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2021 WMBD Organizer's Guide

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WORLD MIGRATORY BIRD DAYSING, FLY, SOAR - LIKE A BIRD!Organizer’s Guide 2021Organizer’s Guide 2021

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WORLD MIGRATORY BIRD DAYOrganizer’s Guide 2021Sing, Fly, Soar — like a Bird!Table of Contents:About Environment for the Americas ...............................................................3 What and When is World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD)? ....................... 3Planning a WMBD Event and the WMBD History ........................................ 4Social Media Tools and Materials ........................................................................5 2021 WMBD Theme: Sing, Fly, Soar — Like A Bird! .....................................6 SINGActivity 1 Sing Like A Bird! .......................................................................................... 9 Activity 2 Song Map/Song Trail ......................................................................... 10 Activity 3 Bird Behavior Scavenger Hunt .....................................................12 FLYActivity 4 Wing Shape ............................................................................................. 14 Activity 5 Air and Flight ........................................................................................... 19Activity 6 Geese In Formation ............................................................................21 SOARActivity 7 Connecting with the Wild: Nature and Bird Poetry ....... 23 Activity 8 How to be a Birder: Field Hints to Identification ............ 25Activity 9 Take A Pledge ........................................................................................ 28Activity 10 Conservation Calculator ............................................................29 Activity 11 WMBD 2021 Matching Game ......................................................30Global Flyways Sponsor Americas Flyways SponsorsTitle SponsorsProgram SponsorsFriends

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Environment for the Americas and World Migratory Bird DayEnvironment for the Americas (EFTA) is a non-profit organization that strives to connect people across the Western Hemisphere to bird conservation through education, outreach, and research. Each year EFTA works with hundreds of participating organizations and agencies to coordinate World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD). The following Organizer’s Guide is designed to help you develop your program, event, or festival, in person or virtually, for the 2021 celebration and share the theme of “Sing, Fly, Soar — like a Bird!” with youth, adults, families, and other groups. What is a World Migratory Bird Day Program or Event? We invite your organization to join us in celebrating migratory birds and promoting their conservation. We understand that organizations come in all sizes, large and small, with different capacities to host programs and events. Your efforts to share key messages about the spectacular long-distance journeys of migratory birds, the threats they face along the way, and the meaningful actions that individuals, communities, and other groups can take to protect birds can be scaled in a way that works for you.When is World Migratory Bird Day? We ask that your World Migratory Bird Day program or event:The official dates for World Migratory Bird Day are the second Saturdays in May and October, recognizing the northward and southward migrations birds make in spring, and then returning in fall. In 2021, these dates are May 8 and October 9, 2021. But because birds don’t all travel on the same day, we encourage you to celebrate when the birds are present and the timing works best for your organization. Because of this, World Migratory Bird Day is now celebrated almost every month of the year!• Engages participants in learning about migratory birds • Shares information about some of the potential dangers that can impact migratory bird populations• Highlights the annual conservation theme, Sing, Fly, Soar - Like a Bird!, using the slogan and hands-on activities• Is registered on our global map at• Promotes World Migratory Bird Day through social media, print, radio, and television3

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World Migratory Bird DayWMBD MaterialsA general outline of your plan should include the following steps:1. Identify a World Migratory Bird Day coordinator or team. 2. Learn more about the 2021 WMBD conservation theme highlighting aspects such as songs and flight strategies of focal migratory birds. 3. Identify your target audience(s). 4. Determine what you need to make your event successful, including logistical and financial support.5. Identify partners willing to participate in or support your event. 6. Develop fun, educational activities using this guide and other resources. 7. Join us online on our official dates for virtual programming about migratory birds and their conservation. Additional Materials:EFTA provides many other materials you’ll need to host a successful WMBD event. On our website,, we provide a directory of educational resources, which includes materials that highlight the annual conservation theme, promotional materials, and much more. The History of WMBDIn 1993 visionaries at the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center in Washington, D.C. became concerned about declines in migratory bird populations across the Western Hemisphere and envisioned a program that would spark an interest in and enjoyment of birds that would translate into a desire to help protect them. They created International Migratory Bird Day (IMBD) to accomplish this goal. In 2007, Environment for the Americas (EFTA), a non-profit conservation organization based in Boulder, Colorado, assumed leadership of the program and more than doubled the level of participation. After noting the success of IMBD, the United Nation’s Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) began a similar program in 2005. In 2018, EFTA and CMS joined forces and signed an agreement to promote migratory bird conservation across the globe through the biannual educational campaign and celebration called World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD). WMBD is a celebration of the spectacular journeys that migratory birds take as they travel between nesting and non-breeding sites around the world. It highlights the changes in seasons when longer days prompt millions of birds to embark on their arduous journeys to the north in spring and to the south each fall. WMBD is also about raising awareness of these long-distance travelers and the threats they face along the way through festivals, events, and programs offered at natural areas, schools, zoos, libraries, museums, and many additional locations. Through these activities, organizers create connections between birdwatchers, businesses, conservation groups, the news media, and national, state, and local officials.Through this guide, we provide you with tips and tools to organize your WMBD event from start to finish, focusing on the 2021 conservation theme.4

