Jarrod Cagwin Multi Cultural Inspirations for approaching odd metered rhythms on the drumset Article 1 Concepts of Swinging 9 16 Rhythmic excerpt and analysis of the composition Ma Muse M Abuse by Rabih Abou Khalil From the album Morton s Foot on ENJA Records 2003 Rabih Abou Khalil Oud Composition Jarrod Cagwin Drums Frame Drums Michel Godard Tuba Luciano Biondini Accordion Gavino Murgia Voice Gabriele Mirabassi Clarinet
Jarrod Cagwin Multi-Cultural Inspirations for approaching odd-metered rhythms on the drumset Article 1  Concepts of Swingi...
Multi Cultural Inspirations for approaching odd metered rhythms on the drumset Article 1 Concepts of Swinging 9 16 There is a common tendency in the Western musical world of counting too much when faced with playing and improvising in an odd meter referring to rhythmic time signatures with an odd numerator Frequently the internal balance of the rhythm is misunderstood resulting in the musician loosing the essence of the groove and applying and excess of mathematical reasoning The term Odd Meters has been coined by the Western musician and typically implies any rhythmic cycle or time signature that is not counted in 2 3 4 or 6 pulses In fact there are a variety of cultures in the world that prefer playing and dancing in odd metered rhythms such as 5 7 or 9 rather than the classic 2 beat waltz or 4 4 grooves for example One such composer who appreciates odd metered rhythms is the Lebanese musician Rabih Abou Khalil with whom I have worked with as a drummer and percussionist for nearly 20 years In approaching the rhythmic structures of his compositions I draw from a variety of cultural influences and hand stick techniques to create a groove that utilizes the melodic possibilities and balance of the drum set straying away from any excessive static recurring patterns The majority of Rabih s odd metered rhythms are derived from an additive composite of 2s 3s at the 16th note speed These divisions also correspond to the Thom Ta Dum Tek relationship or the low and high phrasings of the rhythm commonly found in music of Oriental world I utilize the South Indian rhythmic system of Solkattu Konnokol for rhythmically analyzing and vocalizing all phrasings before I approach the drumset More detailed instruction on my solkattu methods can be found in my book One by One In this article I hope to share some of my musical influences in the approach of fast cycle odd meters My aim is that it is benefical for others looking for a different way of using the standard drumset from the traditional sense Just as a set up note For these examples I am using a standard set of Bass Drum B D Snare Drum S D Floor Tom F T Hi Hat H H B D H H S D F T
Multi-Cultural Inspirations for approaching odd-metered rhythms on the drumset  Article 1  Concepts of Swinging 9 16   The...
Rhythmic excerpt of Ma Muse M Abuse by Rabih Abou Khalil From the album Morton s Foot on ENJA Records 2003 In the following example of Ma Muse M Abuse there is a principal rhythmic theme of 9 16 subsequently subdivided as 4 5 16 The approximate metronome speed is 1 8 200 b p m thus creating a rhythmic cycle that passes very quickly I use a standard 5 line drumset staff for notation I recommend of course to begin practicing the exercises at a slower tempo Exercise Group 1 The first step is to break the rhythm down into its numeric components I generally do not apply polyrhythm or cross pulses until I can feel the cycle in its respective 2 3 groupings This phrase of 9 16 is broken into a composite of 4 5 From that it is broken into its denominations of 2 2 3 2 or A B which can be thought of as call and response phrases In this example the call phrase applies to A and the response to B The Thoms low phrasings generally correspond to A and Taks high phrasings to B Therefore the spoken rhythm is 2 2 Thom Thom and 3 2 Ta ki ta Ta ka The dash represents a silent division or rest of one 16th in the rhythm A B I find a good way to begin to feel the rhythm is to separate yourself from the drum set and create a body rhythm between your feet and hands Initially A is applied to your feet and B to your hands as claps In effect you are using a form of Palmas the rhythmic accompaniment found in Flamenco music from southern Spain It is important to experiment with alternating your feet so that you develop a balanced foot hand dance within your body Your feet and hands should still retain a dancing feeling as well when applied to the drums A Foot Taps B Hand Claps A B
Rhythmic excerpt of Ma Muse M   Abuse, by Rabih Abou-Khalil From the album Morton   s Foot, on ENJA Records  2003  In the ...
