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2021 LHIP Report

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2021Annual Report

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World Migratory Bird DayAcknowledgements Executive SummaryLHIP PrioritiesStatement of PurposeProgram PartnerProgram Support and SustainabilityOur TeamImpacts of COVID-19Internship Host Sites348101112131415Table of ContentsParticipant DemographicIntern PositionsPre-Interview SurveyIntern AchievementsProject HighlightsJoining the WorkforceIntern TestimonialsCareer and Leadership WorkshopWorkshop Surveys161718192125262730National Park Service (NPS)George McDonald, Chief, Youth Programs • 202-513-7157Ernestine M. White, National Youth Employment Programs • 202-513-7157Environment for the Americas (EFTA)Dalia Dorta, Latino Programs • 720-438-1272Cover Photo:Kristian Enbysk, Homestead National Historical ParkHillary MoralesHistoric American Buildings Survey (HABS)Media HighlightsWords From Our InternsWords From Mentors / SupervisorsAppendix I: Intern ProlesAppendix II: Forum: The Diversity Challenge Confronts Ecology3133343544

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3This program could not have happened without the vision and dedication of our many partners.We gratefully acknowledge the work and support of the following:• Bent’s Old Fort National Historic Site/Interpretation Division • Cabrillo National Monument, Resources Management & Science division• Cape Hatteras National Seashore• Chesapeake Bay Office• Denver Service Center Planning Division, Natural Resources Branch• Dinosaur National Monument• Documentation Programs (HABS/HAER/HALS)• Fire Island National Seashore• Flagstaff Area National Monuments (WACA, SUCR, WUPA)• Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument• Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site/Interpretation and Education• Grand Canyon National Park• Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) of the Heritage • Homestead National Historical Park• Indiana Dunes National Park• John Muir National Historic Site• Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail• National Trails - National Park Service• New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park• Northeast Regional Office/Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation• NPS WASO Office of Communications• Padre Island National Seashore, Division of Science and Resource Management• Point Reyes National Seashore• Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program (RTCA) Austin, TX Office• Rock Creek Park, Division of Interpretation, Education, & Outreach • Saguaro National Park• Salem Maritime & Saugus Iron Works National Historic Sites• San Antonio Missions National Historical Park• Southwest Border Resource Protection Program (SWBRPP)• The Alaska Public Lands Information Center• Tonto National Monument• Tumacácori National Historical ParkNPS UNITS HOSTING LHIP INTERNSHIP• American University • Arizona State University*• Bemidji State University • Brandeis University• California Polytechnic University, Pomonae• California State University, East Bay*• California State University, Fullerton*• Fordham University• Humboldt State University*• Loyola University New Orleans• Ohio State University• Stony Brook University• The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley*• Tufts University• Universidad de Puerto Rico en Arecibo*• University of California Berkeley • University of Florida• University of New Mexico*• University of North Texas*• University of Pennsylvania • University of Pittsburgh• University of San Diego• University of Texas at San Antonio*• University of the District of Columbia**RECRUITING PARTNERSAcknowledgementsAlisa Hernández, Cabrillo National Monument *Hispanic Serving Institution** Homestead National Historical Park

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4Executive Summarye Latino Heritage Internship Program was rst proposed by NPS Chief, Youth Programs Division in 2013 as a part of an overarching eort to increase Latino representation in the workforce and to provide challenging natural and cultural resource stewardship internship opportunities for undergraduate and graduate Latino students. e NPS met with the National Hispanic Leadership Council and pledged to launch a program that would be culturally appropriate and support diversity and inclusion goals for the Latino community.e Latino Heritage Internship Program (LHIP) connects Latino young adults to national parks through unique summer experiences working side-by-side with park professionals to gain new skills and to network with other professionals. LHIP participants oen serve as role models in local communities, reaching out to youth and families to raise their awareness of national parks and to increase visitation to parks and participation in park activities. As the internship focuses on equitable access to the outdoors, environmental justice, and creating good jobs in conservation and clean-energy economy, the program is committed to increasing Latino/Hispanic representation in the workforce of the National Park Service, throughout the Department of Interior and other federal and state agencies.Environment for the Americas (EFTA) administers LHIP and has been with the program since it launched in 2015. Since then 249 interns have participated in LHIP, and 12% have been hired by the National Park Service into permanent, term, or seasonal positions. ese hires are located across the country and include positions in conservation, volunteer coordination, communication and outreach, and more. In 2021, EFTA successfully recruited and placed 32 interns at national parks, hosted webinar trainings, and developed and implemented a 4-day virtual Career and Leadership Workshop. We also conducted 16 site visits and administered pre-, mid-, and post-internship surveys to evaluate intern satisfaction, challenges, and successes. Results from surveys completed by EFTA interns since 2014, including responses received from LHIP interns, show the following:• EFTA’s internship model provides strong support before, during, and even aer the internships.• Familiarity with NPS motivates interest in pursuing a career with the agency. • Supervisor knowledge of topics related to Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion help to increase intern comfort while working at a park.Results of these surveys have been published as part of a larger discussion on the topic of challenges faced by underrepresented young professionals seeking conservation careers. is publication, which includes data from LHIP and other internship programs, is found at the Ecological Society of America Forum: e Diversity Challenge Confronts Ecology Underrepresented youth experience barriers prior to eld experiences by Susan Boneld, Dalia Dorta, and Jorge Vargas-Barriga. (See Appendix II)LHIP Summary 2015 - 2021268 INTERNS>100,000 HOURS OF SERVICE 30 HIRED BY NPS

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5Gender of LHIP Interns 2015-2019

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620182019Type of Projects 2015-20212016Military Veterans 2016-201973595779

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7Interns Hired Per Type of Instuon 2015-2021Interns Hired from Hispanic Serving Instuons 2015-2021

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8The Latino Heritage Internship Program (LHIP) connects Latino young adults who are student or recent graduates to national parks across the country and to diverse career development experiences via internships, from archiving historical documents, supporting visitor services to conducting research projects, such as herpetofauna monitoring, and much more. Our goal is to raise awareness of the varied careers with the NPS, to give program participants opportunities to work side-by-side with historians, biologists, and other career elds, and to help create pathways for talented, skilled Latinos to careers with NPS and other public lands agencies.Priority: Centering equity and environmental justice. The impacts of the multiple crises in the United States are not evenly distributed in our society. Communities of color, low-income families, and rural and Indigenous communities have long suered disproportionate and cumulative harm from air pollution, water pollution, and toxic sites. At every step of the way, the U.S. Department of Interior will engage diverse stakeholders across the country, as well as conduct formal consultation with Tribes in recognition of the U.S. government’s trust responsibilities. One of LHIP’s goals is to connect diverse people to conservation. We accomplish this by connecting participants to public lands and by providing opportunities for them to engage in stewardship activities, which can range from developing bilingual educational programs, archiving historical objects to studying the oral nectar resources that pollinators need to survive and much more. Our interns contribute thousands of hours to national parks through stewardship of valuable natural and cultural resources while at the same time raising their own and their communities’ awareness of the relevance and role the national parks play to preserve our rich resources. Interns bring communities to national parks, and in the process they join with other youth and adults sharing stewardship beyond park boundaries. Intern projects have also included improving access to national parks by providing visitor services and designing written materials that oer information about park access and resources. Executive Order on Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Federal Workforce“The Federal Government must strengthen its ability to recruit, hire, develop, promote, and retain our Nation’s talent and remove barriers to equal opportunity. It must also provide resources and opportunities to strengthen and advance diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility across the Federal Government. The Federal Government should have a workforce that reects the diversity of the American people. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that diverse, equitable, inclusive, and accessible workplaces yield higher-performing organizations.” LHIP PrioritiesYahel Delgado Díaz, Indiana Dunes National Park

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9Program Objectives• Advance employment opportunities in the NPS with an emphasis on cultural and natural resource stewardship, interpretation, public outreach and science research.• Develop mission critical internship projects that will support NPS goals and objectives. • Target undergraduate Latinos attending Hispanic-Serving Institutions.• Create strong and viable mentor and protégé relationships for the participants.• Establish a pipeline for converting talented Latino students into career conditional positions in the NPS.Claudia García, Padre Island National SeashoreMission StatementThe Latino Heritage Internship Program (LHIP) reaches out and connects with Latino young professionals from diverse backgrounds to serve in challenging, educational, job-training, career exploration, and developmental opportunities through internships with the National Park Service (NPS).

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10Karla Bonilla & Tahmoor ChadurySalem Maritime & Saugus Iron Works National Historic SitesResults from the 2020 Census show that Latinos represent 51% of the total U.S. population growth. They are the second largest segment with 62.1 million people and make up 26% of the population under 18 in the U.S. All of this recent data conrms why the Latino Heritage Internship Program (LHIP) targets one of the fastest growing segments of our nation’s population who are not greatly reected in the visitation of our national parks or the agency’s workforce.The LHIP program was created in 2014 as a component of an overarching service-wide strategy for the National Park Service (NPS) to help address the lack of Latino employees in the workforce. LHIP, working incollaboration with conservation partners, allows the NPS to invest in cost ecient strategies geared towardsrecruiting and developing entry-level talent to potentially help build a more diverse and inclusiveworkforce.The goals and objectives of the LHIP program are to reach motivated undergraduate and graduate students18-30 years old and recent military veterans 35 years old and younger to work alongside NPS sta in culturaland natural resources and interpretation/outreach projects. The program helps to raise awarenessof our national parks and historic sites, their accessibility, and the need for the Latino community’sactive involvement in their preservation and potential careers options. LHIP works to meets the vision and priority of the U.S. Department of theInterior (DOI) and helps the NPS by fostering relationships with conservation organizations advocating for balanced stewardship and the use of public lands. Statement of Purpose

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11Environment for the Americas (EFTA) is a non-prot organization that connects people to nature and conservation across the Western Hemisphere and works to diversify the eld of natural resources, conservation, and preservation in federal agencies and non-governmental organizations. Our partnership with the National Park Service’s youth programs began with the Latino Heritage Internship Program, which incorporated our internship model tof oer additional training, mentorship, and assistance nding subsequent positions. EFTA also coordinates the largest hemispheric celebration of birds, World Migratory Bird Day, and works with over 100 youth in internships with the National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Forest Service, and organizations such as Los Angeles Audubon. http://www.environmentamericas.orgProgram PartnerEFTA Roles & Responsibilities Professional Development webinars + Career WorkshopAdvertising + Promoting + Recruiting +Managing application systemIntern’s travel, stipend, housing, support, resolving issues related to performance of duties, injuries,site visits NPS data; program evaluations;LHIP website and program materials and reportsEFTA takes care of all of the logistics for the dierent programs as shown in this graph. We are like the gears that run the internship programs taking care of intern training, project needs, skill development, travel or stipends, housing, and any issues or diculties that might come up during their time at the park, training or during the Career and Leadership Workshop.

