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MART  N ALMAGRO-GORBEA  EDITOR   IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  FROM NEOLITHIC TO ROMAN CONQUEST  BURGOS,...
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Contents  Introduction, Mart  n Almagro-Gorbea ..............................................................................
1  introduction
Introduction  This book Iberia. Prehistory of the Far West of Europe  From Neolithic to the Roman Conquest is an up to dat...
10  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 1. Physical map of the Iberian Peninsula.  are scarce, and incl...
INTRODUCTION  Figure 2. Geological map of the Iberian Peninsula  Instituto Geol  gico-Minero de Espa  a y Portugal .  an i...
12  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 3. Map of climatic regions on the Iberian Peninsula. 1  Moist m...
INTRODUCTION  Figure 4. Map of annual rainfall  mm  on the Iberian Peninsula  decline in aridity and the inland climate wa...
14  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 5. Mains axes of communication of the Iberian Peninsula  from R...
INTRODUCTION  and the    ow path for prehistoric contacts with the more advanced cultural nodes of the Middle East. This w...
16  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  and the    nal part addresses the Iron Age, regarded as the    nal ste...
2  neolithic and chalcolithic  towards complex societies
Bernat Mart   Oliver  Joaquim Juan-Cabanilles    The first Mediterranean Neolithic fa mers  VI-V Millennia BC   Introducti...
20  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Neolithic provided between the people, awarding a leading role to the ...
THE FIRST MEDITERRANEA NEOLITHIC FARMERS  VI-V MILLENNIA BC   For now, the assemblages of phase B are the best proof of th...
22  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 2. Excavation of Neolithic settlement of La Draga  Banyoles, Ge...
THE FIRST MEDITERRANEA NEOLITHIC FARMERS  VI-V MILLENNIA BC   late sixth millennium BC , a second period we call generical...
24  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  wheat  Triticum monococcum and T. dicoccum  appear to play a signi   c...
THE FIRST MEDITERRANEA NEOLITHIC FARMERS  VI-V MILLENNIA BC   Pastoral activities are attested in the Neolithic levels of ...
26  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  tions, especially in the early Neolithic stages.24 As we have seen, de...
THE FIRST MEDITERRANEA NEOLITHIC FARMERS  VI-V MILLENNIA BC   blades and bladelets, are intended essentially for cutting t...
28  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 5. Neolithic Bone Industry. Spoons and tubes understood to be m...
THE FIRST MEDITERRANEA NEOLITHIC FARMERS  VI-V MILLENNIA BC   Figure 6. Neolithic vessel with impressed Cardial decoration...
30  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  dowry consisting of two globular vessels with high neck and decorative...
THE FIRST MEDITERRANEA NEOLITHIC FARMERS  VI-V MILLENNIA BC   Figure 9. Marble bracelets with grooves from the Nerja cave ...
32  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 10. Baskets and sandals of esparto grass from the Murci  lagos ...
THE FIRST MEDITERRANEA NEOLITHIC FARMERS  VI-V MILLENNIA BC   Figure 12. Neolithic settlement of Ben  mer  Muro d   Alcoi,...
34  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figura 15.    The Venus of Gav     . Feminine representation on potter...
THE FIRST MEDITERRANEA NEOLITHIC FARMERS  VI-V MILLENNIA BC   Figure 16. Vessel with cardial impressed decoration from Cov...
36  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 18.    Macroschematic    style cave paintings with representati...
THE FIRST MEDITERRANEA NEOLITHIC FARMERS  VI-V MILLENNIA BC   Figure 20. Rock paintings that show the superposition of dee...
38  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 22.    Levantine    style rock paintings that show the gatherin...
THE FIRST MEDITERRANEA NEOLITHIC FARMERS  VI-V MILLENNIA BC   Figure 24.    Levantine   -style rock paintings that show a ...
40  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 26. Main settlements and rock art sites mentioned in the text. ...
THE FIRST MEDITERRANEA NEOLITHIC FARMERS  VI-V MILLENNIA BC   geography of the compartmentalized Neolithic, not excluding ...
Manuel A. Rojo Guerra   The Neolithic in inland and Northern Iberia  Precedents and the    rst evidence of Neolithic Devel...
