Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs 2017
Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs 2017
Ta b l e of Co nte nt s 01 02 03 04 05 04 08 INTRODUCTION 1 1 Description of Indicator and Sources 14 16 18 20 22 24 OVERVIEW OF KEY FINDINGS 2 1 Benchmark Women Business Owners 2 2 Results of Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs 2016 2 3 Component A Women s Advancement Outcomes 2 4 Component B Knowledge Assets Financial Access 2 5 Component C Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions 30 31 34 37 39 42 45 MARKET CASE STUDIES 5 1 New Zealand 5 2 Australia 5 3 China 5 4 Singapore 5 5 United States 5 6 United Kingdom 57 54 53 50 47 5 11 Bangladesh 5 10 Japan 5 9 Argentina 5 8 Uganda 5 7 Germany 26 EXPECTATIONS OF WOMEN S PROGRESS AS BUSINESS OWNERS 28 CONCLUSION
Ta b l e of Co nte nt s  01 02 03 04 05  04  08  INTRODUCTION  1.1 Description of Indicator and Sources  14  16  18  20  2...
Ta b l e of Co nte nt s 01 02 03 04 05 04 08 INTRODUCTION 1 1 Description of Indicator and Sources 14 16 18 20 22 24 OVERVIEW OF KEY FINDINGS 2 1 Benchmark Women Business Owners 2 2 Results of Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs 2016 2 3 Component A Women s Advancement Outcomes 2 4 Component B Knowledge Assets Financial Access 2 5 Component C Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions 30 31 34 37 39 42 45 MARKET CASE STUDIES 5 1 New Zealand 5 2 Australia 5 3 China 5 4 Singapore 5 5 United States 5 6 United Kingdom 57 54 53 50 47 5 11 Bangladesh 5 10 Japan 5 9 Argentina 5 8 Uganda 5 7 Germany 26 EXPECTATIONS OF WOMEN S PROGRESS AS BUSINESS OWNERS 28 CONCLUSION
Ta b l e of Co nte nt s  01 02 03 04 05  04  08  INTRODUCTION  1.1 Description of Indicator and Sources  14  16  18  20  2...
1 I nt ro du c t i o n Entrepreneurship is any attempt at new business or new venture creation which may include but not limited to self employment creation of a new business organization or expansion of an existing business It is an intrinsic part of our everyday lives both formally and informally and in both small and large ways In the 2015 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor GEM Special Report on Women Entrepreneurship the rate of women s entrepreneurship rose by 6 percent worldwide in the last two years Furthermore women entrepreneurs in half of the 83 economies surveyed by GEM are considered to be as innovative or more innovative than their male counterparts Women entrepreneurs play an increasingly vital role socially professionally and economically in turning developing countries into more knowledge and innovation driven economies The Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE is part of our ongoing efforts to better understand and track women s progress and achievements in the business world It has been designed to identify which factors and conditions are most conducive to closing the gender gap among business owners in an economy The index uses 12 indicators and 25 sub indicators to look at how 54 economies representing 78 6 percent of the world s female labor force differ in terms of the level of Women s Advancement Outcomes Knowledge Assets Financial Access and Supporting Entrepreneurial Factors Women Business Owners as of Total Business Owners is the benchmark indicator of the MIWE Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 1 Introduction 5
1 I nt ro du c t i o n Entrepreneurship is    any attempt at new business or new venture creation, which may include, but ...
1 I nt ro du c t i o n Entrepreneurship is any attempt at new business or new venture creation which may include but not limited to self employment creation of a new business organization or expansion of an existing business It is an intrinsic part of our everyday lives both formally and informally and in both small and large ways In the 2015 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor GEM Special Report on Women Entrepreneurship the rate of women s entrepreneurship rose by 6 percent worldwide in the last two years Furthermore women entrepreneurs in half of the 83 economies surveyed by GEM are considered to be as innovative or more innovative than their male counterparts Women entrepreneurs play an increasingly vital role socially professionally and economically in turning developing countries into more knowledge and innovation driven economies The Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE is part of our ongoing efforts to better understand and track women s progress and achievements in the business world It has been designed to identify which factors and conditions are most conducive to closing the gender gap among business owners in an economy The index uses 12 indicators and 25 sub indicators to look at how 54 economies representing 78 6 percent of the world s female labor force differ in terms of the level of Women s Advancement Outcomes Knowledge Assets Financial Access and Supporting Entrepreneurial Factors Women Business Owners as of Total Business Owners is the benchmark indicator of the MIWE Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 1 Introduction 5
1 I nt ro du c t i o n Entrepreneurship is    any attempt at new business or new venture creation, which may include, but ...
The table below lists the 54 markets spanning five geographic Asia Pacific Europe North America Latin America Middle East Africa regions covered by the index Market Code Income Level1 Stage of Development2 Asia Pacific 15 Market Code Income Level1 Stage of Development2 Spain ESP High income Innovation Driven Sweden SWE High income Innovation Driven Switzerland CHE High income Innovation Driven United Kingdom GBR High income Innovation Driven Romania ROU Upper middle income Efficiency Innovation Driven Australia AUS High income Innovation Driven Russia RUS Upper middle income Efficiency Innovation Driven Hong Kong SAR HKG High income Innovation Driven Turkey TUR Upper middle income Efficiency Innovation Driven Japan JPN High income Innovation Driven Korea KOR High income Innovation Driven New Zealand NZL High income Innovation Driven Singapore SGP High income Innovation Driven Canada CAN High income Innovation Driven Taiwan TWN High income Innovation Driven United States USA High income Innovation Driven China CHN Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Malaysia MYS Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Thailand THA Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Bangladesh BGD Lower middle income Factor Driven Chile CHL High income Efficiency Innovation Driven India IND Lower middle income Factor Driven Uruguay URY High income Efficiency Innovation Driven Indonesia IDN Lower middle income Factor Efficiency Driven Argentina ARG Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Philippines PHL Lower middle income Factor Driven Brazil BRA Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Vietnam VNM Lower middle income Factor Driven Colombia COL Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Costa Rica CRI Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Ecuador ECU Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Mexico MEX Upper middle income Efficiency Innovation Driven Peru PER Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Europe 17 North America 2 Latin America 9 Belgium BEL High income Innovation Driven Czech Republic CZE High income Innovation Driven Denmark DNK High income Innovation Driven France FRA High income Innovation Driven Germany DEU High income Innovation Driven Israel ISR High income Innovation Driven Hungary HUN High income Efficiency Innovation Driven Saudi Arabia SAU High income Factor Efficiency Driven Ireland IRL High income Innovation Driven United Arab Emirates ARE High income Innovation Driven Italy ITA High income Innovation Driven Algeria DZA Upper middle income Factor Efficiency Driven Poland POL High income Efficiency Innovation Driven Botswana BWA Upper middle income Factor Efficiency Driven Portugal PRT High income Innovation Driven Iran IRN Upper middle income Efficiency Driven South Africa ZAF Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Egypt EGY Lower middle income Factor Efficiency Driven Tunisia TUN Lower middle income Efficiency Driven Ethiopia ETH Low income Factor Driven Uganda UGA Low income Factor Driven 1 World Bank GNI Per Papita Income Classifiers 2 World Economic Forum Stage Of Development Classifiers Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE Middle East Africa 11 1 Introduction 7
The table below lists the 54 markets spanning five geographic  Asia Pacific, Europe, North America, Latin America, Middle ...
The table below lists the 54 markets spanning five geographic Asia Pacific Europe North America Latin America Middle East Africa regions covered by the index Market Code Income Level1 Stage of Development2 Asia Pacific 15 Market Code Income Level1 Stage of Development2 Spain ESP High income Innovation Driven Sweden SWE High income Innovation Driven Switzerland CHE High income Innovation Driven United Kingdom GBR High income Innovation Driven Romania ROU Upper middle income Efficiency Innovation Driven Australia AUS High income Innovation Driven Russia RUS Upper middle income Efficiency Innovation Driven Hong Kong SAR HKG High income Innovation Driven Turkey TUR Upper middle income Efficiency Innovation Driven Japan JPN High income Innovation Driven Korea KOR High income Innovation Driven New Zealand NZL High income Innovation Driven Singapore SGP High income Innovation Driven Canada CAN High income Innovation Driven Taiwan TWN High income Innovation Driven United States USA High income Innovation Driven China CHN Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Malaysia MYS Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Thailand THA Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Bangladesh BGD Lower middle income Factor Driven Chile CHL High income Efficiency Innovation Driven India IND Lower middle income Factor Driven Uruguay URY High income Efficiency Innovation Driven Indonesia IDN Lower middle income Factor Efficiency Driven Argentina ARG Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Philippines PHL Lower middle income Factor Driven Brazil BRA Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Vietnam VNM Lower middle income Factor Driven Colombia COL Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Costa Rica CRI Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Ecuador ECU Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Mexico MEX Upper middle income Efficiency Innovation Driven Peru PER Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Europe 17 North America 2 Latin America 9 Belgium BEL High income Innovation Driven Czech Republic CZE High income Innovation Driven Denmark DNK High income Innovation Driven France FRA High income Innovation Driven Germany DEU High income Innovation Driven Israel ISR High income Innovation Driven Hungary HUN High income Efficiency Innovation Driven Saudi Arabia SAU High income Factor Efficiency Driven Ireland IRL High income Innovation Driven United Arab Emirates ARE High income Innovation Driven Italy ITA High income Innovation Driven Algeria DZA Upper middle income Factor Efficiency Driven Poland POL High income Efficiency Innovation Driven Botswana BWA Upper middle income Factor Efficiency Driven Portugal PRT High income Innovation Driven Iran IRN Upper middle income Efficiency Driven South Africa ZAF Upper middle income Efficiency Driven Egypt EGY Lower middle income Factor Efficiency Driven Tunisia TUN Lower middle income Efficiency Driven Ethiopia ETH Low income Factor Driven Uganda UGA Low income Factor Driven 1 World Bank GNI Per Papita Income Classifiers 2 World Economic Forum Stage Of Development Classifiers Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE Middle East Africa 11 1 Introduction 7
The table below lists the 54 markets spanning five geographic  Asia Pacific, Europe, North America, Latin America, Middle ...
1 1 D e s c r i pt i o n of Ind ica tors a n d S o u rces Indicator Description Source Period A4 Women Labor Force Participation F M Female Workforce Participation Rate Male Workforce Participation Rate Measures the bias against women compared to men in the workforce defined as the proportion of a country s female male working age population that engages actively in the labor market either by working or looking for work International Labor Organization 2016 Benchmark Indicator Description Source Period Women Business Owners F T Women Business Owners as a of Total Business Owners Component B Knowledge Assets and Financial Access Measures the bias against women compared to men as business owners defined as owners who employ at least one employee other than themselves International Labor Organization 2008 2015 projected to 2016 Indicator Description Source Period B1 Women Borrowing or Saving for Business F M Composite of 2 sub indicators of F M who Borrowed or Saved for Business World Bank Global Findex Database 2015 Component A Women s Advancement Outcomes Indicator Description Source Period of Females of Males Denotes the percentage of 15 years old female divided by of 15 years old who borrowed for business male respondents who report borrowing any money in the past 12 months by themselves or together with someone else to start operate or expand a farm or business A1 Women Business Leaders F T Women Business Leaders as a of Total Business Leaders Measures the bias against women compared to men as business leaders defined as general and corporate managers who manage enterprises or their internal departments on the behalf of the proprietor International Labor Organization 2008 2015 projected to 2016 of Females of Males Denotes the percentage of 15 years old female divided by of 15 years old who saved for business t male respondents who report saving or setting aside any money in the past 12 months to start operate or expand a farm or business B2 Women Financial Inclusion F M A2 Women Professionals Technical Workers F T Women Professionals Technical Workers as a of Total Professionals Technical Workers Measures the bias against women compared to men as Professionals Associate Professionals and Technicians International Labor Organization 2008 2015 projected to 2016 A3 Women Entrepreneurial Activity Rate F M Total early stage Entrepreneurial Activity TEA of Females in the Female Working Age Population as of TEA of Males in the Male Working Age Population Composite of 3 sub indicators of F M with Financial Account a Debit Card or a Credit Card World Bank Global Findex Database 2015 of Females of Males Denotes the percentage of 15 years old female divided by of 15 years old who have an account at a financial male respondents who report having an account by themselves or together with institution someone else at a bank or another type of financial institution of Females of Males Denotes the percentage of 15 years old female divided by of 15 years old who have a debit card male respondents who report having a debit card of Females of Males Denotes the percentage of 15 years old female divided by of 15 years old who have a credit card male respondents who report having a credit card Measures the bias against women compared to men in early stage entrepreneurial activity which assesses the percent of working age population both about to start an entrepreneurial activity and that have started one for a maximum of 3 and a half years Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2009 2015 Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 1 1 Description of Indicator and Sources 9
1.1  D e s c r i pt i o n of Ind ica tors    a n d S o u rces  Indicator  Description  Source, Period   A4. Women Labor Fo...
