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Table of Contents



  1. Introduction to Geography
  2. Countries
    1. Gran Terreno
    2. Clifffallcano
    3. Nubilosum Senex
    4. Hibemoevee
  3. Maps

Introduction to Geography



Geography is the study of the physical features of the world and how humans affect the land. It also is about how the landscape affects our lives and how we distribute the resources and the land for our people. In our world, the supercontinent was originally connected until over time, it split into different continents and drifted into the places they are today. The people started to populate the different regions and created borders for their land. They made based on things like their resources or agreements between other people. In our continent, our members created boundaries based around the range of the resources and land features like rivers or mountains. This way of creating regions is like our world because often developing countries have boundaries based on rivers or other features. They also sometimes have agreements or arguments about the resources.


Gran Terreno


Week 2 Reflection

The name of my location on our continent is Gran Terreno, which stands for Great Land. It is located at 45° S and 125° W. The location I have chosen is an area near an extremely large lake. I am located where a river empties out into the large lake. This area was chosen due to the fact that there is arable farmland and a nearby water source. Unless there is an extreme drought, the river dries up, or the lake dries up, there will be a constant water supply to my village. The area is a Forest-Steppe, therefore, there will be plenty of wood for fires and future buildings to come. There is also many plants and animals in the surrounding area. The nature here provides large amounts of food for my people. The many types of animals include rabbits, horses, antelopes, foxes, and much more. The people of my village make clothing from the animals around in nature. Due to the location of my village, the cloths my people will be wearing is relatively normal. There will be mild summers, and mild winters. Due to the fact that my location is a Forest-Steppe, there is plenty of wood to build buildings and houses out of. Though in other locations of the continent there are necessary needs for protection, my location only needs protection from natural events such as rain, snow, etc. Unfortunately, there is nothing for reuse in my location as it has never been inhabited by humans before. There are some worries with the location of my village. For instance, because we are located near the water, flooding maybe a large concern. However, there is not much more than that. The wildlife does not tend to be very invasive when it comes to outsiders. All in all, with the many trees, the fertile soil, the constant water supply, and the abundant food source, Gran Terreno is a very unique place. With the many animals that roam the area, clothing and food shall not be an issue. Also, with the many trees around the area, wood shall not be an issue either.

Gran Terreno


Week 3 Reflection

Some of the areas in our continent have one major root language that came from the area around the lake. Our words are lit, eden, eppy, mit, dit, and hangar, which mean sun, eat, happy, mom, dad, and danger. As people moved outward from the area around the water, there were minor sound shifts that occurred to the language. The words lit have changed into lett, eden into edan, and eppy into appy. Our language family is Exo-Carihunian. In my settlement, there are five words that are unique. Vature, Lisle, Fluflure, Varturove, and Vaturskii. These words mean lake, ice, snow, river, and rain. Here by the lake, there are not any major sound shifts due to the fact that this where the language originated and was created. However, the rate in which words are said has increased over time. The languages are still the same, however, the languages have started to slowly diverge. The dialect is slowly changing over time. The hearth of our language is not from the Nostratic language family for it has been originated on this island. These developments in our language mimic real world examples because this is what really happens. As people have less contact with society, the language starts to shift and/or change. The order in which words are said and the rate can change dramatically depending on how secluded a colony is.