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12The National Park Service Youth Programs Division support for the Latino Heritage Internship Program provided 11 - 12 week internships, travel and lodging, uniforms and eld supplies, and training and mentoring throughout the internships under Agreement P21AC10081.Program partners leveraged additional LHIP positions and extensions, and parks contributed funding to support intern travel , some extensions, and lodging. LHIP funding is detailed below.FUNDS PARK AMOUNTAustin Trails $1,905New Orleans Jazz $543Oce of Communications $4,344Southwest Border $3,258LodgingAustin Trails $750Oce of Communications $5,000Programmatic SupportExtended Parks $2,2642021 FundingNPS annual program support$502,000TOTAL FUNDING $520,064Program Support and SustainabilityExtensions & AdditionalInternshipsClaudía I García Padre Island National Seashore

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13Our TeamKristian Enbysk, Homestead National Historical ParkGriselda Landa-PosasProgram AssistantEnvironment for the AmericasErnestine WhiteNational Youth Employment Coordinator Youth Programs DivisionGeorge McDonald Division Chief Youth Programs DivisionShanelle ThevarajahProgram AssistantEnvironment for the AmericasDalia DortaLatino Programs DirectorEnvironment for the AmericasEnvironment for the Americas (EFTA)National Park Service (NPS)

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14Impacts of COVID-19The COVID-19 pandemic continued to aect internship programs and activities. These challenges are described below. Impacts to the National Park ServiceIn 2021, the COVID-19 situation seemed to be improving as we began intern recruitment. In contrast to 2020, we were able to place all but one intern at their sites for 11 - 12 weeks.■ Housing continued to be a challenge, with some restrictions still in place. At the same time, less housing was available overall, and many interns lived in short-term rentals or Airbnbs. ■ Many background checks and issuing of PIV cards were delayed.■ We began planning for an in-person workshop in Washington, D.C., but were confronted with many obstacles, as restaurants and event facilities in the area were not open. Considerable time was spent making alternative arrangements for meals. In June, we recognized that doing the event in person was challenging and that the National Park Service could not approve such a large gathering. The decision was made to host the Career and Leadership Workshop virtually again. Planning started anew. Impacts to the Interns■ Interns were disappointed that the in-person workshop was changed to a virtual workshop and did not have the opportunity to meet one another in person or to network with NPS leadership. ■ Although the workshop was virtual, the positive impacts were the opportunity to involve more guest speakers. The interns received considerable information and the opportunity to share their work more broadly, as it was livestreamed to 3 Facebook pages and on the Diversity in Conservation website. ■ With a renewed rise in COVID cases over the summer, at least one intern was exposed. ■ Housing situations outside of the park were not always ideal. We had one situation that was potentially unsafe and another that was uncomfortable. We moved all of these interns (3) immmediately after learning of these situations. ■ Housing costs rose considerably, and overall housing was more dicult to nd. Impacts to the Coordinating Organization(s)■ Sta essentially organized two workshops - one event that was to take place in Washington, D.C. and then a second virtual event. ■ All training was hosted virtually, including the nal Career and Leadership Workshop, where interns usually have the opportunity to meet face-to-face. ■ Although EFTA sta did fewer site visits because of concerns about travel, we were able to complete more than in 2020. Still, we were careful about local restrictions and COVID rates in the areas where we traveled. Samantha Ayala, Fire Island National Seashore

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1543Internship Host Sites• Bent’s Old Fort National Historic Site/Interpretation Division• Cape Hatteras National Seashore• Dinosaur National Monument• Fire Island National Seashore• Flagsta Area National Monuments (WACA, SUCR, WUPA)• Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument• Grand Canyon National Park• Historic American Buildings Survey of the Heritage Documentation Programs (HABS/HAER/HALS)• Homestead National Historical Park• Indiana Dunes National Park• Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail• National Trails - National Park Service• New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park• NPS WASO Oce of Communications• Point Reyes National Seashore• Rock Creek Park, Division of Interpretation, Education, & Outreach• Saguaro National Park• Salem Maritime National Historic Site• San Antonio Missions National Historical Park• Southwest Border Resource Protection Program• The Alaska Public Lands Information Center• Tonto National MonumentTraditional Intern - Public Land Corps (PLC)• Cabrillo National Monument, Resources Management & Science division• Chesapeake Bay Oce• Denver Service Center Planning Division, Natural Resources Branch• Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site/Interpretation and Education• John Muir National Historic Site• Northeast Regional Oce/Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation• Padre Island National Seashore, Division of Science and Resource Management• Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program Austin, TX Oce• Salem Maritime & Saugus Iron Works National Historic Sites• Tumacácori National Historical ParkConservation Fellow - Direct Hire Authority (DHA-RA)

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16EDUCATIONParticipant DemographicGENDERAGEFIRST GENERATION COLLEGE STUDENT/ GRADUATE19 -25 years: 28 26-30 years: 4Female: 16Male: 16 Masters: 4Bachelors: 28White Latino: 5Latino: 24 Native American: 1 Chicano Latino: 1Asian Latino: 1Yes: 16No: 16ETHNICITY BACKGROUND88%12%50%50%50% 50%12%88%76%15%3%

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17Intern Positions• Chesapeake Bay Oce• Salem Maritime & Saugus Iron Works National Historic Sites• Northeast Regional Oce/Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation• Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site/Interpretation and Education• Fire Island National Seashore• Rock Creek Park, Division of Interpretation, Education, & OutreachRegion 1: North Atlantic-Appalachian• Cape Hatteras National SeashoreRegion 2: South Atlantic Gulf• Indiana Dunes National ParkRegion 3: Great Lakes• New Orleans Jazz National Historical ParkRegion 4: Mississippi Basin• Padre Island National Seashore, Division of Science and Resource Management• Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance Program Austin, TX Oce• San Antonio Missions National Historical Park National Trails - National Park ServiceRegion 6: Arkansas-Rio Grande-Texas-Gulf• Denver Service Center Planning Division, Natural Resources Branch• Dinosaur National Monument• Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument• Bent’s Old Fort National Historic Site/Interpretation Division• Southwest Border Resource Protection ProgramRegion 7: Upper Colorado Basin• Tumacácori National Historical Park• Flagsta Area National Monuments (WACA, SUCR, WUPA)• Tonto National Monument• Saguaro National Park• Grand Canyon National Park• Southwest Border Resource Protection ProgramRegion 8: Lower Colorado Basin• Historic American Buildings Survey of the Heritage Documentation Programs (HABS/HAER/HALS)• NPS WASO Oce of CommunicationsWASO• Cabrillo National Monument, Resources Management & Science division• John Muir National Historic Site• Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail• Point Reyes National SeashoreRegion 10: California-Great Basin•The Alaska Public Lands Information CenterRegion 11: Alaska

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18Pre-Interview SurveyAs a rst generation college graduate, I feel grateful for this unique opportunity LHIP has given me. It is rewarding to be able to provide value in the eld of conservation and learn how to navigate federal career positions. - Paola Hinojosa““79% of interns hadNever visited the park where they worked of interns Rarely/ Never visited a national park prior to this internship43%How much practical, hands-on experience have you had in your eld of study?15%64%How familiar are you with the work of the NPS?18% 55%Alicia Siobhan Kelley, Point Reyes National Seashore Alicia Kelley, Point Reyes National Seashore Unfamiliar: 6 Familiar: 18I am interested in LHIP because of the opportunity to gain valuable skills while working with the National Park Service, and the exposure it oers to various career paths. - Alicia Siobhan Kelley50%Jade Bravo, Denver Service Center Planning Division

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19Interns work on a variety of projects for national parks, including gathering wildlife survey data, providing visitor services, and developing education materials. Below are examples of some of the projects interns accomplished in 2021.Intern AchievementsHillary Morales, HABS/HAER/HALS Hillary completed Historic American Landscapes Survey (HALS) documentation of the General Simón Bolívar Memorial in Washington, D.C. She learned how to document the historic park landscape and statue with measured drawings, orthophotographs, and a historical report. The documentation she produced adhered to HALS standards and will be included in the HABS/HAER/HALS Collection at The Library of Congress. Hillary conducted historical research and learned skills in GPS, surveying, terrestrial laser scanning, AutoCAD, large-format photogrammetry, and various complex software packages.Manuel Santos, New Orleans Jazz National Historical ParkAs a Graphic Designer Visual Information Specialist, Manuel’s duties included creating marketing materials for park events, designing and animating logos, recording live shows, and working at the front desk. The task he enjoyed most was working with Love’s Music Therapy Digital Workshop for children and young adults on the autism spectrum.Ana Sánchez, Rock Creek ParkA neighbor to Rock Creek Park, Ana contributed in the revival of Summer in the Parks engaging D.C. communities to experience hands-on activities and learn about water quality safety, conservation, and sustainability. She also delivered a program on historical African American presence in the park. Ana outreached and partnered with the Rock Creek Nature Center, Corazon Latino, U.S. Forest Service, and Rock Creek Conservancy to amplify the park’s outreach.Stephen Sanders, Tonto National MonumentStephen took inventory of the audio equipment at the monument and learned how to operate each piece before creating a detailed document on a range of topics from optimal sampling rate to removing airplane noise from otherwise good audio. His data showed that three birds dominated soundscapes: Bell’s Vireo, Gambel’s Quail, and the Northern Cardinal. Descriptions of the Bell’s Vireo were lacking, so he amended this with a proper description and recording on the website that made note of their abundance. Sounds are one of the few things that connect people across the centuries.Christopher Para Mccomas, Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic TrailChristopher connected the local community to the land. He developed a short video encouraging the connection of self and landscape and a photo collage that showcases the multiplicity of use and the community-led nature of a highly successful neighborhood hub along the trail.Maya Rodríguez, Chesapeake Bay Office

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20David Escobar, John Muir National Historic SiteDavid’s research focused on the experience of Chinese immigrants during John Muir’s lifetime—specically immigrants working in agriculture in the town of Martinez, California. He created a report that linked Muir’s treatment of the Chinese to the lived experiences of Chinese immigrants during the era of Chinese exclusion.Daniella Castillo Vásquez, Olmsted Center for Landscape PreservationDaniella worked on documenting the history, existing conditions, and signicance of landscapes through Cultural Landscape Reports and Cultural Landscape Inventories. She developed proles for Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site - Brookline, MA; Glendale Battleeld - Richmond, VA; Hampton National Historic Site - Towson, MD; and Adams National Historical Park - Quincy, MA.Samantha Ayala, Fire Island National SeashoreSamantha conducted educational programs on beach maintenance and leaving no trace in Spanish and English to bring diverse communities to the park. She also increased social media accessibility by providing Spanish translations of posts and developed Latino Conservation Week activities in collaboration with local businesses and libraries. Marshall Morgan, Flagsta Area National MonumentsServing as the Education and Outreach intern, Marshall helped to serve and assist an estimated 28,000 visitors, including 2,266 Junior Rangers. His engagement extended to a variety of state organizations that support the Flagsta Area parks’ multiple initiatives.Nicole SegniniNicole designed a digital communications plan with internal and external guidance. She worked on InsideNPS, social media posts, and the external ( webpages. She also assisted with Latino Conservation Week , and traveled to South Dakota to gather footage on activities there. Her work has been featured on NPS web pages. Gabriel Mogollón, Saguaro National ParkGabriel studied the saguaro cactus side-blooms and the night blooming cereus. He presented his ndings during the Career and Leadership Workshop, demonstrating that creosote is the most successful nurse plant, followed by palo verde and the ironwood trees.Lisset Olvera Chan, Cape Hatteras National SeashoreAs Resource Management Wildlife Intern at Cape Hatteras National Seashore, Lisset assisted in the development of a Pony Management Plan for the pony herd at Ocracoke Island. She documented the history of the Ocracoke pony herd, summarized the lineage and genetic information for the herd, and developed an outline of alternatives and management recommendations creating a database drive for easy access and downloading.

