All about the Roman Empire!!

Created by: Rinesa Gerbeshi

The Roman Empire

The map shown above gives you a chance to see the growth of Rome from 27 B.C., to 180 A.D.

 Date              Event

 753 BC- Rome is founded.

Rome was founded by Romulus. Romulus was the first of the seven Roman kings. The original name of Rome was Roma.

509 BC- Rome becomes a Republic. 

The last king is expelled and Rome is now ruled by senators. There is a constitution with laws and Rome becomes a complex republican government.

218 BC- Hannibal invades Italy. 

Hannibal leads the Carthage army to attack Italy. This becomes part of the Second Punic War.

45 BC- Julius Caesar becomes the first dictator of Rome. 

Julius Caesar defeats Pompey in a civil war. He becomes the supreme ruler of Rome. This is the end of the Roman Republic. He hires Sosigenes, an Egyptian astronomer, to work out a new 12 month calendar.

44 BC- Julius Caesar is assassinated.

Julius Caesar is assassinated on the Ides of March by Marcus Brutus. They hope to bring back the republic, but civil war breaks out instead.

27 BC- Roman Empire begins.

Octavius appoints himself "Augustus", which means the first emperor.

64 AD- Much of Rome burns.

Nero set fire to Rome and blames the Christians for it.

80 AD- Colosseum is built. 

The Colosseum was built in 80 AD. The completion of the Colosseum was celebrated with 100 days of games. The Romans invade Scotland.

122 AD- Hadrian Wall is built.

The Hadrian Wall was built in 122 AD. It was a long wall built across northern England in an effort to keep the barbarians out.

306 AD- Constantine becomes Emperor.

Rome becomes a Christian empire. Before this, Rome persecuted the Christians. Constantius dies. His son Constantine is the new vice-emperor of Galerius.

 

 

 

 

This timeline highlights the major events in the history of Ancient Rome. This timeline goes from 753 BC to 27 BC and then from 64 AD to 1453 AD.

 

Timeline 

380 AD- Christianity

Theodosius I proclaims Christianity as the sole religion of the Roman Empire in 380 AD.

395 AD- Rome splits.

Rome split into two empires - the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. Each side had a ruler in charge of it. The Roman Empire was split by Theodosius.

410 AD- The Visigoths sack Rome.

This was the first time in 800 years that the city of Rome has fallen to an enemy. It was a huge uproar.

476 AD- End of the Western Empire and the fall of Ancient Rome 

The last Roman Emperor Romulus Augustus is defeated by the German Goth Odoacer. This is the start of the Dark Ages in Europe.

1453 AD- The Byzantine Empire ends.

The Byzantine Empire comes to an end as it falls to the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople in 1453 A.D. It is renamed Istanbul in 1930.

The social system of ancient Rome was based on heredity, property, wealth, citizenship and freedom. It was also based around men: women were defined by the social status of their fathers or husbands. Women were expected to look after the houses and very few had any real independence.

  Roman society also involved a system of patronage. Members of the upper classes, the patroni, offered protection to freedmen or plebeians, who became their "cliens." Patronage might consist of money, food, or legal help. Traditionally, any freed slaves became the cliens of their former owner. 

In return, patroni received respect and political favors. During the empire, cliens were required to offer daily greetings to their patroni. 

 Slavery and slaves were part of the social order. The slaves were mostly prisoners of war. There were slave markets where they could be bought and sold. Roman law was not consistent about the status of slaves, except that they were considered like any other moveableproperty. Many slaves were freed by the masters for fine services rendered; some slaves could save money to buy their freedom. Generally mutilation and murder of slaves was prohibited by legislation, although outrageous cruelty continued.

 

The Romans were immensely proud of their empire. Through the Pax Romana, they believed that they were bringing the light of civilization to the darkest corners of Europe and Asia. 

Even when the Romans were behaving themselves, the very size and wealth of their empire ensured that other people wanted a piece of the action. 