Gran Terreno


Week 4 Reflection

Our religion is a monotheistic religion. In other words, we only worship one god. Our god’s name is Horongonomigo. Our religion formed about 1,000 years ago in an area around the lake. Back then, our people believed in witchcraft, ghosts, magic, and much more. These people needed a protector; someone to give them instructions in life. Our religion was formed based on the many questions people had about life and what to do. There are several principals of our religion. The first is that our god agrees to protect us, as long as his guidelines are followed. If they aren’t followed within accordance, god will not protect his people. The second is that nature is our friend and we shall go wherever nature wants us to go. There are some guidelines to our religion, but not many. First, we shall not harm nature unless it relies on the existence of us, in which case nature may be harmed in the most minimal way as possible. Second, we shall not steal, take, or want other people’s property and/or belongings. Third and final, you shall not live your entire life without marriage and without having children unless you are unable to do so. There is one taboo in our religion. Every 150 years one wise person must be sacrificed and buried in the lake. This is to keep the spirits that lay in the murky waters of the lake at bay. There are three holy sites for our religion. The first, is the lake upon which this city is built next to. There are spirits in this lake. Some good and some bad. The second is the volcano in the Northeast in which many of the spirits travel to on a regular occasion. You are not required to visit the volcano, however, you are required to visit the lake at least once in your lifetime. The third is a religious structure that goes by the name of Morownen. This is the statue of the earliest follower of this religion that is known. It is also where the holy book got its name. There is a holy book called the Morown. It was created by our religion’s followers. It was created so everyone that was part of the religion could access the rules and the basic concepts when they felt like they needed to. There is no hierarchy based with this religion. Our religion wishes for people to be mostly free from one-person(s) control. Clothing in our religion is very basic, however, there are some requirements. The first is that “private parts” may not be shown in public. The second is that clothing may not be “flashy”, in other words, clothing must cover your entire body except for your arms, head, and 2/3 of your legs. These all relate to the real world. For example, Muslims must have at least one pilgrimage to Mecca in their lifetime. Another example is the 10 commandments that Christians must follow. It specifically describes what to do and what not to do in life.

Gran Terreno


Week 5 Reflection

The current life expectancy of the settlement is 40 years. Of course there are those people that easily make it to this, and others that don’t. However, the vast majority of people make it somewhere near 40 years. One person comes of age when he or she turns to the age of 16 years. This is due to the fact that the settlement has a low life expectancy and typically the people of the settlement can make reasonable decisions at this age. The adults, as citizens, are responsible for the production of the resources we grow and mine, as well as care for the little children that will soon enough take their places. The settlement of Gran Terreno has a government that is built upon a Monarchy. There was one person by the name of Higakunimo Hiroka, who acquired power by convincing people when in a state of depression. The resources of the settlement were discovered by some explorers who were looking for anything valuable. They came back with Gold, Aluminium, and Oil. The people discovered how to make many things out of the Gold and Aluminum, however, what was more important was they discovered that the Oil burns. And that it burns slowly. Soon, the government started to set out more explorer to find more valuable things. They came back with more of the same resources. Per the government’s request, a settlement was put where the oil was found, as it was the most important resource at the time. The Gold and Aluminum were found in rivers, but the Oil was found in the middle of the plains. In little “ponds”. The second settlement became a walled settlement in order to keep the natives away from their most precious resource. From there, the government set up long, stone roads between the two settlement so that the Oil could be transported between the two settlements. The only known uses for the three resources were wearable items, fuel, and an alternative to iron to prevent rusting. All in all, the settlement has found multiple resources, but they have mainly used one. Oil.

Gran Terreno


Week 6 Reflection

Our region can produce aluminum foil to help preserve foods. The region can also create watches, bread, cloths, sugar, chocolate, gold, fuel, and rice. The production of the fuel, gold, and rice are fully mechanized. There a couple of agglomerated industries. First, the aluminum has a large industry for many things that are made of aluminum. The oil is the same. The oil has a large fuel production site next to it in order to make the fuel production easier. The industrial belt is around as There is a large area around the aluminum production site. This has effect where we are in the demographic transition because more items are able to be produced, therefore, more people get the potentially life-saving products that they need. The five places in the real world that are in this stage are Guatemala, Nauru, Palestine, Yemen, and Afghanistan. The place that is closest to my region is Yemen. This is because Yemen is in a state where the birth rate is starting to slowly decrease, while the life expectancy is starting to rise. The fast and more efficient production of materials in my region is allowing materials to get to where they need to be. The people that are working in the industries are men. They are not slaves, however, it does not matter if they are foreigners. They can still get a job at the manufacturing facilities. The life that industrializing has created is not great. The people work all day, and don’t come home until it's dark. They leave the house before dawn. The majority of the hearing is lost due to the loud noises of the machines. Their social life is very different.

