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HTBA   HVERC MIDDLE MANAGEMENT Stud Course 2010
2010 Breeders Seminar Lecturers Notes
Course Program - Day One  9.00-9.30  Registration   Introduction   Coffee  9.30 -10.30  Lecture 1  John Chopin PhD, FACVSc...
Course Program - Day Two 8.30     9.00  Breakfast  9.00     10.00  Lecture 6  Jim Rodger, FACVSc Stallion assessment  Libi...
Mare Reproduction Lecture One Dr John Chopin, PhD, FACVSc Registered Specialist in Equine Reproduction Resident Veterinari...
Anatomy Summary There are 2 ovaries in the mare  right and left . The ovaries play a critical role in reproduction to prod...
Ovary The basic functional unit of the ovary is the follicle. The follicle contains the oocyte  egg  and also the cells th...
Uterine Tube The uterine tube joins the ovary to the uterus. The uterine tube has the amazing capability of transporting m...
of the very small early embryo. The cervix has to stay shut for the entire pregnancy to prevent contamination and infectio...
External Genetalia The external genitalia provide the last of the barriers to contamination and infection to the uterus. T...
Placenta The placenta is produced by the embryo foetus and is vital for support of pregnancy. Not only does it allow the t...
Physiology Summary Mares are seasonally polyoestrous, mediated by changing photoperiod, temperature and nutrition. There i...
mares that have foaled, the cervix is hard to feel during rectal palpation. It is deep pink in colour with a shiny appeara...
oestrus and accelerate to every 20-30 minutes as ovulation approaches, leading to a change from FSH to LH dominance. Oestr...
Ovary The ovaries are the female gonads that are responsible for production of steroid hormones and the oocyte and provide...
OVULATING  CH  CL  FOLLICL  FOLLICE  E  Diagram representing the oestrous cycle of the mare with hormones in the graph and...
Seasonal Effects on Endocrinology Mares are seasonally polyoestrous. This is in response to changing photoperiod, temperat...
LH is low in winter and high in summer with no seasonal pattern to FSH fluctuations. FSH and or LH concentrations and puls...
intrafollicular rise in progesterone plays an important role in the activation of these enzymes. Ovulation occurs within 4...
STALLION  MARE  Page   19
Cervical Examination  Rectal palpation of the cervix can help determine the stage of the oestrous cycle. The cervix is sma...
Rectal Palpation Rectal palpation of the uterus and ovaries help determine the stage of the oestrous cycle. Palpation of t...
Persistent anovulatory follicles occurred in about 8  of oestrous cycles. These persistent anovulatory follicles decrease ...
THICK WALL OF FOLLICLE  Ultrasonograph of a mature follicle with slight shape change and slightly thickened wall.  Page   ...
FOLLICLE SHAPE CHANGING  Ultrasonograph of mature follicle with early shape change.  Page   24
LUTEINISING THICK WALL  REDUCED FOLLICULAR FLUID  Ultasonograph of 2 follicle in the stage of ovulating with ovarian fluid...
CORPUS LUTEUM  Ultrasonograph of previous ovulating follicles that have now formed 2 corpus luteums with central blood clo...
Combination of management tools to predict ovulation No reliable ultrasonographical predictor of ovulation could be found ...
5. The appearance of the cervix using a speculum can be used to predict ovulation. This method is less accurate for predic...
previous season, the occurrence of PAFs was 54  of all oestrous cycles. Individual mares had a lot higher incidence of PAF...
Plasma progesterone was measured in 42 mares with PAFs and found to be greater than 1ng ml in 85.7  of mares. The administ...
From  Ginther, Gastal et al. 2006 .  Page   31
From  Ginther, Gastal et al. 2006 .  Page   32
From  Ginther, Gastal et al. 2006 .  Page   33
Pharmacological Manipulation Summary Human Chorionic Gonadotropin  hCG     Chorulon  is used to induce ovulation when ther...
Oxytocin is used as a uterine contractility drug. Doses of 10-20 IU are used, any higher will abolish rhythmic contraction...
The use of allyl trenbolone     Regumate is a popular pharmacological method to shift mares through transition. Thirty two...
Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone  GnRH  GnRH is a decapeptide produced on ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum as a...
The Cycle Lecture Two Dr Allan Gunn BSc.Agric  BVM S  MACVSc  horse medicine  reproduction   MRCVS  Diplomate ACT Veterina...
Cycle Definitions In the mare, it is easier to define the beginning of the cycle as the day of ovulation. The mare is in o...
Organs, Hormones and the Links  Organs Brain     Higher centres       Hypothalamus       Surge and Tonic Centres       Pit...
Luteinising Hormone - LH     The Ovulator     Also produced by the pituitary, a glycoprotein in two subunits. This hormone...
Ultimately, the hypothalamic surge centre produces a surge in GnRH production. This induces a LH surge, and the mature or ...
Hormonal Feedback Loops  Page   43
Ultrasonographic Detection of Cyclical Changes Per rectum palpation and ultrasonography are the cornerstones of stud farm ...
Cervix This is an important barrier to the uterus, and consists of smooth muscle and fibrous-like tissue. It also contains...
Altering the Oestrus Cycle There are two phases of the cycle  Luteal Phase Long  CL present  Dominated by Progesterone.  F...
Increasing the follicular phase In the mare this is not easy or practical, as the mare may ovulate under the influence of ...
The release of FSH encourages the growth of follicles within the ovary. These follicles produce oestrogen. The oestrogen f...
Ovulation and the end of transition It is also important to realise, that during this time, the uterus requires to be    a...