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Here’s Where to Find Your WMBD Materials Education materials, flyers, presentations, and more: Event materials to purchase for your event: To register your event on the global map: more social media tools and icons: For questions: EMAIL: CALL: 303.499.1950World Migratory Bird Day is an annual opportunity to be part of the solution to bird conservation issues and to share your passion for birds in a resounding way. This Organizer’s Guide is designed to provide you with the information you need to get started. Please don’t hesitate to contact EFTA with questions.Join in sharing the 2021 theme using Social Media Tools!Post photos and share your creativity through social media — and remember to tag us! Through WMBD, everyone can learn about some of the aspects of being a bird that most capture our imaginations and draw us to these feathered travelers and songsters! TAGS:Twitter: @enviroamericasInstagram: @environmentamericasFacebook: @EnvironmentfortheAmericasTAG US AND OUR FRIENDS:@efta_birdday @bonnconvention @worldmigratorybirdday @eeafp @unep @usfws @USForestService @BLMHASHTAGS:#BirdDay #EnvironmentAmericas #WorldMigratoryBirdDay #WMBD #WMBD2021 #SingFlySoarLikeaBird #SingFlySoar #ForNatureTrello : Visit our resources board for social media icons, hashtags, downloadable materials, and more. 5

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2021 World Migratory Bird Day Conservation Theme:SING, FLY, SOAR — LIKE A BIRD!This World Migratory Bird Day, come and marvel at the feathered miracles of earth and sky. Let your imagination soar. Come Sing, Fly and Soar — like a Bird! Experiences in nature can help people reconnect to their inner selves and connect more deeply to the natural world. Birds are a perfect means of building these connections. They’re singers, architects, artists, engineers and acrobats. Some travel thousands of miles each year, while others can soar many thousands of feet above the ground — and they’re all around us, in every habitat from urban to rural. Birding can take place in a city or in the wild, and birds can be watched from windows and in back yards. No wonder 86 million Americans have turned their enjoyment to bird watching. With approximately 10,400 bird species globally and approximately 1,000 bird species in the United States, birds are ambassadors of the natural world. They help us understand the interconnections of all things. During the pandemic, bird watching/birding has risen even more in popularity. People are reconnecting with what’s immediately around them. Birds are symbols of freedom and hope. We might not be able to travel to exotic places such as a rain forest right now, but migratory birds bring a bit of the rain forest to us.It is perhaps the three aspects of being a bird — singing, flying and soaring — that most capture our imaginations and draw us to these feathered travelers and songsters. Therefore, in celebration of this year’s International Migratory Bird Day, learn more about what it means to be a bird, get closer to the skies, and learn how to help our feathered friends survive in a changing planet. With a decline of more than 20 percent of birds in the U.S.A. since the 1970s, it is more urgent than ever that we take action to protect them! 6

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Sara Wolman grew up in Queens, New York. After studying graphic design and political science in college and becoming a painter, then working for a spell in Washington, DC, she moved to Alaska. In 2014, she took a seasonal Park Ranger position in Katmai National Park and then became an Education Specialist for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at Alaska Peninsula and Becharof National Wildlife Refuges, where she traveled to remote villages along the peninsula to teach environmental education to kids. Art is an important part of both her personal and professional life. She has created artistic works for the National Park Service, including lending her talent and enthusiasm to the popular Fat Bear Week. Sara is currently the Visual Information Specialist at the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.Meet the 2021 World Migratory Bird Day Artist:Sara Wolman7