Gran Terreno


Week 6 Reflection

Pictures

Gran Terreno


Week 7 Reflection

The population pyramid is a column due to the fact that we are just into stage four. We have a decreasing birth rate and a decreasing death rate. The birth rates are low due to the high country and world populations. The country is trying to lower the amount of people by implementing birth control laws. Now, most people die due to old age. Every once and awhile, there will be a death due to a sickness, however, that is not entirely preventable. Most women and men are in the workplace. The women are not giving birth to as many children and therefore they have more time to spend at work. When the women do have children, they leave work for a short while during the early months of their child's life. After a couple of months, they typically return to their normal working careers. The pie charts show us that there is a much larger population density than what was originally thought, as well as how much of the population has moved to a different industry. The new urbanization of the cities is making them look completely different. Instead of great amounts of small, low-income housing, there are high-rises with many more people living in them. The city is has the downtown, then the suburban area, and the industrial area on the outskirts. The industrial cities around the main cities are starting to de-industrialize. They are not needed as much anymore. There are still many areas with certain industrial needs, however, the newer and less advanced industrial areas are de-industrializing. A technopole is a major center of high-tech technology creation. Our technopoles are located in the inner city. This is because there are many different companies that need to be able to communicate with each other. They also need to be close to where their workers live. Our country is not currently involved in any supernatural organizations due to the fact that the countries on this continent are so far apart.

Gran Terreno


Week 7 Reflection

Pictures

Clifffallcano


Week 2 Reflection

My settlement is named Clifffallcano and it is located 30゜North and 110゜East. My location has many interesting features including a cliff, waterfall, mountains, fresh water spring, and a volcano. The advantages of my location are having a high ground advantage on the cliff side so I can see what is approaching. Second, I have easy access to fresh, drinkable water from a spring. Third I have the ability to get electricity from the waterfall. Nature provides my people with drinking water and some vegetation that could include food sources. The people in my area could use either grasses or skins and fur of animals found on the mountain sides for clothing, but they would not need very much because it is moderately warm and not too cold. My people can make shelter out of caves in the mountains, wood from trees, and grass. The only dangers that could possibly worry the inhabitants of my settlement are large amounts of water coming from the tops of mountains and the proximity to the volcano and cliff. The area of my settlement will have several entertaining features for the inhabitants to be interested with like the spring which might create natural ponds. This process can be labeled as human environment interaction. I believe that the proximity to the volcano and the cliff could possibly scare people. My settlement is unique because it is surrounded by a cliff, mountains, and a volcano.

Clifffallcano


Week 3 Reflection

On my continent, my settlement is isolated from other settlements which means it’s language would have diverged from the root language . The hearth of my language would be near the coastal area on the continent on the Northern side.The Root Languages words for sun, eat, happy, animal, mom, dad and danger are suner, aminal, mudder, fudder, dehnger . Over time the language could have gone through several sound shifts and the words would be pronounced differently, for instance my dialect’s words sounds like the original word but backwards with the exception of a few words. The words in my language start with the word for sun which is nusser, animal, is lanimamal, mom is reddum, father is redduf and danger is regnehed. There are not many other changes to the original language other than the word for animal had a stretched out middle section and the word for sun has the beginning noise and a middle noise switched. The development of my language is similar to the real world because it shows an example of how languages spread in develop over time. A real world root language would be Nostratic and in that language there would be a family of other languages that came from it. My language, through the process of language divergence, went through a few sound shifts and ended as it’s own unique dialect. Through the process of backwards reconstruction you can find that it links back to the original language on the island.

Clifffallcano


Week 4 Reflection

In my settlement the people follow the was of a monotheistic, animistic religion called Volcanism. Volcanism originated around the volcano because the people believed it gave life and power to them. The ultimate goal of my religion is to eventually become one with the volcano, the only way to do so is to be a good person in the society, and if not you prevented from sacrificing yourself. Some other religions guide people’s actions in society through the use of a holy book and religious figures. The taboos of my religion include killing yourself and or dishonoring the volcano. A holy sight in my religion is a sacrificial shrine in front of the volcano that some come to for answers and others to fulfil their lifelong goal of becoming one with the volcano . The holy book comes from the early days of the religion when a man who claimed himself to understand the needs of the volcano wrote a book about the practices of Volcanism. In my religion people cannot wear anything that promotes anti-volcano or anti-sacrifice sentiment but many wear necklaces or pendants made of volcanic rock to represent their beliefs and as a good luck charm. These accessories can be compared to cross necklaces and other jewelry that symbolizes religion and other things.

