TRB Knowledge Series - Grapes & Wines

Grapes and Wines Knowledge Series Training, Quality & Development – January 2016 For Internal Use Only
Grapes and Wines  Knowledge Series  Training, Quality   Development     January 2016 For Internal Use Only
RED GRAPES A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
RED GRAPES  A Collection of Digital Library     The Trans Resort Bali  Training, Quality   Development     January 2016
Cabernet Franc This grape goes into some of the world's finest Bordeaux wines - albeit in relatively small proportions - and as a result is known mostly as a blending grape. One notable exception is Chateau Cheval Blanc in St. Emilion, where it's the core of this worldfamous, hyper-expensive wine. . Elsewhere in France it's the main grape in red wines from Chinon, Anjou, Champigny and Bourgueil and also in some Italian reds from Friuli and Alto Adige. In the US Cab Franc is gaining ground with a select group, however small, as a varietal wine in its own right. . In any event, Cabernet Franc is an important grape in the pantheon of fine red grapes, despite what you'll read in a lot of very good wine books. And it's different from almost any other red grape in the remarkable perfume it provides to wine and in the "greenish" or so-called vegetal quality it has. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Cabernet Franc  This grape goes into some of the world s finest Bordeaux wines - albeit in relatively small proportions - ...
Cabernet Sauvignon The undisputed king of red wine, Cabernet Sauvignon is widely-planted, with hardy vines that produce thick-skin grapes which resist rot, mold and frost. It ripens late compared to most other grapes, which has both positive and negative consequences for growers (and drinkers). And because the berries are small, there's a lot of pulp - skins, seeds, stems if the winemaker leaves them in - relative to juice, which also means a lot of tannin and other extracts. This, in turn, lends itself to long periods of oak aging, to soften those tannins and to give the wine other flavors such as toast, vanilla, leather, and cigar-box. . Let's start by distinguishing between "old world" Cabs, and those in the new world, mainly the US, Central and South America, and Australia. And as you probably know, this makes a lot of sense because some wine regions of the worlds have naturally become synonymous with Cabernets Bordeaux, first and foremost; Napa and Sonoma Valleys; Maipo in Chile; Mendoza in Argentina; and Coonawarra, Barossa and Yarra in Australia, for example. . One of the biggest differences is that most old world wines based on Cabernet are meant to be aged in bottle for several years at least before being drunk. By contrast, while most new world Cabernets can use a year or two of aging, they are meant to be drunk virtually from the moment they are released to the market. Contd… A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Cabernet Sauvignon  The undisputed king of red wine, Cabernet Sauvignon is widely-planted, with hardy vines that produce t...
Cabernet Sauvignon Contd… Understanding Bordeaux wines isn't easy, but hey, it's probably a lot easier to figure out than Burgundy, where wines are named not only for the town or region where the grapes are grown, but often also for the vineyard, or even slice of a vineyard. There are two main types of Bordeaux, those based on Cabernet and those based on Merlot. However, even within each type is a marvelous range of styles, big differences in the mix and proportions of grapes, and some variation although this is narrowing a bit - in wine making. . Cabernet in The New World Best known from Napa and Sonoma, maybe from Lodi and the Central Coast, Paso Robles, Monterrey, and perhaps from Washington and Oregon. Perhaps even from Long Island. And you've probably tasted a Cab or three from Australia, Chile or Argentina. New world Cab styles are more, as they say, "fruit forward" with less finesse and subtlety - they hit your palate with big, bold blackfruit. Straddling the old and the new worlds are Cabernets from South Africa, from, say, the Stellenbosch region. These are great because they have much of the finesse and subletly of France and yet are more, well, interesting to American palates because they are a bit bigger and bolder at the same time. . Cabernet Sauvignon is an "accidental" grape and the result of the crossing of Cabernet Franc with Sauvignon Blanc in the 1600s, in France. This wasn't determined with certainty until the late 1990s by a team from, of course, UC Davis's School of Viticulture and Enology. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Cabernet Sauvignon  Contd    Understanding Bordeaux wines isn t easy, but hey, it s probably a lot easier to figure out th...
Pinot Noir Especially compared to most other red wines (except, perhaps, Beaujolais), Pinot produces light, moderately to highly-perfumed and lightly-tannic wines that are often described as silky. At the same time, depending on where the grapes are grown, Pinots can offer an earthy or even musky aroma, which, when unwrapped, delivers up a core of black cherries, spice and fresh acidity with only a hint, if that, of tannin. . Pinot Noir gives the word's fines Champagnes and sparkling wines much of their backbone and character, and Blanc de Noir sparklers are made almost entirely from Pinot. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Pinot Noir Especially compared to most other red wines  except, perhaps, Beaujolais , Pinot produces light, moderately to ...
Syrah This is another very versatile grape depending on where it's been grown, and the prevailing winemaking style there. . For example, Australia's Shiraz wines (same grape, different spelling down under) are typically jammy, spicy, opulent and intense, with relatively high alcohol that makes them a little hot on the tongue. . Syrahs from France's Rhone valley are generally quite different - higher in acid, less fruity, better balanced and in my view more drinkable. . But both styles have their fans, so you be the judge and try both. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Syrah This is another very versatile grape depending on where it s been grown, and the prevailing winemaking style there. ...