1 1 D e s c r i pt i o n of Ind ica tors a n d S o u rces Indicator Description Source Period A4 Women Labor Force Participation F M Female Workforce Participation Rate Male Workforce Participation Rate Measures the bias against women compared to men in the workforce defined as the proportion of a country s female male working age population that engages actively in the labor market either by working or looking for work International Labor Organization 2016 Benchmark Indicator Description Source Period Women Business Owners F T Women Business Owners as a of Total Business Owners Component B Knowledge Assets and Financial Access Measures the bias against women compared to men as business owners defined as owners who employ at least one employee other than themselves International Labor Organization 2008 2015 projected to 2016 Indicator Description Source Period B1 Women Borrowing or Saving for Business F M Composite of 2 sub indicators of F M who Borrowed or Saved for Business World Bank Global Findex Database 2015 Component A Women s Advancement Outcomes Indicator Description Source Period of Females of Males Denotes the percentage of 15 years old female divided by of 15 years old who borrowed for business male respondents who report borrowing any money in the past 12 months by themselves or together with someone else to start operate or expand a farm or business A1 Women Business Leaders F T Women Business Leaders as a of Total Business Leaders Measures the bias against women compared to men as business leaders defined as general and corporate managers who manage enterprises or their internal departments on the behalf of the proprietor International Labor Organization 2008 2015 projected to 2016 of Females of Males Denotes the percentage of 15 years old female divided by of 15 years old who saved for business t male respondents who report saving or setting aside any money in the past 12 months to start operate or expand a farm or business B2 Women Financial Inclusion F M A2 Women Professionals Technical Workers F T Women Professionals Technical Workers as a of Total Professionals Technical Workers Measures the bias against women compared to men as Professionals Associate Professionals and Technicians International Labor Organization 2008 2015 projected to 2016 A3 Women Entrepreneurial Activity Rate F M Total early stage Entrepreneurial Activity TEA of Females in the Female Working Age Population as of TEA of Males in the Male Working Age Population Composite of 3 sub indicators of F M with Financial Account a Debit Card or a Credit Card World Bank Global Findex Database 2015 of Females of Males Denotes the percentage of 15 years old female divided by of 15 years old who have an account at a financial male respondents who report having an account by themselves or together with institution someone else at a bank or another type of financial institution of Females of Males Denotes the percentage of 15 years old female divided by of 15 years old who have a debit card male respondents who report having a debit card of Females of Males Denotes the percentage of 15 years old female divided by of 15 years old who have a credit card male respondents who report having a credit card Measures the bias against women compared to men in early stage entrepreneurial activity which assesses the percent of working age population both about to start an entrepreneurial activity and that have started one for a maximum of 3 and a half years Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2009 2015 Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 1 1 Description of Indicator and Sources 9
1.1  D e s c r i pt i o n of Ind ica tors    a n d S o u rces  Indicator  Description  Source, Period   A4. Women Labor Fo...
Indicator Description Source Period Indicator Description Source Period B3 Support for SMEs Composite of 5 sub indicators of Financial Support for SMEs C2 Cultural Perceptions of Women Entrepreneurs Composite of 5 sub indicators of cultural perceptions of women s entrepreneurial leadership abilities Gender bias in access to financial Measures whether women and men have equal access to financial services by law services or custom Ability of women to rise to positions Reflects perceptions of the ability of women to rise to positions of leadership OECD Gender Institutions and Development Database 2014 of leadership World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Report 2015 Availability of finance programs for Availability of outreach programs for women that target the provision of financial Social acceptability of female Reflects perceptions of whether starting a new business is a socially acceptable women services credit financial literacy or risk management programs entrepreneurship career option for women Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 EIU Women s Economic Opportunity Report 2012 SME training and development Existence of geographic availability gender equal accessibility and affordability of Social encouragement of female Reflects perceptions of whether women are encouraged to become self employed programs government or non government programs offering Small and medium enterprise entrepreneurship or start a new business Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 support development training EIU Women s Economic Opportunity Report 2012 Ease of Access to Loans Perception of how easy it is for businesses to obtain a bank loan Gender bias in exposure to good Reflects perceptions of whether men and women are equally exposed to good business opportunities opportunities to start a new business Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2016 Affordability of Financial Services Perceived extent that the cost of financial services e g insurance loans trade finance impedes business activity Gender bias in entrepreneurial Reflects perceptions of whether men and women have the same level of knowledge and skills knowledge and skills to start a new business Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2016 B4 Women Tertiary Education Gross Enrollment Rate F M Gross female enrollment at the tertiary level as a percentage of tertiary age group female population female tertiary GER divided by Gross male enrollment at the tertiary level as a percentage of tertiary age group male population male tertiary GER UNESCO 2012 2014 projected to 2016 C3 Quality of Governance Government Effectiveness Composite of 5 governance sub indicators World Bank World Governance Indicators 2016 Reflects perceptions of the quality of public services the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures the quality of policy formulation and implementation and the credibility of the government s commitment to such policies Component C Entrepreneurial Supporting Conditions Indicator Regulatory Quality Reflects perceptions of the quality of public services the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures the quality of Description Source Period policy formulation and implementation and the credibility of the government s commitment to such policies C1 Ease of Doing Business Measures the gap between a particular economy s business regulation environment and the best practice World Bank Doing Business Database 2016 Political Stability and Absence of Measures perceptions of the likelihood of political instability and or politically Violence Terrorism motivated violence including terrorism Control of Corruption Reflects perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain including both petty and grand forms of corruption as well as capture of the state by elites and private interests Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 1 1 Description of Indicator and Sources 11
Indicator  Description  Source, Period   Indicator  Description  Source, Period   B3. Support for SMEs  Composite of 5 sub...
Indicator Description Source Period Indicator Description Source Period B3 Support for SMEs Composite of 5 sub indicators of Financial Support for SMEs C2 Cultural Perceptions of Women Entrepreneurs Composite of 5 sub indicators of cultural perceptions of women s entrepreneurial leadership abilities Gender bias in access to financial Measures whether women and men have equal access to financial services by law services or custom Ability of women to rise to positions Reflects perceptions of the ability of women to rise to positions of leadership OECD Gender Institutions and Development Database 2014 of leadership World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Report 2015 Availability of finance programs for Availability of outreach programs for women that target the provision of financial Social acceptability of female Reflects perceptions of whether starting a new business is a socially acceptable women services credit financial literacy or risk management programs entrepreneurship career option for women Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 EIU Women s Economic Opportunity Report 2012 SME training and development Existence of geographic availability gender equal accessibility and affordability of Social encouragement of female Reflects perceptions of whether women are encouraged to become self employed programs government or non government programs offering Small and medium enterprise entrepreneurship or start a new business Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 support development training EIU Women s Economic Opportunity Report 2012 Ease of Access to Loans Perception of how easy it is for businesses to obtain a bank loan Gender bias in exposure to good Reflects perceptions of whether men and women are equally exposed to good business opportunities opportunities to start a new business Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2016 Affordability of Financial Services Perceived extent that the cost of financial services e g insurance loans trade finance impedes business activity Gender bias in entrepreneurial Reflects perceptions of whether men and women have the same level of knowledge and skills knowledge and skills to start a new business Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2016 B4 Women Tertiary Education Gross Enrollment Rate F M Gross female enrollment at the tertiary level as a percentage of tertiary age group female population female tertiary GER divided by Gross male enrollment at the tertiary level as a percentage of tertiary age group male population male tertiary GER UNESCO 2012 2014 projected to 2016 C3 Quality of Governance Government Effectiveness Composite of 5 governance sub indicators World Bank World Governance Indicators 2016 Reflects perceptions of the quality of public services the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures the quality of policy formulation and implementation and the credibility of the government s commitment to such policies Component C Entrepreneurial Supporting Conditions Indicator Regulatory Quality Reflects perceptions of the quality of public services the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures the quality of Description Source Period policy formulation and implementation and the credibility of the government s commitment to such policies C1 Ease of Doing Business Measures the gap between a particular economy s business regulation environment and the best practice World Bank Doing Business Database 2016 Political Stability and Absence of Measures perceptions of the likelihood of political instability and or politically Violence Terrorism motivated violence including terrorism Control of Corruption Reflects perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain including both petty and grand forms of corruption as well as capture of the state by elites and private interests Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 1 1 Description of Indicator and Sources 11
Indicator  Description  Source, Period   Indicator  Description  Source, Period   B3. Support for SMEs  Composite of 5 sub...
Indicator Description Source Period C4 Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors Composite of 5 sub indicators on Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors New Business Government Programs Reflects perception of whether there is an adequate number of government programs for new and growing businesses Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 Quality of the Education System Perception of how well the education system meets the needs of a competitive economy WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2016 Intellectual Property Protection Perceived extent of intellectual property protection WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2016 Property Rights Perceived extent of protection of property rights including financial assets WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2016 Intensity of Local Competition Perceived intensity of competition in the local markets WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2016 Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 1 1 Description of Indicator and Sources 13
Indicator  Description  Source, Period   C4. Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors  Composite of 5 sub-indicators on Entrepre...
Indicator Description Source Period C4 Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors Composite of 5 sub indicators on Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors New Business Government Programs Reflects perception of whether there is an adequate number of government programs for new and growing businesses Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 Quality of the Education System Perception of how well the education system meets the needs of a competitive economy WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2016 Intellectual Property Protection Perceived extent of intellectual property protection WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2016 Property Rights Perceived extent of protection of property rights including financial assets WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2016 Intensity of Local Competition Perceived intensity of competition in the local markets WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2016 Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 1 1 Description of Indicator and Sources 13
Indicator  Description  Source, Period   C4. Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors  Composite of 5 sub-indicators on Entrepre...
One of the key findings of the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE is that irrespective of the wealth and level of advancement of an economy there are unique internal market dynamics within each economy that draw out explicit entrepreneurial traits that may be very similar to or starkly different from its regional or global peers The results also show that markets with very supportive and favorable entrepreneurial conditions e g strong SME support high quality of governance and ease of doing business tend to drive the progress of women business ownership This is observed in the leading markets of New Zealand Canada United States Sweden Singapore Belgium and Australia where women appear to thrive in highly conducive entrepreneurial landscapes underpinned by more opportunity driven educational occupational entrepreneurial cultural and financial conditions 2 O ver v i ew Of Key Find ing s 2 1 Benchmark Women Business Owners 15 2 2 Results of the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 17 2 3 Component A Women s Advancement Outcomes 19 2 4 Component B Knowledge Assets Financial Access 21 2 5 Component C Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions 22 Results from the Index also show that the necessity driven Women s Entrepreneurial Activity Rate F M tends to be higher in developing markets such as Uganda Bangladesh Ecuador Peru and Vietnam In these markets necessitydriven women entrepreneurs tap on business segments that are usually non knowledge or innovation oriented within their local environment which effectively allow them to avoid financial regulatory or technical constraints There are other markets such as China Malaysia Philippines Mexico Peru and United Kingdom whereby the underlying entrepreneurial conditions and women business ownership are not necessarily the most conducive yet the local enterprising landscape is highly energized and vibrant with very healthy perception of business opportunities and high regard for the status of successful entrepreneurs Women entrepreneurs here are often driven by strong desires to succeed The results also reveal that there are high income and advanced economies such as Japan South Korea Hong Kong Taiwan Taiwan Canada Italy France Peru Spain Sweden and Singapore where the basic foundations of infrastructure are in place e g physical infrastructures education governance and financial systems yet women s progress as business owners are driven and restrained by vastly different conditions For instance the protracted history of very low entrepreneurial activity in Japan appears to stem from high fear of business failure and very low perception of business opportunities and capabilities conditions that deter potential entrepreneurs from taking up business risks In Singapore where the underlying entrepreneurial supporting conditions are second to none and opportunities for women s career advancement are strong the high costs of commercial and professional infrastructure and low levels of perceived entrepreneurial skills deter the potential of women business ownership In Peru where some of the best entrepreneurs and supporting conditions are found future entrepreneurship is constrained by fear of business failure restrictive government policies lack of financial support and lack of suitable entrepreneurial education and training In Argentina where overall entrepreneurial supporting conditions are below average women are capable of augmenting on these conditions to produce better than average representation as women business owners compared to men In the United States where the underlying entrepreneurial conditions and women s advancement outcomes are among the best in the world women s entrepreneurial advancement is held back by the lack of internationalization opportunities In New Zealand where women business ownership is among the highest in the world and women are increasingly pursuing opportunity driven business endeavors constraints such as restrictive high taxes inefficiencies in licensing and permit issuances and bureaucratic red tape are putting a glass ceiling on women s full business ownership potential In Australia where strength is observed across most indicators and the quality of entrepreneurship high women continue to be marginalized by age and marital family status And there are unique markets such as Germany where the overall entrepreneurial conditions such as quality of governance and ease of doing business are solid yet Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 2 Overview Of Key Findings 15
One of the key findings of the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs  MIWE  is that irrespective of the wealth and level...