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Frederick Law Olmstead National Historic Site works to educate on and highlight the legacy of Frederick Law Olmstead Jr., the rst landscape architect in the U.S. The park preserves archives of his designs, plans and drawings. In order to provide opportunities for visitors to nd their own meaning in this rich history, the interpretation and education team works to innovate and create new mediums to engage visitors in. Brian worked as a visual media intern to dive into untold stories, tell pieces of little-known history and expand the meaning of historical events. He was able to work on various projects, mainly his visual media project, right from Olmsted’s carefully self-designed family home and oce, known as Fairsted. His visual media project consisted of three interpretive videos on topics of Olmsted and the National Park Service, women behind the scenes of the Olmsted Firm and mental health, park access, and Olmsted’s landscapes. Providing this educational material to the public and visitors is important because it expands their view of Olmsted’s impacts, creating new interpretive narratives to cover various aspects of Olmsted’s history.Brian MecinasFrederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site / Visual Media InternCabrillo National Monument is a small park of 160 acres with about 1 million visitors each year. Despite its small size, it supports diverse wildlife. Recently, park sta have been concerned by the decline of the herpetofauna community of the park. Various species’ population numbers have decreased since 2015. As a Natural Resources and Wildlife Biology intern at the park, Alisa investigated this trend to explore potential causes for the decline. Alisa worked with herpetofauna data collected by USGS and NPS researchers from 1995 to the present as well as collecting her own data to understand population dynamics within the national monument. Specically, Alisa examined the relationship between weather factors and three common lizard species and one snake species. After data collection and analysis, Alisa found that there was no relationship between air temperature and species abundance. However, precipitation did aect two lizard species, whose abundance declined as humidity increased. In the park environment, humidity levels are trending down, and air temperature levels are rising. Alisa’s work demonstrates the need to gather more data to better understand the inuence of the park environment on lizards and other wildlife.Alisa HernándezCabrillo National Monument / Natural Resources Intern/ Wildlife Biology Intern21Project Highlights

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The Tumacácori National Historical Park established mission churches along the pimeria alta, one of which is the Mission San José de Tumacácori. The park is also located near the banks of the Santa Cruz River. The river was a source of food, water, and shelter to both humans and wildlife. It attracted the O’odham and Spanish, and though it no longer ows year-round, its path during the monsoon season is reminiscent of its historic ow.Rosario’s objective at the park was to render elements of the park’s history into a graphic format. Her two primary projects were to design a Junior Ranger activity, advertise the park’s largest event, La Fiesta de Tumacácori, and to prepare promotional materials for Splash Fest, which is a celebration of the arrival of monsoon rains.Using the park’s mascot, Pancho the Vermillion Flycatcher, Rosario created an interactive experience. In her piece, Pancho encourages children to explore dierent locations in the park through a scavenger hunt. In her Splash Fest advertisement, Rosario utilized yellow and blue to portray the idea of cooling o in the summer. She also designed signs to show locations where bats reside and communicated the importance of not disturbing the animals. Finally, Rosario advertised La Fiesta de Tumacácori, which celebrated the heritage of the Santa Cruz valley with Native American, Mexican and Southwest food crops and performances. Through a series of vibrant and bold posters, she advocated the celebratory mood of the esta: food, music, folklore and dance.Rosario’s accomplishments at the park show the importance of investing in artists and designers. Visuals can communicate a variety of messages in an appealing and engaging way.Rosario ValdiviaTumacácori National Historical Park /Arizona Media InternThe National Trails Oce of the National Park Service administers four Latino historic trails: the Old Spanish Trail, El Camino Real de los Tejas, El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, and the Santa Fe Trail. The National Trails Oce certied partnership program does not manage land, but it co-administers historical trails through the National Trails System Act, which authorizes the National Trails Oce to enter into partnerships with landowners along the historic trails. Through certied partnerships, the National Trails Oce oers guidance to help protect and share these trails with the public.The oce is working to reinvigorate partnerships along the trails to raise public awareness of them. As the Partnership Outreach intern, Ramona talked to certied owners about the partnership and oered opportunities to promote their historic sites through digital media. To accomplish this outreach, she conducted site visits and meetings to motivate new collaborations. Ramona met with certied partners, potential partners, and trail associations to discuss what certication partnership means and the processes involved. She also developed an email template to send to potential partnership sites. She organized a database of about 250 certied sites to provide contact information, site certication information, and recommendations for future work. For each Latino historical trail, Ramona performed extensive outreach. By the end of her internship, she had met with over 100 certied sites, various co-administrators including the Bureau of Land Management, the trail association, and managers of certied and potential sites. She also helped the National Trails Oce rebuild the foundation for important work. She built and reformed many connections, revitalized partnerships and identied new collaboration opportunities. Ramona MalczynskiNational Trails Oce of the National Park Service / Partnership Outreach Intern22

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Homestead National Historical Park interprets and celebrates one of the nation’s most progressive and eective acts of its time: the Homestead Act of 1862. For the next 123 years after the act’s establishment, the Homestead Act continued to grant millions of people up to160 acres of land in 30 states. The park contains a collection of oral archives and interviews, some over 20 years old, communicating rsthand the experiences of the time. Oral history is important to understand the history of the people who actually lived it. Kristian worked as an Archives Intern to organize four oral history projects and created their nding aids program which will one day be uploaded to the park’s website. Another signicant task Kristian accomplished was to catalog a variety of items, from trunks and toys, to portraits and agricultural products of the homesteaders. He participated in an annual inventory of the park’s collections by checking a random sample of 250 items to ensure they remain within the collections. Kristian also participated in an accessions inventory to review items donated to the park in the past year. He checked on over 300 items by summers’ end and assisted the park with events and educational activities.Kristian EnbyskHomestead National Historical Park / Archives InternThe Padre Island National Seashore is the longest stretch of undeveloped barrier island in the world. The Seashore covers 66 miles of the 113 mile long island. Three sunken ships are a main feature of this park. At the time of the shipwrecks in 1554, only 40% of the cargo was recovered, while other items were left undisturbed for over 400 years. Eventually the ships received more attention and the remaining sunken treasure was explored.Claudia worked as a Submerged Cultural Resources Intern alongside state marine archaeologists to categorize, label, and document balance stones (the stones placed in the bottom of the ships to keep them upright in storms). These artifacts are among the most abundant resources from the shipwrecks. She also interpreted the shipwrecks through a variety of methods. Through web content, Claudia improved information by updating and adding more content about the shipwrecks. She also worked on translations of archival Spanish documents, identied 42 relevant documents to the shipwrecks, and translated 9 pages of handwritten text. She also created exhibits about some of the artifacts, Spanish colonies, the danger of treasure hunting, how the shipwrecks aected local history, and the eects on the environment on the artifacts. For each exhibit, Claudia developed themes and supplemental material for the public, including resources regarding what to do when you nd artifacts and a 12-page Junior Ranger workbook to educate youth about the history and importance of the shipwrecks. Finally, Claudia improved video content and designed outlines and scripts for two upcoming online lesson plans to be accessed by classrooms across the country.Claudia García Padre Island National Seashore / Submerged Cultural Resources Intern23

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The Denver Service Center has ve divisions and includes a Natural Resources Branch, which is responsible for central planning and design construction management for the National Park Service. This entails product management, architecture planning, and engineering contracting to all parks throughout the nation.Jade worked with the Denver Service Center as a Natural Resources Planning Intern, completing 480 hours of work, meetings, training and workshops. Some of the trainings included learning about The Wilderness Act of 1964 and the Minimum Requirements Analysis process. Jade worked to learn more about the act, the designation, and what it means for an area to be considered wilderness. She also executed resource stewardship strategies by helping park managers achieve and maintain desired resource conditions over time. In her work with Mammoth Cave, Jade carried out the resource stewardship strategy plan by organizing and participating in three workshops and two additional follow-up meetings, which resulted in over 300 prioritized actions and goals. Working with Whiskeytown management to explain plans for improvements to the current trail system, Jade assisted the virtual public comment meeting and was in charge of the question-and-answer portion. This successfully resulted in 70 answered questions and more than 67 additional comments in the online survey. Jade was also involved with the wilderness character narrative, which describes how a park’s wellness area embodies the ve qualities of wilderness as stated in The Wilderness Act. Assisting Channel Islands National Park, Jade consolidated two working drafts of the narrative, collaborated with park sta to address edits and comments, and researched additional information to strengthen content. This allowed the Channel Islands team to advance the wilderness designation proposal and management plan. Jade also managed public comment coding and collaborated with the Denver Service Center sta to write an internal comment summary report. Jade BravoDenver Service Center Planning Division, Natural Resources Branch /Natural Resources Management and Planning Intern Established in 1978 and with four Spanish missions, the San Antonio Missions National Historical Park encompasses both an aqueduct and a ranch. In 2015 it was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, making it the only World Heritage Site in Texas. Cristóbal worked as a Cultural Resource Management Intern at the park. His archival research examined surrounding cemetery locations, burials at the park, and the number of gravestones remaining. He searched through many records to explore connections between the various burials and wrote a detailed report about the history of the cemetery since its inception in 1720. This report will be housed at the San Antonio Missions National Historical Park Library.Cristóbal LópezSan Antonio Missions National Historical Park / Cultural Resource Management Intern24

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25Joining the WorkforceSeasonal Hires with Federal AgenciesLuis Alverto ÁvalosSequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks, CADuring the summer of 2020, Luis Ávalos worked with the Appalachian Conservation Corps in the Shenandoah Valley, as well as on a LHIP internship at Rocky Mountain National Park. At Rocky Mountain National Park, he delivered education and interpretation programs in a virtual setting to classrooms nationwide. After graduating from Kansas State University with a major in Park Management Conservation and a secondary major in Natural Resources and Environmental Science and a minor in music, he undertook seasonal positions at Rocky Mountain National Park and now Luis is currently working at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks as a Park Ranger in the Interpretation Division.María Alejandra Muñoz Grand Teton National Park, WYAfter graduating from Tufts University with a Biology / Environmental Science degree, María Alejandra Muñoz worked on a variety of projects all of which focused on conservation. As a Wildlife LHIP intern at Joshua Tree National Park, Alejandra’s work focused on the Desert Tortoise, Gopherus agassizii, California’s state reptile. She is currently a Biological Science Technician at Grand Teton National Park on her rst season as a federal hire. She worked this summer helping monitor and survey the ungulates in the park (moose, elk, bighorn sheep, and pronghorn antelope) using a variety of survey techniques. Alejandra spent most of the summer backpacking to remote locations where bighorn sheep are known to be and capture them on camera and collect fecal samples for DNA analysis of their population. Her favorite part of this season, however, has been the chance to work on long-term datasets and nally get the opportunity to do some data analysis. She’s been in charge of analyzing data from cameras that capture the elk migration in the park and trying to use models that can estimate the population size of the elk. Permanent Hires with Federal Agencies Tangy Eleni WisemanWilderness and Wild and Scenic Rivers Program Specialist, Forest Service, Washington, D.C.Tangy Wiseman is a specialist for the Forest Service Wilderness and Wild and Scenic Rivers Program in Washington, D.C. She joined the Latino Heritage Internship Program in 2018 when she worked for the National Park Service at the Regional Oce of Public and Legislative Aairs in Denver. After graduating with a degree in Biology she moved to D.C. to work for the Forest Service as a Resource Assistant. Using the Direct Hire Authority she gained from her assistantship, she was able to be hired on to the sta as a specialist.

