5.11.16

The war that split America into 2; Union against Confederate, Yankee against Rebel, North against South

 

 

 

The Civil

 

War

 

 

  • large population
  • more industry
  • abundant resources
  • modes of transportation

Maine

Massachusetts

Pennsylvania

Michigan

Vermont

Rhode Island

Connecticut

New Hamshire

New York

New Jersey

Ohio

Indiana

Kansas

Minnesota

Iowa

California

Nevada

Oregon

 

Strengths

  • WHAT: Bring Southern States back into the Union, later on the goal became to free all enslaved peoples
  • HOW: Shut down ports along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico to prevent Southern cotton exports to Europe, gain control of the Mississippi River, divide the Confederacy, cut supply lines, and take control of enemy capital (Richmond, Virginia)

Also Known As The...

(Billy) Yanks, Union, & Blue Bellies

 War Aims + Strategy

  • good banking system to raise money for war
  • many free people to volunteer to help

The North

  • few trained soldiers to be part of army
  • militia would have to travel into unknown land
  • Abraham Lincoln : Republican President who advocated for the unity of the Union, key advantage to winning the Civil War
  • General George M. McClellan: Commander of the Army of the Potomac
  • General Ulysses S. Grant: Gave no terms for surrender "except unconditional and immediate surrender", sealed the city of Vicksburg in the Attack on Vicksburg

 

Weaknesses

Leaders

  • longer routes to use for transportation
  • bringing South into the Union would be HARD 
  • defend home land
  • hold on to territory
  • expect Britain & France to pressure North to surrender 
  • Aimed to recieve recognition as an indepent nation
  • Wanted to preserve their traditional way of life

 

-South Carolina-Tennessee-Louisianna-Georgia-Alabama-

 

Strategies 

 

 

-South Carolina-Tennessee-Louisianna-Georgia-Alabama-

 

War Aims

 

 

  • Small Population of free men to volunteer for the war
  • few factories to make supplies
  • few modes of transportation
  • states did not give sufficient power to Confederate government
  • Fought in familiar territory
  • Fighting for their way of life (which slavery was a major part of)
  • had strong support of the war
  • soldiers were more experienced and trained

The South

 

Strengths

 

Weaknesses

  • Jefferson Davis: Confederate President
  • Robert E. Lee: General who won the army many victories

 

Nicknames

 

  • Greys
  • Rebels
  • Rebs
  • Confederate
  • Johnny Reb

 

 

Leaders 

 

 

 

 

12/20/1860:

 

 

S. Carolina  

 

 

February, 1861:

 

 

TX, AL, MS, LA, GA, &

 

 

FL  

 

 

 4/4 - May, 1861:

 

 

AR, NC, TN, & VA

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

12/20/1860:

 

 

S. Carolina  

 

 

February, 1861:

 

 

TX, AL, MS, LA, GA, &

 

 

FL  

 

 

 4/4 - May, 1861:

 

 

AR, NC, TN, & VA

 

  

 

 

Secession Events & Causes of the War

WHEN?

WHEN?

 

Slavery was in Danger

 

  • Banned N. of Mason-Dixon Line
  • The US was acquiring new western territories wher slavery was not secure

 

Northern industrialist could

 

establish businesses in new

 

territory

 

  • Slaveowners could not move into free states because slaves would be set free

State's Rights

 

  • Did the Federal Governmnet have the right to regulate or abolish slavery within an individual state?

 

 

WHY?

WHY?

  • Abraham Lincoln: Leader of North
  • Major Robert Anderson: Commander of Fort Sumter

0

Casualties

 

 North

Battle of Fort Sumter

On April 14, 1862, Major Robert Andrson informed President Lincoln that Fort Sumter was low on supplies, and explained that the Confederate army was demanding the fort's surrender. The South's goal was to be viewed as separate from the Union, meaning that they wanted to claim their land as their own. Because Fort Sumter was on their land and previously known as a Northern claim, the South was determined to control it. Lincoln sent for the delivery of new supplies, clearly explaining that his troops would not shoot unless shot upon. Confederate president Jefferson Davis did not wait for Lincoln's troops to arrive, and ordered the first shots of the civil war. This fated act resulted in the surrender of Fort Sumter to the South, as well as the start of the Civil War. Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 Union troops, as volunteers lined up to join the Confederate army.