Conflict in Rome


Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts, conspiracies and civil wars from the late second century BC onwards, while greatly extending its power beyond Italy. This was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic.
In Egypt, home to another vast empire thousands of years earlier, Queen Cleopatra had her eyes on the Roman prize – all she needed was a helping hand, which she found in Marc Antony. He had helped Augustus win the civil war and take the throne. Together, they threatened the very heart of the empire, Rome. The Egyptians were completely outgunned and outmaneuvered and the battle destroyed three-quarters of their fleet. Antony and Cleopatra fled back to Alexandria but, within a year, the city was besieged by Roman soldiers. 

 Later on, Romans managed to stop further Islamic expansion into their lands during the 8th century and, beginning in the 9th century, reclaimed parts of the conquered lands.

Depiction of the Roman triumph celebrating the Sack of Jerusalem on the Arch of Titus in Rome. The procession features the Menorah and other vessels taken from the Second Temple.

Agriculture & Economy in Rome:

  • Had no central bank
  • Coins varied in metals (gold, silver, copper, & bronze) and amount by pounds, for each ruler 
  • Minings occurred on Iberian Peninsula
  • Roman roads were established
  • Trade among themselves and regions as far as China & India
  • Commodities: grain, olive oil, fish sauce, slaves, manufractured metal objects, fibres & textiles, timber, pottery, glassware, marble, papyrus (paper), spices, ivory, pearls, and gemstones.

Occupations in Rome:

  • Fishermen
  • Salt merchants
  • Olive oil dealers
  • Entertainers
  • Cattle dealers
  • GOldsmiths
  • Stonecutters
  • Miners
  • Bakery workers

Social Events: (Culture, clothing, overall life-style)

  • Life revolved arount city, Rome, which had several theatres, gymnasias, taverns, brothels, and baths. 
  • Your clothing and footwear in Ancient Rome indicated your class 
  • The basic garment for all Romans, regardless of gender or wealth, was the simple sleeved tunic.
  • Boys wore a toga with a crimson or purple border, also worn by magistrates in office.
  • Men typically wore a toga, and women wore a dress worn over a tunic, and was usually brightly colored.

  • Families ate together, had breakfast, lunch, dinner, & dessert.
  • Ate with their fingers, only used spoons for soups.
  • Wine in Rome did not become common until around 250 B.C. 

Schooling in a more formal sense was begun around 200 BC. Education began at the age of around six, and in the next six to seven years, boys and girls were expected to learn the basics of readingwriting and counting. By the age of twelve, they would be learning LatinGreekgrammar and literature, followed by training for public speaking.

Men:

  • Had absolute power over family; had legal rights to disown, kill, or even sell his children into slavery
  • Head of the household
  • Served as soldiers, patricians, plebians, senators, etc.

Women & Children:

  • School was generally for boys, only some wealthy girls were tutored at home.
  • Women were subject to the authority of a man, few had jobs.
  • Wealthy widows were independant.
  • Women could not vote or stand for office.
  • Responsible for spinning and weaving yarn, as well as making clothing.
  • Women usually married in early teenage years.
  • Marriages were arranged for women by the two families.

Gender Roles

Religion in Ancient Rome:

  • Thought that success came only if they maintained good relations with gods (pax deorum).
  • Religion depended on knowledge, the correct practice of prayer, ritual, and sacrifice. 
  • Supported diverse peoples heritage in order to keep stability
  • Christianity emerged in the 1st century AD. During the rest of the fourth century Christianity became the dominant religion of the Empire, thus no more were diverse religions supported
The earliest Christian inscriptions, written in both Greek and Latin: the abbreviation D.M. at the top refers to the Di Manes, the traditional Roman spirits of the dead,  accompanies Christian fish symbolism.

 

 

Art & Architecture in Ancient Rome:

  • Various sculptures, paintings, mosaics, statues, and interior decoration of high quality.
  • Decorative arts, such as, pottery, silver & bronze vessels, implements, and glassware.
Two portraits circa 130 AD: the empress Vibia Sabina (left); and the Antinous Mondragone, one of the abundant likenesses of Hadrian's famously beautiful male companion Antinous

 

The bronze Drunken Satyr, inspired an interest among later sculptors in similar "carefree" subjects.