Malbec Some say this is "the new Cabernet." Malbec is a great grape and a wonderful wine in its own right, and the comparison is not only false but lazy. . The wines are rich and jammy - not a bad thing here, although maybe in other cases and in other varietals. . Malbec is one of the five grapes permitted in Bordeaux wines but you'll rarely if ever find any. You're more likely to find smidgens of Malbec in Bordeaux-style blends from Napa. . One of the local names for Malbec in France is Cot, and in Anjou in the Loire region they make wonderful dry and off-dry roses from it. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Malbec Some say this is  the new Cabernet.  Malbec is a great grape and a wonderful wine in its own right, and the compari...
Properly pronounced "mare-low“. Merlot . Merlot ripens a week or two faster than Cabernet Sauvignon, and tends to do a bit better in cooler climates as well, which makes it a very versatile grape. Yet Merlot can produce some truly superb wine on its own with the body of Cabernet Sauvignon, the perfume of Cab Franc, the boldness of Malbec, or the finesse of Pinot Noir. In fact, the right-bank wines of Bordeaux based on Merlot are commanding not only stratospheric prices and ratings these days, but also changing the way people think about the grape. . One interesting development with Merlot, an example of which is shown to the right, is that the French have picked up on the fact that Americans, Aussies and other enthusiastic wine drinkers buy wine based on the grape. So, some smart and enterprising Frenchmen like Christian Moueix of Chateau Petrus fame (he actually owns the distribution, not the label) have come out with some Merlot varietals, clearly aimed at the new world market. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Properly pronounced  mare-low   .  Merlot  .  Merlot ripens a week or two faster than Cabernet Sauvignon, and tends to do ...
Petit Sirah (Durif) First, notice the spelling, it's "Sirah" not "Syrah," and a variant is called "Durif" although most enologists and wingrowers says it's really the same vine and grape. In the US it's used as a blending grape in Zinfandels and occasionally in Pinots but is gaining some notice as a cult varietal wine on its own. With small berries there's a lot of skin relative to juice, which leads to a lot of tannin, some smoke, flavors of blackberry, plum, and coffee. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Petit Sirah  Durif  First, notice the spelling, it s  Sirah  not  Syrah,  and a variant is called  Durif  although most en...
Gamay Whether or not you celebrate "Beaujolais Day" on the 3rd Thursday of November, you've doubtless heard of Beaujolais wine, right? . This light, fruity stuff (it's not actually sweet, despite what some say) is easy drinking and is a good way for people who normally drink whites only to introduce themselves to reds. Many of these wines are fermented using Carbonic Maceration, a process in which whole clusters of (mostly) unbroken grapes are placed in a fermentation vat and then saturated with carbon dioxide. The CO2 penetrates the skins and causes fermentation to takes place within the berries, meaning that the wine will be less tannic and, some say, "fruitier" than wine fermented the traditional way. . In practice, though, some berries on the bottom will be crushed by the weight of the fruit above, release their juice and ferment in the traditional way. The point here is to have lighter wines that can be drunk right after bottling. . Other than the Beaujolais region, it also grows widely in Tours in the Loire, another famous wine region of France, but there it's typically blended with Cab Franc and with Cot, a French clone of Malbec. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Gamay  Whether or not you celebrate  Beaujolais Day  on the 3rd Thursday of November, you ve doubtless heard of Beaujolais...
Grenache From Spain where it's called Garnacha, this vine produces truly black-berried grapes that ironically don't carry a lot of color into the wine. The best-known Garnachas are from the Priorato (Priorat in Catalan) in the northeast, an hour from the Mediterranean coast and fairly close to the French border. This is hilly country with some kind of unique, layered red slate soil called llicorella that is the secret of these monster wines of Spain. High in alcohol, Prioratos usually have a bit, or quite a bit of Carinena grape in them, which used to be the dominant variety here. Garnacha is also the main grape in Navarra wines, up the Ebro river in Spain towards the Atlantic, opposite the Rioja region where Tempranillo reigns. . In France Grenache is the base for one of my favorite reds, Chateauneuf du Pape, but in that wine it is blended with several other grapes, mainly Syrah, Mourvedre, and Cinsault. . There's also a gray and a white "version" of the Garnacha grape. And a "hairy" version of it, too! They say the grape originated in Aragon, you know, Catherine of Aragon, from Northern Spain, Henry VIII's first wife and the one who kept her head. Literally. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Grenache  From Spain where it s called Garnacha, this vine produces truly black-berried grapes that ironically don t carry...
Zinfandel The "state grape" of California makes a spicy, zesty, slightly sweet wine that goes great with ribs, wings, burgers and other savory meats. Zinfandel gained some notoriety in 1975 - or perhaps just created some confusion - when Sutter Home winery in St. Helena created White Zinfandel, essentially by accident when they experienced a stuck fermentation. . Yet Zin is among the world's heartiest, spiciest, meatiest red wines...and speaking of meat, Zin is famous as an accompaniment to barbeque and other savory meats. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Zinfandel The  state grape  of California makes a spicy, zesty, slightly sweet wine that goes great with ribs, wings, burg...
Tempranillo Also called Tinto Fino in Spain and Tinta Roriz in Portugal, Tempranillo is a small-berried, thickskinned grape best known in Rioja wines, and also in Ribera Del Duero wines, too. .. Tempranillo berries are big and fat and produce tannic, dark wines that remind me a bit of Madirans made from the Tannat grape. They also have a nice backbone of acid that when combined with these other elements, gives them the ability to age gracefully for a long time. This contrasts with years past when these grapes were mostly used for local and decent if simple rose wines. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Tempranillo Also called Tinto Fino in Spain and Tinta Roriz in Portugal, Tempranillo is a small-berried, thickskinned grap...