85

Soldiers

 

4/12/1862 - 4/14/1862

the Battle

Charleston Harbor, South Carolina

 

built upon 

manmade island composed of thousands of tons of granite 

0

Casualties

 

  • Jefferson Davis: Leader of South
  • General P.G.T Beauregard: Ordered the first shots in the war


South

500

Soldiers

 

30,000

Casualties

 

  • Brigadier General Irvin McDowell: Commander of the Army of Northeastern Virginia 

 North

 North

The Battle of First Bull Run marked the first major battle in the Civil War. Although many people predicted the battle to be an easy victory, it was anything but. Both sides had equally inexperienced soldiers, and though at first the Union drove the Confederates back, General Thomas Jackson rallied the Rebels into action. Raging forward with an unforgettable battle cry, the Confederates startled the North into running all the way to Washington D.C - which was a whirlwind of pandemonium with the terrified spectators that had come for a easy victory. The loss of the North shocked the Union, and Lincoln responded without delay; issuing a call for more volunteers in the army, and signing 2 bills requesting 1 million soldiers to serve for 3 years. Lincoln also Chose George B. McClellan to head the Army of the Potomac - which would play an important role in the events of the war.

Battle of First bull run

35,000

Soldiers

 

the Battle

North Virginia - near Manassas Junction 

7/21/1861

 

Many spectators came to watch the battle 

1,750

Casualties

 

  • General Thomas Jackson: inspired reinforcements to win
  • Brigadier General P.G.T Beauregard


South

20,000 

Soldiers

 

2,700

Casualties

 

  • Brigadier General Ulysses Grant: Recognized for terms of surrender
  • Brigadier General John McClernand

 North

Battle of Fort donelson

On February 11, 1862, thousands of Confederate reinforcements were on their way to Fort Donelson. Brigadier General John McClernand launched a surprise attack on the troops, with the goal of gaining a key gateway into the Confederacy. Althouugh the Rebels tried to break out of the Union perimeter surrounding them, they were sent back in retreat. The South made the mistake of going back to the entrenchment, where General Ulysses Grant launched a fierce counter attack on the Rebels. This allowed the Yankees to gain much of the land that had been ceded. On February 16, 1862, the Confederates put up their white flag of defeat. When asked for the terms of surrender, General Grant replied that there would be no terms "except for immediate and unconditional surrender". The result of this battle marked a devestating loss for the South, while the North was now in the perfect position to obtain Kentucky and Tennessee.  

24,500

Soldiers

 

the Battle

2/11 - 2/16/1862 

Cumberland River, Stewart County , TN

Grant was promoted to major general after this battle

1,400

Casualties

 

  • General Gideon Pillow: Given command of Fort Donelson, one the most reprehensible Confderates

South

16,000 

Soldiers

 

  • John Ericsson: Constructed the USS Monitor
  • Lt. John L: Commanded USS Monitor

369 

Casualties

 

 North

Battle of Hampton Roads

May 9, 1862 marked a new era in naval warfare. Monitor VS. Merrimack  was a battle that began as a Southern effort to break the Union blockade of their ports. Both vessels were so innovative that the cannon balls fired simply deflected off of the ships. The Confederate ship, named the CSS Virginia was previously known as the Union USS Merrimack. The Rebels fixed up the wooden ship by adding iron to the complete exterior. The USS Monitor was constructed by John Ericsson, and was so inventive that it featured more than 40 newly patented inventions. The battle turned out to be inconclusive, as neither ship could severely damage the other, although the Union succeeded in keeping the CSS Virginia in the harbor - preventing the warship from threatening Northern ships again.   