Clifffallcano


Week 5 Reflection

In my population there are many different things that govern when people are able to participate in the inner workings of the community. For example because the life expectancy is about 30 years old, this is because of the work that has to be done to support the community and because of some natural occurrences. The community is sustained by manufacturing goods from diamonds, titanium and citrus. Diamonds are used to make jewelry, the settlement does not have the technology to make much use of titanium but it is classified as a rare material and citrus is used to make several types of food products that the villagers trade amongst themselves. . As an effect of strenuous labor in mines and other resource producing establishments, medical knowledge is quite undeveloped which leaves the life expectancy at about 30. Clifffallcano, my settlement, is a democratic theocracy. The government is based around the original settlement’s religion but is run by the people who live in it. At about age 15 people are required to get jobs in either the government, plantations or mines to help support the ever expanding settlement. Once citizens have reached working age they are required to help make decisions regarding how the community in different places develops. For example the government decided to send a group of people out to colonize an area West of the main settlement that eventually formed a round shape and was sustained by a diamond mine.

Clifffallcano


Week 6 Reflection

In my settlement we have mechanized facilities to refine diamonds, nickel and titanium. With these resources my region can produce jewelry from the diamonds, light-weight metal appliances from titanium and nickel is used for plating other items for a chrome like finish. There is agglomeration of my titanium and diamond industries to produce diamond jewelry with titanium parts. The industrial belt in my region is centered around the sources for my resources. My settlement is in stage two of Demographic Transition because it is just now developing industrial factors that allow the production of refined products. In the real world there are several places that are in the same stage as my settlement but narrowed down to those most like it there is, Sri Lanka, Peru, Guatemala, Afghanistan, Yemen, Palestine. My place is most like Yemen because there are few people in old age but lots around twenty that hold jobs. Stage two impacts real world social systems by the population growing because death rates are low and birth rates are high. In the real world people who had little money and not much to lose were the ones that pioneered working in factories. In my alternate world the people working in factories would be people of working age who are trying to make money to support their families or people that have just become a part of the settlement and are trying to start a new life. This stage caused social life to change in real life by giving some people a chance to not have to work and their family members can support them and also by increasing the population of older people because of better medicine. This changes social life in my alternate world by allowing most people who are of working age to participate in manufacturing while those who are not don’t have to work because their family members can earn for them.

Clifffallcano


Week 6 Reflection

Pictures

Clifffallcano


Week 7 Reflection

As of now Clifffallcano is a semi-periphery nation and is following the lead of others to advance. One main thing the nation is trying to change is to lower birthrates. This is being changed by writing a law limiting the amount of children people are allowed to have to two. In the stage that Clifffallcano is in most people are no longer dying to disease but instead to old age and industrial accidents. In my country women have been in the workplace as long as men and they have the opportunity to advance their careers even after having children. This is possible because of the multitude of jobs and education accessible to them. Agriculture in Clifffallcano is typically based on large amounts of crops being grown to feed the population and export to other nations. The type of crop is selected based on what is demanded by the population and other countries. The services in my nation are defined based on what is profitable a few examples seen above are chef, tour guide, plumber, and carpenter. All of these services and more can be obtained around my nation. As seen in the pie charts most people in my nation work in industrial and agricultural jobs and a smaller number in services. This affects my population density by having most of it based around farms and factories. This changes the look of my cities by having more developed houses and apartments closer to factories. My country is accepting multinational corporations to help develop the economy and infrastructure. My nation is involved in several supranational organizations that associate with other nations on my continent. One of them is a court system that holds trials with people from the other nations on the continent. Another example is is the combined military between my nation and one other on the continent. This can be compared to combinations of other countries to have a stronger military.

Clifffallcano


Week 7 Reflection

Pictures

Nubilosum Senex


Week 2 Reflection

ask gabriel

Nubilosum Senex


Week 3 Reflection

ask gabriel

Nubilosum Senex


Week 4 Reflection

The religion that my settlement believes in is a monotheistic religion. It came to be after a group of people saw something very colorful (we would classify it as a rainbow) over a river/lake that runs in their settlement. Seeing this caused them to think that a higher power than them was at work, and so that group of people told the rest of the settlement. Because of this, people claimed to be having “visions” of that god that they then believed in. The followers of this religion strive to have peace and equality among everyone. Some of the rules that guide them are No violence, No shaming, No insulting, Etc. One of the natural features that serves as a holy land for my settlement is the river where they first saw the rainbow. They have also created a primitive shrine that they must worship at every day after their meals. There is no holy book, it is more of a document that is constantly changing as more people have “visions” of messages from their god. Because of the equality, there is no social hierarchy. And, there are no clothing requirements other than just dressing comfortably.