44  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  be complete. Interestingly, the sites that demonstrate these character...
THE NEOLITHIC IN INLAND AND NORTHERN IBERIA  Figure 1. Map of Neolithic development. A  Neolithic pioneers    lava  3  Pe ...
46  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  that work of a domestic nature took place, such as the curing of skins...
THE NEOLITHIC IN INLAND AND NORTHERN IBERIA  Figure 2. Map of the Early Neolithic Period  6th and 5th Millenia cal. BC. Si...
48  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  1  2  2  4  5 Figure 3. Different aspects of the site at Los Cascajos,...
THE NEOLITHIC IN INLAND AND NORTHERN IBERIA  bulging base and narrow mouth such as in pit 1 at La L  mpara or in Villamayo...
50  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  there was a semi-sedentary style of shepherding during the Neolithic a...
THE NEOLITHIC IN INLAND AND NORTHERN IBERIA  For this reason we believe that at the beginning of the Neolithic development...
52  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  1  2  3  Figure 5. Style 1  1 and 2, Mendandia  3, Valmayor 11.
THE NEOLITHIC IN INLAND AND NORTHERN IBERIA  that they co-existed, and rivalled in antiquity, with impressed enscribed-rib...
54  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  1  2  3  4  5  7 6  Figure 6. Style 2  1, La Revilla  2, La Vaquera  3...
THE NEOLITHIC IN INLAND AND NORTHERN IBERIA  to    nd human remains scattered more or less throughout the stratigraphy. Th...
56  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  very rich and when present usually consist of smooth ceramic bowls,   ...
THE NEOLITHIC IN INLAND AND NORTHERN IBERIA  Figure 7. Floor and section of an early Neolithic burial site, La L  mpara  A...
58  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  In Galicia32, The Cantabrian Coast and the Western Pyrenees33, monumen...
THE NEOLITHIC IN INLAND AND NORTHERN IBERIA   Lugo, Galicia , Monte Areo XII in Asturias and Trikauaitzi II in Guip  zcoa....
60  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  A  B  C  D  E  Figure 8. The most characteristic Megalithic typologies...
THE NEOLITHIC IN INLAND AND NORTHERN IBERIA  of the same basin  the monuments of La Pe  a de la Abuela y La Sima 1 in the ...
62  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  stantly recur  simple and reworked blades are present without exceptio...
THE NEOLITHIC IN INLAND AND NORTHERN IBERIA  Figure 10. Archaeological materials characteristic of Megalithic funerary off...
64  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  tremadura. Striking cases such as the 54 fragments in Plasencia or the...
THE NEOLITHIC IN INLAND AND NORTHERN IBERIA  terns and also genuine outlines of the feminine form  head and breasts  such ...
66  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  In the Castillejo tumulus in Toledo50 one can appreciate, certainly fr...
THE NEOLITHIC IN INLAND AND NORTHERN IBERIA  Two circumstances combined to make this a rather exceptional    nd. Mercury s...
68  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  lithic monuments. In the words of Bueno and others58     Every one of ...
THE NEOLITHIC IN INLAND AND NORTHERN IBERIA  egalitarian society, possibly divisive at whose core tensions are already bei...
Joan Bernabeu Aub  n  and Teresa Orozco K  hler  Mediterranean Iberia in the 4TH and 3RD Millennia  The period covering th...
72  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 1. Location of sites mentioned in the text  1.- Serra del Mas B...
MEDITERRANEA IBERIA IN THE 4TH AND 3RD MILLENNIA  alongside the coastal sites already mentioned, from the mid-fourth mille...
74  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 2. Most of the open-air settlements have a wide dispersal of fe...
MEDITERRANEA IBERIA IN THE 4TH AND 3RD MILLENNIA  2  3  1  Figure 3. Ditches and ditched enclosures appear in some open-ai...
76  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 4. Large format laminar supports area characteristic element of...
MEDITERRANEA IBERIA IN THE 4TH AND 3RD MILLENNIA  The data recently obtained in the Valencian region give us a fuller pict...
78  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  and dimensions of these structures varies depending on the geographica...
MEDITERRANEA IBERIA IN THE 4TH AND 3RD MILLENNIA  Figure 6. In addition to ceramics, funerary objects usually have a varie...