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26Intern TestimonialsStephanie Pomales, LHIP 2019, Internal Communications Team at Facebook. “Super happy that I got to participate in LHIP! My government work helped me to transition between teams, and the hiring managers found my experience relevant."Super happy that I got to participate in LHIP! My government work helped me transition teams and the hiring managers found my experience relevant."Kevin García López, LHIP 2019, Field Biologist at Point Blue Conservation Science. It was through LHIP’s internship, the program’s support, and mentorship that I have been able to gain the necessary experience to be a competitive candidate for dierent projects. This includes educational programs such as my work in Siuslaw National Forest as an educational ranger, then outreach projects through the National Audubon Society, and now as a eld biologist in The Institute for Bird Populations, Point Reyes National Seashore, and Point Blue Conservation Science. Alejandro Ramos, LHIP 2018/2019 Seasonal Aid for the California Department of Fish and Wildlife LHIP helped me gain the experience I needed to get hired on. Doing the interpretation internship at Rocky Mountain National Park exposed me to a variety of park ranger experiences that helped me establish a good background that was essential in getting my current job.

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27Career and Leadership 2021, the annual gathering of interns in Washington, D.C. was cancelled once again. The LHIP team used its 2020 experience hosting a virtual event to create another dynamic program to conclude the internships. The 4-day workshop was conducted via Zoom, with portions livestreamed to three Facebook pages and to the workshop website to reach the broader public.

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28LHIP Guest SpeakersOur 2021 Career and Leadership Workshop gave us a chance to work with amazing guest speakers across the country. During the workshop, authors, CEO’s, and National Park Service sta discussed paths to their career and made connections with interns during the sessions. 21 Guest SpeakersLHIP AlumniLHIP alumni joined the workshop to provide advice to the 2021 interns, talk about their careers, and answer questions about working for the federal government. After their internships, our alumni have taken advantage of various opportunities, whether that be working for the National Park Service, working with other federal agencies or other NGOs, or going back to school.6 Alumni 4 Days LIVE

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29Intern PresentationsDHA-RA interns gave 15-minute oral presentations about their projects during the virutal Career and Leadership Workshop. PLC interns developed project posters and also shared their work through presentations. All presentations were livestreamed through the LHIP Facebook.Five interns were recognized for their exceptional eort during their internships, including performance at the parks, completion of requirements, such as blogs and reports, and activities that went above and beyond the tasks dened in their position descriptions. Rosario Valdivia Pancho RevampingCristóbal LópezExcellence in ResearchMarshall Dawson Morgan Excellence in Social MediaKristian Lloyd EnbyskExcellence in ArchivingSamantha AyalaCommunity OutreachRecognition forOutstanding Service

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30Workshop SurveysOverall experience for the workshop81% PositiveWhat have you gotten the most out of today?38% Guest Speakers44% Workshop Presentations18% Discussions &Activities“The workshop was a great and fun way to culminate this awesome summer. My favorite part was meeting all the interns and learning about the incredible and important work they had been doing to preserve and protect our beautiful parks and historical sites. I’m also thankful because I was able to make friends as well as meaningful connections with some of my fellow interns, who I value and relate to a lot.- Nicole SegniniRosario Valdivia, Tumacácori National Historical ParkPlease rate the content/guest speakers/workshop activities96% Good“Thanks to every single person who made this experience meaningful, enriching and memorable. - Daniella Castillo Vásquez

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Articles: ■ George Melendez Wright Word Scramble (National Park Service) (■ Get Outdoors: Have Fun Responsibly (National Park Service) (■ Website Scavenger Hunt of Latino Heritage Sites (National Park Service) (■ Counting Bison...And New Experiences in the Latino Heritage Internship Program (National Park Service) (■ Q&A with Archives Intern Kristian Enbysk (National Park Service) (■ Q&A With Cultural Resource Management Intern Cristóbal López (National Park Service) (■ Edwin Torres: A Native Plant Propagation Assistant (National Park Service) ( interview:■ The radio interview conducted on by KWBE Radio News Channel Nebraska Interview on 7/21/2021Social media: ■ National Park Service on Instagram: “One bison, two bison, three bison… This week, a team of National Park Service interns with @mosaicsinscience_nps and @lhip_interns…”31Media HighlightsAlisa Hernández, Cabrillo National Monument

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32Alicia Kelley, Point Reyes National SeashoreAlicia Kelley, Point Reyes National SeashoreDavid Escobar, John Muir National Historic SiteDavid Escobar, John Muir National Historic Siteese words were most used by interns to describe their perspectives on stewardship.

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33Words From Our Interns I am interested in LHIP because of the opportunity to gain valuable skills while working with the National Park Service, and the exposure it oers to various career paths. - Alicia Siobhan Kelley”“I see this position as an excellent way to learn essential tools in park service, environmental activism, and communication.- Maya V. Rodríguez”“I have become more resolute in my career prospects and I have fostered strong bonds not just with my fellow interns but with my supervisors as well. - Tahmoor Chadury”“I am very excited to spend the summer learning more about eective community engagement and environmental stewardship through my internship! - Karla Bonilla”“I’m so fortunate to have had this experience and to teach others around me, like my family, about this beautiful and special place we have so close to us. Fire Island will always hold a special place in my heart, and I can’t wait to continue being involved with the park. - Samantha Ayala”“Karla Bonilla & Tahmoor ChadurySalem Maritime & Saugus Iron Works National Historic Sites

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34Words From Mentors / SupervisorsI enjoyed working with LHIP because there was shared vision on the intern we wanted to support and everything was very organized so that the park could focus on providing the intern with the most comprehensive experience possible. - Linh Anh Cat, Chief of Resources Management & Science Cabrillo National Monument“We love the LHIP program here at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. rough LHIP we have hosted many amazingly talented and creative interns who have helped us reach out to Latino audiences in the Pikes Peak Region in ways that we could otherwise not do. e program is very well organized, and the sta is great. - Je Wolin, Lead Interpreter Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument“LHIP is a powerful program where everyone wins. = Our LHIP intern was a key part of the success of our team's success this summer, our intern gained valuable real-life experience working in their public lands, and our visitors especially beneted from the extra capacity and innovation the LHIP program supports. I'm excited to continue working with LHIP to further mutual goals that benet all!- Richard Ullmann, Chief of Interpretation and Education, Flagsta Area National Monuments“John George Bent’s Old Fort National Historic Site

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35Jade Bravo • Arizona State University Denver Service Center Planning Division, Natural Resources Branch, ColoradoNatural Resources Management and Planning Intern I am a first year MPP Environmental Policy candidate at Arizona State University. I believe that this internship with the NPS and LHIP will allow me to utilize my skills in public policy, project management, and environmental studies while introducing and teaching me about the skills and tools needed in a federal agency position. Having had a love for the national parks since I was a child, I know that through this program I will gain an even deeper appreciation for the dedication and work that NPS staff do to support the parks and its visitors. My future career goals as a policy analyst, at either the public or private level, will be enhanced through this internship as I expect to grow as an environmentalist and professional.Karla C. Bonilla • University of Pittsburgh Salem Maritime & Saugus Iron Works National Historic Sites, Massachusetts / Education InternI am a Salvadoran-American woman and a first-generation college graduate. In 2019, I graduated from the University of California Riverside, where I studied Political Science/International Affairs and History. I served as an AmeriCorps member for one year before returning to school. Currently, I am enrolled in the MPIA degree program at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public and International Affairs (GSPIA). I hope to work as a public servant focused on building community engagement, especially among Latino communities. I applied to LHIP because my coursework, work experience, and personal/professional interests found a match in the offerings and requirements of the program. Additionally, seeing how the National Park Service is working to become more accessible and inclusive to all further motivated me to apply and imagine myself working for the NPS. I am very excited to spend the summer learning more about effective community engagement and environmental stewardship through my internship!Samantha Ayala • Stony Brook University Fire Island National Seashore, New York / Education and Community Outreach InternI am a recent graduate from Stony Brook University, where I completed a double major in Environmental Studies and Political Science. I plan to go to graduate school in the fall. I am highly interested in LHIP, and in particular my position as a Community Outreach and Education Intern, because my professional interests are doing advocacy work and environmental justice work. I think that our environmental and climate crisis are primarily affecting minority communities, so I think it is more important than ever to do community outreach. I hope to work to ensure that the environmental movement is inclusive to all groups.Daniella M. Castillo • Brandeis UniversityOlmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, MassachusettsCultural Landscape Preservation Digital Media Resource AssistantI am a junior at Brandeis University pursuing a double major in Psychology and Women’s, Gender, and Sexuality Studies and a minor in Creative Writing. My academic interests are wide-ranging, but I am very passionate about my pursuit of learning. At Brandeis, I am deeply involved in research in several academic disciplines, including Psychology but also Economics.The opportunity to work with the Latino Heritage Internship Program this summer is incredibly exciting for me as a Dominican woman. I believe creating opportunities to help our communities grow, enter the workforce, and make impacts on society at the corporate and governmental level is incredibly beneficial. Accessing positions that we have historically been less likely to obtain is instrumental in adding perspective to the workplace. I am incredibly honored to be able to make a change in any way possible to me, and through this position, I believe I will be able to.Upon graduating from Brandeis University, I would love to continue pursuing research, as well as writing. Ultimately, the goal is to work somewhere where I can feel I am delivering meaning. I want my work to be impactful, to permeate, and most importantly, to help others.Appendix I: Intern Proles

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36Suzanne El-Haj • The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona / Biological Science TechnicianI am earning my Bachelor of Science degree in Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems with a minor in Environmental Science at The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley. I have developed, designed and executed environmental conservation projects on a local and university level. One of my most successful pursuits is the Sustainable Campus Community Initiative (SCCI). Our mission is to contribute to our local food system through sustainable farming, food awareness, health and wellbeing, and educational opportunities for all. This initiative is an outlet for students to integrate sustainability in their studies and transform through education and awareness. My dream is to one day work with more federal agencies just like the National Park Service. I plan to continue working toward changing the narrative of politics and make it more inclusive and diverse to represent we, the people. My career goals include following a path towards sustainability and conservation. I personally love traveling, exploring different cultures, gardening, cooking, hiking, camping, and appreciating nature while enjoying our beautiful country. I have been interested in environmental awareness, preservation, public land, politics, agriculture and diverse cultures for as long as I could remember. The Latino Heritage Internship Program brings together all of my passions.Tahmoor Chadury • Ohio State University Salem Maritime & Saugus Iron Works National Historic Sites, MassachusettsBilingual Interpretation & Education InternI am a senior at The Ohio State University, majoring in Biology and History. I do not have immediate plans to go to graduate school, but I would like to eventually. I was part of LHIP last year and unfortunately, due to COVID-19, my internship was completely virtual. However, I am ready to come back to Salem and hopefully have a more traditional internship experience. I’ve always wanted to have a full-time job where I work outside, and I think that LHIP is an excellent way for me to combine my love for the outdoors as well as my culture. One of my professional goals is to become superintendent of a large national park, and while I definitely have a long way to go, I sincerely believe that LHIP is an excellent stepping-stone on my journey. I am most looking forward to getting to know my fellow interns. Yahel A. Delgado • Universidad de Puerto Rico en Arecibo Indiana Dunes National Park, Indiana / Outreach AssistantI am a Senior in the Department of Education at the Universidad de Puerto Rico, Arecibo. Educating is my vocation. I grew up in the small town of Utuado among family educators; I have been in classrooms since I can remember. When I started playing volleyball, I had a great coach that would take the time to show me the fundamentals of the game before letting me step onto the court. He was a strict person who showed the team discipline with his example. In 2014, he took me to an Amateur Athletic Union Volleyball Tournament where I learned the difference a mentor can make. In 2016 another great coach led me through an ACL injury recovery process. He believed I would play again and helped me believe it too. I went on to play for my high school varsity team in San Felipe Volleyball, and then at the college level representing my university with “Los Lobos”. These experiences changed my goals in life. I would love to do for other young people what these educators did for me. I’m studying to be a teacher, a mentor, and a guide in elementary school. Before I graduate, I’m interested in learning all I can from the teams of interpreters and mentors the NPS has to offer. It’s an opportunity I cannot pass up. This is the type of experience that will shape my career and my future!

