Thaumatropes: Is a Victorian era toy invented by London physiscist Dr. John A. Paris is 1825. It was the first in a long line of optical toys. A thaumatrope is a small disc shaped object helb by two ends by pieces of string whith two different images on each side, when the disc is spun the images become superiposed createing a new image.
Zoetropes: The zoetropes was also invented in the 19th century. It was invented by William George Horner in 1834. Zoetropes works by using a drum with an open top. a sequence of images are put onton strips of paper and are placed around the inner bottom of the drum. slots are cut out above the pictures to create an illision of motipon when the drum is spun.
Phenatkistoscope: The Phenatkistoscope was invented in 1832 by Austrian Simon von Stampfer of Vienna. The phenakistscope works by using the persistence of motion principle where multiple images moving at a fast rate blend together to create an illusion, it achieves this through two discs mounted on the same asxis. The first of these two discs has slots around the edge and the second contained drawings of progressive actions drawn around the disc. These to disks spin together in the same direction., and when viewed in a mirror throught the first discs slots the picturs in the second disc will apear to be moving.