80  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  heads and other items made of    int, very few metal objects  17 awls,...
MEDITERRANEA IBERIA IN THE 4TH AND 3RD MILLENNIA  are expressed in very different ways. This symbol appears on various kin...
Francisco Nocete   Southern Iberia in the 4TH and 3RD Millennia Cal. BC  Introduction The period between the 4th and 3rd M...
84  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 1. Location of central settlements of the main territorial nest...
SOUTHERN IBERIA IN THE 4TH AND 3RD MILLENNIA CAL. BC  Figure 2. Forti   cations of the Los Millares settlement  Photo M.A....
86  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE   Granada 6 shows the other face of unequal development  small semi-tro...
SOUTHERN IBERIA IN THE 4TH AND 3RD MILLENNIA CAL. BC  Figure 3. Necropolis of Los Millares  Photo M. A. Blanco   chamber a...
88  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  competitive tribal system and approaching more tributary and classist ...
SOUTHERN IBERIA IN THE 4TH AND 3RD MILLENNIA CAL. BC  This all meant that, in spite of more intensive production by the en...
90  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 5. Tuy  re  14 cm  from a metallurgical context of Cabezo Jur  ...
SOUTHERN IBERIA IN THE 4TH AND 3RD MILLENNIA CAL. BC  Another characteristic of this process and one that would have great...
92  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  and contradictions of the systems established by Millares and Valencin...
SOUTHERN IBERIA IN THE 4TH AND 3RD MILLENNIA CAL. BC  Figure 9. Central Place of Valencina de la Concepci  n  Seville  wit...
94  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Valencina and Millares  the growth of the political systems of the Upp...
Germ  n Delibes de Castro   The Chalcolithic in the Central Plateau and its Atlantic fringe  3200-2500 cal. AD   This work...
96  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  in   uence agriculture 2 the Atlantic, including Cantabria, coastal Ga...
THE CHALCOLITHIC IN THE CENTRAL PLATEAU AND ITS ATLANTIC FRINGE  3200-2500 CAL. AD   Vilanova y Piera who, at an internati...
98  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  ing took place there. In the Douro basin the earliest crucibles found ...
THE CHALCOLITHIC IN THE CENTRAL PLATEAU AND ITS ATLANTIC FRINGE  3200-2500 CAL. AD   Figure 4. Chalcolithic dwellings of t...
100  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  The small forti   ed settlements on the Lisbon peninsula at Vila Nova...
THE CHALCOLITHIC IN THE CENTRAL PLATEAU AND ITS ATLANTIC FRINGE  3200-2500 CAL. AD   symbolized the political centralizati...
102  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 5. View of the small cave used as barn of Buraco da Pala, in t...
THE CHALCOLITHIC IN THE CENTRAL PLATEAU AND ITS ATLANTIC FRINGE  3200-2500 CAL. AD   phic motifs in red    typical of othe...
104  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Finally, nothing has been said about livestock rearing in the Cantabr...
THE CHALCOLITHIC IN THE CENTRAL PLATEAU AND ITS ATLANTIC FRINGE  3200-2500 CAL. AD   Figure 6. Sequence of    fumiers    i...
106  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  this, grave goods tended to be few and not very relevant  a piece of ...
THE CHALCOLITHIC IN THE CENTRAL PLATEAU AND ITS ATLANTIC FRINGE  3200-2500 CAL. AD   dead wore ornaments from earlier peri...
108  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  whether, graven, cylindrical, or anthropomorphic,87 contrasts with th...
THE CHALCOLITHIC IN THE CENTRAL PLATEAU AND ITS ATLANTIC FRINGE  3200-2500 CAL. AD   Figure 7. Simultaneous collective bur...
110  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  and that, despite their obvious Megalithic roots, the stele icons of ...
THE CHALCOLITHIC IN THE CENTRAL PLATEAU AND ITS ATLANTIC FRINGE  3200-2500 CAL. AD   Figure 8. Chalcolitic idol-plates fro...
Rafael Garrido Pena   Bell-Beakers in Iberia  A long-standing dilemma in European and Iberian prehistory The Bell-Beaker p...