1,400 

Soldiers

 

the Battle

3/9/1862

Hampton Roads, Virginia 

1st Battle between iron ships 

24 

Casualties

 

  • Catesby Jones: Commanded the reinvented CSS Virginia 
  • Captain Franklin Buchanan

South

188 

Soldiers

 

  • General Lew Wallace: Commanded reinforcements requested for battle
  • General Ulysses S. Grant: Commander of initial army

13,000 

Casualties

 

 North

Battle of Shiloh

On April 6 of 1862, Confederate forces, led by General Albert Johnson, launched a surprise attack on Union troops. The battle began in favor of the South, as General Johnson's troops drove the Yankees back to the Tennessee River. On the second day, the tide began to change. Aided by 25,000 reinforcements from Nashville, the Union bombarded the South with gunboats on the river and obtained another victory. This win allowed the Yankees to gain control of Corinth on May 30, and Memphis by June 6. The Union now controlled Tennessee, which was important to their progress in the Western Theater. Amidst the action of the battle , the Southern commander perished after recieving a gunshot wound in his leg. Overall, the Battle of Shiloh showed both the North and the South that the war would be long and burdensome no matter who came out victorious.

65,000 

Soldiers

 

the Battle

4/6  - 4/7/1862

Pittsburg Landing; 20 miles from Corinth 

Albert Johnson was the highest ranking general 

10,000 

Casualties

 

  • General Albert Siidney Johnson: Commander of the Western Department  

South

65,000 

Soldiers

 

  • General John Pope: Commander of the Union Army of Virginia
  • General Geprge McClellan: Army of Potomac

14,000 

Casualties

 

 North

Battle of Second Bull run

On August 28, 1862, the Army of Virginia was awaiting the Army of the Potomac to launch a combined offensive, but General Robert E. Lee and his army showed up before McClellan's troops could arrive.  General Lee sent half of his army - led by Thomas Jackson - to hit the Federal supply base at Manassas. Both the Yankees and the Rebels were able to hold their own until August 29, when the rest of Lee's army arrived. The 28,000 additional Confederates launched a counter attack that gained them a victory as the North retreated to Washington. The Rebel victory sank the Union morale, and many people blamed George McClellan - commander of the Army of the Potomac - for hesitating in his descent to aid the Army of Virginia. There were thoughts of removing McClellan from the army, though this could not be acted on because the general had many of the soldiers' support.

62,000 

Soldiers

 

8/28 -8/30/1862

the Battle

Prince William County, Virginia

Some Rebels ran out of ammo & threw rocks!

8,000 

Casualties

 

  • General Robert E. Lee: Commander
  • General Thomas Jackson: Led 1/2 
  • General James Longstreet

South

50,000 

Soldiers

 

  • General McClellan: Commander of the Army of the Potomac that hesitiated in attacking Rebels

12,401 

Casualties

 

 North

Battle of Antietam

On September 17 of 1862, the Army of the Potomac attacked General Robert Lee's Confederate troops. This was not the first chance McClellan had to bombard the South, as his troops had discovered Rebel war plans left from previous troops. McClellan decide not to use this major advantage, and instead planned to overwhelm Lee's left flank. This strategy did not succeed, as McClellan failed to exercise command control, but nonetheless Lee's troops retreated across the river on September 18. Rather than pursue the Confederate troops, The Army of the Potomac returned to the base, satisfied with obtaining a victory. The effects of this battle were major in many ways. The South lost their chance at international support and recognition from Britain and Europe. President Lincoln also decided to remove McClellan from his position for recurring moments of hesitiation and his failure to pursue the South as directed. The Battle of Antietam also gave Lincoln the administration to issue the Emancipation Proclamation - a major event in the war.

