South Carolina- first state to secede
By February 1861: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee all seceded
Secession was the triggerpoint of war. Once the South seceded, the Confederacy, led by Jefferson Davis, was formed. The two opposing sides were now laid out, and war was about to begin. The Yankees versus the Rebels.
Secession events and cause of civil war
Many events caused secession, such as the election of Abraham Lincoln. The south felt threatened and feared that he would ban slavery once he became President. This of course was not entirely the case, but once secession occured, he had no choice. Another event was Bleeding Kansas. Hostile acts began between the North and the South during Bleeding Kansas. This violence was a foreshadow of future events.
Date: August 29-30, 1862
Events: McClellan's army moved south to join John Pope in preparation. Stonewall Jackson attacked Pope’s supply base at Manassas. The Yankees were defeated and the Confederates gained a valuable advantage.
Outcome: Confederate victory; Lee’s army stood 20 miles from Washington, D.C.
Casualties: Union: 14,000 | Confederate: 8,000
Battle of Second Bull Run
Robert E. Lee Joseph Hooker
Hooker campaigned against Lee’s army. Before he could order a major attack, Lee attacked at Chancellorsville. The victory was in favor of Lee once more, but the fight cost the lives of many of his troops including Stonewall Jackson. Jackson died after he was shot in the arm by a confederate soldier, and died after amputation.
Date: Early May 1863
Outcome: Confederate victory with heavy losses on both sides
Battle of Chancellorsville
April 9, 1865
“There is nothing left [for] me but to go and see General Grant, and I [would] rather die a thousand deaths.”
-Robert E. Lee
Voices of the Civil war
After Lee tried linking up with one of his army’s, he realized his escape routes were blocked and his situation was hopeless. He and his troops surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House.
Terms of Surrender
Confederate soldiers must lay down their arms, but were free to go home. They were allowed to keep their horses so they could put in a crop to carry them and their families through the winter. Also, three days worth of food was sent to Lee’s troops. After Lee’s surrender troops in North Carolina conceded too. Then on May 10th, Jefferson Davis was captured and the Civil War was over.
Surrender at Appomattox and Terms of Surrender
Women- During times of war, women fill different roles. They helped the soldiers in the war by rolling bandages, weaving baskets, and making ammunition. Some also became spies. Harriet Tubman was a spy for the North. Rose O’Neal Greenhow was a confederate spy, but was caught. Women spies would sneak into enemy territory and would gather intel, then pass it onto their allies.
Children- Young boys played an important role in the war. Not only did they make up nearly 50% of the population, but their jobs influenced the outcome of the Civil War. The children would take up jobs such as drummer boys. Drummer boys were essentially the commanders during battles. In the midst of battle it is difficult to hear one person’s voice. So, the soldiers and drummer would remember certain drum beats that represent certain orders given by the commander.
African Americans- The Civil War revolved around them. The war began over whether ownership of another person was right or wrong. Naturally African Americans would fight against the confederacy, so when white soldiers ran low, the Africans took their place. With immense numbers of freed slaves and the spirit of freedom energizing them, African Americans in battle were one of the turning points of the North.
Life during the Civil War