Sangiovese This grape is grows in several strains, producing quite different wines, most prominently in Italy. . It's Italy's most important grape by just about any measure - acreage, production, and reputation. And, maybe, national character even. With 14 clones it's the grape of Brunello, Brunello di Montalcino, Montepulciano, Prugnolo and dozens more of Italy's finest wines. . But most of all Sangiovese is the grape of Chianti, and of the so-called Super Tuscans, Sangiovesebased reds with some Cabernet Sauvignon tossed in for added body and longevity and sometimes Merlot for softness and roundness. Most wine aficionados describe Sangiovese as having a violetlike aroma, a strawberry flavor, with a little spice. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Sangiovese This grape is grows in several strains, producing quite different wines, most prominently in Italy. .  It s Ita...
Pinotage Most grapes can be traced back at least hundreds, if not thousands of years. By contrast, Pinotage was literally invented in 1925 in South Africa by Abraham Izak Perold, who would become the first Professor of Viticulture at the University of Stellenbosch. It's a cross of Pinot Noir with Cinsault, which creates a spicy, earthy wine with a lot of the character of Pinot Noir. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Pinotage Most grapes can be traced back at least hundreds, if not thousands of years. By contrast, Pinotage was literally ...
Nebbiolo Northern Italy's thick-skinned Nebbiolo Grape of Barolo and Barbaresco fame is one of the most delightfully aromatic of red grape varieties and for that reason sometimes compared to Pinot Noir, but the aromas and flavours are very different. Structured by high acidity and no shortage of tannin, Nebbiolo's bouquet encompasses violet, smoke and rose-like perfumes, with flavors of truffle, fennel, liquorice and, most famously, tar. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Nebbiolo Northern Italy s thick-skinned Nebbiolo Grape of Barolo and Barbaresco fame is one of the most delightfully aroma...
Mouvedre The Mouvedre Grape is a darker, thicker-skinned variety than its Mediterranean counterpart, Grenache, producing a firm-structured, often tannic, brambly, blackberryish red with notable funky, meaty and animal-like characters. More often than not it's blended with other southern French varieties. It can be spicy and it ages, develops the aged meat character of game or even wet fur. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Mouvedre The Mouvedre Grape is a darker, thicker-skinned variety than its Mediterranean counterpart, Grenache, producing a...
Frontenac Frontenac is a hardy grape that can prevail in temperatures down to about 30 degrees below zero. In other words, it can live happily through a mild winter. It's also very resistant to disease, and at harvest produces juice with high acidity, calling for malolactic fermentation to soften it. . Frontenac wines are generally "cherry-forward," both in aroma and flavor, often with distinct blackberry flavors, some taste plum – some at all. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Frontenac Frontenac is a hardy grape that can prevail in temperatures down to about 30 degrees below zero. In other words,...
WHITE GRAPES A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
WHITE GRAPES  A Collection of Digital Library     The Trans Resort Bali  Training, Quality   Development     January 2016 ...
Chardonnay Chardonnay is the world's most versatile grape and produces an almost infinite range of styles. From the steely and fresh Chablis, to the soft, elegant and perfectly balanced Puligny-Montrachet, and finally to oaky and smoky California and Australian styles that ooze with butter and lemon, almost everyone finds something they like. Chardonnay's versatility shows, too, as the base wine for some of the world's greatest Champagnes and sparkling wines. It's perfect for them because of its neutrality and freshness, and it can take on a toasty flavor from long periods of secondary fermation on the lees. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Chardonnay Chardonnay is the world s most versatile grape and produces an almost infinite range of styles. From the steely...
Riesling Most people think it comes only in sweet, sweeter and cotton-candy styles. Yet the Alsace region of France produces bone-dry Rieslings as do Napa, Australia and several other wine regions. And even some of the sweeter German versions may not taste as sweet as you'd expect because the sugar is matched by a high level of acid. .. Riesling is known for delivering an initial aroma of "petrol," and that can help you begin to recognize the varietal with one or two sniffs. Don't dwell on that, though, and don't let it put you off this fabulous wine. Also - German Rieslings made from grapes that are picked at the highest levels of sugar ("beerenauslese" and "trockenbeerenauslese") are difficult to ferment, and as a result they often have remarkably low levels of alcohol. . Look for flowery scents and flavors of honey, lime, ginger, and peaches. Rarely if ever oaked, and as a result it goes great with Asian food, some Indian food, pork loin, and soft shell crabs. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Riesling Most people think it comes only in sweet, sweeter and cotton-candy styles. Yet the Alsace region of France produc...
Semillon Blanc This unctuous (oily) grape mixes with Sauvignon Blanc, four parts to one, to create what is perhaps the world's most prized dessert wine, Sauternes (Chateau D'Yquem) and almost as famous and prized in Barzac. Both villages are in the Aquitaine region of France, just below the large area of Bordeaux that's home to the world's most famous reds. The Semillon grape's thin skins make it susceptible to Botrytis Cinerea or "noble rot", reducing the water content of the berry and marvelously concentrating its sugars and flavors before harvest. . You'll also find Semillon it in Australia, South Africa and even in Washington State in the US. Aside from dessert wine, Semillon does yeoman's duty as a blending grape for the dry versions of Sauvigon Blanc, too. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Semillon Blanc This unctuous  oily  grape mixes with Sauvignon Blanc, four parts to one, to create what is perhaps the wor...