Exercise Groups 2 3 Next is to apply your feet to the drum set bass drum and hi hat foot respectively Begin by separating your feet into a 3 feel while your hands continue to clap the response phrase B By subdividing the rhythm into pulses of 3 you can begin to feel the rhythm with a more African sensibility You can begin to experiment with different groupings with you feet sometimes alternating R L or groupings of 3 or 4 for each foot for example as shown in exercise 3 Bass Drum with Hand Clap Hi Hat with Hand Clap B D H H both feet with Hand Clap B D H H alternating B D H H in groups of 2 B D H H in groups of 3
Exercise Groups 2   3 Next is to apply your feet to the drum set, bass drum, and hi-hat foot respectively. Begin by separa...
Exercise Group 4 Next is to change your clapping pattern to phrases of 3 within the complete phrase of 9 16 omitting the 1 of each grouping of 3 It is very useful to continue to recite the original solkattu phrase of the 4 5 This keeps an ostinato with your voice and creates a polyrhythm with your hands and feet This is a very similar concept to how Eve drummers from Ghana approach the Kagan parts By changing the accent of the 3 with your hands you can begin to push and pull the rhythm which greatly influences the swing of the groove Th Th Ta ki ta Ta ka Th Th Ta ki ta Ta ka Th Th Ta ki ta Ta ka Th Th Ta ki ta Ta ka Th Th Ta ki ta Ta ka Th Th Ta ki ta Ta ka as a note for later study this exercise can be incorporated with the hands on the drums Any surface can be used such as Hi Hat or between two drums The strokes can be in any combination
Exercise Group 4 Next is to change your clapping pattern to phrases of 3 within the complete phrase of 9 16, omitting the ...
Exercise Group 5 At this point you can begin to apply your hands to the set I recommend beginning by using brushes on the snare drum to create a lighter dancing feel with a balanced sound Here you can experiment with different sticking combinations 5a There are many sticking possibilities and you are free to experiment with your own As in the previous exercises it is good to keep the original 4 5 solkattu motif going in your head Th Th Ta ki ta Ta ka Th Th Ta ki ta Ta ka Next move on to the hi hat with sticks 5b Here you should concentrate on creating a controlled open and closed action with the hi hat foot Keep in mind that your feet should feel like they are dancing thereby shifting your inner balance at your hips back and forth Example 5c adds the bass drum near the middle of the phase allowing both feet to continue the underlying feeling of three A good practice is also to inverse the hand stickings beginning with L Very important to feel the combined phases of 4 5 with hands and the underlying feeling of continuous 3s with the feet
Exercise Group 5 At this point you can begin to apply your hands to the set. I recommend beginning by using brushes on the...
Exercise Group 6 Two Bar Phrases with Snare Drum and Floor Tom With these exercises we begin to add snare drum and floor tom strokes Many of the concepts that I apply to the drum set come from my studies in West and North Africa I do not always regard the snare drum as it is typically found in the western world Often I do not use the snares or keep them at a very loose tension so that they only sound when I use a full center stroke or rim shot This allows me to make phrasings between my snare and floor tom more closely related to Sogo Atsimevu and Kete drums from Ghana for example My bass drum and hi hat foot always function to push the rhythm from the inside instead of typically playing the bass drum on the one or the hi hat foot on eighth or quarter note pulses By utilizing the open stroke on the hi hat I can simulate textures that come from the Riqq an intricate classical tambourine found in Oriental music Use of R and L strokes on the snare I find as a good practice and for musical effect to be equal with both hand and not locked into standard drumset playing position This example uses a paradiddle on the F T to allow for a clean open H H stroke on the last 16th helping to swing the rhythm back around Integration of double strokes with B D and S D This example begins the phases with the S D or F T This is a good practice for leading the phrases with the hands
Exercise Group 6  Two Bar Phrases with Snare Drum and Floor Tom With these exercises we begin to add snare drum and floor ...