Nubilosum Senex


Week 5 Reflection

The main population has a life expectancy of around 35-40, while the mining outpost has an expectancy of around 25-30. The main village and mining outpost become of age at 16 and 14, respectively. Both settlements have a democratic republic government, where citizens vote for the political leaders. The qualifications of a citizen are either native born or they have to have lived in the settlement for at least 10 years. Adults in the main village are responsible for making the resources from the mining outpost into usable items/edible food. They are also in charge of all religious events. The mining outpost is primarily responsible for getting the resources and transporting them to the main village. Both settlements play a vital role in the community. The resources were discovered when certain members of the main population decided to go exploring for resources. The resources are primarily in the area between the village and either the mountains or the big lake. The coal can be used for fuel, and the platinum can be used as a material for things such as tools. And the food is of course eaten. The government decides how much of the resources go to the main village or stay in the outpost. They also decide how the resources are used and who gets them. The mining outpost went to the coal area, as it was viewed as more important than diamond and platinum. The government decided who was best fit to go to the mining outpost, who goes to the outpost, and how many people go.

Nubilosum Senex


Week 6 Reflection

Due to my trading with Alfredo, I have access to more materials than before. My region can produce power (coal) and various tools and weapons made out of metal. Making tools and weapons is mechanized. This has impacted my place in the Demographic Transition by pushing my region further into the 3rd stage. Some countries in the same stage as me are India, Mexico, Colombia, Botswana, and South Africa. For my population pyramid, I chose Egypt. This is because Egypt has a good number of children, and a good number of men and women that are of age to work. This is beneficial because it means I have more people that are able to work, and in turn, more products being made and able to trade. In the real world, jobs are fairly open to all people but there are a lot of jobs that certain types of people get. For example, lots of teenagers and college students start as waitresses and waiters. So if I take age into account when assigning roles within my region, then I would have the older people handle mining and turning materials into products. I would let the younger ones have jobs around the village, or delivering items for trade and transport. Thus letting the older ones handle the tougher jobs, while the younger ones take on the safer jobs. The social life in my region will change by having people from my region bond with people that have possibly moved from other regions to mine, to culture them in the ways of all regions and gain an overall better understanding of our world.

Nubilosum Senex


Week 6 Reflection

Pictures

Nubilosum Senex


Week 7 Reflection

ask gabriel

Hibemoevee


Week 2 Reflection

The absolute location of Hibemoevee is 45°South and 130°West. My site is good because it is a confluence site with 3 rivers. It is also at a higher elevation than the rivers, so I won’t get flooded. There are meaty animals and bushes with berries. The animals have fur. They will need normal to thick clothing. There is a mountain behind them for shelter. Animals like wolves will attack. There is many rivers and a snowy area down below. A volcano or deadly animals could be scary. The many rivers, mountain wall, and snowy beach is what makes Hibemoevee unique.

Hibemoevee


Week 3 Reflection

My settlement would share a common root with Andrew and Gabriel’s settlements due to the land and proximity. Our root would have developed near the great lake at the center of the continent and spread right for Gabriel and I, while Andrew stayed near the hearth. This would be the language divergence. The root words are: Lit for Sun, Eden for Eat, Eppy for Happy, Enmil for Animal, Mit for Mom, Dit for Dad, and Hengar for Danger. The sound shifts due to the moving of my settlement would make the words of my dialect be: Lot, Edon, Oppy, Onmil, Mot, Dot, and Honger. They developed more use of the “o” sound and so the language changed as well. Our root language family is Exo-Carihunian, a Nostratic-like root. My language is unique with the words Toonman for Mountain, Wohor for River, Sor for Shore, Doole for Delta, and Boon for Wolf. Some other changes in my language from the original root is that my people talk a bit faster and o’s are louder and more pronounced. It is related to the real world because some languages have changed from each other similarly to how mine has. For example, portuguese is very similar to spanish but they still have some different words and pronunciations.