One of the key findings of the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE is that irrespective of the wealth and level of advancement of an economy there are unique internal market dynamics within each economy that draw out explicit entrepreneurial traits that may be very similar to or starkly different from its regional or global peers The results also show that markets with very supportive and favorable entrepreneurial conditions e g strong SME support high quality of governance and ease of doing business tend to drive the progress of women business ownership This is observed in the leading markets of New Zealand Canada United States Sweden Singapore Belgium and Australia where women appear to thrive in highly conducive entrepreneurial landscapes underpinned by more opportunity driven educational occupational entrepreneurial cultural and financial conditions 2 O ver v i ew Of Key Find ing s 2 1 Benchmark Women Business Owners 15 2 2 Results of the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 17 2 3 Component A Women s Advancement Outcomes 19 2 4 Component B Knowledge Assets Financial Access 21 2 5 Component C Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions 22 Results from the Index also show that the necessity driven Women s Entrepreneurial Activity Rate F M tends to be higher in developing markets such as Uganda Bangladesh Ecuador Peru and Vietnam In these markets necessitydriven women entrepreneurs tap on business segments that are usually non knowledge or innovation oriented within their local environment which effectively allow them to avoid financial regulatory or technical constraints There are other markets such as China Malaysia Philippines Mexico Peru and United Kingdom whereby the underlying entrepreneurial conditions and women business ownership are not necessarily the most conducive yet the local enterprising landscape is highly energized and vibrant with very healthy perception of business opportunities and high regard for the status of successful entrepreneurs Women entrepreneurs here are often driven by strong desires to succeed The results also reveal that there are high income and advanced economies such as Japan South Korea Hong Kong Taiwan Taiwan Canada Italy France Peru Spain Sweden and Singapore where the basic foundations of infrastructure are in place e g physical infrastructures education governance and financial systems yet women s progress as business owners are driven and restrained by vastly different conditions For instance the protracted history of very low entrepreneurial activity in Japan appears to stem from high fear of business failure and very low perception of business opportunities and capabilities conditions that deter potential entrepreneurs from taking up business risks In Singapore where the underlying entrepreneurial supporting conditions are second to none and opportunities for women s career advancement are strong the high costs of commercial and professional infrastructure and low levels of perceived entrepreneurial skills deter the potential of women business ownership In Peru where some of the best entrepreneurs and supporting conditions are found future entrepreneurship is constrained by fear of business failure restrictive government policies lack of financial support and lack of suitable entrepreneurial education and training In Argentina where overall entrepreneurial supporting conditions are below average women are capable of augmenting on these conditions to produce better than average representation as women business owners compared to men In the United States where the underlying entrepreneurial conditions and women s advancement outcomes are among the best in the world women s entrepreneurial advancement is held back by the lack of internationalization opportunities In New Zealand where women business ownership is among the highest in the world and women are increasingly pursuing opportunity driven business endeavors constraints such as restrictive high taxes inefficiencies in licensing and permit issuances and bureaucratic red tape are putting a glass ceiling on women s full business ownership potential In Australia where strength is observed across most indicators and the quality of entrepreneurship high women continue to be marginalized by age and marital family status And there are unique markets such as Germany where the overall entrepreneurial conditions such as quality of governance and ease of doing business are solid yet Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 2 Overview Of Key Findings 15
One of the key findings of the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs  MIWE  is that irrespective of the wealth and level...
the progress of women business ownership remains sluggish due to low entrepreneurial drive the job market there offers lucrative employee and social benefits that entice the population to pursue a career instead of a business Notwithstanding the myriad similarities and differences the index results highlight the 6 key constraints of women business owners progress i lack of financial funding venture capital ii regulatory restrictions and institutional inefficiencies iii lack of self belief entrepreneurial drive iv fear of failure v socio cultural restrictions and vi lack of training and education In nearly all the 54 economies evaluated at least one of these barriers are holding back the growth of women business ownership 2 1 B e n c h m ar k Women B usiness Own e rs Women Business Owners as a percentage of Total Business Owners is the benchmark indicator of the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE The map below depicts women s business ownership across the 54 markets measured Based on the color scale it is observed that in the majority of the markets women business owners make up between 25 35 percent of total business owners these are shaded in white and yellow Markets with 15 20 percent are observed in South Africa and Asian markets such as Malaysia Japan and Taiwan shaded in orange while markets with 20 25 percent shaded in pink are scattered throughout Asia including Hong Kong Indonesia South Korea and Philippines some parts of Latin America such as Mexico and Scandinavia including Sweden Ireland and Denmark One of the most striking observations about the status and progress of Women Business Ownership is that it is not always correlated to the wealth and level of development of an economy This is reflected in the chart below Uganda as one of the only two low income economies surprises with the highest percentage of Women Business Owners 34 8 percent followed by upper middle income Botswana at 34 6 percent 2nd New Zealand at 33 3 percent 3rd Russia at 32 6 percent 4th and Australia at 32 4 percent 5th It is also surprising that two of the lower middle income economies Bangladesh and Vietnam are among the highest ranking in 6th and 7th place with readings of 31 6 percent and 31 4 percent respectively Out of the top 10 markets only four are high income economies New Zealand Australia Spain and United States Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE High Income Economy Upper Middle Income Economy 2 1 Lower Middle Income Economy Low Income Economy Benchmark Women Business Owners 17
the progress of women business ownership remains sluggish due to low entrepreneurial drive - the job market there offers l...
the progress of women business ownership remains sluggish due to low entrepreneurial drive the job market there offers lucrative employee and social benefits that entice the population to pursue a career instead of a business Notwithstanding the myriad similarities and differences the index results highlight the 6 key constraints of women business owners progress i lack of financial funding venture capital ii regulatory restrictions and institutional inefficiencies iii lack of self belief entrepreneurial drive iv fear of failure v socio cultural restrictions and vi lack of training and education In nearly all the 54 economies evaluated at least one of these barriers are holding back the growth of women business ownership 2 1 B e n c h m ar k Women B usiness Own e rs Women Business Owners as a percentage of Total Business Owners is the benchmark indicator of the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE The map below depicts women s business ownership across the 54 markets measured Based on the color scale it is observed that in the majority of the markets women business owners make up between 25 35 percent of total business owners these are shaded in white and yellow Markets with 15 20 percent are observed in South Africa and Asian markets such as Malaysia Japan and Taiwan shaded in orange while markets with 20 25 percent shaded in pink are scattered throughout Asia including Hong Kong Indonesia South Korea and Philippines some parts of Latin America such as Mexico and Scandinavia including Sweden Ireland and Denmark One of the most striking observations about the status and progress of Women Business Ownership is that it is not always correlated to the wealth and level of development of an economy This is reflected in the chart below Uganda as one of the only two low income economies surprises with the highest percentage of Women Business Owners 34 8 percent followed by upper middle income Botswana at 34 6 percent 2nd New Zealand at 33 3 percent 3rd Russia at 32 6 percent 4th and Australia at 32 4 percent 5th It is also surprising that two of the lower middle income economies Bangladesh and Vietnam are among the highest ranking in 6th and 7th place with readings of 31 6 percent and 31 4 percent respectively Out of the top 10 markets only four are high income economies New Zealand Australia Spain and United States Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE High Income Economy Upper Middle Income Economy 2 1 Lower Middle Income Economy Low Income Economy Benchmark Women Business Owners 17
the progress of women business ownership remains sluggish due to low entrepreneurial drive - the job market there offers l...
2 2 Re s u l t s of the Ma sterca rd Ind ex of Wo m e n Entrep reneurs MI W E The results of the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs shows strong correlation with the Benchmark Women Business Owners For instance the majority of markets in Asia Pacific North and South America Scandinavia Russia and Europe have medium to high index scores shaded in white yellow and green suggesting that women in these markets are making fairly good progress as business leaders and professionals have relatively good access to SME support financial services and education and live in societies where underlying entrepreneurial supporting conditions are generally quite healthy These markets also have correspondingly high Women Business Ownership representation In contrast markets with poor scores such as Egypt Saudi Arabia India Turkey UAE Tunisia and Islamic Republic of Iran have correspondingly low Women Business Ownership percentages With the exception of Saudi Arabia these markets tend to be lower middle and upper middle income economies Exceptional cases such as Uganda and Bangladesh are observed to have scores that are not correlated with Women Business Ownership readings For instance Bangladesh has the lowest MIWE score and ranking but surprises with one of the highest Women Business Ownership percentage 31 6 percent Similarly Uganda has a comparatively much lower score despite having the highest Women Business Ownership reading of 34 8 percent Top Bottom Performers The results reveal that in general high income economies tend to perform better in terms of women s advancement women s knowledge assets financial assets and supporting entrepreneurial conditions In fact out of the top 20 markets 15 are high income economies while the remaining are three upper middle and two lower middle income economies With an overall index score of 74 4 New Zealand holds first place followed by Canada 72 4 2nd United States 69 9 3rd Sweden 69 6 4th and Singapore 69 5 5th The lower middle income economies of Philippines 68 4 8th and Vietnam 65 0 19th surprise with higher than expected index scores The majority of the upper middle income markets have mid range and relatively healthy scores These include Thailand 67 5 Botswana 66 9 Costa Rica 64 7 South Africa 64 4 Peru 64 3 Malaysia 63 9 Colombia 63 8 Romania 61 7 and China 61 3 Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE High Income Economy 2 2 Upper Middle Income Economy Lower Middle Income Economy Low Income Economy Results Of The Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 19
2.2      Re s u l t s of the Ma sterca rd Ind ex of Wo m e n Entrep reneurs   MI W E   The results of the Mastercard Index...
2 2 Re s u l t s of the Ma sterca rd Ind ex of Wo m e n Entrep reneurs MI W E The results of the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs shows strong correlation with the Benchmark Women Business Owners For instance the majority of markets in Asia Pacific North and South America Scandinavia Russia and Europe have medium to high index scores shaded in white yellow and green suggesting that women in these markets are making fairly good progress as business leaders and professionals have relatively good access to SME support financial services and education and live in societies where underlying entrepreneurial supporting conditions are generally quite healthy These markets also have correspondingly high Women Business Ownership representation In contrast markets with poor scores such as Egypt Saudi Arabia India Turkey UAE Tunisia and Islamic Republic of Iran have correspondingly low Women Business Ownership percentages With the exception of Saudi Arabia these markets tend to be lower middle and upper middle income economies Exceptional cases such as Uganda and Bangladesh are observed to have scores that are not correlated with Women Business Ownership readings For instance Bangladesh has the lowest MIWE score and ranking but surprises with one of the highest Women Business Ownership percentage 31 6 percent Similarly Uganda has a comparatively much lower score despite having the highest Women Business Ownership reading of 34 8 percent Top Bottom Performers The results reveal that in general high income economies tend to perform better in terms of women s advancement women s knowledge assets financial assets and supporting entrepreneurial conditions In fact out of the top 20 markets 15 are high income economies while the remaining are three upper middle and two lower middle income economies With an overall index score of 74 4 New Zealand holds first place followed by Canada 72 4 2nd United States 69 9 3rd Sweden 69 6 4th and Singapore 69 5 5th The lower middle income economies of Philippines 68 4 8th and Vietnam 65 0 19th surprise with higher than expected index scores The majority of the upper middle income markets have mid range and relatively healthy scores These include Thailand 67 5 Botswana 66 9 Costa Rica 64 7 South Africa 64 4 Peru 64 3 Malaysia 63 9 Colombia 63 8 Romania 61 7 and China 61 3 Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE High Income Economy 2 2 Upper Middle Income Economy Lower Middle Income Economy Low Income Economy Results Of The Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 19
2.2      Re s u l t s of the Ma sterca rd Ind ex of Wo m e n Entrep reneurs   MI W E   The results of the Mastercard Index...