2. Light needs to be added at the end of the day, and needs to be bright enough so that a newspaper can be read in that li...
Dopamine Receptor antagonists Typically in Australia this is Domperidone. Other drugs include sulpiride and metoclopramide...
Importantly, most drug treatments should be considered as an adjunct to management options, especially LIGHT. They are usu...
1. The mare that does not show any signs of oestrus or follicular development of more than 30mm diameter for about 30 days...
Common Diseases in the first three days Lecture Three Jane Axon BVSc MACVSc DACVIM Registered Specialist in Equine Medicin...
Introduction Over the last 20 years there have been large developments in the treatment and management of a sick foal so t...
from the mare within 2 hours. The foal may need some guidance to find the teat and some mares may need to be restrained so...
The most common organ systems involved are the brain, kidney and gastrointestinal tract, although any organ can be affecte...
grow and is born looking like a premature foal. These foals have similar clinical problems as premature foals. The most co...
Infection by bacteria can cause mild clinical signs such as dullness and decreased nursing, or can set off a cascade of re...
diarrhoea in the young foal. Their use will depend upon the clinical experience of the veterinarian and stud personnel. Th...
particular high potassium concentrations  an electrolyte which is high in urine . The abnormal electrolyte concentrations ...
Umbilical problems The umbilicus or navel needs to be closely monitored for the first few weeks of life. Shortly after bir...
Normal newborn foal  Abnormal newborn foal Dark reddish pink  Mucous membranes  Pink and moist  Purple or yellow tinge Sma...
Figure 1. Foal nursing showing good tongue seal on teat. Foal also has an indwelling nasogastric tube through which it had...
Figure 3. Premature foal highlighting domed forehead, floppy ears, small size, and thin silky coat.  b.  a. Figure 4a and ...
Figure 5. Foal with pale yellow mucous membranes from neonatal isoerythrolysis  Page   66
Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome  EGUS  Lecture Four Dr Catherine Russell, FACVSc Scone Equine Hospital  Page   67
Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome EGUS  Anatomy and Physiology Horses are grazing animals and their digestive system is design...
EGUS This syndrome comprises 4 distinct conditions that affect different ages of horses and areas of the stomach, oesophag...
Adults 3. Glandular and pyloric ulceration. This condition is reproduced with large doses of NSAIDs such as phenylbutazone...
Treatment Treatment is reliant upon reducing risk factors and acid suppression.  Acid Supression There are many products t...
Equine Biosecurity Hendra Virus and Other Infectious Diseases Lecture Six Dr Joan Carrick, PhD, DACVIM Scone Equine Hospit...
Purpose of Biosecurity To prevent, respond to, and recover from diseases that threaten the health and welfare of horses an...
The purpose of this presentation is to describe the tools required to design an appropriate protocol to protect horses and...
EHV-1 4   Human Mortality  - None  Equine Mortality  - Very High     all infected fetuses    are aborted or die shortly af...
Morbidity  Risk of spread of the disease    Hendra   Human Morbidity  Low  Equine Morbidity  Low  Hendra virus requires cl...
Foals are susceptible to this virus and develop diarrhea, whereas adult horses can carry the virus without ill effects. Co...
Biosecurity Protocols Because there are differences in the risk of certain disease in horses newly arrived on a property, ...
handled after all the resident horses. Any new arrivals that become ill should be treated as though they are carrying an i...
Stallion Assessment Lecture Seven Dr Jim Rodger, FACVSc Jerry   s Plains Veterinary Hospital  Page   80
Selection of the Stallion Select Carefully For What You Need      Ability       Appearance  quality control   Good limbs  ...
Insurance Criteria Masculine Appearance      Mature  Well developed genetalia      Testicular size       Sperm production ...
Impotency      Hormonal       Ejaculation failure       Abnormal behavior       Hypothyroidism  Impotency has been general...
Vices      Vicious or antisocial behavior       Results of Isolation       Self Mutilation       Mastibation  Some stallio...
A serving roll can be used to prevent this accident, putting the roll between the mare and the stallion, placed under the ...
Abstract A variety of testicle insults can induce changes in the structure of spermatozoal chromatin, resulting in spermat...
Genetics  Epididymal Dysfunction      Cytoplasmic droplets       Low sperm motility  Developmental Abnormalities      Cryp...
Laminitis Lecture Seven Dr Troy Butt, DACVS Scone Equine Hospital  Page   88
Introduction Laminitis, or founder, is one of the more common causes of lameness and production loss on breeding farms. In...
Which horses are affected       Overweight or pregnant broodmares       Increase in weight       Metabolic derangements   ...
Three Clinical Syndromes No rotation or sinking of coffin bone      Best case scenario       No change in position of coff...
1. Placing horse in a sand yard 2. Placing sole support systems on the feet such as    Lilly pads     thick Styrofoam insu...
     Shoes are required for an extended period  If the coffin bone is exposed through the sole, there is a very complicate...
Yearling Radiography Lecture Eight Dr Chris O   Sullivan BVSc DipVCS MS Diplomate ACVS  Page   94
What do we know now  Veterinarians who view films for purchasers at sales are predominately experienced   10yrs practice  ...
The Veterinarian Insist on quality radiographs and quality interpretation of the films. Both the horse and the skill and e...
Terminology used is not well defined with most describing horses as Low, Moderate and High risk. The key is to ask     ris...
Yearling Preparation Lecture Nine John Maxwell   Ross Lindemann Alphahorse  Page   98
The Yearling Preparation Creating a plan for productivity, safety and results.  1. The beginning of prep and typical traps...
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