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HOW BIRDS SING, FLY, AND SOAR!SINGBirds can learn and elaborate very complex melodies using the syrinx. The syrinx produces sound through the vibration of the tympanic membranes when air is forced past them. In many songbirds, the species’ sound repertoire is an innate quality, while for other birds, a successful song performance may require arduous training of weeks, months or years. In general, birds make two kinds of sounds: calls and songs. Calls are short, simple vocalizations used in communication between individuals, or they can be shrill when alerting others of any threats. By observing birds sing their most complex repertoires, we can detect different situations in the field, such as the defense of their territories or a competition between candidates for a potential mate with which to raise their chicks. Longer and more complex songs or vocalizations are usually associated with male birds, however females can also sing and get involved in more complex duets. FLY Humans have learned to build flying machines inspired by the natural adaptations of birds. Years ago, the silhouettes of birds and their wings inspired the design of airplanes. Bird flight is complex and includes a variety of ways of moving, from hovering to taking off, landing, and even acrobatic aerial displays. Bird flight has evolved to help diverse species hunt for food, forage, and fly in different environments, from forests to shrub lands, and the open sea. The shape of a bird’s wings is critical to the type of flight on which it depends. Short, pointed wings, such as those of ducks and the Peregrine Falcon, enable them to fly at high speeds. In contrast, the wings of eagles, vultures, and pelicans have gaps at the ends, which enable them to have sustained flight, but at the same time, very precise movements. SOARTo overcome gravity, birds create an upward force called lift. To create lift, they generate thrust by flapping their wings for forward motion. To keep flying, birds overcome the resistance force of the air with their body’s aerodynamics, especially in their wings. Birds soar in the skies individually or in groups, and these formations help birdwatchers describe their movements. For example, raptors migrate in long linear flocks that flow like a river through the clouds, while ducks organize themselves by coordinating complex formations that make it easy to teach and learn their migration route between individuals.Birds have remarkable characteristics that make them unique among living beings.Starting with their pleasant melodies and ability to emit or imitate so many different sounds. Some even have a specialized voice box that produces two tones at the same time. Second, birds’ feathers and bones have evolved and adapted to flight, giving them a light “armor” capable of achieving great feats. Raptors can attack their prey by diving at 300 km per hour. Seabirds with large wings soar over the ocean and travel long distances without flapping their wings. Sing, Fly, Soar - Like a Bird is an invitation to deepen your relationship with nature, from our gardens to the forests and oceans, it is time to observe and listen in a different way to the birds that connect our world. 8

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SINGACTIVITY 1: Sing Like A Bird!Overview:World Migratory Bird Day invites you to delight in birds’ beautiful melodies. These feathered singers learn their songs in different ways. Some learn their songs from adults, while others imitate other animals and other sounds. Explore bird songs and your own ability to sing like a bird.Get Started:Use the descriptions of bird songs below. Select one or more and create your own bird song performance. If you want to provide more information, share recordings of each song with each participant. Once participants have selected a bird song, give them time to practice how they would like to perform it. This can also be a good group activity.Objectives:• To explore bird songs by imitating a variety of vocalizations. • To compare different bird songs.• To raise awareness of the variety of bird songs and other vocalizations.Materials: The bird songs below Or choose bird songs from your areaIdea:We invite you to record your performance in a video or audio recording and share it with us.You may send it to us directly at or tag us in social media (see page 5). Age: 5 and upTime: As long as you want to sing!WMBD 2021 FOCAL SPECIES SONGS AND OTHER SOUNDSRuby-throated squeaking cric-cric-cric! Hummingbird Sandhill Crane loud bugle-like rattle gar-oo-oo!Green-winged Teal males utter a soft, high pitched preep-preep! Belted Kingfisher harsh, rattling kekity-kek-kek- kek-tk-ticky-kek!Turkey Vulture soft hissing, clucking, or whining soundsWood Thrush melodic ee - o - lay!Upland Sandpiper in flight utters quip-ip-ip-ip!Caspian Tern loud croaking kraah, krah-krah!Yellow Warbler high-pitched sweet-sweet-sweet- I’m-so-sweetStreaked Flycatcher song is rapid, repeated juií-chideri -juií, sometimes without the final juiíBrown-chested chu-chu-chip call Martin 9

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SINGACTIVITY 2: Song Map/Song Trail Overview:Sight is just one aspect to identifying birds. Song is just as, if not more so, important. Learning bird songs and calls is a great way to identify birds hidden by foliage, faraway birds, birds at night, and birds that look a lot alike. Besides learning to identify birds through song, sitting quietly and listening calms us and deepens our appreciation for the life around us.Objectives: To pay attention to the sounds of the natural world and instill greater awareness of our surroundings.Materials: Paper - Pen or pencil - Markers other coloring supplies (optional)Age: 5 - 16Time: 15 - 60 minutesGet Started:Provide pens/pencils, paper and clipboards for participants to record their sounds.Activity One: Sit in one place. Draw a dot in the center of a piece of paper showing your location. The space at the top of the paper is the space in front of where you are sitting. The space at the bottom is the space behind you etc. Settle into your spot and close your eyes to get used to listening. When you are ready to begin, simply keep listening, but record what you hear on your map using symbols. If you are just recording bird songs, perhaps you can use numbers or letters for the different birds. If you are recording all sounds, perhaps you can make a key. If you hear the sound more than once, you can make tally marks.Activity Two: This time, instead of sitting still, take a sound walk. See how many different bird sounds you can identify and how many of the same birds (approximately) you hear making the same sound. Is it mostly one sound you hear, therefore the same species?Questions and Discussion:1. Did you have a favorite sound?2. Did you hear any sounds you did not recognize?3. What sounds were most familiar to you?4. Did you hear mostly human sound or natural sound?5. How do you think human noise might affect nature, in particular bird song?10(Continued)

