TX, AL, MS, LA, GA, &
4/4 - May, 1861:
AR, NC, TN, & VA
TX, AL, MS, LA, GA, &
4/4 - May, 1861:
AR, NC, TN, & VA
Secession Events & Causes of the War
Slavery was in Danger
- Banned N. of Mason-Dixon Line
- The US was acquiring new western territories wher slavery was not secure
Northern industrialist could
establish businesses in new
- Slaveowners could not move into free states because slaves would be set free
- Did the Federal Governmnet have the right to regulate or abolish slavery within an individual state?
- Abraham Lincoln: Leader of North
- Major Robert Anderson: Commander of Fort Sumter
On April 14, 1862, Major Robert Andrson informed President Lincoln that Fort Sumter was low on supplies, and explained that the Confederate army was demanding the fort's surrender. The South's goal was to be viewed as separate from the Union, meaning that they wanted to claim their land as their own. Because Fort Sumter was on their land and previously known as a Northern claim, the South was determined to control it. Lincoln sent for the delivery of new supplies, clearly explaining that his troops would not shoot unless shot upon. Confederate president Jefferson Davis did not wait for Lincoln's troops to arrive, and ordered the first shots of the civil war. This fated act resulted in the surrender of Fort Sumter to the South, as well as the start of the Civil War. Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 Union troops, as volunteers lined up to join the Confederate army.
Charleston Harbor, South Carolina
manmade island composed of thousands of tons of granite
- Brigadier General Irvin McDowell: Commander of the Army of Northeastern Virginia
The Battle of First Bull Run marked the first major battle in the Civil War. Although many people predicted the battle to be an easy victory, it was anything but. Both sides had equally inexperienced soldiers, and though at first the Union drove the Confederates back, General Thomas Jackson rallied the Rebels into action. Raging forward with an unforgettable battle cry, the Confederates startled the North into running all the way to Washington D.C - which was a whirlwind of pandemonium with the terrified spectators that had come for a easy victory. The loss of the North shocked the Union, and Lincoln responded without delay; issuing a call for more volunteers in the army, and signing 2 bills requesting 1 million soldiers to serve for 3 years. Lincoln also Chose George B. McClellan to head the Army of the Potomac - which would play an important role in the events of the war.
North Virginia - near Manassas Junction
Many spectators came to watch the battle
- Brigadier General Ulysses Grant: Recognized for terms of surrender
- Brigadier General John McClernand
On February 11, 1862, thousands of Confederate reinforcements were on their way to Fort Donelson. Brigadier General John McClernand launched a surprise attack on the troops, with the goal of gaining a key gateway into the Confederacy. Althouugh the Rebels tried to break out of the Union perimeter surrounding them, they were sent back in retreat. The South made the mistake of going back to the entrenchment, where General Ulysses Grant launched a fierce counter attack on the Rebels. This allowed the Yankees to gain much of the land that had been ceded. On February 16, 1862, the Confederates put up their white flag of defeat. When asked for the terms of surrender, General Grant replied that there would be no terms "except for immediate and unconditional surrender". The result of this battle marked a devestating loss for the South, while the North was now in the perfect position to obtain Kentucky and Tennessee.
Cumberland River, Stewart County , TN
Grant was promoted to major general after this battle
- General Gideon Pillow: Given command of Fort Donelson, one the most reprehensible Confderates
- John Ericsson: Constructed the USS Monitor
- Lt. John L: Commanded USS Monitor
May 9, 1862 marked a new era in naval warfare. Monitor VS. Merrimack was a battle that began as a Southern effort to break the Union blockade of their ports. Both vessels were so innovative that the cannon balls fired simply deflected off of the ships. The Confederate ship, named the CSS Virginia was previously known as the Union USS Merrimack. The Rebels fixed up the wooden ship by adding iron to the complete exterior. The USS Monitor was constructed by John Ericsson, and was so inventive that it featured more than 40 newly patented inventions. The battle turned out to be inconclusive, as neither ship could severely damage the other, although the Union succeeded in keeping the CSS Virginia in the harbor - preventing the warship from threatening Northern ships again.