2 3 Co m po n e nt A Wom en s Advan ce m ent O utcom es The Women s Advancement Outcome Component A gauges women s progress and degree of marginalization economically and professionally as business leaders professionals entrepreneurs and labor force participants It comprises four indicators 1 Women Business Leaders F T ii Women Professionals Technical Workers F T iii Women Entrepreneurial Activity Rate F M and iv Women Labor Force Participation F M Top Bottom Performers The results are surprising Out of the top 10 markets the majority six are upper middle income economies such as Thailand Botswana Colombia and Brazil while the rest are lower income Philippines and Vietnam and high income economies Canada and New Zealand In fact the top three markets with the highest opportunities for women s advancement as leaders professionals entrepreneurs and labor force contributors are i Philippines a factor driven lower middle income market with a top component score of 65 5 ii Thailand an efficiency driven upper middle income economy with a component score of 62 7 and iii Botswana a factor efficiency driven upper middle income market with a component score of 62 6 Given that the indicators are gendered ratios females compared to males and females as a percentage of total women in the less wealthy nations are more likely to be driven into entrepreneurship out of necessity i e high female entrepreneurial rate or have joined the workforce to earn a living i e high female labor force participation rate It is also possible that in an environment where women have high opportunities to become leaders managers assume professional technical work roles or actively participate in the work force the talent pool of potential women entrepreneurs with the required entrepreneurial skill sets also increases The results also reveal that the majority of markets in North and Latin America Russia South Africa and Asia Pacific perform healthily in terms of women s advancement outcomes High Income Economy Upper Middle Income Economy Lower Middle Income Economy Low Income Economy At the other end of the spectrum women in the Middle East and Africa as well as India Japan and Korea tend to have lower scores in terms of having opportunities to assume leadership professional roles participating in the workforce or engaging in entrepreneurial activities a disparity that helps to explain the very low percentage scores for Women Business Ownership Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 2 3 Co m p o n e n t A Wo m e n s A d va n ce m e n t O u t co m e s 21
2.3      Co m po n e nt A  Wom en   s      Advan ce m ent O utcom es  The Women   s Advancement Outcome Component  A  gaug...
2 3 Co m po n e nt A Wom en s Advan ce m ent O utcom es The Women s Advancement Outcome Component A gauges women s progress and degree of marginalization economically and professionally as business leaders professionals entrepreneurs and labor force participants It comprises four indicators 1 Women Business Leaders F T ii Women Professionals Technical Workers F T iii Women Entrepreneurial Activity Rate F M and iv Women Labor Force Participation F M Top Bottom Performers The results are surprising Out of the top 10 markets the majority six are upper middle income economies such as Thailand Botswana Colombia and Brazil while the rest are lower income Philippines and Vietnam and high income economies Canada and New Zealand In fact the top three markets with the highest opportunities for women s advancement as leaders professionals entrepreneurs and labor force contributors are i Philippines a factor driven lower middle income market with a top component score of 65 5 ii Thailand an efficiency driven upper middle income economy with a component score of 62 7 and iii Botswana a factor efficiency driven upper middle income market with a component score of 62 6 Given that the indicators are gendered ratios females compared to males and females as a percentage of total women in the less wealthy nations are more likely to be driven into entrepreneurship out of necessity i e high female entrepreneurial rate or have joined the workforce to earn a living i e high female labor force participation rate It is also possible that in an environment where women have high opportunities to become leaders managers assume professional technical work roles or actively participate in the work force the talent pool of potential women entrepreneurs with the required entrepreneurial skill sets also increases The results also reveal that the majority of markets in North and Latin America Russia South Africa and Asia Pacific perform healthily in terms of women s advancement outcomes High Income Economy Upper Middle Income Economy Lower Middle Income Economy Low Income Economy At the other end of the spectrum women in the Middle East and Africa as well as India Japan and Korea tend to have lower scores in terms of having opportunities to assume leadership professional roles participating in the workforce or engaging in entrepreneurial activities a disparity that helps to explain the very low percentage scores for Women Business Ownership Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 2 3 Co m p o n e n t A Wo m e n s A d va n ce m e n t O u t co m e s 21
2.3      Co m po n e nt A  Wom en   s      Advan ce m ent O utcom es  The Women   s Advancement Outcome Component  A  gaug...
2 4 Co m po n e nt B K nowled g e Assets Fi n an ci al Access The Knowledge Assets Financial Access Component B gauges women s progress and the degree of marginalization they face commercially as financial customers and academically in terms of tertiary education enrollment It is also an indicator of women s inclination to borrow or save for business purposes and how much support is rendered for SMEs It comprises 4 indicators i Women Borrowing or Saving for Business F M ii Women Financial Inclusion F M iii Support for SMEs and iv Women Tertiary Education Gross Enrollment Rate F M Top Bottom Performers The results for Component B are slightly more encouraging With the exception of markets in the Middle East and Africa most markets in North and Latin America South Africa Europe Scandinavia Russia and Asia Pacific had reasonably healthy scores with Singapore 90 6 New Zealand 89 5 and South Africa 86 7 leading the pack coming in 1st 2nd and 3rd place respectively The lower income markets of Vietnam Philippines and Indonesia again surprised with encouragingly high component scores driven mostly by a high tendency to borrow or save for business purposes and high access to financial services products bank account credit and debit cards Good conditions that support SMEs Women Financial Inclusion Women Borrowing or Saving for Business and Women s Tertiary Education GER appear to help drive the progress of women s business ownership in the leading markets of Australia Hong Kong New Zealand Singapore Belgium Portugal Canada and the United States For other markets the impact of having good Women Financial Inclusion appear to have little impact on women s tendency towards business ownership This is observed in Indonesia Philippines Japan South Korea Iran and Russia where women have equal access to bank accounts credit and debit cards as their male counterparts but such privileges appear to have less of an impact in helping drive women s entrepreneurial business appetite Similarly in Turkey Israel Japan Taiwan and Malaysia where the Support for SMEs is comparatively good women s business ownership has not really taken off High Income Economy Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE Upper Middle Income Economy 2 4 Lower Middle Income Economy Low Income Economy Component B Knowledge Assets Financial Access 23
2.4      Co m po n e nt B   K nowled g e Assets     Fi n an ci al Access  The Knowledge Assets   Financial Access Componen...
2 4 Co m po n e nt B K nowled g e Assets Fi n an ci al Access The Knowledge Assets Financial Access Component B gauges women s progress and the degree of marginalization they face commercially as financial customers and academically in terms of tertiary education enrollment It is also an indicator of women s inclination to borrow or save for business purposes and how much support is rendered for SMEs It comprises 4 indicators i Women Borrowing or Saving for Business F M ii Women Financial Inclusion F M iii Support for SMEs and iv Women Tertiary Education Gross Enrollment Rate F M Top Bottom Performers The results for Component B are slightly more encouraging With the exception of markets in the Middle East and Africa most markets in North and Latin America South Africa Europe Scandinavia Russia and Asia Pacific had reasonably healthy scores with Singapore 90 6 New Zealand 89 5 and South Africa 86 7 leading the pack coming in 1st 2nd and 3rd place respectively The lower income markets of Vietnam Philippines and Indonesia again surprised with encouragingly high component scores driven mostly by a high tendency to borrow or save for business purposes and high access to financial services products bank account credit and debit cards Good conditions that support SMEs Women Financial Inclusion Women Borrowing or Saving for Business and Women s Tertiary Education GER appear to help drive the progress of women s business ownership in the leading markets of Australia Hong Kong New Zealand Singapore Belgium Portugal Canada and the United States For other markets the impact of having good Women Financial Inclusion appear to have little impact on women s tendency towards business ownership This is observed in Indonesia Philippines Japan South Korea Iran and Russia where women have equal access to bank accounts credit and debit cards as their male counterparts but such privileges appear to have less of an impact in helping drive women s entrepreneurial business appetite Similarly in Turkey Israel Japan Taiwan and Malaysia where the Support for SMEs is comparatively good women s business ownership has not really taken off High Income Economy Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE Upper Middle Income Economy 2 4 Lower Middle Income Economy Low Income Economy Component B Knowledge Assets Financial Access 23
2.4      Co m po n e nt B   K nowled g e Assets     Fi n an ci al Access  The Knowledge Assets   Financial Access Componen...
2 5 Co m po n e nt C S up p or tin g E nt re pre n eur ia l Cond itions The Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions Component C gauges how supportive entrepreneurial conditions are as enablers or constraints of women business ownership It comprises 4 indicators i Ease of Doing Business ii Cultural Perceptions of Women Entrepreneurs iii Quality of Governance and iv Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors Top Bottom Performers The results reveal that generally the most conducive and favorable entrepreneurial conditions exist in high income economies and the most restrictive in less wealthy economies This is not surprising given that high income economies tend to be mostly developed and innovation driven where the basic physical financial commercial governing and education infrastructures and systems are already in place These are the elements that help drive the quality of governance entrepreneurial conditions and ease of doing business The top five markets with the most enabling conditions for women business ownership entrepreneurship are Singapore 83 3 New Zealand 82 6 Hong Kong 82 2 Denmark 82 1 and Sweden 81 9 These markets also scored highly in Component B Knowledge Assets Financial Access especially in terms of support for SMEs and high women financial inclusion They are also among the highest ranked in the MIWE Similar to the other components Bangladesh as well as markets in the Middle East and Africa such as Iran Egypt Ethiopia Algeria and Uganda have worse supporting entrepreneurial conditions This is reflected in their very low overall Index scores and rankings High Income Economy Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE Upper Middle Income Economy 2 5 Lower Middle Income Economy Low Income Economy Component C Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions 25
2.5  Co m po n e nt C   S up p or tin g        E nt re pre n eur ia l Cond itions The Supporting Entrepreneurial Condition...
2 5 Co m po n e nt C S up p or tin g E nt re pre n eur ia l Cond itions The Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions Component C gauges how supportive entrepreneurial conditions are as enablers or constraints of women business ownership It comprises 4 indicators i Ease of Doing Business ii Cultural Perceptions of Women Entrepreneurs iii Quality of Governance and iv Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors Top Bottom Performers The results reveal that generally the most conducive and favorable entrepreneurial conditions exist in high income economies and the most restrictive in less wealthy economies This is not surprising given that high income economies tend to be mostly developed and innovation driven where the basic physical financial commercial governing and education infrastructures and systems are already in place These are the elements that help drive the quality of governance entrepreneurial conditions and ease of doing business The top five markets with the most enabling conditions for women business ownership entrepreneurship are Singapore 83 3 New Zealand 82 6 Hong Kong 82 2 Denmark 82 1 and Sweden 81 9 These markets also scored highly in Component B Knowledge Assets Financial Access especially in terms of support for SMEs and high women financial inclusion They are also among the highest ranked in the MIWE Similar to the other components Bangladesh as well as markets in the Middle East and Africa such as Iran Egypt Ethiopia Algeria and Uganda have worse supporting entrepreneurial conditions This is reflected in their very low overall Index scores and rankings High Income Economy Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE Upper Middle Income Economy 2 5 Lower Middle Income Economy Low Income Economy Component C Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions 25
2.5  Co m po n e nt C   S up p or tin g        E nt re pre n eur ia l Cond itions The Supporting Entrepreneurial Condition...