Viognier Proper Viognier will seduce one’s senses. The moment the bottle is opened, it offers up an intense exotic perfume of mayflowers and tropical fruits. The palate is actually overwhelmed by its richness of body and flavor, which suggests a sweet wine, despite its usual complete dryness. Less than a decade ago, this variety -- which shares vineyard space with the hardy Syrah grape in the northern Rhône -- was considered one of the wine world’s rarest, but most intriguing varieties. In fact, outside of the Rhône, Viognier was virtually unknown to the rest of the world’s vineyards. The variety has a notorious reputation for robbing vignerons of sleep. This is due to its tendencies for poor fruit set, low yields, proneness to disease, etc., which have given more than a few growers second thoughts about its cultivation. . A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Viognier Proper Viognier will seduce one   s senses. The moment the bottle is opened, it offers up an intense exotic perfu...
Muscat blanc A few years ago, Muscat de Beaumes-de Venise was the "it" dessert wine, but no longer. Still, it's a nice change from Port and you can often find it even at mediocre restaurants that haven't put a lot of thought in their wine lists. "Musca" is Latin for the word "flies" and it might be that this grape was known for attracting insects and other varmints from its perfumed sweetness. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Muscat blanc A few years ago, Muscat de Beaumes-de Venise was the  it  dessert wine, but no longer. Still, it s a nice cha...
Pinot Grigio Pinto Grigio is really just the Italian name for the more prosaic French name of Pinot Gris. Pinot Grigio tends to deliver a zesty, lemony taste, although the French version usually is more fullbodied and luscious, with much more aroma. . Dry, fruity Alsatian Pinot Gris in particular is really coming into its own, but to make sure you're not getting a sweet version, avoid "Vendange Tardive" (late harvest) on the label. . Although it's typically a white wine, the grapes at maturity have dark pink skins, and the Italians make a wonderful rose wine, Pinot Grigio Ramato, from them. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Pinot Grigio Pinto Grigio is really just the Italian name for the more prosaic French name of Pinot Gris. Pinot Grigio ten...
Pinot Blanc The best of this varietal come from the Alsace region of France, and are lively, smoky, full-bodied with very little nose. Often described as "Chardonnay-like", these grapes grew on the North Fork of Long Island and were thought to be Chard until someone did a genetic test. . The Alsatian ones will be in Riesling-style long-neck bottles, with labels in French but that look German. After all, Alsace is only miles from the German border. Look for Pinot Blancs from Oregon, too; from Italy where they're known as Pino Bianco. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Pinot Blanc The best of this varietal come from the Alsace region of France, and are lively, smoky, full-bodied with very ...
Trebbiano This isn't the noblest of grapes, mind you, and you've probably never heard of this wine - Lugana or the grape. It comes from an amazingly beautiful place in Italy (which is saying something, indeed), Lugana, between Lombardy and the Veneto on the southern side of Lake Garda. Yet in France, where the grape is called Ugni Blanc, it's used primarily to make Cognac and is otherwise undistinguished as a table wine grape. In Italy, though, they turn Trebbiano into a wonderful still white wine - full bodied, rich and complex. It's great with poultry, pasta with white and cream-based sauces, and seafood. This really is an elegant, refined wine that delivers soft peach flavors and a crisp finish. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Trebbiano This isn t the noblest of grapes, mind you, and you ve probably never heard of this wine - Lugana or the grape. ...
Gewurztraminer Gewurztraminer is the grape variety with the most overt and recognizable range of aromas in the world. It smells of ginger and cinnamon, fragrant rose petals and pot pourri with a dusting of Turkish delight and tastes of deliciously exotic lychees and mango. It is very spicy and instantly appealing, but its all-encompassing fragrance can rapidly pall. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Gewurztraminer Gewurztraminer is the grape variety with the most overt and recognizable range of aromas in the world. It s...
Grüner Veltliner Austria's widely planted grape variety produces an assertive, steely, rich dry white with a unique aroma and flavor. For some it hints at white pepper and celery, while others prefer the descriptors of gherkins and dill. Either way, there is often an unusual, alluring herbiness in what, at its best, can be an excellent, steely dry white. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Gr  ner Veltliner Austria s widely planted grape variety produces an assertive, steely, rich dry white with a unique aroma...
Torrontes The Torrontes grape is cultivated in the Argentine provinces of Catamarca, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan and Rio Negro. The Torrontes wine made from this white grape is considered the best of its kind in the entire world. The bunches of grapes on the Torrontes vine are medium sized although in some regions they may be larger. The grapes are round, medium sized, usually of a yellowish green colour, sometimes more golden. The Torrontés emits a specific fragrance of flowers and fruit, often rose and peaches. With one taste, the sweetness of the Torrontés envelopes your tongue, leaving you with a clean and powerful conclusion. The golden hue of this vino is a reflection of the grape that grows into a intermediate sized globe that releases a fruitful bouquet. Specific regions generate grapes of particular characteristics. For example, the Torrontés Riojano grape is larger and grows in relaxed bunches, somewhat different from the average Torrontés grape. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
Torrontes The Torrontes grape is cultivated in the Argentine provinces of Catamarca, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan an...
GLOSSARY OF WINES A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY OF WINES  A Collection of Digital Library     The Trans Resort Bali  Training, Quality   Development     January ...