114  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  have been used for very important beverages, to be consumed at ceremo...
BELL-BEAKERS IN IBERIA  comb impressions, sometimes with shells, with bands    lled with oblique and plain tracing, which ...
116  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 3. Bell Beaker pottery  A, Ciempozuelos necropolis, Madrid  Ph...
BELL-BEAKERS IN IBERIA  Figure 4. Bell Beaker items from La Sima barrow, Mi  o de Medinaceli, Soria  A, Daggers of copper ...
118  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  be very irregular. Traditional dating establishes two main periods   ...
BELL-BEAKERS IN IBERIA  Figure 5. Bell Beaker grave of Humanejos, Parla, Madrid.  Photography  Sara Genicio Lorenzo  Court...
120  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  But alongside this, is also common during this periodthe reuse of Neo...
BELL-BEAKERS IN IBERIA  Figure 6. Objects found in the Bell Beaker tomb of Fuente Olmedo, Valladolid.  Delibes 1977 .  121...
122  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  ing different dietary patterns, for example meat, although vegetarian...
BELL-BEAKERS IN IBERIA  Figure 7. Ritual scene of a hospitality banquet with Beaker pottery  Rojo et al., 2006. Drawing  L...
124  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Less clear is the impact of these centuries of intense contact and ex...
3  bronze age  the complex societies  THE FIRST MEDITERRANEA NEOLITHIC FARMERS  VI-V MILLENNIA BC   125
Vicente Lull , Rafael Mic  , Cristina Rihuete Herrada and Roberto Risch  The Bronze Age in Mediterranean Iberia  Introduct...
128  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  millennium saw the culmination of a socioeconomic process that began ...
THE BRONZE AGE IN MEDITERRANEAN IBERIA  to determine their implications. Today, the excavations in Gatas, La Bastida, Sant...
130  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 2. Forti   ed complex of La Bastida  Totana, Murcia     ASOME,...
THE BRONZE AGE IN MEDITERRANEAN IBERIA  Figure 3. Aerial view of the hilltop occupied by Tira del Lienzo  Totana, Murcia  ...
132  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  phytomorphic designs. Only a few appliqu  s, mainly mamelons, break t...
THE BRONZE AGE IN MEDITERRANEAN IBERIA  Figure 5. Argaric ceramic shapes and metal items.  in lower quantities than barley...
134  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 7. The piedmont sector of the southeastern hillside of La Bast...
THE BRONZE AGE IN MEDITERRANEAN IBERIA  tor made up of individuals with very modest grave goods  the occasional piece of p...
136  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 8. Motilla del Azuer  Daimiel, Ciudad Real   GEPRAN, Universid...
THE BRONZE AGE IN MEDITERRANEAN IBERIA  Figure 9. General plan of Terlinques  Villena, Alicante  in phase III  ca. 1750 17...
138  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  ration of sickle parts and communities    greater capacity for storag...
THE BRONZE AGE IN MEDITERRANEAN IBERIA  Figure 10. Average density of riveted tools and weapons in the Iberian Peninsula b...
140  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 11. Plan of Murviedro  Lorca, Murcia   excavations by A. Pujan...
THE BRONZE AGE IN MEDITERRANEAN IBERIA  Figure 12. Cabezo Redondo  Villena, Alicante   fotograf  a de los autores .  the M...
142  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 13. The Treasure of Villena  Alicante      Museo Arqueol  gico...
THE BRONZE AGE IN MEDITERRANEAN IBERIA  Figure 14. Layout of Gen    Aitona, Lerida   Maya et al., 1998,    g. 22, courtesy...
144  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 15. Types of silos in Can Roqueta  Sabadell, Barcelona   Carl ...
THE BRONZE AGE IN MEDITERRANEAN IBERIA  Alicante  Qur  nima, in Almer  a , the greater density of burials in the northeast...
146  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  power. And it would not be unreasonable to think that it was precisel...
Vicente Lull , Rafael Mic  , Cristina Rihuete Herrada and Roberto Risch  The Balearic Islands  From stable human colonisat...
148  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 1. Pottery with Bell Beaker decoration found at Son Matge and ...