3 E xpe c tat i o n s O f Women s Prog ress As B u s i n e ss Owners The matrix chart depicts the relationship between the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE scores and the Benchmark indicator Women Business Owners as a percentage of all business owners The upwardcurving dotted trend line suggests there is a strong positive correlation between the overall Index scores and Women Business Owners as of all owners This is evident through the cluster of economies around the trend line This imaginary line of best fit represents each market s respective Index score plotted against the Women Business Owners as a percentage of all business owners The upward slope suggests that markets with higher Index scores above 50 tend to have a higher percentage of women business owners above 20 This is especially pronounced in High Income and Upper Middle Income economies such as New Zealand NZL Australia AUS United States USA Singapore SGP Spain ESP and Botswana BWA which are clustered at the upper right hand quadrant of the matrix chart The chart also shows that markets with lower Index scores below 50 tend to have a significantly lower representation of women as business owners less than 15 percent With the exception of Saudi Arabia SAU and United Arab Emirates ARE these economies are mostly Upper Middle and Lower Middle income and also mostly located in the Middle East and Africa except India In general compared to the other markets women in this cluster have not been able to make much progress in the business world due to various reasons such as i poor SME support ii lack of opportunities for business leadership roles compared to men iii less access to financial services and products compared to men and iv lower level of knowledge assets compared to men For instance with an overall Index score of 34 0 and a Women Business Ownership representation of only 3 3 percent Egypt is positioned 2nd lowest in both instances due to a myriad of hurdles This is reflected through the extremely weak scores for all 12 indicators all are ranked 46th or worse Markets above the Benchmark WBO Trendline In contrast the high percentage of women business owners in upper middle and high income economies that are above the trend line such as Australia AUS Vietnam VNM China CHN Russia RUS and Spain ESP are likely to be more opportunity driven bolstered by conducive entrepreneurial conditions and more widespread financial access Women in these markets are also more likely to possess advanced knowledge assets and are progressing further as leaders professionals and entrepreneurs Markets below the Benchmark WBO Trendline The matrix also suggests that economies residing above the trend line such as Botswana BWA Vietnam VNM China CHN Russia RUS Uganda UGA and Italy ITA are performing better than expected due to strong entrepreneurial supporting conditions and healthy women s advancement in their respective environments This is observed in extreme outliers such as Bangladesh BGD and Ethiopia ETH whereby the percentage of women business ownership is high above 25 percent in spite of poor supporting conditions and poor overall Index scores In Uganda where the percentage of women business ownership is the highest among its global peers 34 8 rank 1 the Index score pales in comparison at 58 6 ranked 41 These readings suggest that women in these markets are able to overcome the various restrictions challenges and unconducive conditions in their local environments to pursue entrepreneurial activities Given that these are mostly low income economies with poor supportive conditions the unexpectedly high representation of female business owners is likely to be necessity driven due to reasons such as lack of work opportunities and need for survival Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE In contrast to economies that are above the MIWE Benchmark Trend line those that reside far below the trend are underperforming in terms of leveraging on existing supporting conditions to pursue business ownership This is observed in developed high income economies like Canada CAN Sweden SWE and Israel ISR where the level of women business ownership is lower than expected despite high MIWE scores of above 65 points Given that a high MIWE score generally implies better women s entrepreneurial supporting conditions higher knowledge assets financial access and more women s progress in the business professional and political leadership the lower than expected Women s Business Ownership as a percentage of total business owners suggests that there are constraints hindering women s ability to flourish in the business world 3 E x p e c t a t i o n s O f Wo m e n s P ro g re s s A s B u s i n e s s O w n e rs 27
3  E xpe c tat i o n s O f Women   s Prog ress     As B u s i n e ss Owners The matrix chart depicts the relationship betw...
3 E xpe c tat i o n s O f Women s Prog ress As B u s i n e ss Owners The matrix chart depicts the relationship between the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE scores and the Benchmark indicator Women Business Owners as a percentage of all business owners The upwardcurving dotted trend line suggests there is a strong positive correlation between the overall Index scores and Women Business Owners as of all owners This is evident through the cluster of economies around the trend line This imaginary line of best fit represents each market s respective Index score plotted against the Women Business Owners as a percentage of all business owners The upward slope suggests that markets with higher Index scores above 50 tend to have a higher percentage of women business owners above 20 This is especially pronounced in High Income and Upper Middle Income economies such as New Zealand NZL Australia AUS United States USA Singapore SGP Spain ESP and Botswana BWA which are clustered at the upper right hand quadrant of the matrix chart The chart also shows that markets with lower Index scores below 50 tend to have a significantly lower representation of women as business owners less than 15 percent With the exception of Saudi Arabia SAU and United Arab Emirates ARE these economies are mostly Upper Middle and Lower Middle income and also mostly located in the Middle East and Africa except India In general compared to the other markets women in this cluster have not been able to make much progress in the business world due to various reasons such as i poor SME support ii lack of opportunities for business leadership roles compared to men iii less access to financial services and products compared to men and iv lower level of knowledge assets compared to men For instance with an overall Index score of 34 0 and a Women Business Ownership representation of only 3 3 percent Egypt is positioned 2nd lowest in both instances due to a myriad of hurdles This is reflected through the extremely weak scores for all 12 indicators all are ranked 46th or worse Markets above the Benchmark WBO Trendline In contrast the high percentage of women business owners in upper middle and high income economies that are above the trend line such as Australia AUS Vietnam VNM China CHN Russia RUS and Spain ESP are likely to be more opportunity driven bolstered by conducive entrepreneurial conditions and more widespread financial access Women in these markets are also more likely to possess advanced knowledge assets and are progressing further as leaders professionals and entrepreneurs Markets below the Benchmark WBO Trendline The matrix also suggests that economies residing above the trend line such as Botswana BWA Vietnam VNM China CHN Russia RUS Uganda UGA and Italy ITA are performing better than expected due to strong entrepreneurial supporting conditions and healthy women s advancement in their respective environments This is observed in extreme outliers such as Bangladesh BGD and Ethiopia ETH whereby the percentage of women business ownership is high above 25 percent in spite of poor supporting conditions and poor overall Index scores In Uganda where the percentage of women business ownership is the highest among its global peers 34 8 rank 1 the Index score pales in comparison at 58 6 ranked 41 These readings suggest that women in these markets are able to overcome the various restrictions challenges and unconducive conditions in their local environments to pursue entrepreneurial activities Given that these are mostly low income economies with poor supportive conditions the unexpectedly high representation of female business owners is likely to be necessity driven due to reasons such as lack of work opportunities and need for survival Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE In contrast to economies that are above the MIWE Benchmark Trend line those that reside far below the trend are underperforming in terms of leveraging on existing supporting conditions to pursue business ownership This is observed in developed high income economies like Canada CAN Sweden SWE and Israel ISR where the level of women business ownership is lower than expected despite high MIWE scores of above 65 points Given that a high MIWE score generally implies better women s entrepreneurial supporting conditions higher knowledge assets financial access and more women s progress in the business professional and political leadership the lower than expected Women s Business Ownership as a percentage of total business owners suggests that there are constraints hindering women s ability to flourish in the business world 3 E x p e c t a t i o n s O f Wo m e n s P ro g re s s A s B u s i n e s s O w n e rs 27
3  E xpe c tat i o n s O f Women   s Prog ress     As B u s i n e ss Owners The matrix chart depicts the relationship betw...
4 Co n cl u s i o n Using Women Business Ownership as the Benchmark indicator of the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs we observed that in general markets with higher overall index scores tend to have a higher female representation of business owners in the economy On average the component scores in these markets are among the healthiest in terms of i women s progress as business leaders managers professionals and entrepreneurs ii women s access to financial services products advanced education and support for SMEs and iii the extent to which ease of doing business cultural perception and quality of governance support women entrepreneurs ability to thrive This is observed in the leading markets on the Index New Zealand Canada United States Sweden Singapore Belgium Australia Philippines United Kingdom and Thailand where the component scores are generally high In contrast markets with the least supportive conditions also tend to have the lowest proportion of women business owners Drawing on findings from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor GEM World Bank World Economic Forum WEF Economist Intelligence Unit EIU International Labor Organization ILO Mastercard in house research and numerous other studies and research papers the Index shows that there are some economies with exceptionally unique internal market dynamics and localized conditions that are natural drivers of women entrepreneurship These are observed in outliers such as Bangladesh Uganda Mexico Peru China and Vietnam where the underlying entrepreneurial conditions are not highly favorable yet women are engaged in entrepreneurship either out of necessity or opportunity to seek financial independence to fulfill business aspirations or simply because the local socio cultural and economic conditions highly regard and accept it The Index findings also show indicators such as Support for SMEs Women Financial Inclusion F M Ease of Doing Business Quality of Governance Cultural Perception of Women Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurial Supportive Factors to be among the strongest enablers of women business ownership This suggests that by improving or enhancing these enablers women s progress may be improved as well There are also other enabling factors such as positive business mindset sheer drive and determination to succeed and high ability to identify good business opportunities that are not measured in the Index but identified in various studies such as GEM These conducive conditions are most widely observed in the leading markets of New Zealand United States Canada Australia Hong Kong Switzerland Sweden and Singapore This study also shows some of the most common and biggest constraints of women business ownership to be i lack of financial funding venture capital ii regulatory restrictions and institutional inefficiencies iii lack of selfbelief entrepreneurial drive iv fear of failure v socio cultural restrictions and vi lack of training and education In nearly all the 54 economies evaluated at least one or more of these constraints are holding back the progress of women in the business world It is evident that women s full potential and value as entrepreneurs and business owners are yet to be unleashed However such an endeavor will require concerted effort focus and drive at multiple levels Personal self drive and motivation Family and social support Economic and political opportunities Private public support through training funding and effective policies as well heightened Entrepreneurial and business networking trade and linkages locally and globally Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 4 Conclusion 29
4 Co n cl u s i o n Using Women Business Ownership as the Benchmark indicator of the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneu...
4 Co n cl u s i o n Using Women Business Ownership as the Benchmark indicator of the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneurs we observed that in general markets with higher overall index scores tend to have a higher female representation of business owners in the economy On average the component scores in these markets are among the healthiest in terms of i women s progress as business leaders managers professionals and entrepreneurs ii women s access to financial services products advanced education and support for SMEs and iii the extent to which ease of doing business cultural perception and quality of governance support women entrepreneurs ability to thrive This is observed in the leading markets on the Index New Zealand Canada United States Sweden Singapore Belgium Australia Philippines United Kingdom and Thailand where the component scores are generally high In contrast markets with the least supportive conditions also tend to have the lowest proportion of women business owners Drawing on findings from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor GEM World Bank World Economic Forum WEF Economist Intelligence Unit EIU International Labor Organization ILO Mastercard in house research and numerous other studies and research papers the Index shows that there are some economies with exceptionally unique internal market dynamics and localized conditions that are natural drivers of women entrepreneurship These are observed in outliers such as Bangladesh Uganda Mexico Peru China and Vietnam where the underlying entrepreneurial conditions are not highly favorable yet women are engaged in entrepreneurship either out of necessity or opportunity to seek financial independence to fulfill business aspirations or simply because the local socio cultural and economic conditions highly regard and accept it The Index findings also show indicators such as Support for SMEs Women Financial Inclusion F M Ease of Doing Business Quality of Governance Cultural Perception of Women Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurial Supportive Factors to be among the strongest enablers of women business ownership This suggests that by improving or enhancing these enablers women s progress may be improved as well There are also other enabling factors such as positive business mindset sheer drive and determination to succeed and high ability to identify good business opportunities that are not measured in the Index but identified in various studies such as GEM These conducive conditions are most widely observed in the leading markets of New Zealand United States Canada Australia Hong Kong Switzerland Sweden and Singapore This study also shows some of the most common and biggest constraints of women business ownership to be i lack of financial funding venture capital ii regulatory restrictions and institutional inefficiencies iii lack of selfbelief entrepreneurial drive iv fear of failure v socio cultural restrictions and vi lack of training and education In nearly all the 54 economies evaluated at least one or more of these constraints are holding back the progress of women in the business world It is evident that women s full potential and value as entrepreneurs and business owners are yet to be unleashed However such an endeavor will require concerted effort focus and drive at multiple levels Personal self drive and motivation Family and social support Economic and political opportunities Private public support through training funding and effective policies as well heightened Entrepreneurial and business networking trade and linkages locally and globally Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 4 Conclusion 29
4 Co n cl u s i o n Using Women Business Ownership as the Benchmark indicator of the Mastercard Index of Women Entrepreneu...