GLOSSARY acetic: Wines, no matter how well made, contain quantities of acetic acidity that have a vinegary smell. If there is an excessive amount of acetic acidity, the wine will have a vinegary smell and be a flawed, acetic wine. acidic: Wines need natural acidity to taste fresh and lively, but an excess of acidity results in an acidic wine that is tart and sour. acidity: The acidity level in a wine is critical to its enjoyment and livelihood. The natural acids that appear in wine are citric, tartaric, malic, and lactic. Wines from hot years tend to be lower in acidity, whereas wines from cool, rainy years tend to be high in acidity. Acidity in a wine can preserve the wine's freshness and keep the wine lively, but too much acidity, which masks the wines flavors and compresses its texture, is a flaw. aftertaste: As the term suggests, the taste left in the mouth when one swallows is the aftertaste. This word is a synonym for length or finish. The longer the aftertaste lingers in the mouth (assuming it is a pleasant taste), the finer the quality of the wine. aggressive: Aggressive is usually applied to wines that are either high in acidity or have harsh tannins, or both. angular: Angular wines are wines that lack roundness, generosity, and depth. Wine from poor vintages or wines that are too acidic are often described as being angular. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY acetic  Wines, no matter how well made, contain quantities of acetic acidity that have a vinegary smell. If there...
GLOSSARY aroma: Aroma is the smell of a young wine before it has had sufficient time to develop nuances of smell that are then called its bouquet. The word aroma is commonly used to mean the smell of a relatively young, unevolved wine. astringent: Wines that are astringent are not necessarily bad or good wines. Astringent wines are harsh and coarse to taste, either because they are too young and tannic and just need time to develop, or because they are not well made. The level of tannins (if it is harsh) in a wine contributes to its degree of astringence. austere: Wines that are austere are generally not terribly pleasant wines to drink. An austere wine is a hard, rather dry wine that lacks richness and generosity. However, young Rhônes are not as austere as young Bordeaux. backward: An adjective used to describe (1) a young largely unevolved, closed, and undrinkable wine, (2) a wine that is not ready to drink, or (3) a wine that simply refuses to release its charms and personality. balance: One of the most desired traits in a wine is good balance, where the concentration of fruit, level of tannins, and acidity are in total harmony. Balanced wines are symmetrical and tend to age gracefully. barnyard: An unclean, farmyard, fecal aroma that is imparted to a wine because of unclean barrels or unsanitary winemaking facilities. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY aroma  Aroma is the smell of a young wine before it has had sufficient time to develop nuances of smell that are ...
GLOSSARY berrylike: As this descriptive term implies, most red wines have an intense berry fruit character that can suggest blackberries, raspberries, black cherries, mulberries, or even strawberries and cranberries. big: A big wine is a large-framed, full-bodied wine with an intense and concentrated feel on the palate. Most red Rhône wines are big wines. blackcurrant: A pronounced smell of blackcurrant fruit is commonly associated with certain Rhône wines. It can vary in intensity from faint to very deep and rich. body: Body is the weight and fullness of a wine that can be sensed as it crosses the palate. full-bodied wines tend to have a lot of alcohol, concentration, and glycerin. Botrytis cinerea: The fungus that attacks the grape skins under specific climatic conditions (usually alternating periods of moisture and sunny weather). It causes the grape to become superconcentrated because it causes a natural dehydration. Botrytis cinerea is essential for the great sweet white wines of Barsac and Sauternes. It rarely occurs in the Rhône Valley because of the dry, constant sunshine and gusty winds. bouquet: As a wine's aroma becomes more developed from bottle aging, the aroma is transformed into a bouquet that is hopefully more than just the smell of the grape. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY berrylike  As this descriptive term implies, most red wines have an intense berry fruit character that can sugges...
GLOSSARY brawny: A hefty, muscular, full-bodied wine with plenty of weight and flavor, although not always the most elegant or refined sort of wine. briery: I think of California Zinfandel when the term briery comes into play, denoting that the wine is aggressive and rather spicy. brilliant: Brilliant relates to the color of the wine. A brilliant wine is one that is clear, with no haze or cloudiness to the color. browning: As red wines age, their color changes from ruby/purple to dark ruby, to medium ruby, to ruby with an amber edge, to ruby with a brown edge. When a wine is browning it is usually fully mature and not likely to get better. carbonic maceration: This vinification method is used to make soft, fruity, very accessible wines. Whole clusters of grapes are put into a vat that is then filled with carbonic gas. This system is used when fruit is to be emphasized in the final wine in contrast to structure and tannin. cedar: Rhône reds can have a bouquet that suggests either faintly or overtly the smell of cedarwood. It is a complex aspect of the bouquet. chewy: If a wine has a rather dense, viscous texture from a high glycerin content, it is often referred to as being chewy. Highextract wines from great vintages can often be chewy, largely because they have higher alcohol hence high levels of glycerin, which imparts a fleshy mouthfeel. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY brawny  A hefty, muscular, full-bodied wine with plenty of weight and flavor, although not always the most elegan...