75,000 

Soldiers

 

the Battle

9/17/1862

Sharpsburg, Maryland - Antietam Creek

bloodiest 1-day  battle in American history

 10,318

Casualties

 

 

  • General Robert E. Lee: Commander of Rebel forces that retreated from the battle

South

38,000 

Soldiers

 

  • Ambrose Burnside: New general for the Army of the Potomac
  • General William B. Franklin 

13,000 

Casualties

 

One of the main goals of the Union in the Civil War was to capture the Confederate capitol of Richmond Virginia, and the battle of Fredericksburg was launched as an attempt to achieve this. General Ambrose Burnside planned to lead the Army of the Potomac across the Rappahannock River which would then allow them to march to Richmond - but the pontoons required to cross the river did not arrive before the Army of Northern Virginia went in position to defend the area. The Rebels had the advantage of a high position atop Marye's Heights, and only General William B. Franklin's army was able to get through the first defensive position.The Rebel troops in the area led by General Jackson recovered quickly, and drove the Union army back once more. On December 15, Burnside ordered his troops to withdraw. The loss of this battle plummeted Yankee morale, and caused Amrbose Burnside to be replaced with Joseph Hooker as the commander of the Army of the Potomac. On the contrary, the Southern victory gave hope to the Confederates, especially after Lee's failure to invade the Union at Antietam.

 North

Battle of Fredricksburg

114,000 

Soldiers

 

12/11 - 12/15/1862

the Battle

Fredricksburg, Virginia

Town was destroyed in the battle

5,000 

Casualties

 

  • Robert E. Lee: Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia
  • General Thomas Jackson 

South

72,500

Soldiers

 

  • General Joseph Hooker: Commander of the Army of the Potomac - resigned after this battle 

17,278 

Casualties

 

The battle of Chancellorsville was an attack to be remembered; as it had a highly improbable outcome that shocked many. On May 30, 1863, General Joseph Hooker launched and executed a march and river crossing that led him to General Lee's army. Although the Union had a superior numerical advantage,  General Lee made a daring move - dividing his army twice and launching a raid led by General Thomas Jackson on the Union's right flank. General Hooker fell back to defensive positions before leading his troops back across the Rappahannock River in defeat. General Lee's unconvential tactic won this battle for the South, and made the Battle of Chancellorsville their greatest victory. On the downside, General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson was killed by friendly fire, eliminating one of the Confederate's greatest assets. This battle also gave General Lee strategic initiative, which would lead him North to Gettysburg.

 North

Battle of Chancellorsville

133,000

Soldiers

 

the Battle

4/30- 5/6/1863

Spotsylvania County, Virginia

Nearly 2/3 of the total casualties occurred on the 1st day

12,826 

Casualties

 

  • General Robert E. Lee: Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia 
  • General Thomas Jackson

South

60,000 

Soldiers

 

  • General Ulysses S. Grant: Head of the campaign - gained many victories, showed value in this assault

4,800 

Casualties

 

 North

Assault on Vicksburg

In the Spring of 1862, Union forces launched an assault on the Rebel stronghold of Vicksburg, Mississippi. After numerous victories surrounding Vicksburg, including a defeat of General John C. Pemberton’s forces at Champion Hill, Union General Ulysses Grant sealed the city of Vicksburg in late May. The 3 weeks that the general held the city consisted of 5 victories, 180 miles of marching, and 6,000 prisoners captured. The Assault on Vicksburg divided the Confederacy, and showed the great value of General Ulysses Grant to the Union cause in the war.