5 1 5 Ma r ket Cas e Stud ies O f S e l e c te d M ar kets New Zealand High Income High Women Business Ownership High Index Score Star Performer 5 1 New Zealand 21 5 2 Australia 23 5 3 China 25 5 4 Singapore 27 5 5 United States 29 5 6 United Kingdom 31 5 7 Germany 33 5 8 Uganda 35 5 9 Argentina 37 5 10 Japan 39 5 11 Bangladesh 41 With a top Index score of 74 4 and Women Business Ownership of 33 3 percent in third place New Zealand s achievement in women entrepreneurship and overall global standing is impressive This stellar achievement is largely attributed to promising results in all three components pointing to strength in women s advancement in the business and corporate world leadership in knowledge assets and financial access as well as solid underlying conditions supporting entrepreneurship A breakdown of the indicators within these components reveals areas where New Zealand surpasses its peers such as Australia In terms of Component A Women s Advancement Outcomes 59 9 rank 7 New Zealand is above the average of high income economies with women making solid progress in Women Business Leadership F T 41 8 rank 4 Women Professionals Technical Workers F T 56 6 rank 10 and Women Labor Force Participation F M 85 4 rank 8 Out of every 100 professionals and technical workers more than half 56 6 are women placing them at the top among the wealthy markets surpassing Australia at 53 7 percent and very similar to China at 56 8 percent As labor force participants Women Labor Force Participation F M the results show that given an equally sized female and male working age population there are 85 4 working women for every 100 working men higher than Australia at 82 6 and China at 81 3 While not at par with their male counterparts the result suggests that the proportion of women who are actively working is very high in New Zealand and among the top high income markets including Denmark France Germany Portugal and Sweden Specifically women s representation in business leadership is inspiring Out of every 100 business leaders nearly half 41 8 are women bringing them nearly at par with men and ahead of high income markets such as Australia 37 0 percent Singapore 34 8 percent United States 39 3 percent Canada 35 7 percent and Italy 27 2 percent Compared to China where overall women business ownership is very similar to New Zealand s Chinese women have significantly less opportunities to rise to leadership positions where out of every 100 business leaders only about one quarter 24 1 are women The results for Component B Knowledge Assets Financial Access 79 7 rank 17 show women benefiting from opportunities stemming from Women Financial Inclusion F M 99 8 rank 6 Support for SMEs 92 2 rank 1 and Women Tertiary Education GER F M 100 0 rank 1 Data from the EIU s Women s Economic Opportunity show women in New Zealand having the highest degree of access to benefits and opportunities such as SME training and development programs and outreach initiatives for women targeted at financial literacy and risk management They also have equal access to financial services by law or custom OECD and bank loans WEF Global Competitiveness Index These conditions are notably more favorable and supportive than all other markets For instance in other high income markets such as the United Kingdom Uruguay Saudi Arabia and the UAE and upper middle income markets such as Thailand Brazil Mexico Algeria Iran and South Africa women have less access to financial services by law or custom OECD compared to New Zealand 3 This suggests that the remaining 14 6 percent women choose not to work and are homemakers Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 1 Case Study New Zealand 31
5.1  5  Ma r ket Cas e Stud ies O f   S e l e c te d M ar kets  New Zealand  High Income, High Women Business Ownership, H...
5 1 5 Ma r ket Cas e Stud ies O f S e l e c te d M ar kets New Zealand High Income High Women Business Ownership High Index Score Star Performer 5 1 New Zealand 21 5 2 Australia 23 5 3 China 25 5 4 Singapore 27 5 5 United States 29 5 6 United Kingdom 31 5 7 Germany 33 5 8 Uganda 35 5 9 Argentina 37 5 10 Japan 39 5 11 Bangladesh 41 With a top Index score of 74 4 and Women Business Ownership of 33 3 percent in third place New Zealand s achievement in women entrepreneurship and overall global standing is impressive This stellar achievement is largely attributed to promising results in all three components pointing to strength in women s advancement in the business and corporate world leadership in knowledge assets and financial access as well as solid underlying conditions supporting entrepreneurship A breakdown of the indicators within these components reveals areas where New Zealand surpasses its peers such as Australia In terms of Component A Women s Advancement Outcomes 59 9 rank 7 New Zealand is above the average of high income economies with women making solid progress in Women Business Leadership F T 41 8 rank 4 Women Professionals Technical Workers F T 56 6 rank 10 and Women Labor Force Participation F M 85 4 rank 8 Out of every 100 professionals and technical workers more than half 56 6 are women placing them at the top among the wealthy markets surpassing Australia at 53 7 percent and very similar to China at 56 8 percent As labor force participants Women Labor Force Participation F M the results show that given an equally sized female and male working age population there are 85 4 working women for every 100 working men higher than Australia at 82 6 and China at 81 3 While not at par with their male counterparts the result suggests that the proportion of women who are actively working is very high in New Zealand and among the top high income markets including Denmark France Germany Portugal and Sweden Specifically women s representation in business leadership is inspiring Out of every 100 business leaders nearly half 41 8 are women bringing them nearly at par with men and ahead of high income markets such as Australia 37 0 percent Singapore 34 8 percent United States 39 3 percent Canada 35 7 percent and Italy 27 2 percent Compared to China where overall women business ownership is very similar to New Zealand s Chinese women have significantly less opportunities to rise to leadership positions where out of every 100 business leaders only about one quarter 24 1 are women The results for Component B Knowledge Assets Financial Access 79 7 rank 17 show women benefiting from opportunities stemming from Women Financial Inclusion F M 99 8 rank 6 Support for SMEs 92 2 rank 1 and Women Tertiary Education GER F M 100 0 rank 1 Data from the EIU s Women s Economic Opportunity show women in New Zealand having the highest degree of access to benefits and opportunities such as SME training and development programs and outreach initiatives for women targeted at financial literacy and risk management They also have equal access to financial services by law or custom OECD and bank loans WEF Global Competitiveness Index These conditions are notably more favorable and supportive than all other markets For instance in other high income markets such as the United Kingdom Uruguay Saudi Arabia and the UAE and upper middle income markets such as Thailand Brazil Mexico Algeria Iran and South Africa women have less access to financial services by law or custom OECD compared to New Zealand 3 This suggests that the remaining 14 6 percent women choose not to work and are homemakers Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 1 Case Study New Zealand 31
5.1  5  Ma r ket Cas e Stud ies O f   S e l e c te d M ar kets  New Zealand  High Income, High Women Business Ownership, H...
Not surprisingly New Zealand s score for Component C Supportive Entrepreneurial Conditions is very high 82 6 trailing only Singapore at 83 3 especially in terms of Ease of Doing Business 87 0 rank 1 and Quality of Governance 99 0 rank 1 Ranked number one worldwide in the World Bank s Ease of Doing Business Index New Zealand offers some of the most conducive and efficient conditions for business operations such as starting a business registering property getting credit paying taxes and enforcing contracts This is higher than other developed and high income economies such as Singapore Denmark Hong Kong Korea Norway UK US and Sweden The World Bank s Worldwide Governance Indicators WGI also show New Zealand leading in terms of quality of governance surpassing peers such as Australia Japan Singapore Denmark Ireland Germany Switzerland Canada US and UK With a top score of 100 for Control of Corruption and 99 for Political Stability New Zealand s business environment is the least corrupted and threatened by political and social unrest making it the most desirable and ideal place for business startup Other Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors such as the availability of new business government programs quality of education system protection of property rights and intellectual property and intensity of local competition are also very supportive of entrepreneurial activity 77 4 rank 8 above average for high income economies Constraints in New Zealand High Staff Turnover Fear of Failure According to the latest GEM Report for New Zealand the country is considered to be one of the most entrepreneurial globally However the advancement of entrepreneurship has been largely restricted by high taxes inefficiencies in licensing and permits issuance and bureaucratic red tape A more recent study conducted by the Small Enterprise Association of Australia and New Zealand SEAANZ 2015 underscored the costs of high employee turnover 15 16 percent seen in SMEs and how business owners were fearful of being innovative as failure may lead to the need to cut staff Silver Lining High Female Opportunity Driven Entrepreneurship Notwithstanding the institutional challenges women face in their pursuit of entrepreneurship it is encouraging to note that of those females engaged in early state entrepreneurial activity the majority are doing so because they are driven by opportunities as opposed to being driven by necessity and they seek independence or higher income as opposed to just maintaining their income Out of every 100 women initiated entrepreneurial start ups 89 are opportunity driven This is very high and close to their male counterparts at 97 Female opportunity driven entrepreneurship is also high in other advanced economies Canada 89 5 percent Japan 90 9 percent Denmark 90 6 percent Italy 94 5 percent and Sweden 92 8 percent 4 The latest available GEM report for New Zealand is 2005 Available Online http www gemconsortium org country profile 137 5 Whyte Rebecca 2015 Constraints to innovation in New Zealand an exploratory Study Small Enterprise Association of Australia and New Zealand 2015 Available Online http www seaanz org sites seaanz documents 2015SEAANZConference SEAANZ 2015 Whyte pdf 6 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2009 2015 7 GEM Adult Population Survey Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 1 Case Study New Zealand 33
Not surprisingly, New Zealand   s score for Component C  Supportive Entrepreneurial Conditions is very high  82.6, trailin...
Not surprisingly New Zealand s score for Component C Supportive Entrepreneurial Conditions is very high 82 6 trailing only Singapore at 83 3 especially in terms of Ease of Doing Business 87 0 rank 1 and Quality of Governance 99 0 rank 1 Ranked number one worldwide in the World Bank s Ease of Doing Business Index New Zealand offers some of the most conducive and efficient conditions for business operations such as starting a business registering property getting credit paying taxes and enforcing contracts This is higher than other developed and high income economies such as Singapore Denmark Hong Kong Korea Norway UK US and Sweden The World Bank s Worldwide Governance Indicators WGI also show New Zealand leading in terms of quality of governance surpassing peers such as Australia Japan Singapore Denmark Ireland Germany Switzerland Canada US and UK With a top score of 100 for Control of Corruption and 99 for Political Stability New Zealand s business environment is the least corrupted and threatened by political and social unrest making it the most desirable and ideal place for business startup Other Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors such as the availability of new business government programs quality of education system protection of property rights and intellectual property and intensity of local competition are also very supportive of entrepreneurial activity 77 4 rank 8 above average for high income economies Constraints in New Zealand High Staff Turnover Fear of Failure According to the latest GEM Report for New Zealand the country is considered to be one of the most entrepreneurial globally However the advancement of entrepreneurship has been largely restricted by high taxes inefficiencies in licensing and permits issuance and bureaucratic red tape A more recent study conducted by the Small Enterprise Association of Australia and New Zealand SEAANZ 2015 underscored the costs of high employee turnover 15 16 percent seen in SMEs and how business owners were fearful of being innovative as failure may lead to the need to cut staff Silver Lining High Female Opportunity Driven Entrepreneurship Notwithstanding the institutional challenges women face in their pursuit of entrepreneurship it is encouraging to note that of those females engaged in early state entrepreneurial activity the majority are doing so because they are driven by opportunities as opposed to being driven by necessity and they seek independence or higher income as opposed to just maintaining their income Out of every 100 women initiated entrepreneurial start ups 89 are opportunity driven This is very high and close to their male counterparts at 97 Female opportunity driven entrepreneurship is also high in other advanced economies Canada 89 5 percent Japan 90 9 percent Denmark 90 6 percent Italy 94 5 percent and Sweden 92 8 percent 4 The latest available GEM report for New Zealand is 2005 Available Online http www gemconsortium org country profile 137 5 Whyte Rebecca 2015 Constraints to innovation in New Zealand an exploratory Study Small Enterprise Association of Australia and New Zealand 2015 Available Online http www seaanz org sites seaanz documents 2015SEAANZConference SEAANZ 2015 Whyte pdf 6 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2009 2015 7 GEM Adult Population Survey Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 1 Case Study New Zealand 33
Not surprisingly, New Zealand   s score for Component C  Supportive Entrepreneurial Conditions is very high  82.6, trailin...