THE BALEARIC ISLANDS  FROM STABLE HUMAN COLONISATION UNTIL THE ROMAN CONQUEST  Epi-Bell Beaker-dolmenic archaeological gro...
150  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 4. Chronology of colonisation of the Mediterranean islands in ...
THE BALEARIC ISLANDS  FROM STABLE HUMAN COLONISATION UNTIL THE ROMAN CONQUEST  Figure 5. Assessment of the demographic evo...
152  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Coval d   en Pep Rave 19. All these burial structures ultimately hous...
THE BALEARIC ISLANDS  FROM STABLE HUMAN COLONISATION UNTIL THE ROMAN CONQUEST  sation. The society was organised in largel...
154  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 9. Naveta des Tudons  Menorca      ASOME     UAB .  an elongat...
THE BALEARIC ISLANDS  FROM STABLE HUMAN COLONISATION UNTIL THE ROMAN CONQUEST  Figure 10. Ceremonial objects from the depo...
156  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 11. View of the site of Son Forn  s  Mallorca , showing talaio...
THE BALEARIC ISLANDS  FROM STABLE HUMAN COLONISATION UNTIL THE ROMAN CONQUEST  In Menorca, perhaps some hypogea with a com...
158  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 15. Taula at Torralba d   en Salort  Menorca   photo  Felipe S...
THE BALEARIC ISLANDS  FROM STABLE HUMAN COLONISATION UNTIL THE ROMAN CONQUEST  In Mallorca, pottery assemblages include ne...
Marisa Ruiz-G  lvez   The Atlantic Iberia  a threshold between East and West  Introduction Just as Fernand Braudel devoted...
162  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 1. Map of the Iberia showing the coast of Portugal, R  a de Hu...
THE ATLANTIC IBERIA  A THRESHOLD BETWEEN EAST AND WEST  Figure 2. Trastej  n and Atalaya  according to Hurtado et al., 201...
164  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 3. Rectangular building of Alange  according to Pav  n, 2008  ...
THE ATLANTIC IBERIA  A THRESHOLD BETWEEN EAST AND WEST  become more    impersonal    between the Late Copper Age and the E...
166  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 5. Bowls with broad horizontal rim  according to Betencourt, 2...
THE ATLANTIC IBERIA  A THRESHOLD BETWEEN EAST AND WEST  Figure 7. Sword of Entrambasaguas and its    nd place  according t...
168  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  of perishable material may have been associated to them, as we know i...
THE ATLANTIC IBERIA  A THRESHOLD BETWEEN EAST AND WEST  I pottery from the site and then, the set could have been an intro...
170  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  that, rather than imports, there were foreign codes and techniques th...
THE ATLANTIC IBERIA  A THRESHOLD BETWEEN EAST AND WEST  suggests the settling among the natives and over an extended perio...
172  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 11. Image of an    Aegean    type ship in a petroglyph at Auga...
THE ATLANTIC IBERIA  A THRESHOLD BETWEEN EAST AND WEST  Figure 12. Los Cascajos hoard  Logro  o . According to Alonso   Ji...
174  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  A second consequence of the reactivation of these Atlantic routes and...
THE ATLANTIC IBERIA  A THRESHOLD BETWEEN EAST AND WEST  Figure 13. Maria Candal hoard  Portugal   according to Vila  a et ...
176  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 14. Idealised reconstruction of the hoard found in the waters ...
THE ATLANTIC IBERIA  A THRESHOLD BETWEEN EAST AND WEST  about 2 m to less than 1 m and its iconography that combines weapo...
178  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure16. A. Bronze    gurine of a lyre player of the Late Geometric ...
THE ATLANTIC IBERIA  A THRESHOLD BETWEEN EAST AND WEST  Figure17. Plan of the sanctuary-building of the castro of Ratinhos...
180  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Could these IE languages have been spoken in the Bronze Age also  Wha...
4  iron age  the final process to urban life
Mart  n Almagro-Gorbea   The Lusitanians  The Lusitani or Lusitanians is an interesting people representing a new ethnic r...
184  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  A  B  C  D  E  Figure 1. Lusitanian stelae of Bell-Beaker tradition  ...
THE LUSITANIANS  ca12. During the Late Bronze Age, the Lusitanian stelae represent V-shaped shields between a sword and a ...