GLOSSARY closed: The term closed is used to denote that the wine is not showing its potential, which remains locked in because it is too young. Young wines often close up about 12-18 months after bottling, and depending on the vintage and storage conditions, remain in such a state for several years to more than a decade. complex: One of the most subjective descriptive terms used, a complex wine is a wine that the taster never gets bored with and finds interesting to drink. Complex wines tend to have a variety of subtle scents and flavors that hold one's interest in the wine. concentrated: Fine wines, whether they are light-, medium-, or full-bodied, should have concentrated flavors. Concentrated denotes that the wine has a depth and richness of fruit that gives it appeal and interest. Deep is a synonym for concentrated. corked: A corked wine is a flawed wine that has taken on the smell of cork as a result of an unclean or faulty cork. It is perceptible in a bouquet that shows no fruit, only the smell of musty cork, which reminds me of wet cardboard. cuvée: Many producers in the Rhône Valley produce special, deluxe lots of wine or a lot of wine from a specific grape variety that they bottle separately. These lots are often referred to as cuvées. decadent: If you are an ice cream and chocolate lover, you know the feeling of eating a huge sundae of rich vanilla ice cream lavished with hot fudge and real whipped cream. If you are a wine enthusiast, a wine loaded with opulent, even unctuous layers of fruit, with a huge bouquet, and a plump, luxurious texture can be said to be decadent. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY closed  The term closed is used to denote that the wine is not showing its potential, which remains locked in bec...
GLOSSARY deep: Essentially the same as concentrated, expressing the fact that the wine is rich, full of extract, and mouth filling. delicate: As this word implies, delicate wines are light, subtle, understated wines that are prized for their shyness rather than for an extroverted, robust character. White wines are usually more delicate than red wines. Few Rhône red wines can correctly be called delicate. demi-muid: 650-liter Burgundy barrels which are essentially the equivalent of three regular barrels. diffuse: Wines that smell and taste unstructured and unfocused are said to be diffuse. When red wines are served at too warm a temperature they often become diffuse. double decanting: This is done by first decanting the wine into a decanter and then rinsing the original bottle out with nonchlorinated water and then immediately repouring the wine from the decanter back into the bottle. It varies with the wine as to how long you cork it. dumb: A dumb wine is also a closed wine, but the term dumb is used more pejoratively. Closed wines may need only time to reveal their richness and intensity. Dumb wines may never get any better. earthy: May be used in both a negative and a positive sense; however, I prefer to use earthy to denote a positive aroma of fresh, rich, clean soil. Earthy is a more intense smell than woody or truffle scents. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY deep  Essentially the same as concentrated, expressing the fact that the wine is rich, full of extract, and mouth...
GLOSSARY elegant: Although more white wines than red are described as being elegant, lighter-styled, graceful, balance red wines can be elegant. extract: This is everything in a wine besides water, sugar, alcohol, and acidity. exuberant: Like extroverted, somewhat hyper people, wines too can be gushing with fruit and seem nervous and intensely vigorous. fat: When the Rhône has an exceptionally hot year for its crop and the wines attain a super sort of maturity, they are often quite rich and concentrated, with low to average acidity. Often such wines are said to be fat, which is a prized commodity. If they become too fat, that is a flaw and they are then called flabby. flabby: A wine that is too fat or obese is a flabby wine. Flabby wines lack structure and are heavy to taste. fleshy: Fleshy is a synonym for chewy, meaty, or beefy. It denotes that the wine has a lot of body, alcohol, and extract, and usually a high glycerin content. Châteauneuf-du-Pape and Hermitage are particularly fleshy wines. floral: Wines made from the Muscat or Viognier grape have a flowery component, and occasionally a red wine will have a floral scent. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY elegant  Although more white wines than red are described as being elegant, lighter-styled, graceful, balance red...
GLOSSARY focused: Both a fine wine's bouquet and flavor should be focused. Focused simply means that the scents, aromas, and flavors are precise and clearly delineated. If they are not, the wine is like an out-of-focus picture-diffuse, hazy, and possibly problematic. forward: An adjective used to describe wines that are (1) delicious, evolved, and close to maturity, (2) wines that border on being flamboyant or ostentatious, or (3) unusually evolved and/or quickly maturing wines. foudre: Large oak barrels that vary enormously in size but are significantly larger than the normal oak barrel used in Bordeaux or the piece used in Burgundy. They are widely used in the Rhône Valley. fresh: Freshness in both young and old wines is a welcome and pleasing component. A wine is said to be fresh when it is lively and cleanly made. The opposite of fresh is stale. fruity: A very good wine should have enough concentration of fruit so that it can be said to be fruity. Fortunately, the best wines will have more than just a fruity personality. full-bodied: Wines rich in extract, alcohol, and glycerin are full-bodied wines. Most Rhône wines are full-bodied. garrigue: In the southern Rhône Valley and Provence, this is the landscape of small slopes and plateaus. This Provençal word applies to these windswept hilltops/slopes inhabited by scrub-brush and Provençal herb outcroppings. The smell of garrigue is often attributed to southern Rhône Valley wines. Suggesting more than the smell of herbes de Provence, it encompasses an earthy/herbal concoction of varying degrees of intensity. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY focused  Both a fine wine s bouquet and flavor should be focused. Focused simply means that the scents, aromas, a...