5 2 Au s t ral i a High Income High Women Business Ownership High Overall Index Score A Top Performer With an overall Index score of 68 5 and global ranking of 7 Australian women s achievement as business owners leaders professionals and entrepreneurs is remarkable Out of every 10 business owners three are women 32 4 percent The three Index components reveal Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions Component C score of 79 4 rank 9 to be particularly strong and effective in propelling Australian women s advancement in the business world A breakdown of the component reveals strength in most indicators High Quality of Governance 90 8 rank 6 High Ease of Doing Business 80 3 rank 10 and Positive Cultural Perceptions of Women Entrepreneurs 72 1 rank 9 all of which are above the average among high income economies A breakdown of the Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors indicator suggests Australia to be among the highest in terms of quality in the education system protection of intellectual property rule of law and support from family elements that are vital in shaping a conducive and progressive entrepreneurial landscape for women The high score for Cultural Perceptions of Women Entrepreneurs 72 1 rank 9 suggests that women business owners operate within an environment where society not only accepts but also encourages women s aspirations for entrepreneurial activities Knowledge assets outshines most Quality of Entrepreneurship Strong Australia s Women s Advancement Outcomes Component A warrants mention At 57 2 rank 13 women s progress as business leaders as of total leaders professionals and technical workers as of total professionals is above the average among high income economies Women s labor force participation is also very healthy at 82 6 rank 14 suggesting that for every 10 men in the workforce there are eight women doing the same Although the Female toMale ratio of Entrepreneurial Activity 65 2 percent rank 21 show women to be less involved in business start ups than their male counterparts this score is among the top few innovation driven most developed economies for female entrepreneurship participation for every 100 working age men in pursuit of an entrepreneurial activity and have started one for a maximum of 3 5 years there are 65 women of working age engaged in the same In addition it is encouraging to note that the quality of entrepreneurial activities in Australia is high driven by new ventures that are ranked in the top few nations in terms of contribution to job creation and product service innovativeness In terms of Component B Knowledge Assets Financial Access Australian women have attained gender parity for Women Financial Inclusion F M and Women Tertiary Education Gross Enrollment Rate F M top ranking and scores of 100 0 for both Specifically the results show no bias in women s ability to gain access to financial products such as credit and debit cards and services such as having a bank account In terms of tertiary education enrollment Australian women surpass men for every 74 men enrolled in a tertiary institution there are 100 women doing the same Like their peers in New Zealand Belgium Czech Republic Sweden and Switzerland Australian women seeking to be entrepreneurs are assured of a high degree of Support for SMEs 89 2 rank 6 Not only 1 This suggests that the remaining 14 6 percent women choose not to work and are homemakers do they have equal access to financial services as men 100 0 there are ample opportunities to be gained from Financial Programs for women and SME training 100 0 for both Women entrepreneurs also face little challenges in Obtaining Bank Loans 72 6 and are not constrained by costly Financial Services 73 3 For instance the Business Aid Centre in Australia provides grants subsidized mentoring and training programs and low interest loans for aspiring entrepreneurs across a wide spectrum of industries such as agriculture construction culture media arts F B healthcare medical R D and retail Specifically there are incentives and government grants state federal and territory for women to support them in starting a business Positive Cultural Norms Self Confidence Support stemming from society in terms of positive attitude and media coverage showcasing successful role models for prospective entrepreneurs are also vital enablers Perhaps what stands out the most is that a significant proportion of the population 45 7 percent not only has a keen eye in identifying opportunities for new business start ups they also possess the confidence and positive mindset in their capacity to do so 46 8 percent attributes that surpass the average among developed economies The roles of both the state and federal government are vital in cultivating the progress witnessed thus far especially in minimizing red tape and extending adequate support for new business start ups through programs and education Constraints Declining Entrepreneurial Intentions Fear of Failure GEM s gender analysis revealed that in terms of female total early stage entrepreneurial activity TEA although participation rate is considerably healthy at 10 3 percent meaning that of the 1 9 million Australians engaged in starting new businesses 39 3 percent or 750 000 were women their participation in new business start ups still lags behind men 10 3 percent against 16 0 percent in favor of men This is lower than in New Zealand where the gender ratio of business start ups is higher 13 7 percent females against 21 7 percent males Research has highlighted and affirmed that although Australian women contribute nearly 40 percent of GDP and about 20 percent of private sector net job creation they are less likely to be employers of other people compared to their male counterparts due to various factors such as socio cultural norms occupational segregation migration patterns and other challenges such as financial capital access networks and strategic choices The results from GEM s study also suggest that this could be due to a high fear of failure 39 2 percent above average of developed economies a condition that is reflected in the decline in Intentions to start a new business within the next 3 years from 12 percent of adult population in 2011 to 10 percent in 2014 opposite from the average of developed economies where intentions rose from 10 percent to 12 percent over the same period Another area of concern is that although the Tertiary Education Gross Enrollment Rate F M suggests that there are more females enrolled in tertiary education institutions than males 100 0 against 74 3 in favor of females this acquired knowledge asset is not always translated into economic contribution through the workforce This is evident in the score for Labor Force Participation Rate F M whereby for every 71 actively working male there are only 58 females doing the same This implies that women may be undermined in their capacity to find work Of these 58 5 percent of females who are actively in the workforce 87 6 percent are working in the capacity of employees leaving only 12 4 percent working as self employed free lancers or entrepreneurs which invariably explains why women entrepreneurial activity rate is lower than expected The GEM 2014 report revealed a strong rise in necessity driven entrepreneurship up 47 percent to 2 3 percent of adult population since 2011 and well above the average across innovation economies of 1 3 percent reinforces the possibility that there might be a lack of better work opportunities or sources of income 1 This suggests that the remaining 14 6 percent women choose not to work and are homemakers Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 2 Case Study Australia 35
5.2   Au s t ral i a  High Income, High Women Business Ownership, High Overall Index Score - A Top Performer With an overa...
5 2 Au s t ral i a High Income High Women Business Ownership High Overall Index Score A Top Performer With an overall Index score of 68 5 and global ranking of 7 Australian women s achievement as business owners leaders professionals and entrepreneurs is remarkable Out of every 10 business owners three are women 32 4 percent The three Index components reveal Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions Component C score of 79 4 rank 9 to be particularly strong and effective in propelling Australian women s advancement in the business world A breakdown of the component reveals strength in most indicators High Quality of Governance 90 8 rank 6 High Ease of Doing Business 80 3 rank 10 and Positive Cultural Perceptions of Women Entrepreneurs 72 1 rank 9 all of which are above the average among high income economies A breakdown of the Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors indicator suggests Australia to be among the highest in terms of quality in the education system protection of intellectual property rule of law and support from family elements that are vital in shaping a conducive and progressive entrepreneurial landscape for women The high score for Cultural Perceptions of Women Entrepreneurs 72 1 rank 9 suggests that women business owners operate within an environment where society not only accepts but also encourages women s aspirations for entrepreneurial activities Knowledge assets outshines most Quality of Entrepreneurship Strong Australia s Women s Advancement Outcomes Component A warrants mention At 57 2 rank 13 women s progress as business leaders as of total leaders professionals and technical workers as of total professionals is above the average among high income economies Women s labor force participation is also very healthy at 82 6 rank 14 suggesting that for every 10 men in the workforce there are eight women doing the same Although the Female toMale ratio of Entrepreneurial Activity 65 2 percent rank 21 show women to be less involved in business start ups than their male counterparts this score is among the top few innovation driven most developed economies for female entrepreneurship participation for every 100 working age men in pursuit of an entrepreneurial activity and have started one for a maximum of 3 5 years there are 65 women of working age engaged in the same In addition it is encouraging to note that the quality of entrepreneurial activities in Australia is high driven by new ventures that are ranked in the top few nations in terms of contribution to job creation and product service innovativeness In terms of Component B Knowledge Assets Financial Access Australian women have attained gender parity for Women Financial Inclusion F M and Women Tertiary Education Gross Enrollment Rate F M top ranking and scores of 100 0 for both Specifically the results show no bias in women s ability to gain access to financial products such as credit and debit cards and services such as having a bank account In terms of tertiary education enrollment Australian women surpass men for every 74 men enrolled in a tertiary institution there are 100 women doing the same Like their peers in New Zealand Belgium Czech Republic Sweden and Switzerland Australian women seeking to be entrepreneurs are assured of a high degree of Support for SMEs 89 2 rank 6 Not only 1 This suggests that the remaining 14 6 percent women choose not to work and are homemakers do they have equal access to financial services as men 100 0 there are ample opportunities to be gained from Financial Programs for women and SME training 100 0 for both Women entrepreneurs also face little challenges in Obtaining Bank Loans 72 6 and are not constrained by costly Financial Services 73 3 For instance the Business Aid Centre in Australia provides grants subsidized mentoring and training programs and low interest loans for aspiring entrepreneurs across a wide spectrum of industries such as agriculture construction culture media arts F B healthcare medical R D and retail Specifically there are incentives and government grants state federal and territory for women to support them in starting a business Positive Cultural Norms Self Confidence Support stemming from society in terms of positive attitude and media coverage showcasing successful role models for prospective entrepreneurs are also vital enablers Perhaps what stands out the most is that a significant proportion of the population 45 7 percent not only has a keen eye in identifying opportunities for new business start ups they also possess the confidence and positive mindset in their capacity to do so 46 8 percent attributes that surpass the average among developed economies The roles of both the state and federal government are vital in cultivating the progress witnessed thus far especially in minimizing red tape and extending adequate support for new business start ups through programs and education Constraints Declining Entrepreneurial Intentions Fear of Failure GEM s gender analysis revealed that in terms of female total early stage entrepreneurial activity TEA although participation rate is considerably healthy at 10 3 percent meaning that of the 1 9 million Australians engaged in starting new businesses 39 3 percent or 750 000 were women their participation in new business start ups still lags behind men 10 3 percent against 16 0 percent in favor of men This is lower than in New Zealand where the gender ratio of business start ups is higher 13 7 percent females against 21 7 percent males Research has highlighted and affirmed that although Australian women contribute nearly 40 percent of GDP and about 20 percent of private sector net job creation they are less likely to be employers of other people compared to their male counterparts due to various factors such as socio cultural norms occupational segregation migration patterns and other challenges such as financial capital access networks and strategic choices The results from GEM s study also suggest that this could be due to a high fear of failure 39 2 percent above average of developed economies a condition that is reflected in the decline in Intentions to start a new business within the next 3 years from 12 percent of adult population in 2011 to 10 percent in 2014 opposite from the average of developed economies where intentions rose from 10 percent to 12 percent over the same period Another area of concern is that although the Tertiary Education Gross Enrollment Rate F M suggests that there are more females enrolled in tertiary education institutions than males 100 0 against 74 3 in favor of females this acquired knowledge asset is not always translated into economic contribution through the workforce This is evident in the score for Labor Force Participation Rate F M whereby for every 71 actively working male there are only 58 females doing the same This implies that women may be undermined in their capacity to find work Of these 58 5 percent of females who are actively in the workforce 87 6 percent are working in the capacity of employees leaving only 12 4 percent working as self employed free lancers or entrepreneurs which invariably explains why women entrepreneurial activity rate is lower than expected The GEM 2014 report revealed a strong rise in necessity driven entrepreneurship up 47 percent to 2 3 percent of adult population since 2011 and well above the average across innovation economies of 1 3 percent reinforces the possibility that there might be a lack of better work opportunities or sources of income 1 This suggests that the remaining 14 6 percent women choose not to work and are homemakers Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 2 Case Study Australia 35
5.2   Au s t ral i a  High Income, High Women Business Ownership, High Overall Index Score - A Top Performer With an overa...