1st Battle between iron ships
- Catesby Jones: Commanded the reinvented CSS Virginia
- Captain Franklin Buchanan
- General Lew Wallace: Commanded reinforcements requested for battle
- General Ulysses S. Grant: Commander of initial army
On April 6 of 1862, Confederate forces, led by General Albert Johnson, launched a surprise attack on Union troops. The battle began in favor of the South, as General Johnson's troops drove the Yankees back to the Tennessee River. On the second day, the tide began to change. Aided by 25,000 reinforcements from Nashville, the Union bombarded the South with gunboats on the river and obtained another victory. This win allowed the Yankees to gain control of Corinth on May 30, and Memphis by June 6. The Union now controlled Tennessee, which was important to their progress in the Western Theater. Amidst the action of the battle , the Southern commander perished after recieving a gunshot wound in his leg. Overall, the Battle of Shiloh showed both the North and the South that the war would be long and burdensome no matter who came out victorious.
Pittsburg Landing; 20 miles from Corinth
Albert Johnson was the highest ranking general
- General Albert Siidney Johnson: Commander of the Western Department
- General John Pope: Commander of the Union Army of Virginia
- General Geprge McClellan: Army of Potomac
Battle of Second Bull run
On August 28, 1862, the Army of Virginia was awaiting the Army of the Potomac to launch a combined offensive, but General Robert E. Lee and his army showed up before McClellan's troops could arrive. General Lee sent half of his army - led by Thomas Jackson - to hit the Federal supply base at Manassas. Both the Yankees and the Rebels were able to hold their own until August 29, when the rest of Lee's army arrived. The 28,000 additional Confederates launched a counter attack that gained them a victory as the North retreated to Washington. The Rebel victory sank the Union morale, and many people blamed George McClellan - commander of the Army of the Potomac - for hesitating in his descent to aid the Army of Virginia. There were thoughts of removing McClellan from the army, though this could not be acted on because the general had many of the soldiers' support.
Prince William County, Virginia
Some Rebels ran out of ammo & threw rocks!
- General Robert E. Lee: Commander
- General Thomas Jackson: Led 1/2
- General James Longstreet
- General McClellan: Commander of the Army of the Potomac that hesitiated in attacking Rebels
On September 17 of 1862, the Army of the Potomac attacked General Robert Lee's Confederate troops. This was not the first chance McClellan had to bombard the South, as his troops had discovered Rebel war plans left from previous troops. McClellan decide not to use this major advantage, and instead planned to overwhelm Lee's left flank. This strategy did not succeed, as McClellan failed to exercise command control, but nonetheless Lee's troops retreated across the river on September 18. Rather than pursue the Confederate troops, The Army of the Potomac returned to the base, satisfied with obtaining a victory. The effects of this battle were major in many ways. The South lost their chance at international support and recognition from Britain and Europe. President Lincoln also decided to remove McClellan from his position for recurring moments of hesitiation and his failure to pursue the South as directed. The Battle of Antietam also gave Lincoln the administration to issue the Emancipation Proclamation - a major event in the war.
Sharpsburg, Maryland - Antietam Creek
bloodiest 1-day battle in American history
- General Robert E. Lee: Commander of Rebel forces that retreated from the battle
- Ambrose Burnside: New general for the Army of the Potomac
- General William B. Franklin
One of the main goals of the Union in the Civil War was to capture the Confederate capitol of Richmond Virginia, and the battle of Fredericksburg was launched as an attempt to achieve this. General Ambrose Burnside planned to lead the Army of the Potomac across the Rappahannock River which would then allow them to march to Richmond - but the pontoons required to cross the river did not arrive before the Army of Northern Virginia went in position to defend the area. The Rebels had the advantage of a high position atop Marye's Heights, and only General William B. Franklin's army was able to get through the first defensive position.The Rebel troops in the area led by General Jackson recovered quickly, and drove the Union army back once more. On December 15, Burnside ordered his troops to withdraw. The loss of this battle plummeted Yankee morale, and caused Amrbose Burnside to be replaced with Joseph Hooker as the commander of the Army of the Potomac. On the contrary, the Southern victory gave hope to the Confederates, especially after Lee's failure to invade the Union at Antietam.