Vicksburg, Mississippi

70,000 

Soldiers

 

Residents dug and lived in over 500 caves

Spring, 1862 - July, 1863

the Battle

Spring of 1862

to July of 1863

Residents dug and lived in over 500 caves

Vicksburg, Mississippi

3,300 

Casualties

 

  • General John C. Pemberton:  Head of Confederate forces defending the city

South

29,000 

Soldiers

 

  • General George Gordon Meade: New commander of the Army of the Potomac

23,000 

Casualties

 

 North

Battle of Gettysburg

General Robert E. Lee was leading his troops in a march into Pennsylvania, when he clashed with the Army of the Potomac. Lee hoped to bring the conflict out of the capital state - Virginia - and divert the Northern troops away from Vicksburg. If they were to win, the South would have a much greater chance at attaining foreign recognition. The Confederates bombarded the Union's right and left flanks, and on July 3, Lee ordered an attack  by less than 1,500 troops on the enemy's center at Cemetry Ridge. This tactic, named Pickett's Charge, did not succeed, and Lee's army retreated toward Virginia on July 4. This loss eliminated the Confederate's chances at international recogition and turned the war to be in favor of the Union.

82,000 

Soldiers

 

7/1 - 7/4/ 1863

the Battle

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

battle fought here because of area road system

28,000 

Casualties

 

  • General Robert E. Lee: Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, gave resignation after - declined  

South

75,000 

Soldiers

 

260 

Casualties

 

  • General Ulysses S. Grant: Established the surrenderment, went on to become 18th president

 North

In May of 1865, the Union army began marching through Virginia, driving the Confederate forces back all the while. The Rebels planned to unite with additional troops in North Carolina, so they left their capital of Richmond. The Yankees cut off this retreat; forcing the Confederates to stop at Appomattox. The Rebels were surrounded, outnumbered, low on supplies, and in danger of losing more soldiers who were ready to desert the cause. Recognizing defeat, General Lee surrendered. President Lincoln wished for peace in the Union, and kept the terms of surrenderment very generous for fear that the Confederates might rebel once more. The Rebels would have to turn in their rifles, but were given food and could return home immediately as well as keep their horses or mules. This event ended the Civil War once and for all, and led America back into a more or less peaceful state.

Surrender at Appomattox

120,000 

Soldiers

 

the Battle

Appomattox, Virginia

The treaty ending the war was drafted by a Native American

5/9/1865

440 

Casualties

 

  • General Robert E. Lee: Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, signed treaty to prevent wreckage

South

30,000 

Soldiers

 

Robert Edward Lee was born on January 19, 1807 to revolutionary war hero Henry Lee in Stratford, Virginia. Financial hardship led Robert's father to depart to the West Indies, though he was still able to secure himself an appointment to the US Military Academy at West Point. Robert graduated 2nd in his class, and  wed Anna Randolph Custis in 1831. He went on to work as an officer of Corps of Engineers, where he supervised construction of  the nation's coastal defense for 17 years

 

Robert Edward Lee

Early Life 

In April of 1861, just as the Civil War was beginning, President Abraham Lincoln offered Robert command of the Union forces. Robert felt obligated to decline, as Virginia had just seceded on April 17, and he could not fight against his own people. Instead, he accepted General's commision in the Confederate army. Lee was first the military advisor of Jefferson Davis, until he was given command of what was later named the Army of  Northern Virginia. General Lee's greatest victory was the Battle of Chancellorsville, where he defied all odds and proved his value.

Battle Years

On April 9 of 1865, General Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia was forced to surrender to the Union. Lee returned to his home in Virginia on parole, and eventually became the president of Washington College (now known as Washington and Lee University). Lee was very fond of children, as he had 7 himself . He was also interested in the church and religion, and was a devoted Episcopalian. Lee was an organized man who was punctual and took enjoyment in attending parties and going to the theater. 

Life Post - War

During the war with Mexico in 1846, Robert distinguished himself as a member of General Winfield Scott's staff. Robert earned 3 brevets for gallantry, and emerged from the war with the new title of Colonel. From 1852-1855, Robert served a the superintendent of his previous school; West Point. Here, he taught men who would later on serve under and against him in the Civil War. In 1855, Robert left his job at West Point ot serve in the cavalry. In 1859, he was instrumental in putting down the raid on Harper's Ferry.  

