thaumatropes, zoetropes and phenakistascopes are all...... scientific toys.
a thaumatrope is a scientific toy that was invented in the 19th century. it's made up of a disc with a different picture on each of side. when the disc is rotated in a rapid motion the two pictures become one.
a zoetrope is yet another toy that was invented in the 19th-century. but this one is made up of a cylinder that has a series of pictures in the inner surface of it. this gives the illusion of a continuing moving picture.
The phenakistoscope (also spelled phenakistiscope or phenakitiscope) is an early animation device that uses the persistence of vision to create an illusion of a moving picture.