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SINGACTIVITY 2: Song Map/Song Trail Circle Song Map Example11

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Materials: Bird Behavior Scavenger Hunt Checklist Pen or pencilAge: 5 - 12Time: 30 - 60 minutesObjectives:• To consider the connections in the natural world and increase the knowledge we have about birds and their surroundings.• To deepen appreciation of and intuition about the natural world.Setup:Make copies of the bird behavior scavenger hunt checklist and distribute one to each participant or group.Get Started:This activity is not about identifying the birds seen, although participants are welcome to do so, but rather to identify a variety of behaviors. Challenge participants to find as many different behaviors as they can, and circle them on the Bird Behavior Scavenger Hunt Checklist. They may add other behaviors they witness.SINGACTIVITY 3: Bird Behavior Scavenger Hunt Overview:Bird species don’t just look unique, they have unique ways of acting, moving, sitting, and flying. Chances are, you’ll never see a Cedar Waxwing poking through the underbrush for seeds — or a Wood Thrush zigzagging over a summer pond catching insects. Behavior is one key way these birds differ. Looking at a bird’s behavior is not just helpful in identification, but it is fun. Watching all the varied ways different birds behave and how they act can deepen the appreciation and joy in bird watching.Questions and Discussion:1. What bird behaviors have you seen, and what do you think they meant?2. What is the: • Funniest bird behavior you have seen? • The most interesting? • The strangest?(Continued)12

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Bird Behavior Scavenger Hunt ChecklistDate: Time: Weather:SINGACTIVITY 3: Bird Behavior Scavenger HuntBird Behavior: Hiding On the ground? In the foliage? Flocking With same species Or others? How many? Preening Cleaning itself Bathing Vocalizing Song? Call? Or other? Feeding Ground? Tree? Aerial? Attitude Inquisitive? Shy? Breeding Climbing13

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Materials: At least 3 sheets of paper Information sheet Data sheet Tape measure Ruler Stopwatch Pen or pencil Age: Making paper airplanes is difficult! Younger children should work with a parent. Ages 9 and up may be able to do it on their own.Time: 30 - 60 minutesObjectives:In this activity, participants will build paper airplanes that correspond to three different major wing shapes: • passive soaring • active soaring • high burst speedThey will test their airplanes and decide which wing type matches with which flight type. Setup:Before the activity, have a sample copy of all three of the wing shapes and corresponding directions. Make sure to have enough paper for participants to build their wings, and all other materials. Get Started:Have participants read the Information, Data and Questions sheets. Then have them build each of the wing designs, test each one, and complete the data table. Once they are done, have them answer the questions. (Answer Key: Design A - Passive Soaring Wings, Turkey Vulture; Design B - High Speed, Peregrine Falcon; Design C - Active Soaring, Albatross) FLYACTIVITY 4: Wing Shape Overview:The ability to fly is one of the most stunning features of a bird. Some birds can dive at 200 mph, others can hover and fly backwards, while some can “fly” underwater. In order to achieve these spectacular feats, of course all birds have wings. Not all wings are the same. The way a bird’s wing looks and is used depends on its way of life. A high soaring bird like a Turkey Vulture has large wide wings, while a fast diving bird like a Peregrine Falcon has long thin wings. Explore the characteristics of the focal bird species of the 2021 WMBD by playing this simple matching game. Questions and Discussion:1. Which wing design do you think belongs to which type of flight? 2. Is there a big difference between active and passive soaring? What about between soaring and high burst speed? Why? 3. Which paper airplane flew furthest? Fastest? Why do you think this is?(Continued)14

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FLYACTIVITY 4: Wing ShapeInformation, Instructions, and Data Table(Continued)Passive Soaring Wings:Long primary feathers help birds to catch and soar on thermals, columns of rising air formed on the ground through the warming of the surface by sunlight. Fun facts: Turkey Vultures, with six-foot wing span, rarely flap their wings. Instead, they glide on thermals. Turkey Vultures rely on a sense of smell to find their prey. This means they might be flying lower to the ground where there are fewer updrafts. Therefore, they continuously tilt in order to change which wing experiences lift and make use of small scale air disturbances.Active Soaring Wings:These wings are longer and narrower compared to the body size of the bird. Birds with wings like this depend more on wind than thermals (columns of rising air formed on the ground through the warming of the surface by sunlight) to soar. Fun Facts: One bird in the Albatross group called the Wandering Albatross has the largest wingspan of any bird on the planet. Their wingspan can stretch up to 3.5 meters (11.5 feet)! They are great gliders and can soar through the air without flapping their wings for several hours at a time. High-speed Wings:These wings are long and thin, but not as long as the active soaring wings. These wings can create high speeds that are sustained by flapping. Fun Facts: Peregrine falcons catch medium-sized birds, such as pigeons, in the air with a fast dive called a stoop. A Peregrine Falcon is a fast flier, averaging 25-34 mph when pursuing its prey. However, when it dives for a height of over half a mile, it may reach a speed of 200 mph. DATA TABLE Wing Design Distance Speed Type of Bird A B C15