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37David Escobar • Fordham UniversityJohn Muir National Historic Site, California / Historical Research InternI am a sophomore majoring in Journalism with a minor in Digital Technology and Emerging Media studies at Fordham University. The intern position at John Muir National Historic Site interested me for a few reasons. As a journalism major, I feel that it is crucial to fully dissect John Muir’s complicated legacy to convey the national parks’ greater truths. While John Muir undoubtedly changed the landscape of conservation in California, we must evaluate the character of someone like Muir who rose to such prominence. I come from a multiracial background, so I knew that I could provide nuanced insight into Muir’s legacy in his actions and rhetoric. Growing up, I dreamed about becoming a producer for an investigative journalism show like “60 Minutes,” mainly because I appreciated how journalists bring unknown, often mundane stories to life through their narration. As I have begun to learn more about the field of journalism, I have discovered the value of synthesizing documents, interviews, press releases, etc. and helping the general public contextualize all this material to find greater meaning. Like any other journalist, I allow my background to play a role in my narration, but I do not feel restricted by my identity in how I can tell a story. At John Muir National Historic Site, I hope to learn more about how my passion for storytelling could translate into a career. I hope that one day, I can continue my future endeavors with the National Park Service once I graduate college.Kristian Enbysk • University of North Texas Homestead National Historical Park, Nebraska / Archives InternI am a junior at the University of North Texas in Denton studying History with a minor in Mexican American Studies. My interest in this program began about two years ago during my time at Grayson College, near my small hometown of Tom Bean, Texas, just an hour northeast of Dallas. I began researching future opportunities that interacted with the National Park Service, and I discovered LHIP. I made it a goal to one day be a part of it. I prepared by staying updated with the program and investing in opportunities at my community college to gain experience. There I served as student government Vice President. I have always been passionate about the National Park Service and took my first trips to parks like Grand Canyon and Great Smoky Mountains. The pure beauty just drew me in. I am excited to be a part of this program due to my growing interest to one day be involved in archival work and research professionally, especially within Chicana/o Studies. I find this field truly fascinating because preserving history is vital. Uncovering lost truths is a purpose worth exploring not just for present generations, but for future ones. Remembering the past to guide us towards a more positive and inclusive future. Being born in Panama and raised in North Texas by interracial parents gave me a unique perspective growing up. Seeing and experiencing the challenges my parents faced drew me to develop a passion for history and to learn from that to better our tomorrow.Claudia I. García • Arizona State University Padre Island National Seashore, Texas / Submerged Cultural Resources InternI am a senior majoring in Museum Studies from Arizona State University. I am excited to be accepting a position as a cultural intern for the Padre Island National Seashore this coming summer, focusing on researching 16th century shipwrecks. I am an aspiring museum professional, and I cannot imagine a more comprehensive internship for understanding what it takes to responsibly conserve history. I am passionate about museums and other educational institutions and see them as community resources that are essential in keeping history alive. My personal focus in my field is accessibility and engagement and creating spaces where everyone feels welcome and eager to learn; specifically, people of color and minorities who are underrepresented and do not see themselves in these environments often. While I’m attached to museums, I don’t have a specific topic of interest, and see the value of all organizations set on sharing their stories with everyone (from art, science, and history museums, to smaller niche museums) because knowledge is worth saving and sharing. This internship holds boundless learning opportunities for me, professionally and personally, and I’m looking forward to being a part of Padre Island team in their quest for unlocking the histories of these coastal shipwrecks.

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38John George • University of Texas, San AntonioBent’s Old Fort National Historic Site, Colorado / Interpretation and Education Outreach InternI am a senior at the University of Texas of San Antonio and will obtain my bachelor’s in Environmental Science and a minor in Biology. My interest in the LHIP internship stems from my academic and future career interests. I believe that this amazing opportunity can provide me with a glimpse of a cross-section of ES jobs and further insight into previous jobs held by my fellow work colleagues. I will gain valuable research skills that can strengthen future research. I will appreciate the chance to represent the Latino community on behalf of the LHIP in Colorado and the chance to practice outreach skills that are undoubtedly needed to communicate scientific and educational information to the general public. My professional interest is to become a park ranger and/or to work on a restoration site in a significant position. My desire is to protect and restore various ecosystems from previous or present anthropogenic harm. I have a multitude of respect for the scientists and professionals that are working on restoration sites trying to create a more sustainable future. My interest in this program was also sparked by the location. The National Parks surrounding Colorado are a national treasure, and I have always wanted to experience a completely different ecosystem from my thicketed hometown of the Rio Grande Valley. I adore the mountains overlooking the state and the magnificent view that is afforded for everyone.Paola Hinojosa • California State University, Fullerton Southwest Border Resource Protection Program, ColoradoPublic Information InternI am a first generation college student attending California State University at Fullerton and graduated in May 2021. I am passionate about the nonprofit field and have become increasingly conscious of my role in environmental conservation. I hope to increase awareness about the preservation of national parks in the Latino community by creating inclusive material in Spanish to strengthen the presence of the Latino heritage. I will also learn more about Latino culture by working with LHIP and interacting with peers. Alisa Hernández • California State University, FullertonCabrillo National Monument, California / Natural Resources Intern/Wildlife Biology InternI am currently an undergraduate student pursuing a B.S. degree in biological science with a concentration in ecology and evolutionary biology. I am also working toward a minor in geography and geospatial information systems and geospatial technologies certificates which I will finish along with my bachelor’s degree. I am interested in this internship program because it allows me to continue working on my skills in database management and data processing through R studio and Excel programs. Additionally, I am eager to work with professionals who are actively working in my field of interest and explore potential career paths for myself. This opportunity will also allow me to improve my report writing skills and practice presenting findings professionally. I am still undecided about my career and education path following my graduation from my current university. Thus, I hope that my experiences in this program will allow me to further develop my interests and goals, both professionally and educationally.Alicia Kelley • University of San DiegoPoint Reyes National Seashore, California Interpretation, Outreach, and Digital Communication InternI recently graduated from the University of San Diego with a BA in Environmental and Ocean Sciences, with a focus in Environmental Science, and a minor in Chemistry. I am interested in LHIP because of the opportunity to gain valuable skills while working with the National Park Service and the exposure it offers to various career paths. I am excited to have an internship that ties my interests in the environment with my Latina heritage. I am of Mexican descent, and I was born in Brazil. This internship will be meaningful to me, and I hope that it will positively impact Latinx park visitors as well.My professional goals are to obtain a Master’s in Environmental Health and become a physician. I would like to be knowledgeable in both the environment and medicine, because I want to help people with their medical needs while taking into consideration the changing environment.

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39Cristóbal López • University of Texas at San AntonioSan Antonio Missions National Historical Park, Texas / Cultural Resource Management InternI am a Nau Graduate Fellow in the Department of History at the University of Texas at San Antonio, concentrating on the Spanish Borderlands. My interests in history include Public History, State and Local History, Historic Preservation, Family History, and Museum Studies. I applied to the LHIP position of Cultural Resource Management Intern at San Antonio Missions National Historical Park because it covers my interests and passions in history, and it fits within my professional and academic goals. I have dedicated my academic and professional career to learning and elevating my skills in preserving local and community history. Since I am from a small town, I understand the importance of preserving local and community history and creating unique ways to showcase it to the population and future generations. Furthermore, I strive to preserve and showcase the history and culture of underrepresented communities, such as my parents, who immigrated from Mexico in search of opportunities and prosperity. I firmly believe that the LHIP internship will elevate my skills professionally and academically as a historian and grant me the tools needed to achieve my career goals.Ramona R. Malczynski • University of New MexicoNational Trails - National Park Service / Latino Historic Trails Partnership Outreach InternI am entering my second year of my PhD program in Geography and Environmental Studies. My research will focus on water equity in arid lands, specifically the Río Chama in New Mexico and the Río Atuel-Chadileuvú in Argentina. I am excited to be part of the Latino Heritage Internship Program, because it gives me the opportunity to help others connect with the history that surrounds them. I know many people, including myself, who have found comfort and fulfillment in enjoying the outdoors during the COVID-19 pandemic and throughout their lives. For me, much of this fulfillment came from learning about the natural and social history woven into the surroundings of my hometown of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Also, this internship will give me applied experience in my field preparing me for a career in serving communities utilizing knowledge I am gaining in my PhD program. It will increase my opportunities to continue with a career in my field, which lacks representation from women, especially Latina women.Christopher Para Mccomas • University of California, Berkeley Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail, California Interpretation and Public History InternI am a first-generation, 4th-year undergraduate student at the University of California, Berkeley where I will earn a minor in journalism and a Bachelor’s degree in American Studies, with an emphasis in urban community structures, populations, and influence. I am from Los Angeles, California. My interest in this program lies in reframing narratives to include the local, native and indigenous communities while showcasing the various uses and possibilities of the sites under examination, using mixed multi-media to create appealing, unique historical content, and learning in-depth the workings and impact of the National Park Service and Environment for the Americas. I also look forward to meeting and working with my team to solidify the most effective ways to commemorate the histories along the trail and gaining professional experience from the programs included webinars and training.Brian Mecinas • Arizona State University Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Massachusetts / Visual Media InternI am a sophomore at Arizona State University pursuing a degree in Sustainability with a focus in Sustainable Urban Dynamics. I am also minoring in Political Science and Urban Planning and earning a certificate in Cross-Sector Leadership. After graduation, I plan to pursue completion of a Master’s program in either Sustainability or Urban Planning. Through my LHIP position, I hope to delve further into my passion for work on environmental advocacy, conservation, and land protection. I am greatly appreciative of programs like LHIP that intentionally carve spaces and create opportunities for Latinos to enter environmental and conservation-related fields. This opportunity will provide me with valuable experience with a potential for future work in other areas of the Department of Interior, which is an exciting prospect given the visionary changes that are to be expected across the board under the leadership of Secretary Deb Haaland. My long-term career interests and goals are to work toward the conservation of our natural environment and achieving climate justice for historically underrepresented communities such as Latinos; an opportunity like this will only further bolster my passion to reach these targets.