Town was destroyed in the battle
- Robert E. Lee: Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia
- General Thomas Jackson
- General Joseph Hooker: Commander of the Army of the Potomac - resigned after this battle
The battle of Chancellorsville was an attack to be remembered; as it had a highly improbable outcome that shocked many. On May 30, 1863, General Joseph Hooker launched and executed a march and river crossing that led him to General Lee's army. Although the Union had a superior numerical advantage, General Lee made a daring move - dividing his army twice and launching a raid led by General Thomas Jackson on the Union's right flank. General Hooker fell back to defensive positions before leading his troops back across the Rappahannock River in defeat. General Lee's unconvential tactic won this battle for the South, and made the Battle of Chancellorsville their greatest victory. On the downside, General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson was killed by friendly fire, eliminating one of the Confederate's greatest assets. This battle also gave General Lee strategic initiative, which would lead him North to Gettysburg.
Battle of Chancellorsville
Spotsylvania County, Virginia
Nearly 2/3 of the total casualties occurred on the 1st day
- General Robert E. Lee: Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia
- General Thomas Jackson
- General Ulysses S. Grant: Head of the campaign - gained many victories, showed value in this assault
In the Spring of 1862, Union forces launched an assault on the Rebel stronghold of Vicksburg, Mississippi. After numerous victories surrounding Vicksburg, including a defeat of General John C. Pemberton’s forces at Champion Hill, Union General Ulysses Grant sealed the city of Vicksburg in late May. The 3 weeks that the general held the city consisted of 5 victories, 180 miles of marching, and 6,000 prisoners captured. The Assault on Vicksburg divided the Confederacy, and showed the great value of General Ulysses Grant to the Union cause in the war.
Residents dug and lived in over 500 caves
Spring, 1862 - July, 1863
Spring of 1862
to July of 1863
Residents dug and lived in over 500 caves
- General John C. Pemberton: Head of Confederate forces defending the city
- General George Gordon Meade: New commander of the Army of the Potomac
General Robert E. Lee was leading his troops in a march into Pennsylvania, when he clashed with the Army of the Potomac. Lee hoped to bring the conflict out of the capital state - Virginia - and divert the Northern troops away from Vicksburg. If they were to win, the South would have a much greater chance at attaining foreign recognition. The Confederates bombarded the Union's right and left flanks, and on July 3, Lee ordered an attack by less than 1,500 troops on the enemy's center at Cemetry Ridge. This tactic, named Pickett's Charge, did not succeed, and Lee's army retreated toward Virginia on July 4. This loss eliminated the Confederate's chances at international recogition and turned the war to be in favor of the Union.
battle fought here because of area road system
- General Robert E. Lee: Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, gave resignation after - declined
- General Ulysses S. Grant: Established the surrenderment, went on to become 18th president
In May of 1865, the Union army began marching through Virginia, driving the Confederate forces back all the while. The Rebels planned to unite with additional troops in North Carolina, so they left their capital of Richmond. The Yankees cut off this retreat; forcing the Confederates to stop at Appomattox. The Rebels were surrounded, outnumbered, low on supplies, and in danger of losing more soldiers who were ready to desert the cause. Recognizing defeat, General Lee surrendered. President Lincoln wished for peace in the Union, and kept the terms of surrenderment very generous for fear that the Confederates might rebel once more. The Rebels would have to turn in their rifles, but were given food and could return home immediately as well as keep their horses or mules. This event ended the Civil War once and for all, and led America back into a more or less peaceful state.
The treaty ending the war was drafted by a Native American
- General Robert E. Lee: Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, signed treaty to prevent wreckage
Children were not left out of the chaos of war during this time. Though the Union Army officaially only allowed boys of 18 years to b soldiers, many boys under this age limit participated in the fighting. Young boys served as drummer or bugle boys and did chores around the army campsites, but when an attack began, many picked up a gun and went to battle, Children did still attend school, and were generally taught propaganda to develop patriotism to their state cause
Although easily forgotten, it is important to recognize the major role that women played in the Civil War. They were given new jobs very different from their previous tasks, and had to provide for their families without the support of their husbands, fathers, or older sons. Women worked the fields on farms, and at factories producing supplies for the army. Having such an essential role allowed more people to see women as more than maids.
Life During the Civil War
Life During the Civil War
African Americans contibuted to the Civil War in numerous ways. Many were eager to volunteer to fight for their cause, though only the Union was willing to acceot African Americans into the army while the South only let them serve in labor positions. Over 179,000 African Americans fought for the Union Army. On both sides, African Americans worked as cooks, nurses, and blacksmiths, and though the South was unwilling to equip them with firearms, they did have African Americans construct fortifications and perform camp duties. African Americans also acted as spies and scouts for the North,
which allowed the Union to obtain
valuable information concering Rebel
war plans and strategies