GLOSSARY green: Green wines are wines made from underripe grapes; they lack richness and generosity as well as having a vegetal character. Green wines are infrequently made in the Rhone, although vintages such as 1977 were characterized by a lack of ripening. hard: Wines with abrasive, astringent tannins or high acidity are said to be hard. Young vintages of Rhône wines can be hard, but they should never be harsh. harsh: If a wine is too hard it is said to be harsh. Harshness in a wine, young or old, is a flaw. hedonistic: Certain styles of wine are meant to be inspected; they are introspective and intellectual wines. Others are designed to provide sheer delight, joy, and euphoria. Hedonistic wines can be criticized because in one sense they provide so much ecstasy that they can be called obvious, but in essence, they are totally gratifying wines meant to fascinate and enthrall-pleasure at its best. herbaceous: Many wines have a distinctive herbal smell that is generally said to be herbaceous. Specific herbal smells can be of thyme, lavender, rosemary, oregano, fennel, or basil and are common in Rhône wines. herbes de Provence: Provence is known for the wild herbs that grow prolifically through- out the region. These include lavender, thyme, sage, rosemary, and oregano. It is not just an olfactory fancy to smell many of these herbs in Rhône Valley wines, particularly those made in the south. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY green  Green wines are wines made from underripe grapes  they lack richness and generosity as well as having a ve...
GLOSSARY hollow: Also known as shallow, hollow wines are diluted and lack depth and concentration. honeyed: A common personality trait of specific white Rhône wines, a honeyed wine is one that has the smell and taste of bee's honey. hot: Rather than meaning that the temperature of the wine is too warm to drink, hot denotes that the wine is too high in alcohol and therefore leaves a burning sensation in the back of the throat when swallowed. Wines with alcohol levels in excess of 14.5% often taste hot if the requisite depth of fruit is not present. inox vats: This is the French term for stainless steel vats that are used for both fermentation and storage of wine. intensity: Intensity is one of the most desirable traits of a high-quality wine. Wines of great intensity must also have balance. They should never be heavy or cloying. Intensely concentrated great wines are alive, vibrant, aromatic, layered, and texturally compelling. Their intensity adds to their character, rather than detracting from it. jammy: When wines have a great intensity of fruit from excellent ripeness they can be jammy, which is a very concentrated, flavorful wine with superb extract. In great vintages such as 1961, 1978, 1985, 1989, 1990, and 1995, some of the wines are so concentrated that they are said to be jammy. Kisselguhr filtration system: This is a filtration system using diatomaceous earth as the filtering material, rather than cellulose, or in the past, before it was banned, asbestos. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY hollow  Also known as shallow, hollow wines are diluted and lack depth and concentration. honeyed  A common perso...
GLOSSARY leafy: A leafy character in a wine is similar to a herbaceous character only in that it refers to the smell of leaves rather than herbs. A wine that is too leafy is a vegetal or green wine. lean: Lean wines are slim, rather streamlined wines that lack generosity and fatness but can still be enjoyable and pleasant. lively: A synonym for fresh or exuberant, a lively wine is usually young wine with good acidity and a thirst-quenching personality. long: A very desirable trait in any fine wine is that it be long in the mouth. Long (or length) relates to a wine's finish, meaning that after you swallow the wine, you sense its presence for a long time. (Thirty seconds to several minutes is great length.) In a young wine, the difference between something good and something great is the length of the wine. lush: Lush wines are velvety, soft, richly fruity wines that are both concentrated and fat. A lush wine can never be an astringent or hard wine. massive: In great vintages where there is a high degree of ripeness and superb concentration, some wines can turn out to be so big, full-bodied, and rich that they are called massive. A great wine such as the 1961 or 1990 Hermitage La Chapelle is a textbook example of a massive wine. meaty: A chewy, fleshy wine is also said to be meaty. monocepage: This term describes a wine made totally of one specific varietal. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY leafy  A leafy character in a wine is similar to a herbaceous character only in that it refers to the smell of le...
GLOSSARY monopole: Used to denote a vineyard owned exclusively by one proprietor, the word monopole appears on the label of a wine made from such a vineyard. morsellated: Many vineyards are fragmented, with multiple growers owning a portion of the same vineyard. Such a vineyard is often referred to as a morsellated vineyard. mouth-filling: Big, rich, concentrated wines that are filled with fruit extract and are high in alcohol and glycerin are wines that tend to texturally fill the mouth. A mouth-filling wine is also a chewy, fleshy, fat wine. musty: Wines aged in dirty barrels or unkept cellars or exposed to a bad cork take on a damp, musty character that is a flaw. nose: The general smell and aroma of a wine as sensed through one's nose and olfactory senses is often called the wine's nose. oaky: Many red Rhône wines are aged from 6 months to 30 months in various sizes of oak barrels. At some properties, a percentage of the oak barrels may be new, and these barrels impart a toasty, vanillin flavor and smell to the wine. If the wine is not rich and concentrated, the barrels can overwhelm the wine, making it taste overly oaky. Where the wine is rich and concentrated and the winemaker has made a judicious use of barrels, however, the results are a wonderful marriage of fruit and oak. off: If a wine is not showing its true character, or is flawed or spoiled in some way, it is said to be "off." A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY monopole  Used to denote a vineyard owned exclusively by one proprietor, the word monopole appears on the label o...
GLOSSARY overripe: An undesirable characteristic; grapes left too long on the vine become too ripe, lose their acidity, and produce wines that are heavy and balance. This can happen frequently in the hot viticultural areas of the Rhône Valley if the growers harvest too late. oxidized: If a wine has been excessively exposed to air during either its making or aging, the wine loses freshness and takes on a stale, old smell and taste. Such a wine is said to be oxidized. peppery: A peppery quality to a wine is usually noticeable in many Rhône wines that have an aroma of black or white pepper and a pungent flavor. perfumed: This term usually is more applicable to fragrant, aromatic white wines than to red wines. However, some of the dry white wines (particularly Condrieu) and sweet white wines can have a strong perfumed smell. pigéage: A winemaking technique of punching down the cap of grape skins that forms during the beginning of the wine's fermentation. This is done several times a day, occasionally more frequently, to extract color, flavor, and tannin from the fermenting juice. plummy: Rich, concentrated wines can often have the smell and taste of ripe plums. When they do, the term plummy is applicable. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY overripe  An undesirable characteristic  grapes left too long on the vine become too ripe, lose their acidity, an...