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FLYACTIVITY 4: Wing ShapeDesign AAnswer Key: Design A - Passive Soaring Wings, Turkey Vulture 1. Fold the top corners of the paper, bringing them to meet in the middle2. Fold the top edge of the paper ½ inch3. Repeat seven times4. Turn the wing over and then fold it in half5. Fold the edges of the wings down to meet the crease at the bottom16

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(Continued)FLYACTIVITY 4: Wing ShapeDesign BAnswer Key: Design B - High Speed, Peregrine Falcon 1. Fold the paper in half 2. Fold the top down 2 inches 3. Fold the top again in order to double the thick edge4. Fold the top edge in half again5. Fold the corners to meet in the center line 6. Fold in wing in half towards you7. Fold sides to meet at the base17

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FLYACTIVITY 4: Wing ShapeDesign CAnswer Key: Design C - Active Soaring, Albatross1. Fold paper in half lengthwise 2. Fold corners down to meet in the middle along the center crease 3. Fold edges to the center line again 4. Fold the plane in half 5. Fold wings diagonally to meet the bottom of the plane18

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FLYACTIVITY 5: Air and Flight Overview:Flight is the process by which an object moves through the atmosphere or beyond it, using lift, thrust, and buoyancy with no direct support from a surface. There are many different forms of flight and all can be found in nature.Parachuting: When a fall is controlled using a large surface area to create drag.Examples in nature: dandelion or milkweed seeds Gliding: When the descent is at an angle and the fall takes advantage of an airfoil design (e.g. wings) to create lift and generally uses streamlining to reduce drag.Examples in nature: flying squirrel, frigate birds Soaring: Similar to gliding, but requires specific atmospheric conditions such as thermals.Examples in nature: Vultures Powered flight: When wings are flapped for power, up and down movement creates lift so that the animal can ascend. Human powered flight could not have been achieved without an understanding of flight as it exists in nature. Examples in nature: flapping wings Objectives: To pay attention to the sounds of the natural world and instill greater awareness of our surroundings.Setup:Make copies of the Flight Descriptions sheet, and the Wings for Different Purposes matching sheet, one per participant. Get Started: 1. Discuss the different forms on flight listed in the overview. 2. Ask participants to read through the Flight Descriptions. 3. Have participants identify and write the Flight Description number in the correct box on the Wings for Different Purposes sheet, so that it corresponds to the description in the box beside the bird or machine that uses that type of flight. 4. Ask participants to draw a line to match the bird wing to the aircraft that has the most similar wing design. This activity is adapted with permission from Scientists in School Activity Credit: www.scientistsinschool.caMaterials: Flight Descriptions sheet Wings for Different Purposes sheet Pen or pencilAge: 5 and upTime: 30 - 45 minutesQuestions and Discussion:1. What kinds of animals fly? 2. What is the difference between flying and gliding or soaring?3. Can you name some animals that soar? (Continued)19

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Flight Descriptions:FLYACTIVITY 5: Air and Flight1 A glider has no engine and must access thermals or pockets of rising air in order to stay aloft.2 A swallow has relatively small, narrow, tapering wings. These wings can be flapped rapidly to provide speed with very little drag. The fastest flyers in the bird world, such as falcons and swifts, have wings of this shape. 3 Hummingbirds can hover in one spot or quickly move forward, backward, sideways, and straight up or down. They can flap their wings up to 100 times per second. 4 Many seabirds like albatrosses have long, narrow, pointed wings for gliding long distances with the ocean winds. The length of their wings helps to generate a lot of lift. 5 Forest birds, like blue jays and crows, have short, rounded wings which allow rapid takeoffs, good maneuverability and short glides. They are adapted for quick sharp turns between trees. 6 Bush planes must be able to make short takeoff and landings and they often carry heavy loads.7 Helicopters create their thrust upwards with their rotors. They are able to change the angle of their rotors to allow great maneuverability. Some airplanes, for example Harrier jets, can hover. 8 Fighter jets, with their delta-shaped wings, are able to maneuver at very high speeds. 9 Long, broad eagle wings have a large surface area for soaring for long periods of time. They also have spaces be tween the feathers at the ends to help reduce drag and are used for fine control at slow speeds. 10 Commercial airliners have long thick wings in order to carry heavy loads for long distances. They have flaps that are adjusted for takeoffs and landings. Wings for Different Purposes 20

