin are: Improve of social relations, smaller risk of liver disease, lung problems, like pneumonia and tuberculosis, hearth problems, and infectious diseases transmitted by needles, save money, decreases chances of being arrested


The usage of heroin can damage many organ systems including the digestive system, the respiratory system, the reproductive system and the cardiovascular system. Its usage causes damage to the digestive system by causing liver disease. Also, it harms the respiratory system by permamently damaging the nasal soft tissue, and causing lung problems, including tuberculosis and pneumonia.

The usage of heroin can lead to risk of injury because it depresses respiration, cloudes mental functioning, causes uncontrollable feelings of itching that result in compulsive scratching or picking at skin, produces serious medical side effects, which may directly or indirectly result in death, induces heart problems, including infection of heart lining and valves, and infectious diseases spread by shared needles (HIV and hepatitis B and C), occasionates in chronic pneumonia or other pulmonary diseases, results in blood clots or tissue death resulting from collapsed veins or impurities, and induces seizures

Ãfter a long-term use, oxycodone affects the cardiovascular system by causing irregular hearthbeat, heart failure, low blood pressure, circulatory collapse, and hyptotension among others. It also affects the respiratory system by inducing bronchitis, coughing, lung disorder, epistaxis and difficulty breathing. In addition, it also affects the urinary system by occasionating in urinary retention, blood in the urinne, burning while urinating, urinary tract infection, dark urine, and pale or dilute urine.

Some specific long term effects of oxydone abuse on the brain are emotional overraction, mood swings, cravings, troubles sleeping, hallucinations, addiction, psychotic episodes, despersonalization, nervousness, tremor, confusion, elevated levels of dopamine, inhibition of the release of noradrenaline, neuralgia, agitation, and slow down of the CNS.


Over time, the muscles and valves of the heart along with the arteries and veins of a cocaine abuser begin to weaken and the potential for cardiovascular problems, heart diseases, and the rupturing of blood vessels increases. 

Cocaine affects the cardiovascular system because cocaine constricts blood vessels while increasing heart rate and blood pressure. Irregular heart rate and blood pressure can lead to heart attack, stroke, cerebral hemorrhages, seizures, comas, damages to other vital organs, and death. 

Benefits of abstaining from oxycodone include improvement of relationships, save money, decreasement of chances of hearth problems, respiratory problems, and urinatory problems, and better psychological state.

The abuse of oxycodone's effects on behavior includes drowsiness, social insolation, violent episodes, acting high, doctor shopping, psychotic episodes, and loss of personality.


The abuse of oxycodone increases the risk of injury because it can engender constipation, papillary constriction, respiratory depression, cardiac arrest, death from overdose, heart failure, impairment of mental and physical abilities, kidney failure, liver failure, low blood pressure, overdose, phantom pain in arms and legs (when out of oxy), seizures, severe liver damage, and suicidal ideation.

Cocaine also affect the respiratory system because cocaine over-stimulates the CNS causing irregular and difficult breathing. Cocaine's toxins darken the lungs and destroy their ability to to absorb oxygen and effectively healthy blood to other vital organs.

Cocain effects on behavior include depression because the drug directly interferes with dopamine being reabsorbed by neurons. If the brain does not reach its original equilibrium then a person who has struggled with cocaine abuse for a long time may develop permanent depression. The user could also develop psychosis, paranoia, anxiety, panic disorders, or problems with aggression or violence.

Cocaine can lead to risk of injury because cocaine causes dependence and addiction, irregular heartbeat, heart attack, and heart failure, strokes, seizures, fungal brain infections, and hemorrhaging in tissue surrounding the brain pulmonary effects, such as fluid in the lungs, aggravation of asthma and other lung disorders, and respiratory failure psychosis, paranoia, depression, anxiety disorders, and delusions, increased risk of traumatic injury from accidents and aggressive, violent, or criminal behavior, sleeplessness, sexual dysfunction, diminished sense of smell, perforated nasal septum, nausea, and headaches. Crack users often singe eyebrows or eyelashes with the flame of matches or lighters. They also burn fingertips and other body parts from contact with superheated vessels (e.g., glass pipes). Fetal cocaine effects include premature separation of the placenta, spontaneous abortion, premature labor, low birth weight and head circumference at birth, greater chance of visual impairment, mental retardation, genitourinary malformations, and greater chance of developmental problems. For intravenous (IV) cocaine users, there is increased risk of hepatitis, HIV infection, and endocarditis. For addicts, whether they smoke, inject, or snort, promiscuous sexual activity can increase the risk of HIV infection.