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40Gabriel Mogollón • Tufts UniversitySaguaro National Park, Arizona / Cactus Conservation BiologistI am a freshman at Tufts University studying environmental engineering and biology. I have always been interested in ecological work with an emphasis on conservation. Much of my interest stems from work I did at Saguaro National Park last year. I hope to continue to build off of this recently discovered interest in biology through work at the park this summer. I am excited to gain more experience working with others as well as working independently as a conservationist. I am looking forward to the LHIP workshops, blogs, and presentations where I can also try to better my other skills, like public speaking, leadership, and teamwork. I’m also excited to spend more time at the park, so that I can learn more about the flora and fauna of the Sonoran Desert as well as learning more about all the unique and special adaptations of the park’s wildlife, specifically with drought adaptations. This relates to my career interests in the field of hydrology. I am particularly interested in water conservation, especially in our very own Sonoran Desert. I hope to go on to get both a PhD in a conservation related engineering field, as well as a law degree, so that I can pursue my interests in environmental justice and conservation in the political domain. This job will help me not only gain more technical expertise in the conservation field, but it will also help me continue the path towards becoming a biologist and conservationist. I love the Sonoran Desert and I cannot wait to continue to work in it again, especially as a biologist!Hillary Morales • University of Pennsylvania Historic American Buildings Survey of the Heritage Documentation Programs, Washington, D.C.Summer Architectural InternI am a third-year dual-degree Master’s candidate in Architecture and Historic Preservation at the Stuart Weitzman School of Design. Born and raised in Puerto Rico, I graduated Magna Cum Laude in Environmental Design and Western Art History from the University of Puerto Rico. I see my profession as an act of service, which led me to work alongside multiple community-led projects and non-profit organizations in Puerto Rico and South America for more than ten years. My interdisciplinary approach in design explores the intersections of heritage protection and adaptive reuse, policy-making strategies, as well considering social and environmental impacts. Currently, I work as a research assistant at the University of Pennsylvania on climate change impact assessment on built heritage and construction materials. I am also an Executive Board Member at Penn Inclusion in Design, a student-led organization that intends to foster an environment where students of color, marginalized identities, and allies can thrive at the School of Design.My interest in LHIP started at the very beginning of my architecture academic journey. I have accessed the Historic American Building Survey (HABS) collection to study more in-depth about Puerto Rican architectural heritage. In the process, I became familiarized with the mission of HABS and the National Park Service in recording American historic buildings through exhaustive surveys, detailed measured drawings, writing, and photography. My principal professional goal is to become a well-rounded preservation architect and implement comprehensive methodologies to ensure cultural diversity representation and built heritage protection of underrepresented communities.Marshall Morgan • Arizona State UniversityFlagsta Area National Monuments, Arizona / Education and Outreach InternI am a third-year Barrett (the Honors College) student at Arizona State University. I am working on a double major in Sustainability and History with a minor in Parks and Protected Area Management. I am passionate about our nation’s national parks, and my dream career is to become an Interpretation Ranger. I have also become passionate about environmental justice and environmental representation/inclusion for our BIPOC communities. When I came across LHIP, I was amazed and ecstatic to learn that such a program existed. This program was quite interesting to me as it seemed to encompass both of my interests/passions in NPS and BIPOC representation/inclusion. Having grown up in a BIPOC community, I see the disconnection between community members with the NPS. This inspired me to focus my Honors Thesis on a case study exploring why BIPOC community members felt disconnected from a local national historical park and potential ways this disconnection could be mended. My preliminary research has shown that many of these BIPOC community members simply do not know about the park or feel that the NPS is not inclusive or meant for them. To address these feelings and concerns, it is critical for programs such as LHIP to exist. I am ecstatic to begin my internship, and I believe that the experiences and knowledge that I gain will help me grow as a person and as an advocate for our NPS and our BIPOC communities.

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41Yuyavan Robles • California State University, East BayFlorissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Colorado / Education and Outreach AssistantI graduated from CSU East bay, where I majored in General Biology. Through the many different courses I took as an undergraduate, my passion for science focused on ecology and zoology. I am interested in exploring the possibility of using ecology and nature to bridge together a connection in communities. In addition to the knowledge I gained as an undergraduate, I also have experience in the veterinary field, and I have been a veterinary assistant for 3 years. I am excited to use all of my skills in conjunction with the program’s goal to bridge diversity. My career goal is to be an outreach specialist, but I am unsure in what field. Any opportunity to learn more about different communities will help. I strive to push myself to always be a helping hand for others, to assure knowledge and opportunity is given to everyone equally.Maya V. Rodríguez • American University Chesapeake Bay Oce, Maryland / Communications and Outreach AssistantI am a junior at American University and will graduate in spring 2022. LHIP is a great opportunity for me, since it aligns with my environmental and activist passions and is an excellent way to learn essential tools in park service, environmental activism, and communication. I love being outdoors as well as working in a group setting. Interning with the National Park Service is a wonderful way to explore different career options and develop more clarity for a future profession. I am very excited to engage with other people with similar passions and to add my own creative spark to the job. The blogs are another appealing aspect of the job, since I am minoring in creative writing and thoroughly enjoy using words to explain my experiences and observations of the world. The natural world is where a lot of writing tends to focus on. As a Latinx woman, I see the importance of nature in healing, connecting, and empowering communities of color. Especially now, when so many people are experiencing loss and grief, nature is all the more valuable in what it gives to an individual and to a community. Antonio Ruvalcaba • Humboldt State UniversityDinosaur National Monument, ColoradoScience Communication and Resource Monitoring InternI graduated from Humboldt State University in fall 2020 with a Bachelor of Science in Wildlife Conservation and Management. I was drawn to this program because of its goal in helping diversify the science field and allowing minorities to be a part of the conservation. In many cases, minorities are not a part of conservation when environmental issues are being discussed. I have always been interested in community engagement and saw LHIP as an amazing opportunity to develop and improve such skills. Growing up, my family took me to national parks and did not always feel comfortable. This program allows for minorities to have people from similar backgrounds to be present and available at such locations. I want to be the person people feel comfortable approaching to ask questions. One day I hope to be in a position that I can help others overcome barriers. Lisset Olvera • Bemidji State University Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina / Resource Management Wildlife InternI am a graduate of Bemidji State University with a bachelor’s degree in Wildlife Biology. I will be a Resource Manager intern at Cape Hatteras National Seashore in North Carolina. As a Latina, I have always wanted to connect with other Latinxs who are passionate about wildlife and nature. As a person who was born in Cancun, Mexico and moved to Minnesota as a kid, I have always been interested in nature and studying animals. This interest only grew stronger as I grew up, deciding to have a career in biology. But being a woman of color, I was seen more as the odd one out in my college classes. However, by being part of LHIP, I have forged many connections with other Latinx individuals who are passionate about nature and conservation. I was part of LHIP in 2020 as a Wilderness Intern, and it was an amazing experience where I learned many techniques and met so many people who are highly passionate about national parks and wildlife conservation. I am exploring natural resource management and learning more about how the NPS approaches the management of animals and how it protects wilderness. One of my biggest goals is to work for Minnesota’s Department of Natural Resources in non-game wildlife. I am highly grateful to be part of LHIP again, and I look forward to applying all my studies and my experiences at Cape Hatteras. Thank you!

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42Stephen Sanders • University of New MexicoTonto National Monument, Arizona / Soundscape TechnicianI hail from a town called Grants in the land of enchantment. I am currently finishing my junior year at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque and will complete my bachelor’s degree in Environmental Science. My interest in the environment began when I was in Boy Scouts and participated in my school’s science fair.I found out about this internship opportunity from my academic advisor. At the time I worked nights at a UPS warehouse in Albuquerque and applied because I thought it would be a great opportunity to get professional experience doing something more pertinent to my degree. I hope that this opportunity provides me with the foundation of professional experience upon which I can build my eventual career. Even though my vision of my future career path is not crystal clear, I have a profound appreciation for Earth and planetary sciences. Recently some more specific interests of mine have been in solar technologies, and feedbacks between vegetation and the hydrosphere.Manuel Santos • Loyola University New OrleansNew Orleans Jazz National Historical Park, Louisiana Graphic Designer Visual Information SpecialistI am a senior at Loyola University New Orleans, my major is graphic design, and my minor is art history. For my Design Capstone, I created and designed a magazine titled “Pandemia” in which I interviewed four of my friends that I had not been able to see due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. I asked them about their personal experience of the pandemic, and you can view a copy of the project in the Louisiana Digital Library website. I want to use design in a way that can help others and innovate change. I am interested in anything that has to do with artistic history, whether it’s music, film, art, etc. I have always had multiple interests and want my work to be useful and inspire others. I am beyond excited to work somewhere that honors music history because of my interest in using design, both in a creative environment and a practical environment.Nicole Segnini • University of FloridaNPS WASO Oce of Communications, Washington, D.C. / Communications InternI graduated with a BA in TV Journalism in 2017. Since then, I worked as a writer for a local TV news station in Orlando. However, I realized the industry is not for me and decided to move on to something that will make me happier, and I can still make a difference somehow. Through this internship, I want to gain hands-on experience in content management, digital projects, and public affairs. I also want to be able to work on projects that will promote national parks and their importance. I want to grow as a communications professional and develop relationships and skills that will help me have a career in the field.Ana Sánchez • University of the District of Columbia Rock Creek Park, Division of Interpretation, Washington, D.C. / Interpretation/Education InternI am a senior and full-time student-athlete attending the University of the District of Columbia. I completing my dual degree in Political Science and English. My post-graduation plans include the completion of an Urban Agriculture and Urban Sustainability Professional Science Master’s Degree while continuing my athletic career as a graduate student. Career field goals include advancing and propagating community access and communication programs through policy as well as environmental advocacy. These goals could be achieved through various sectors including nonprofit organizations, the USDA, the EPA, as well as NPS such as Rock Creek Park. I believe that the Interpretation/Education Internship position at Rock Creek Park will allow me to directly apply my research, analysis, interview, and communications skills toward a community driven project. This project seeks to increase the park’s accessibility to all people, especially minorities such as Latinos and African Americans, which are underserved communities within the District of Columbia. Such programs are essential to educate the population on responsible park use, sustainability, and conservation as well as the park’s history. All of this must be kept in mind while concurrently promoting and making the park more welcoming/accessible.