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Questions and Discussion:1. Which birds fly in a V-formation?2. Why do you think birds fly in V-formation? 3. Discuss the background information.4. Discuss the two hypotheses for flying in V-formation. FLYACTIVITY 6: Geese In Formation Overview:Geese are well-known for their V-formations when they fly in the sky, which helps them to save energy and also allows them to fly up to 1,000 kilometers (621 miles) in just a single day. Studies suggest that flying in formation provides an energetic advantage, as it requires less energy than when flying solo. This is because when geese are in V-formation and they flap their wings, the air produces a movement, which in turn helps the goose behind. Another hypothesis is that flying in formation is a visual advantage. In other words, flying in formation allows each bird to observe the position and flight direction of the other birds in the flock. This visual communication among members keeps them together and reduces the possibility of collisions or becoming separated. Objectives:To teach about different strategies for flying long distances. Setup:Make copies of the geese and give one copy to each participant. Further Reading: Geese images Scissors Coloring supplies StringAge: 5 - 10Time: 30 - 45 minutes21

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Materials: Paper Pen or pencil Clipboards (optional) Age: 8 - 16Time: 30 - 60 minutesObjectives:• To step deeper into nature and connect more fully. • To connect with the natural world and put these connections to words. Setup:Provide paper, pens or pencils, and clipboards. Encourage participants to sit quietly and choose one of the following prompts or to simply free write. SOARACTIVITY 7: Connecting with the Wild: Nature and Bird Poetry Overview:Both birding and poetry are great practice in patience and close sensory attention. Nature writing allows for reflection and connection. Sitting quietly and writing about the experience with the natural world allows the writer to see things with new eyes. It allows the writer to use all of their senses, focused on experiencing the natural world in a deeper way. Nature writing, by definition, forces the writer to pause, to think, and to notice the world around them. Questions and Discussion:1. What do you wonder about in nature? 2. Remember a bird you have seen or heard?3. Where were you?4. What was the day like?5. What did you hear or see?(Continued)23

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SOARACTIVITY 7: Soaring with the Wild Get Started:1. I Notice/I Wonder/It Reminds Me Of: Writing poetry is finding a new perspective in the world around you, about your observations and the meaning of your experience. Take your observations and add descriptions about birds you see or hear or about significant parts of the landscapes. Try to include at least one line for what you notice, one like for what you wonder and one line for what the experience reminds you of or how it makes you feel. Example: I’ve noticed the sunny yellow of a warbler’s wing. I’ve noticed the colors of a hummingbird flash by me in the sun. I wonder why are the colors so bright? The birds remind me of sunset on grandma’s porch2. Letter Poem: Write a poem in the form of a letter written from one organism to another. Consider the relationship between the organisms. Here are some ideas, though the possibilities are endless: • Write a letter from a hummingbird to a flower or from a flower to a hummingbird. • Write a letter from a leaf to the sun or from the sun to a leaf. • Write a letter from a migrating warbler to the stars or from the stars to a migrating warbler.3. Five-Sense Poem: The most basic form of five senses poetry is a record of what the writer perceives with each sense, using the first person singular pronoun to begin each line. Example: I see the shining feathers. I hear the singing trill. I feel the wind in my hair. I taste the columbine nectar. I smell the just cut grass.24

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SOARACTIVITY 8: How to Be a Birder: Field Hints for IdentificationOverview:Being able to identify birds in the field not only helps better appreciate the bird itself, but it can also create caring about birds in general, which can lead to a stronger conservation ethic. With a little practice, one can learn to identify the birds they are seeing quickly and correctly.Setup:Make copies of the “Bird Identification” sheet. If possible, have field guides participants can borrow and a list of common birds that the participant might see. Get Started:Explain to each participant the key things to look for when learning to identify a bird and give them the “Bird Identification” sheet. Once the participant knows what to look for, send them out on a walk to identify birds, using the characteristics on the sheet. You might choose to keep a list of the birds seen and therefore ask the participant to come back and record their observations. Field Hints to Identification:Most beginner birdwatchers focus on the bird’s color, but it is often not the most important mark. Here are some key features to look for when identifying birds: Group:To begin with, place the bird in a group, since each group has characteristics in common such as shape, size, behavior, habitat use, and plumage pattern and color. Is it a woodpecker or is it a songbird? Try to narrow down the bird to what group it belongs. (Continued)Shape and Silhouette/Posture (Upright/Hunched): Next, notice the shape and general posture and silhouette of the bird. Is the bird perched horizontally or is it sitting upright? As you can see in the above image, you don’t need color to recognize some general characteristics of these broad groupings of birds. A flycatcher, based on its shape and posture, could not be mistaken for a woodpecker. 25