Hibemoevee


Week 4 Reflection

My religion is polytheistic, in which we believe in different gods that cause different phenomenon. The origin is that over time, people started blaming a god for different things like floods or missing animals. The organizing principle is to believe and respect the gods, or they will enact their fury on to us. The rules are to always pray to the gods in the afternoon and if you don’t, you will have to sacrifice an animal like a sheep. Taboos are not believing in the gods because they are the highest order, not praying for the gods’ blessings, and not respecting the gods or they will smite our people. The main holy site is the highest peak near the village where we have built a temple at the top. It is where we sacrifice animals and where priests pray. The only holy book is the reference of the gods and which one does what. The gods are the highest in the hierarchy, followed by priests, then chiefs, and finally the people. The only clothing requirement is for the priests to always wear robes and 3 gold bracelets on each hand, except for when sleeping.

Hibemoevee


Week 5 Reflection

The life expectancy of Hibemoevee is about 42 years old. The age that a person is recognized as an adult is 17. The government is a Representative Democratic Theocracy, where adults vote every 3 months for the members of the Circle of Chieftains, made up of 9 people. They make and change laws according to the will of the gods, spoken through the 3 High Priests. Sometime between the ages of 10 and 17, children are taught skills for adulthood. Men are taught farming, hunting, and mining skills; Women are taught cooking, plants and animals, and fabrication of clothes, carpets, etc. Copper, or zelen as it is known in Hibemoevee, was discovered when a man by the name of Faddey was scouting the northern forest when he tripped over a rock and stumbled into a cave opening. Upon lighting a torch from a stick and venturing inside, he saw greenish ore lining the walls and ceiling. He made a trail back using a stick to draw a line back to the nearby village where after gathering a group of men and one of the chieftains, they ventured back along the trail to find the cave and decided to set up a mining outpost next to the cave. Since Faddey is the founder of the cave, he named the ore, “Zelen.” Tin, or besoj, was discovered similarly by a man named Yorrick. He was looking for some of his lost sheep when he found them clustered around a cave. Doing the same thing as Faddey, they set a slightly smaller camp near it and Yorrick named the ore, “Besoj.” The zelen outpost, now named Faddey Mine, grew due the miner’s families not wanting to wait for them and moved there. It is located north from Hibemoevee. The besoj mine, named similarly Yorrick Mine, is east from Hibemoevee. It did not grow as much as Faddey Mine and so it is more of a camp for miners to rest. The two outposts are both cluster village types. The government’s involvement in the resources was that they oversaw the formation of the outposts and mines and discovered the use of zelen and besoj as metals. It was first found that zelen could be smelted down into liquid and poured into molds to make tools and armor. Then, during an accident involving a mix up of molten zelen and besoj, it was discovered that the two metals could be fused into one zelen-besoj alloy that was harder and stronger than either one. This new metal was named, “Tanso.” The government decided to regulate all farming and mining tools to be made of tanso, along with protective gear.

Hibemoevee


Week 6 Reflection

Mechanized Industry- My settlement has access to: Copper, Tin, Uranium, Diamonds, Coal, Platinum. We can produce bronze from the copper and tin, power from the coal (and maybe also uranium), jewelry and fancy things from diamonds, and some tools/armor/jewelry from platinum mixed with the bronze. The mechanized production would be bronze making, coal burning, and platinum forging. There would be agglomeration of the bronze and platinum industries. That belt is the rust belt. It has changed our settlement from Stage 2 to Stage 3. Some examples of countries in Stage 3 are: Colombia, India, Mexico, United Arab Emirates, and Jamaica. It is most like mine because the birth rate is declining shown by the less babies, but the population is still relatively growing/stable shown by the more-or-less column shape. There’s also a lot of working age people which go to help with the new industry. At first in the real world, workers were mostly men and slaves. In our settlement, adult men and women would work in industrial factories and mining. During the industrial revolution, populations increased but living conditions in urban cities were very poor. Women and children got the worst living conditions and pay. In our settlement, people are paid equally and there’s not terrible living conditions. Children can work, but they do not get extremely hard and dangerous jobs and get paid depending on the job.

Hibemoevee


Week 6 Reflection

Pictures

Hibemoevee


Week 7 Reflection

finish

Boundary Dispute Map


Land Map


Resource Map


Trade Routes Map


Latitude and Longitude Map