186  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  areas and communications routs, while the garden and the house corres...
THE LUSITANIANS  Figure 4. A, Castro of Baro  a, La Coru  a  B, Reconstruction of a neighborhood from the Coa  a castro, A...
188  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  valor  Diodorus V,34,6 , until Rome ended this way of life. This trad...
THE LUSITANIANS  Figure 6. Lusitanian peoples between Douro and Minho rivers  after A.C.F. da Silva .  ties names  Fig. 7 ...
190  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 7. Geographical dispersion of Lusitanian epigraphy, place name...
THE LUSITANIANS  Figure 8. Dispersion of Lusitanian personal names  after Vallares, 2013, modi   ed .     rmed by the etym...
192  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  the Limia river, considered the pass towards the Underworld in Antiqu...
THE LUSITANIANS  Figure 9. Dispersion of Lusitanian god names  after Vallares, 2013 and J.C. Olivares, 2002 .  The continu...
194  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 10. Ritual Sauna of Briteiros, Portugal, with the cold bath to...
Gonzalo Ruiz Zapatero   The Urnfield  The work carried out on the Late Bronze Age groups in Germany since the end of the 1...
196  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figura 1. Map of the Iberian Peninsula and the territories with Urn  ...
THE URNFIELDS  signi   cantly increased conventional historical dates. This does not present any dif   culties for the ear...
198  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figura 2. Village of Gen    A, ground plan showing the detail of the ...
THE URNFIELDS  Figura 3. Grave goods from the cemetery at Can Missert  Tarrasa, Barcelona . Early Urn   elds period.  rite...
200  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  The cemetery at Can Piteu-Can Roqueta12    the best known to date in ...
THE URNFIELDS  Figura 4. Types of dwellings in the different regions of the NE of the peninsular.  readings. The social ch...
202  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figura 5. Radiocarbon chronology of Middle Bronze Age and Late Bronze...
THE URNFIELDS  etery, through what we know to date  see Fig. 5 , but the fact remains that we are talking about a few gene...
204  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figura 7. Urn decorated in the Mailhacian style from the Agullana cem...
THE URNFIELDS  community  in some way the existence of the cemeteries is one further element in the social construction of...
206  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figura 9. Cremation burials from the Late Bronze Age  A, double tomb ...
THE URNFIELDS  Figura 11. Distribution of the main animal species according to reproduction ratios and mobility. The main ...
208  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figura 12. Bronze artefacts  A, distribution map showing weapons and ...
THE URNFIELDS  Figura 13. Llavorsi bronze hoard and graphic showing its typological composition.  after Gallart, 1991, ame...
210  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figura 14. Idealized composition of the community at the cemetery of ...
THE URNFIELDS  Figura 15. Centre of Aldovesta  Tarragona   A, Ground plan showing the different functional areas and the  ...
212  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figura 16. Ground plan of the fortress at Els Vilars  Arbeca, Lerida ...
THE URNFIELDS  were found the remains of    portable altars   , incense burners and an extensive range of luxury pottery t...
214  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figura 17. The    warrior   s tombs    period from C16 B.C. with the ...
THE URNFIELDS  iron goods and the Phoenician importations appear simultaneously and the same probably occurred in the othe...
Alberto J. Lorrio   The Celtic peoples  Iberia is one of the Celtic territories par excellence. This is con   rmed by the ...
218  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  the Celts in the Iberian Peninsula in successive works. In his work o...
THE CELTIC PEOPLES  Figure 1. A, Map of Hispano-Celtic ethnic groups. B, Basic division between Indo-European and Iberian ...
220  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  characteristics of the Celtiberian world throughout its evolutionary ...
THE CELTIC PEOPLES  in no way should be seen as being unmoveable, that spanned the high lands of the Eastern Meseta and th...
222  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  Figure 2. Celtiberians. 1, View of the hill-fort of El Cereme  o duri...
THE CELTIC PEOPLES  a good number of varied objects relating to clothing and personal adornment. Some of these were manufa...
224  IBERIA. PROTOHISTORY OF THE FAR WEST OF EUROPE  One    nding of exceptional interest is the collection of    Hispano-...