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43Francisco Vázquez • California State University, Fullerton The Alaska Public Lands Information Center, Alaska / Alaska Virtual Education and Outreach SpecialistI am a third-year student at California State University Fullerton majoring in Spanish and minoring in Geography. I am also pursuing certificates in both Global Positioning and Geographic Information Systems. I will graduate next spring, and I am preparing to apply for a master’s program in Geography. My main professional goal is to become an educator, whether in a K-12 setting, such as high school or at the collegiate level, such as at a city college, within my community.My interest in this program stems from wanting to ensure that I have the knowledge and experience necessary to teach my students about the world around them effectively. Furthermore, I want to serve as an example of the possibilities out there for Latinx students such as myself. I’m a firm believer that everyone has something to offer, regardless of their background, experience, or knowledge.I want to ensure I have the knowledge and experience necessary to teach my students. I hope that this position can open pathways for me within the National Park Service, regional parks, or in my community to continue gaining hands-on experience and knowledge on park history, the environment, and policymaking.Rosario Valdivia • California Polytechnic University, PomonaTumacácori National Historical Park, Arizona / Graphic Artist/IllustratorI am a student at California Polytechnic University Pomona, and I am pursuing a degree in Visual Communication Design. I am interested in the Latino Heritage Internship Program because it offers opportunities for Latinx students in various fields provided by the National Park Service. The NPS does its job in protecting and maintaining land. I think it is important for the Earth and for people to have these green spaces protected. It is also important to make them accessible, and that is one of the goals of LHIP- to engage more people, especially people in the Latinx community. I am an artist and one of my goals is to keep my art aligned with values and ideas that I feel passionate about. I want to bring awareness to certain issues surrounding my community and make it easy for people to understand. I want to use my skills to help my community.Lance Tubinaghtewa • Arizona State University Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance (RTCA) Program, TexasRTCA Indigenous/Native Partnerships Outreach CoordinatorI am a student of Anthropology at the Arizona State University. I am in the second semester of my junior year. I aim to have these years I spend at the university and the summers fully enveloping myself in roles that allow me to educate others and myself in the profession of conservationist. Before school, I was a wilderness trail builder and everyday boots-on-the-ground conservationist. Days were spent in backcountry places with the wild beings other than my crewmates. Grand vistas and memorable encounters were in some ways our reward for such rough work. Out in the wild we would tend to the land and find deeper meanings of self. This passion has transferred to my educational endeavors and continues to fan the flame in my professional prospects. I have sought an internship with the Latino Heritage Internship Program for a couple of summers now. The internship aligns well with my future career prospects to inspire Indigenous youth to remain active on the lands that were originally under their stewardship. I aim to use this opportunity to hone my skills of coordination and cross-professional communication. Furthermore, I aim to increase the support of programs like the RTCA in the conservationist field.

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44Appendix II: Forum: The Diversity Challenge Confronts EcologyUnderrepresented youth experience barriers prior to fieldexperiencesSUSAN BONFIELD ,1,3DALIA DORTA,1AND JORGE VARGAS-BARRIGA21Environment for the Americas, 5171 Eldorado Springs Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80303 USA2Department of Environmental Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 USACitation: Bonfield, S., D. Dorta, and J. Vargas-Barriga. 2021. Underrepresented youth experience barriersprior to field experiences. Ecological Applications 31(6):e02350. 10.1002/eap.2350Abstract. Environment for the Americas has developed a model internship program thathelps to recruit diverse youth for internship positions on federal lands and with non-governmental organizations. To improve the program, we have conducted almost a decade ofsurveys to examine the barriers diverse youth may face when applying for these positions andworking at sites where staff, visitors, and other interns may be predominantly White. Ourmodel has been very successful in addressing barriers, including those presented by Bowserand Cid within this Forum. Survey responses show that issues of connection, confidence, com-fort, and capability can be addressed through considerations of culture, staff awareness ofdiversity, equity, and inclusion, training, communication, and mentorship.Key words: applied ecology; environmental workforce; field experiences; training diverse ecologists;underrepresented students.INTRODUCTIONBowser and Cid (2021) identify the field experience asa critical factor that can impact retention of underrepre-sented minorities in the sciences, particularly ecology.Recruiting diverse youth has been a challenging goal formany science-based organizations, both governmentaland non-governmental (Miriti 2019). Despite consider-able effort, for example, members of all visible minoritygroups represented <18% of the permanent workforce atthe US Fish and Wildlife Service in 2018 (State of theagency EEO program MD-715 status report, availableonline).4Concerted attempts to diversify land manage-ment agencies have not succeeded for a number of rea-sons. In this paper, we will focus on our experience withthe unique motivations and barriers for Latino youth,although data from a broader program that includesother diverse participants are included as well. AmongLatinos, first- and second-generation youth are moreinclined to adopt their parents’ occupational choicesthan their Anglo counterparts, and they are stronglyinfluenced by the lack of peers and mentors in that field.Our previous studies show that 86% of Latino parentsare interested in learning more about careers that benefittheir offspring (Bonfield 2014). Yet, Latino representa-tion in conservation careers is low, and parental famil-iarity with U.S. natural resource agencies andorganizations is limited. As a result, Latino students andtheir families have few opportunities to engage with sci-entists that represent their own ethnicity and culture.Environment for the Americas (EFTA) has beenstudying the persistent low recruitment and retention ofdiverse youth in the sciences since 2009. In partnershipwith several land management agencies, including theNational Park Service (NPS), the Bureau of Land Man-agement (BLM), the U.S. Forest Service, and the U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service, we have examined barriers tovisitation at natural areas, interests in nature-based pro-grams that could lead to natural resource careers, andways to increase engagement by diverse audiences inSTEM activities (Bonfield 2014). Participants in ourprograms are engaged in a broader diversity of positionsthan those described by Bowser and Cid (2021), whofocus on ecology. Some of our students also work inecology, but others participate in environmental educa-tion, cultural heritage projects, and other STEM fields,such as geology.Because of earlier findings that highlighted the needfor greater diversity among staff at natural areas, EFTAManuscript received 21 August 2020; revised 20 December2020; accepted 4 February 2021. Corresponding Editor: Jill S.Baron3E-mail: sbonfield@environmentamericas.org4 e02350; page 1FORUM: THE DIVERSITY CHALLENGE CONFRONTS ECOLOG YEcological Applications, 31(6), 2021, e02350© 2021 by the Ecological Society of America

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45created an internship model designed to serve as a path-way to careers in natural resources and conservation.Environment for the Americas uses a data-drivenapproach to inform its internship programs, fromrecruitment and the application process, to the experi-ences participants have at their work sites. We havedeveloped a model that has been adopted by severalfederal agencies, such as the National Park Service,to improve their capacity to recruit diverse applicants,to support positive experiences, and to serve as apathway to careers in STEM with federal agencies orother organizations. Our model integrates the follow-ing components: (1) an intensive and highly personal-ized recruitment and screening process to select thecandidates best suited for each position, (2) low staffto intern ratio to provide participants with sufficientcontact, interaction, and assistance, (3) staff who rep-resent our interns, both culturally and linguistically,and who are also experienced in STEM, (4) profes-sional support for travel, communication, compensa-tion, and housing, as well as immediate support incase of incident or injury, so that participants canfocus on learning, (5) an ongoing professional train-ing program that supports participants before, during,and after their internships, (6) close work with staffand supervisors to assist them in working with issuesof diversity, equity, and inclusion at their sites, (7) ablog site where interns share their experiences, buildcohort connections, and network more broadly, (8)support for attending and/or presenting at profes-sional conferences, (9) a peer mentor program thatconnects new interns with previous interns, (10) acareer workshop that brings interns together to meetone another and professionals in the field, and toattend additional trainings, and (11) regular commu-nication with both interns and site staff using multi-ple methods communication channels.I loved my Mosaics in Science experience, fromthe internship duties to meeting the other internsat the conference in Colorado. I have never con-nected more quickly to a scientifically-based com-munity before. It was inspiring to see whereeveryone took their internships. My experienceabsolutely influenced my confidence and ambitionto continue in science.Gabriela “Bella” (2017) (Student)Since 2007, we have coordinated internship programsthat connect college students and recent graduates withscientists, researchers, and educators at governmentaland non-governmental organizations, providing valuablefield experiences. During this time, we gathered over 500surveys administered before, during, and after the fieldexperiences. The results of these surveys show that manyfactors affect interest, create barriers, and influence par-ticipation in careers in natural resources and otherSTEM areas.METHODSEnvironment for the Americas surveyed interns fromthree different programs: Latino Heritage InternshipProgram (LHIP), America’s Great Outdoors/CelebrateBirds/Celebra Las Aves Internship Program (AGO), andthe Mosaics in Science Internship Program (MIS). LHIPand AGO are both programs for students of Hispanic orLatino descent. MIS is a STEM program for students ofdiverse races and ethnicities. Interns in each program aresurveyed at three times; before commencing their intern-ships, at the midpoint of their internships, and uponcompletion of the programs. The analyses in this reportinclude data from 2013 up to pre-internship surveys in2020; 578 total responses were collected.The surveys include both quantitative and qualitativeresponses designed to assess participant satisfaction withthe programs at each point in time, including careergoals, awareness of federal jobs before and after theinternships, barriers to participating, and other topics.Quantitative questions were asked as “Yes/No/Maybe”or on a Likert scale, where 1 is “Strongly Disagree” and5 is “Strongly Agree.” Open-ended questions provideadditional data, which were categorized for analysis.Though questions were mostly uniform, there is somevariation depending on year and program.Some inhomogeneities include variations in surveyadministration each year. For example, mid-internshipsurveys were not developed until 2016. Furthermore,diversity internship programs with the National ParkService (LHIP and MIS), began in 2015 and 2016respectively, while Celebrate Birds was launched in 2012.Data from each program depend on its start date andthe number of participants.PRE-INTERNSHIP PHASEMost interns who applied to our internship programshad never sought a position with a federal agency. Only26.1% (57) of respondents had submitted applications toa federal agency prior to being accepted into one of ourprograms. A closer look at these interns reveals a con-nection between the likelihood of applying for a positionwith a federal agency and experience with the agency.For example, we found that the number of interns whoapplied to positions at national parks increased with thefrequency of visitation to national parks. Only 15.8% ofinterns who had never visited a park had previouslyapplied to a position. This percentage more than doublesfor interns who visit parks frequently, more than once ayear (35.9%). A large majority (75.4%) of interns whohad applied for positions visit parks one or more timesper year. Conversely, only 5.3% of these same internshad never visited a park.This result echoes our previous research on visitationto national parks (Bonfield 2014). We found that, whenunderrepresented minorities had positive experiences atnational parks, they were more likely to return. TheseArticle e02350; page 2 SUSAN BONFIELD ET AL.Ecological ApplicationsVol. 31, No. 6