Concepts for Swinging 9 16 1 a Basic division of rhythm with Solkattu phrasing b Separation of Low High components of the cycle using hand claps and foot taps c Right Left foot tap variations 2 a Underlying triple pulsation with bass drum b Underlying triple pulsation with hi hat foot c Unison of feet 3 These exercises are two bar phrases to train your feet in alternating patterns while continuing to clap the response phrase with your hands Exercise a contains alternating R L exercise b places the bass drum cadencing to the second bar and exercise c contains displaced patterns of 3 with the feet 4 5 These exercises will develop the inner 3s across the 2 bar phrases of 9 16 The upper pattern on the fourth space has variations of the emphasis of the accent of each grouping of 2 while your feet continue in an alternating pattern of 3 The upper pattern should be clapped or played on the hi hat a Application of sticking patterns to the snare drum I recommend first using brushes to obtain a lighter feel b Application of the step foot with the hi hat c Addition of bass drum with the previous pattern Two Bar Phrases with Snare Drum Floor Tom 6 a Alternating R L strokes on the Snare b Paradiddle combination with floor tom c Double stroke between bass drum snare drum d Beginning of phrase accented with snare drum or floor tom
Concepts for Swinging 9 16 1.   a  Basic division of rhythm with Solkattu phrasing.  b  Separation of    Low   High    com...
Ma Muse M abuse e 220 b b b 4 5 16 f Thom 4 5 j j 42 3 4 16 16 j Thom Taka din Ta Th Th Taka dinTa b b b 4 5 16 j 4 Th Th Taka din Ta by Rabih Abou Khalil Th Ta Th ki ta Ta di ki na thom Ta 5 42 16 j Th Th Taka din Ta j Th Th Ta 4 5 16 ki ta Ta di ki na thom bb b 4 5 16 F 7 Ta ka di na Ta ki ta Ta ka Ta ka di na Ta ki ta Ta ka Ta ka di na Ta ki ta Ta ka b j bb j j 4 3 4 16 4 5 16 11 Th Th Ta ka di na Ta ki ta Ta ka Taka din Taka Th Th Taka din Taka Th Th Taka dinTa din Ta din dina ka Ta j b j j b b 4 3 4 16 4 5 16 n 4 3 4 5 16 p 15 Din Takita Taka Din Takita Taka Din Takita Ta din Ta din dina ka dha b j b b 4 3 4 5 16 j j n n n f p f 19 din dha gu Ta din dha gu Ta din dha gu Ta din dha gu Ta b b b j n p b b b 4 3 4 4 16 22 din dha gu Ta 24 th din din din na ka Ta b b b 4 3 4 4 16 n f Ta din Ta ki ta na ka Ta din di na din di 28 din b b b n th 4 3 4 4 j 16 n b dha gu Ta 26 din dha gu Ta din dha gu Ta Ta ka di mi Ta ki ta th din ta ka na ka Ta din di na c n 4 3 4 4 16 na ju na ki ta ta na din Ta din gu Ta ri ki ta n p Ta din na ka ta ri ki ta ta ka na din di na gu Ta 5 5 5 16
Ma Muse M abuse  e   220  b   b b 4  5 16     f   Thom   4  5     j                     j          42  3  4 16 16         ...
b b b 5 5 5 16 30 Ta ka din gu n Ta ka Ta ka din gu j 5 3 16 n din gu Ta b b b 5 5 5 16 n f Ta Ta b b b 3 4 16 n 5 3 16 32 Ta ka din gu 34 Ta ki ta din na b b b 3 4 16 n 38 Ta ki ta b b b 5 5 16 42 Ta ka din 5 3 16 na din b b b 4 5 16 Taki din Taka j Th Th Thom Taki din Taka Na ka j din Na ka Thom j Taki din Taka j Th Th Ta di din na Th Th din gu ka Taki din Ta ki na thom dha gu j 5 3 16 n j din b b b 4 5 16 j 47 din gu Thom 44 Th Th ka di 5 5 5 16 j n Thom din din Na ka j Na ka 5 3 16 thom din ki na th 3 4 16 dha gu r 3 4 16 j 5 5 16 Thom din Ta Thom din Takita j 4 5 16 nakita 42 3 4 16 j 4 5 16 Th Th Ta ki ta Ta di ki na thom Ta 42 3 4 16 j Th Th Taka ki ta Ta di ki na th Dha This is the lead sheet melody line At the end of the melody begins the improvisational section continuous in 9 16 after returning to the complete melody on cue
b   b b 5  5  5 16            . 30  Ta ka  din..gu          .        n  .  Ta ka  Ta ka  din..gu  j 5  3 16    n          ...