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SOARACTIVITY 8: How to Be a Birder: Field Hints for IdentificationSize: Bird size is easy to distinguish when two birds are together. For example, size is often used to tell the difference between a Cooper’s hawk and a sharp shinned hawk. But what if the birds aren’t together? In this case, try to compare the size of the unknown bird to that of a well known one. For example, if you see a songbird, think about a common bird like a robin and try to discern how the unknown bird compares in size. Is it bigger or smaller? Habitat: Although some birds can be found in a variety of habitats, most birds will not be found in every habitat. Taking note of the habitat will help eliminate competing possibilities and will likely narrow down options. For example, one would not expect to see a gull pecking for insects in a tree.Location (ground, trees, a fence, at a feeder): Just as each species has a specific type of habitat, most species have a specific location within the habitat. For example, say you are in a forest. There are chickadees and nuthatches, warblers and vireos. A nuthatch will not be feeding on the ground, just as a warbler is unlikely to be hopping head down along the tree trunk. Taking note of where, within the habitat, the bird is found can help you identify a bird. Behavior: What is the bird doing? For example, is it inquisitive and active like a chickadee or secretive and skulking in the under brush like a thrush? Pay attention to general behaviors. Color/Plumage: The color of feathers in the field is affected by light, distance and aspect of the bird. In addition, sex, age and time of year all affect colors. For these reasons, color is the last thing to use as a field indicator. Identifying color can help identify the bird, but it should not be relied on as a primary identification tool. Besides overall color, notice pattern, as well as streaked versus spotting. 26

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SOARBird Identification SheetUse this sheet to take notes and help you identify the bird you are seeing. GroupShape/SilhouetteSizeHabitat LocationBehaviorColor SpeciesMaterials: Bird Identification sheet Pen or pencil Field guide (optional) Age: all agesTime: as long as you wantObjective:To learn some basic tips that help to identify birds. 27

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Overview: The are many simple but effective actions we can all take to help birds. When you sign your name on this Pledge, you agree to doing your part in these small ways that can make a big difference! I, pledge to take the following actions to help protect birds: I pledge to reduce my plastic use. I pledge to clean my bird feeders often. (If you have a dog)I pledge to prevent my dog from chasing birds and disturbing bird habitat. (If you have a cat)I pledge to keep my cats indoors. I pledge to make my glass doors and windows visible to birds. I pledge to plant native plants. I pledge to watch birds from a safe distance. I pledge to continue loving birds and nature and to do my part to help protect them! Objective: To motivate participants to take simple but effective actions to help protect birds.SOARACTIVITY 9: Take a Pledge(your name)28

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This fun technology can alsopose a disturbance to birdsthat can impact their survival.+2 I never fly my drone over nesting,feeding, or resting birds+2I do not fly my drone in nationalparks or other natural areas+1I restrict my drone useto parking lots and otherdeveloped sites0I fly my droneeverywhereCats are responsible for the deathsof millions of birds each year in the United States alone.Do you have a cat?___ Yes ___ No+2 I keep my cat indoors oron leash outside+1I do not feed birds, becausemy cat is outdoors0My cat roamsfreelyBirds can’t see windows,especially when they reflecttrees and other plantsor are not visible. +2 My problem windows have ascreen, tape strips, or decals,and/or I close my blinds or curtainsto make them visible to birds+1I know the windows at myhome that might be mostharmful to birds 0I do not know if mywindows are impacting birds Birds need habitat for food, shelter,nesting, and rest during migration.If you don’t have a yard, youcan still help to provide habitat.+2 My garden has many native plants+1My yard has “wild” places for birds+1I purchase a Federal DuckStamp, which provideshabitat for birds0I have notprotected habitatfor birdsPlastics of all varieties, frombottles and bags to fishing lineand plastic pellets are fatal tothe birds that mistake them forfood or are trapped by them.+2 I only drink from areusable water bottle+2I take a reusable bagto the store+1I try to reduce myplastic use overall0I use all varietiesof plasticsFeeding birds is a fun wayto bring wildlife to your yardand to learn about birds,but dirty feeders canspread disease, harmingyour visitors.+2 I clean my seed, suet, andhummingbird feeders at leastonce each month+1I clean my feedersoccasionally0My feeders arenever cleanedIllegal hunting of birds,whether by gun, slingshot,or trapping takes aheavy toll on birds+2 I teach others aboutethical hunting+1I hunt and respectseasons and limits0I am unaware ofillegal huntingRemoving birds from theirhabitats to sell as petsendangers their populationsin the wild and results inthe deaths of as many as60% of wild caught birds.+2 I care for an abandoned,caged bird+2I do not have caged birds+1My pet birds werepurchased from alicensed breeder0I have petbirds and do notknow their originPesticides and weed-killersare harmful to birds,other wildlife, and humans.+2 I use natural or organicproducts in my yard+1I compost and reuse thematerial in my garden0I use a variety ofgarden chemicalsDogs off leash disturb birdswhen they chase flocks andindividual birds or areclose to nests.+2 My dog is on leash or trainedto stay with me outdoors+1My dog is onlyoutdoors with me0My dog is freeto roamPrograms that share factsabout birds help people learnhow to protect them. +3 I teach others to birdwatch+3I teach or volunteer for activitiesthat invite people to learnabout bird conservation+2I share my concernfor birds with others+1I read about birds andtheir conservation0 I am not involvedin bird activities A low-energy lifestyle reducespollution and the need forenergy-producing powerplants and wind farms.+3 My house has a solar system+2I bike or walk to work or school+2I use energy efficient appliances+1I reduce my water use+1I use LED bulbs0I have not changedmy energy use Drones Cats Windows Habitat Plastics Bird Feeding Hunting Caged Birds Chemicals Dogs Education EnergyTOTAL SCORE SCORE SCORE SCORE SCORE SCORE SCORE SCORE SCORE SCORE SCORE SCORE SCORE29SOARACTIVITY 10: Bird Conservation CalculatorOverview: The Bird Conservation Calculator identifies 12 simple ways to make your home safer for birds.Get Started:Learn about the simple actions you can take to make your home safer for birds. Add up the points for each of the actions you already take and learn what your bird conservation score is!Objective:To check your conservation score and make improvements at your home and in your community that can make all the difference for a nesting warbler, a migrating shorebird, or a seldom-seen visitor in your yard!