  • Cocaine affects the brain because it can lead to chronic headaches as blood flow to the brain is restricted. Also,it can also cause blood clots, which can lead to a stroke. The drug can also cause seizures, either during bingeing or chronic abuse, or cause a seizure disorder to develop.

Some benefits of abstaining from cocaine involve relationship improvement, save money, smaller chance of hearth attack, being arrested, committing suicide, weight gain, better pregnancy experience, behavior improvement, better sexual performance, smaller chance of stroke.

The excessive consume of alcoholic drinks can harm the cardiovascular system because it causes irregular hearthbeats, strokes, high blood pressure, adn cardiomyopathy. In addition, it can damage the respiratory system by engendering bronchitis, emphysema, weak immunity and pneumonia. Also, it harms the musculoskeletal system by causing calcium deficiency and osteoperosis.

Furthermore, it wounds the digestive system by causing throat cancer, ulcers, fatty liver, cirrhosis, and pancreatits. Lastly, alcholism induces dehydration, kidney failure, inefficient blood filtering in the renal system.

Alcohol's effects on the brain function include loss of motor control, alcoholic neuropathy, blackouts, anxiety, depression, slurred speech, confusion, reduced inhibitions, impaired judgement, decline in IQ, peripheral neuritis, and paranoia.

Alcohol can also impact behavior. Alcoholics are more likely to attempt or complete suicide. They are more likely to have poor interpersonal relationships, live alone, have higher levels of aggression and impulsivity, and have an overall negative outlook on life. The acute effects of alcohol consumption lead to disinhibited behavior, people are more likely to do things they normally would not while under the influence of alcohol.

The usage of alcohol can can lead to risk of injury or death as a result of accident or violence. It also increases risk of injury because it engenders impaired vision, impaired motor coordination, memory defects, hallucinations, blackouts, and seizures. Long-term use can result in permanent damage to the brain, elevated blood pressure and heart rate, risk of stroke, heart failure, respiratory depression and failure, pneumonia, tuberculosis, lung abscesses, increased risk of mouth and throat cancer, alcoholic fatty liver, hepatitis, and cirrhosis, duodenal ulcers, reflux, diarrhea, impaired judgment and verbal ability, apathy, introversion, antisocial behavior, inability to concentrate, and deterioration of relationships with family, friends, and co-workers. Alcohol is an especially dangerous drug for pregnant women. Drinking during pregnancy raises the risk of low-birth weight babies and intrauterine growth retardation, increasing the danger of infection, feeding difficulties, and long-term developmental problems.


The utilization of marijuana can lead to risk of injury because it may occasionate in impaired perception, diminished short-term memory, loss of concentration and coordination, impaired judgment, increased risk of accidents, loss of motivation, diminished inhibitions, risk of AIDS and other STDs, increased heart rate, anxiety, panic attacks, and paranoia, hallucinations, damage to the respiratory, reproductive, and immune systems, and increased risk of cancer.

Health benefits of abstaining from alcohol includes better social relationships, less chance of having throat cancer, better respiratory, musculoskeletal, cardiovuscular, and digestive systems, better sexual performance and healthier pregnancy.

It affects the hippocampus, impairing learning. Lastly, it affects the cerebellum. decreasing motor control, the amygdala, increasing anxiety and paranoia, and ventral striatum, causing euphoria and relaxation.

Marijuana can also affect behavior. Some long-term effects are lack of trust, loss of motivation, risky behaviors, poor concentration, and detachment on interpersonal relations.


Marijuana affects several different parts of the brain, including those responsible for memory, learning, coordination, and sensory and time perception. Marijuana affects the hypothalamus, increasing the appetite. Also, it affects the neocortex, altering sense and causing disorded thinking. 

Some health benefits of quitting being a nicotine user are: Smaller risk of dying from lungs, esophagus, larynx , mouth, throat, kidney, bladder, pancreas, stomach, or cervix cancer, as well as acute myeloid leukemia, smaller chance of dying from a hearth disease, stroke, or lung disease, like bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma.

Nicotine can lead to risk of injury because it can engender lung cancer, heart disease, emphysema, and may complicate pregnancy. Smoking by pregnant women may result in fetal injury, premature birth, and low birth weight. It can cause cancers of the mouth and throat, gum disease and tooth loss.

Benefits that come with abstaining from marijuana include smaller risk of cancer, better performance in school or job, better mental state, no dependance on marijuana, and smaller risk of STDs.