 

First Militia

Hiram Ulysses Grant 

Hiram Ulysses Grant was born on april 27, 1822 in Point Pleasant, Ohio. Hiram's name was changed to Ulysses S. Grant due to a clerical error at the US Military Academy in West Point, though he was known as Sam to is friends. After graduating, Grant was stationed in St. Louis. Missouri, where he met his future wife, Julia Dent Grant.  The couple had a 4 year engagement because Grant was stationed in many different places, but went on to have 4 children.

Early Life 

When the Civil War began, Grant was eager to volunteer, though he was declined several times due to his checkered past. Eventually, Grant was appointed as commander of the 21st Illinois volunteer regiment. He acquired numerous victories, including ones at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, where he was given the nickname ¨Unconditional Surrender¨. Grant´s best known attack was the Assault on Vicksburg, where he constructed a strategic masterpiece that turned the war in the Union´s favor. He was made premier commander of the Federal army, and in March of 1854, he was promoted to lieutenant general and general in chief of the Army of the US. Grant also played a big role in the surrenderment of the Confederate Army. 

Battle Years

Following the war, Andrew Johnson named Grant Secretary of War, and in 1868, Grant ran against Johnson for president and won. Though Grant himself  was law-abiding, his presidency was full of scandals and corruption. After his 2nd term in office, Grant went on to tour the world for the next 2 years. In 1884, he lost all of his savings on account of a corrupt bank, and to compensate these losses, wrote about his experiences for Century Magazne. This entry was so popular that Grant decided to write an autobiography entitled Personal Memoirs of U.S Grant. He finished the 2nd volume of this book just a few days before he lost his life to cancer at age 63.  Grant was buried in New York City in the largest mausoleum of its kind in the US.

Life Post - War

At West Point, Grant graduated 21st in his class of 39 cadets in 1834. During the Mexican War, he performed well as a captain and recieved 2 citations for gallantry and meritorious conduct.  He served under General Zachary Taylor and General Winfield Scott, where he closely observed their leadership skills .In 1854, Grant was stationed at Fort Vancouver, where he missed his family dearly. He began drinking, though he was promoted to captain and moved to Fort Humboldt. There, Grant had a run-in with the commanding officer, causing him to resign amidst claims of heavy drinking. 

Military Debut

Children were not left out of the chaos of war during this time. Though the Union Army officaially only allowed boys of 18 years to b soldiers, many boys under this age limit participated in the fighting. Young boys served as drummer or bugle boys and did chores around the army campsites, but when an attack began, many picked up a gun and went to battle, Children did still attend school, and were generally taught propaganda to develop patriotism to their state cause

Although easily forgotten, it is important to recognize the major role that women played in the Civil War. They were given new jobs very different from their previous tasks, and had to provide for their families without the support of their husbands, fathers, or older sons. Women worked the fields on farms, and at factories producing supplies for the army. Having such an essential role allowed more people to see women as more than maids.

 

Children

 

Life During the  Civil War

 

 

Life During the Civil War

Women

African Americans contibuted to the Civil War in numerous ways. Many were eager to volunteer to fight for their cause, though only the Union was willing to acceot African Americans into the army while the South only let them serve in labor positions. Over 179,000 African Americans fought for the Union Army. On both sides, African Americans worked as cooks, nurses, and blacksmiths, and though the South was unwilling to equip them with firearms, they did have African Americans construct fortifications and perform camp duties. African Americans also acted as spies and scouts for the North,

which allowed the Union to obtain

valuable information concering Rebel

war plans and strategies

African Americans

 

Saved the Union, federal

 

government was

 

strengthened and

 

clearly more

 

powerful

 

than the states

 

> 60,000

Soldiers Dead

 

 Results of the WAR

Two-Thirds

of Transportation System ruined 

 

Left Southern 

 

Economy in state of

 

Collapse for a

 

long time, Bitter

 

feelings  among

 

Southerners  

 

> 1,000,000

Dollars in Damage 

 

Slavery was finally

 

in the process of

 

being Eliminated, 

 

Women gained new

 

Opportunities during

 

and post - War

 

 

 

Bibliography