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46favorable experiences clearly have positive impacts onvisitors, leading to raised awareness of science careers,familiarity with the place as a potential work location,and for youth, a desire to pursue a STEM career(Fig. 1).Pre-internship surveys administered before partici-pants begin working show that, while the field experi-ence may play a role in determining retention ofunderrepresented youth in natural resources, other fac-tors earlier in the application process must also be con-sidered. Just over one-third (38.2%) of respondents didnot identify specific barriers to applying. The remainderidentified at least one barrier, with family being a pri-mary concern (17.1%; Fig. 2). This response includesparental preference that offspring not leave home at all,not move away from home for the 12-week program, ornot move to a location that is difficult to visit. Of thosewho identified family as a barrier, 87.2% are Latino.Intern Ruby (Latino Heritage Internship Program 2020)explains the challenges:In Latino culture, it is very rare for kids to strayfar from home, even more rare as a daughter.When applying for this internship I knew I wouldface challenges and that I would have been on myown in a sense. I am from California, and I onlyapplied to programs that were in California, fear-ing that anything out of state would be too hard. Imapped every park I applied to, ensuring that myfamily would still be able to visit me, and it wouldbe realistically affordable for them. My family isvery tight knit. My brother and his family liveonly two houses away from me and my mom. I amthe youngest of two and the first to fly a little far-ther from the coop, so this was new for my mom.My mom’s youngest was moving 7 hours from hereven if it was just for the summer. Aside frombeing 7 hours from home, my mom struggled withthe fact that I was literally going to be discon-nected digitally, which brought up safety issues forher. Unfortunately, my housing does not have cellservice or wifi, so I am quite literally disconnectedas soon as I get home. This worried her a lot; sheeven tried to convince me not to stay. She was notcomfortable leaving me in a city where I knew noone and had no way of contacting her once I gothome. This led to many tears and having to con-vince my mom that I would be fine, and I had tobe courageous. It is hard when my support systemis begging me not to stay, but I could not quitbefore I even had a chance to experience what thisjourney entailed. I promised her that if I ever feltlike it was too much and I was too homesick, Iwould tell her, and she would be on the next flightpicking me up.—RubyRuby’s experience is familiar to us. Many Latinoapplicants live with their families during college andafter. For some, the internship is their first time to beaway from home for an extended period. In our recruit-ment process, we explore this situation and use theresponses to select work sites where interns are mostlikely to be successful. Our hiring process may eveninvolve conversations with parents, who need assurancethat their children will be safe.Students applying to federal position (%)0510152025303540National park visitation frequencyNever Rarely Occasionally FrequentlyFIG. 1. A histogram of interns who applied to a position ata federal agency prior to their internship split into their parkvisitation frequency.First internship (5%)Interview (15%)Finding information (20%)Resume (60%)Interns facing barriers (%)01020304050BarriersNone Family App. prep. Finances ExperienceFIG. 2. A histogram of barriers interns faced to applying tointernship programs. The inset pie chart breaks down theresponses that went into application preparation. App. prep.stands for application preparation.September 2021 FORUM: THE DIVERSITY CHALLENGE CONFRONTS ECOLOGY Article e02350; page 3

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47Twenty-three interns (10.1%) identified the applica-tion process as a barrier. Of these, some applicants(60%) did not have resumes or felt their resumes neededto be revised. Others were challenged by the prospect ofan interview, and some did not understand the positionoptions on the program website. Finances and travelingto unfamiliar locations were also concerns.Bowser and Cid (2021) also discuss the importance ofintern comfort and confidence with their qualificationsat the recruitment stage. Our surveys show that, acrossall applicants, only 5.7% (13 respondents) were con-cerned that they lacked experience, nine of these respon-dents applied to STEM positions, and 3% (sevenrespondents) had self-doubt.POST-INTERNSHIP PHASEOnce interns complete their experiences, we adminis-ter a post-internship survey consisting of approximately20 questions. This survey is designed to explore internsatisfaction with their position, knowledge gained aboutcareer opportunities, and ability to apply for federaljobs. Interns also rate host site knowledge of diversity,equity, and inclusion (DEI) on a Likert scale. Sixty per-cent of interns indicated that host site staff memberswere knowledgeable or very knowledgeable about thetopics. While Bowser and Cid (2021) focus on sense ofplace and its importance to participant comfort, ourresults show a positive correlation between staff knowl-edge of DEI and mean intern comfort level (r2= 0.81;Fig. 3). Interns who rated host staff as very knowledge-able (5), agreed or strongly agreed that they feltcomfortable at their site; a knowledgeable site staff ledto a comfortable intern. The same is true on the otherend of the spectrum. Interns who rated site staff knowl-edge of DEI 1 or 2 also rated their comfort as low (1 or2). Also of note is the fact that interns who felt neutralabout their site staff’s knowledge were more likely to feelcomfortable than those who felt their staff had lowknowledge (54.8% vs 81.6% comfort).I really enjoyed the Mosaics in Science program.The coordinators and staff I came in contact withwere all so supportive and helpful. As a woman ofcolor, I was having a really hard time getting anyjob in the environmental sector. My experienceworking at a National Park through this programreally influenced my ability to get future positionsin the environmental field. The week long confer-ence where we got to meet all the other partici-pants in the program was so valuable. To meet somany people of color who were interested andpassionate about working in the environmentalfield was so powerful.Saba, 2017, State AgencyIntern comfort level during their internship may influ-ence their interest in pursuing a federal agency career:more comfortable interns were more interested in contin-uing down the career path. For this reason, it may beimportant to train site staff on issues of diversity, equity,and inclusion. Additionally, the staff can make it clearto interns that they have received this training, so thatinterns know they have knowledge on the topics. Thesefindings are consistent with Maria Miriti’s (2020)research, which suggests that culturally competent fac-ulty can improve diversity initiatives and retention ofdiverse students in STEM.We asked interns to rate their comfort level at their jobsites, as well as their interest in pursuing a career with afederal agency, such as the National Park Service. Similarto Bowser and Cid’s suggestions, we found that the cul-tural competence of the intern mentor plays a role in par-ticipant comfort level (Fig. 4). Our data show arelationship between intern comfort during their inte rnshipand success of the internship as well as potential retentionin the field. Of 117 intern responses, 85.5% (or 100interns), felt comfortable working at their sites ( Fig. 2).Similarly, 102 of the 117 (87.2%), expressed interest in pur-suing a federal career. Approximately 75% of interns whofelt comfortable at their sites also expressed slight to greatinterest in a federal career. About 50% of interns who feltcomfortable (intern comfort = 4 or 5), indicated a stronginterest in pursuing a federal career (Fig. 4).Of interns whose responses were neutral, that is, theywere neither comfortable nor uncomfortable during theirexperiences, 16.7% indicated slight disinterest in pursu-ing a federal career. Although the number of interns whowere slightly uncomfortable at their sites was small(3.42%), they demonstrated the least interest in a federalIntern comfort12345Staff knowledge of diversity, equity, and inclusion 12345FIG. 3. Box and whisker plot relating intern comfort to staffknowledge of diversity, equity, and inclusion. Box plot compo-nents are median (center) 1st and 3rd quartile and maximum/minimum. Partial plots reflect small or skewed samples.Article e02350; page 4 SUSAN BONFIELD ET AL.Ecological ApplicationsVol. 31, No. 6

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48agency career. These findings are similar to those dis-cussed by Bowser and Cid (2021), though we find thatintern comfort is also critical during the work experi-ence.CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSThe intensive approach described and analyzed herehas proven successful in creating pathways to careers inSTEM for diverse youth. Our programs reduce barriersto applying, lead to many interns reporting high comfortlevel at host sites (85.4%) and result in a high level ofinterest in continuing to pursue careers in their fields,including STEM careers, whether with a federal agency,through an advanced degree program or with a non-governmental organization.This experience definitely made me enthusiasticabout a federal conservation career... Programslike Mosaics are absolutely essential for diversify-ing the federal conservation workforce. I amexcited to see what the future holds for conserva-tion work.Jeanie, 2018, Federal AgencyA recent survey (October 2020) of 44 youth who par-ticipated in Mosaics in Science (MIS) from 2013 to 2019shows that this program is successful in long-term reten-tion. Of these respondents, 36% are working in federalpositions, and almost 75% of these positions are perma-nent. Though this number is just 27% of total participa-tion in the program since 2013, it shows that diverseyouth can be successfully recruited into natural resourcecareers (Table 1). Eight of the respondents (18%) areattending or have completed graduate school in fieldsincluding geophysics, ecology, climate justice, and otherSTEM and environmental fields. Over 90% of partici-pants responded that MIS influenced their career deci-sions and also expressed how the program improvedtheir confidence and motivation to stay in the STEMfield.Bowser and Cid (2021) identified early field experi-ences as a critical gateway to careers in environmentalscience and management. We report here on long-running programs to recruit diverse youth into naturalresource, STEM-oriented, and federal careers. Creatinga successful first field experience, as the Environment forthe Americas’ interns are recruited for, requires skill andculture-based pairing of intern and project/site, ongoingprogram support for a wide range of intern needs, andsupport after the programs to aid the interns as theyenter into their careers. It requires cultural competencein recruiting, selecting, assigning and supporting youth,and as data reported above show, cultural competenceand sensitivity on the part of supervisors and mentors isalso key. Interns also gain cultural competence throughtheir programs, as many of them, as documented above,will intern in a natural environment, organization andcultural part of the country different from the one theygrew up in. EFTA’s approach focuses on supporting thequotidian needs of interns, housing, financial support,travel and other logistical requirements, so that they canfocus on both cultural and technical learning. These pro-grams implement specific capabilities and activities toenable the kind of positive experience Bowser and Cid(2021) advocate, and form a specific example of the gen-eral principles they champion.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe internship programs described in this paper have beensupported by the National Park Service, the Bureau of LandManagement, the U.S. Forest Service, and the U.S. Fish andWildlife Service. Special thanks to George McDonald andErnestine White of the National Park Service’s Youth Pro-grams, Paloma Bolasny, Youth Program Coordinator and His-torian with the National Park Service, Lisa Norby and LimarisSoto of the National Park Service’s Geologic Resources Divi-sion, Geoff Walsh of the Bureau of Land Management, andInterest in federal agency career12345Intern comfort2345FIG. 4. A box plot relating intern interest in pursuing acareer with a federal agency to their comfort at their work site.TABLE 1. Current positions of Mosaics in Science alumni.Position N %Federal 16 36Other STEM 13 30Graduate student 8 18Undergraduate student 3 47Outside of field 2 5State 2 5Non-profit 1 2Sum 44 100††Sum not equal to 100 because of rounding.September 2021 FORUM: THE DIVERSITY CHALLENGE CONFRONTS ECOLOGY Article e02350; page 5

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49Jim Chu of the U.S. Forest Service, International Programs. Wealso thank the many site supervisors and interns with whom wehave worked over the past decade and who have participatedenthusiastically and make our programs a success. We appreci-ate their commitment to providing unique field opportunitiesfor diverse youth.LITERATURE CITEDBonfield, S. B. 2014. Engaging latino audiences in informalscience education. Thesis. Colorado State University, FortCollins, Colorado, USA.Bonfield, S., D. Dorta, and J. Vargas-Barriga. 2021. Underrep-resented youth experience barriers prior to field experiences.Dryad, data set., G., and C. Cid. 2021. Developing the ecological scien-tist mindset among underrepresented students in ecologyfields. Ecological Applications: e02348., M. N. 2019. Nature in the eye of the beholder: A casestudy for cultural humility as a strategy to broaden participa-tion in STEM. Education Sciences 9:291.Miriti, M. N. 2020. The Elephant in the Room: Race andSTEM Diversity. BioScience 70:237–242.OPEN RESEARCHData (Bonfield et al. 2021) are available in the Dryad Digital Repository: e02350; page 6 SUSAN BONFIELD ET AL.Ecological ApplicationsVol. 31, No. 6

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World Migratory Bird Day• • • 303-499-1950EnviroamericasEnvironment for the Americas