GLOSSARY ponderous: Ponderous is often used as a synonym for massive, but in my usage a massive wine is simply a big, rich, very concentrated wine with balance, whereas a ponderous wine is a wine that has become heavy and tiring to drink. precocious: Wines that mature quickly are precocious. However the term also applies to wines that may last and evolve gracefully over a long period of time, but taste as if they are aging quickly because of their tastiness and soft, early charms. pruney: Wines produced from grapes that are overripe take on the character of prunes. Pruney wines are flawed wines. raisiny: Late-harvest wines that are meant to be drunk at the end of a meal can often be slightly raisiny, which in some ports and sherries is desirable. However, a raisiny quality is a major flaw in a dinner wine. rich: Wines that are high in extract, flavor, and intensity of fruit. ripe: A wine is ripe when its grapes have reached the optimum level of maturity. Less than fully mature grapes produce wines that are underripe, and overly mature grapes produce wines that are overripe. round: A very desirable character of wines, roundness occurs in fully mature wines that have lost their youthful, astringent tannins, and also in young wines that have soft tannins and low acidity. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY ponderous  Ponderous is often used as a synonym for massive, but in my usage a massive wine is simply a big, rich...
GLOSSARY savory: A general descriptive term that denotes that the wine is round, flavorful, and interesting to drink. shallow: A weak, feeble, watery or diluted wine lacking concentration is said to be shallow. sharp: An undesirable trait, sharp wines are bitter and unpleasant with hard, pointed edges. silky: A synonym for velvety or lush, silky wines are soft, sometimes fat, but never hard or angular. smoky: Some wines, either because of the soil or because of the barrels used to age the wine, have a distinctive smoky character. Côte Rôtie and Hermitage often have a roasted or smoky quality. soft: A soft wine is one that is round and fruity, low in acidity, and has an absence of aggressive, hard tannins. spicy: Wines often smell quite spicy with aromas of pepper, cinnamon, and other well-known spices. These pungent aromas are usually lumped together and called spicy. stale: Dull, heavy wines that are oxidized or lack balancing acidity for freshness are called stale. stalky: A synonymfor vegetal, but used more frequently to denote that the wine has probably had too much contact with the stems, resulting in a green, vegetal, or stalky character to the wine. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY savory  A general descriptive term that denotes that the wine is round, flavorful, and interesting to drink. shal...
GLOSSARY supple: A supple wine is one that is soft, lush, velvety, and very attractively round and tasty. It is a highly desirable characteristic because it suggests that the wine is harmonious. tannic: The tannins of a wine, which are extracted from the grape skins and stems, are, along with a wine's acidity and alcohol, its lifeline. Tannins give a wine firmness and some roughness when young, but gradually fall away and dissipate. A tannic wine is one that is young and unready to drink. tart: Sharp, acidic, lean, unripe wines are called tart. In general, a wine that is tart is not pleasurable. thick: Rich, ripe, concentrated wines that are low in acidity are often said to be thick. thin: A synonym for shallow; it is an undesirable characteristic for a wine to be thin, meaning that it is watery, lacking in body, and just diluted. tightly knit: Young wines that have good acidity levels, good tannin levels, and are well made are called tightly knit, meaning they have yet to open up and develop. toasty: A smell of grilled toast can often be found in wines because the barrels the wines are aged in are charred or toasted on the inside. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY supple  A supple wine is one that is soft, lush, velvety, and very attractively round and tasty. It is a highly d...
GLOSSARY tobacco: Some red wines have the scent of fresh tobacco. It is a distinctive and wonderful smell in wine. troncais oak: This type of oak comes from the forest of Troncais in central France. unctuous: Rich, lush, intense wines with layers of concentrated, soft, velvety fruit are said to be unctuous. vegetal: An undesirable characteristic, wines that smell and taste vegetal are usually made from unripe grapes. In some wines, a subtle vegetable garden smell is pleasant and adds complexity, but if it is the predominant character, it is a major flaw. velvety: A textural description and synonym for lush or silky, a velvety wine is a rich, soft, smooth wine to taste. It is a very desirable characteristic. viscous: Viscous wines tend to be relatively concentrated, fat, almost thick wines with a great density of fruit extract, plenty of glycerin, and high alcohol content. If they have balancing acidity, they can be tremendously flavorful and exciting wines. If they lack acidity, they are often flabby and heavy. volatile: A volatile wine is one that smells of vinegar as a result of an excessive amount of acetic bacteria present. It is a seriously flawed wine. woody: When a wine is overly oaky it is often said to be woody. Oakiness in a wine's bouquet and taste is good up to a point. Once past that point, the wine is woody and its fruity qualities are masked by excessive oak aging. A Collection of Digital Library – The Trans Resort Bali Training, Quality & Development – January 2016
GLOSSARY tobacco  Some red wines have the scent of fresh tobacco. It is a distinctive and wonderful smell in wine. troncai...
Training, Quality & Development – January 2016 Source: Wine Academy
Training, Quality   Development     January 2016  Source  Wine Academy