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Cut on dashed linesSOAR ACTIVITY 11: WMBD 2021 Matching Game Upland Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda)• Lives in grassy prairies, open meadows and fields where they eat mostly insects and grass seeds.• Often lands on fence posts, raising its wings after landing.• Makes “quip-ip-ip-ip” sound. Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina)• Found in deciduous and mixed forests in the eastern U.S., where they forage for invertebrates and feed on fruits from shrubs.• Pointed wings, pointed tail, swift direct flight on rapidly beating wings.• Makes “pit-pit-pit/tuck-tuck” sound. Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura)• Soars, riding thermals in the sky, and uses its sense of smell to find fresh carrion. • Identified in flight by its V-shaped wings and its soaring wobbly circles as well as the gaps in the primary feathers.• Is usually silent. Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon)• Often first noticed by its wild rattling call as it flies over rivers or lakes.• May be seen perched on a high snag, or hovering on rapidly beating wings, then plunging headfirst into the water to grab a fish.• Makes “kekity-kek-kek-kek-tk-ticky-kek” sound. Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca)• Smallest dabbling duck in North America.• Found in river deltas, forest wetlands and mixed prairie habitat across northern North America in warmer months. • Males make “preep-preep, quack” sound. IMPORTANT NOTE:Before starting Activity 9, you must make copies of this page and the following page.Provide one copy for each participant in the Matching Game.Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris)• Found in deciduous forests and across Canadian prairies in their northern breeding range and in dry forests, citrus groves and hedges in their southern wintering range.• Beats its wings about 53 times a second.• Makes “cric-cric” sound. Sandhill Crane (Antigone canadensis)• Large bird with broad wings. Flies with its neck stretched out and feet trailing behind.• Breeds and forages in open prairies, grasslands, and wetlands.• Makes” gar-oo-oo” sound. Royal Tern (Thalasseus maximus)• Lives on the coast and is only found near salt water. • Forages by slowly flying above the water’s surface, then diving for small fish and crustaceans.• Clear shrills, sounds like “kree” or “tsirr”. Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia)• Eats mostly insects that it picks from foliage or captures on shortflights.• Its bright, sweet song is a familiar sound in stream side willows and woodland edges.• Sounds like “sweet-sweet-sweet-I’m-so-sweet”. Streaked Flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus)• Found at the edges of forests andplantations with tall trees.• To forage, it perches on a high lookout and then sallies out to catch insects in mid-flight.• Makes a noisy “sqeee-zip” sound. Brown-chested Martin (Progne tapera)• Lives in dry savanna, subtropical or tropical forests, flooded lowland grasslands, and around rivers.• Feeds on insects by catching them while flying over open areas.• Makes “chu-chu-chip” sound.30

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Overview:Explore the characteristics of the focal bird species of the 2021 WMBD by playing this simple matching game. Setup:• Print the bird images and descriptions (printing on card stock creates durable game pieces that can be used many times).• Then, cut out each bird image and description. Get Started:Place the bird images and descriptions on a table. Participants match the descriptions to the images of the birds. This activity does not require any bird identification knowledge. Use the descriptions to lead discussions about migration, the threats birds face on their journeys, and how we can help birds. Materials: Copies of bird characteristics cutouts (page 30) Copies of bird image cutoutsAge: Kindergarten - Adult Time: As long as participants want to playObjectives: • Learn facts about each of the focal bird species of 2021 WMBD. • Compare characteristics of different bird species. Cut on dashed linesSOAR ACTIVITY 11: WMBD 2021 Matching Game 31