5 3 China Mid range Index Score High Women Business Ownership Upper Middle Income Strong Performer With an overall Index score of 61 3 and global ranking of 31 China boasts an impressive Women Business Ownership representation of 30 9 percent This places China in a unique position women s progress as business owners and entrepreneurs is nearly at par with leading high income nations such as Australia New Zealand Singapore Spain and the United States despite having weaker supporting entrepreneurial conditions knowledge assets and financial access Like Uruguay the United States New Zealand Singapore Thailand Philippines Indonesia Argentina and Israel women in China are making solid inroads in Knowledge Assets Financial Assets 81 9 rank 12 Not only are they as educated as their male counterparts in both secondary and tertiary education they are just as inspired and motivated to pursue opportunistic entrepreneurial businesses activities 60 1 percent for women against 64 7 percent for men for Opportunity Driven Entrepreneurship Specifically their pursuit of success and independence and desire for recognition in society is driven and supported by the strong cultural acceptance of women entrepreneurs in China 67 8 rank 27 and high financial inclusion 89 7 rank 27 However China s support system for SMEs is less established and advantageous for women entrepreneurs 69 2 rank 29 Although both genders have equal access to financial services by law or custom the availability of outreach financial programs for women affordability of financial services and access to business loans are poor Success in business driven by sheer drive hard work Many of China s success stories of women entrepreneurs attribute hard work and sheer drive as the key ingredients to success This is not surprising given that the supporting conditions for enterprising are not strong 56 9 rank 40 Statistics also show labor market dynamics to be sluggish and employment opportunities poor for both genders only 63 3 percent of working age women are active in the labor force compared to 77 9 percent for men Furthermore of those women who are in the labor force less than half 47 6 percent are working as employees leaving the rest as casual laborers self employed unpaid family workers or engaged in some form of entrepreneurial activities The lack of employment opportunities is reflected in the high proportion of NecessityDriven Entrepreneurship 39 9 percent for women against 35 3 percent for men Deterrents Stagnant progress Low entrepreneurial intention High Fear of Failure Poor support system As noted in GEM s 2013 Country Profile of China progress in the entrepreneurial and business landscape in the last decade has been disappointingly stagnant due to the lack of financial support education and training A recent 2014 report by Goldman Sachs also pointed to restricted access to business capital as one of the primary barriers for women entrepreneurs in China a condition compounded by the lack of business development opportunities such as mentoring for women entrepreneurs Women aspiring to become entrepreneurs face more challenges in China due to the type of industries represented and cultural norms Women are still constrained by the lack of business mentoring opportunities and cultural bias against women pursuing a business career that is portrayed socially as being riskier Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 3 Case Study China 37
5.3 China Mid-range Index Score, High Women Business Ownership, Upper-Middle Income - Strong Performer With an overall Ind...
5 3 China Mid range Index Score High Women Business Ownership Upper Middle Income Strong Performer With an overall Index score of 61 3 and global ranking of 31 China boasts an impressive Women Business Ownership representation of 30 9 percent This places China in a unique position women s progress as business owners and entrepreneurs is nearly at par with leading high income nations such as Australia New Zealand Singapore Spain and the United States despite having weaker supporting entrepreneurial conditions knowledge assets and financial access Like Uruguay the United States New Zealand Singapore Thailand Philippines Indonesia Argentina and Israel women in China are making solid inroads in Knowledge Assets Financial Assets 81 9 rank 12 Not only are they as educated as their male counterparts in both secondary and tertiary education they are just as inspired and motivated to pursue opportunistic entrepreneurial businesses activities 60 1 percent for women against 64 7 percent for men for Opportunity Driven Entrepreneurship Specifically their pursuit of success and independence and desire for recognition in society is driven and supported by the strong cultural acceptance of women entrepreneurs in China 67 8 rank 27 and high financial inclusion 89 7 rank 27 However China s support system for SMEs is less established and advantageous for women entrepreneurs 69 2 rank 29 Although both genders have equal access to financial services by law or custom the availability of outreach financial programs for women affordability of financial services and access to business loans are poor Success in business driven by sheer drive hard work Many of China s success stories of women entrepreneurs attribute hard work and sheer drive as the key ingredients to success This is not surprising given that the supporting conditions for enterprising are not strong 56 9 rank 40 Statistics also show labor market dynamics to be sluggish and employment opportunities poor for both genders only 63 3 percent of working age women are active in the labor force compared to 77 9 percent for men Furthermore of those women who are in the labor force less than half 47 6 percent are working as employees leaving the rest as casual laborers self employed unpaid family workers or engaged in some form of entrepreneurial activities The lack of employment opportunities is reflected in the high proportion of NecessityDriven Entrepreneurship 39 9 percent for women against 35 3 percent for men Deterrents Stagnant progress Low entrepreneurial intention High Fear of Failure Poor support system As noted in GEM s 2013 Country Profile of China progress in the entrepreneurial and business landscape in the last decade has been disappointingly stagnant due to the lack of financial support education and training A recent 2014 report by Goldman Sachs also pointed to restricted access to business capital as one of the primary barriers for women entrepreneurs in China a condition compounded by the lack of business development opportunities such as mentoring for women entrepreneurs Women aspiring to become entrepreneurs face more challenges in China due to the type of industries represented and cultural norms Women are still constrained by the lack of business mentoring opportunities and cultural bias against women pursuing a business career that is portrayed socially as being riskier Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 3 Case Study China 37
5.3 China Mid-range Index Score, High Women Business Ownership, Upper-Middle Income - Strong Performer With an overall Ind...
5 4 Singapore High Income High Women Business Ownership High Overall Index Score A Top Performer With an overall Index score of 69 5 rank 5 and Women Business Ownership representation of 29 2 percent rank 12 Singapore is well placed among the top markets in terms of women s progress as business owners In the matrix depicting the Index against the Benchmark Women Business Ownership Singapore s performance is very similar to that of Australia and New Zealand as well as peers in North America Canada and United States However a breakdown of the component and indicator scores and rankings reveal subtle differences that are unique to the local entrepreneurial environment in Singapore The Index scores reveal a striking achievement evident through the island state s stellar score and top ranking in Component B Knowledge Assets Financial Access 90 6 and Component C Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions 83 3 Specifically the indicators Support for SMEs 88 3 rank 7 Ease of Doing Business 85 1 rank 2 Cultural Perceptions of Women Entrepreneurs 77 5 rank 3 and Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors 84 3 rank 1 are particularly strong Singapore s outstanding progress and achievement are acknowledged and acclaimed in numerous studies ranging from GEM World Economic Forum s Global Competitiveness Index to World Bank s Ease of Doing Business and numerous other studies In its recent 2014 country profile of Singapore GEM attributes the positive and strong aspiration among Singaporeans as the key catalyst in entrepreneurial growth With total early state entrepreneurial activity TEA rate rising considerably over the last 10 years from 4 9 percent in 2006 to between 10 percent to 12 percent over the past three years Singapore s enterprising backdrop is very close to that in the United States Australia and Canada What is noteworthy about the local entrepreneurial landscape is the ability of new businesses to integrate innovation and the latest technology to create new product and service offerings that entice overseas customers Given the country s highly developed and advanced infrastructure e g banking finance education legal governance that are among the best by world standards it is not surprising that Support for SMEs is very high Women entrepreneurs not only have equal access to financial services by law custom OECD they have high access to outreach financial programs tailored specifically for women EIU Women s Economic Opportunity Index Further support is rendered through the high ease of obtaining business loans and affordability of financial services World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index At 83 3 Singapore s Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors is second to none This lead is driven primarily by the high level of support in the form of government programs training grants and funding for new businesses very high quality education system highly competitive business environment healthy business risk appetite and family support and an impeccably effective legal system that is admired and respected worldwide These enabling factors are vital in both the formation and sustainability of new businesses The success that Singaporean women have to date is also attributed to the positive regard and acceptance they receive from society higher than Asia Pacific peers in Australia and New Zealand and key in allowing women to unleash their business aspirations Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 4 Case Study Singapore 39
5.4 Singapore High Income, High Women Business Ownership, High Overall Index Score - A Top Performer With an overall Index...
5 4 Singapore High Income High Women Business Ownership High Overall Index Score A Top Performer With an overall Index score of 69 5 rank 5 and Women Business Ownership representation of 29 2 percent rank 12 Singapore is well placed among the top markets in terms of women s progress as business owners In the matrix depicting the Index against the Benchmark Women Business Ownership Singapore s performance is very similar to that of Australia and New Zealand as well as peers in North America Canada and United States However a breakdown of the component and indicator scores and rankings reveal subtle differences that are unique to the local entrepreneurial environment in Singapore The Index scores reveal a striking achievement evident through the island state s stellar score and top ranking in Component B Knowledge Assets Financial Access 90 6 and Component C Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions 83 3 Specifically the indicators Support for SMEs 88 3 rank 7 Ease of Doing Business 85 1 rank 2 Cultural Perceptions of Women Entrepreneurs 77 5 rank 3 and Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors 84 3 rank 1 are particularly strong Singapore s outstanding progress and achievement are acknowledged and acclaimed in numerous studies ranging from GEM World Economic Forum s Global Competitiveness Index to World Bank s Ease of Doing Business and numerous other studies In its recent 2014 country profile of Singapore GEM attributes the positive and strong aspiration among Singaporeans as the key catalyst in entrepreneurial growth With total early state entrepreneurial activity TEA rate rising considerably over the last 10 years from 4 9 percent in 2006 to between 10 percent to 12 percent over the past three years Singapore s enterprising backdrop is very close to that in the United States Australia and Canada What is noteworthy about the local entrepreneurial landscape is the ability of new businesses to integrate innovation and the latest technology to create new product and service offerings that entice overseas customers Given the country s highly developed and advanced infrastructure e g banking finance education legal governance that are among the best by world standards it is not surprising that Support for SMEs is very high Women entrepreneurs not only have equal access to financial services by law custom OECD they have high access to outreach financial programs tailored specifically for women EIU Women s Economic Opportunity Index Further support is rendered through the high ease of obtaining business loans and affordability of financial services World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index At 83 3 Singapore s Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors is second to none This lead is driven primarily by the high level of support in the form of government programs training grants and funding for new businesses very high quality education system highly competitive business environment healthy business risk appetite and family support and an impeccably effective legal system that is admired and respected worldwide These enabling factors are vital in both the formation and sustainability of new businesses The success that Singaporean women have to date is also attributed to the positive regard and acceptance they receive from society higher than Asia Pacific peers in Australia and New Zealand and key in allowing women to unleash their business aspirations Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 4 Case Study Singapore 39
5.4 Singapore High Income, High Women Business Ownership, High Overall Index Score - A Top Performer With an overall Index...
Key deterrents High costs of doing business Low Perceived Skills For Singapore the high costs of doing business is one of the key deterrents faced by both aspiring and current entrepreneurs A 2016 study conducted by DP Information Group on Singapore s SME1000 rankings helped shed light on how local SMEs are struggling with escalating costs of doing business especially wages and rents amid rising competitive pressures regionally GEM s recent report on Singapore echoed such cost concerns adding that the lack of confidence among Singaporeans low perception of entrepreneurial skills knowledge and experience is deterring the growth of future entrepreneurship Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 4 Case Study Singapore 41
    Key deterrents  High costs of doing business, Low Perceived Skills For Singapore, the high costs of doing business is ...
Key deterrents High costs of doing business Low Perceived Skills For Singapore the high costs of doing business is one of the key deterrents faced by both aspiring and current entrepreneurs A 2016 study conducted by DP Information Group on Singapore s SME1000 rankings helped shed light on how local SMEs are struggling with escalating costs of doing business especially wages and rents amid rising competitive pressures regionally GEM s recent report on Singapore echoed such cost concerns adding that the lack of confidence among Singaporeans low perception of entrepreneurial skills knowledge and experience is deterring the growth of future entrepreneurship Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 4 Case Study Singapore 41
    Key deterrents  High costs of doing business, Low Perceived Skills For Singapore, the high costs of doing business is ...
5 5 U n i te d Sta tes Highly conducive entrepreneurial conditions Least likelihood of financial gender discrimination High Income High Women Business Ownership High Overall Index Score A Top Performer With an overall Index score of 69 9 United States boasts a global ranking among the top 3 rank 3 Women s business ownership is also high at 30 7 percent putting it at par with other high income peers such as Spain 30 8 percent Poland 29 6 percent Singapore 29 2 percent and ahead of Germany 25 5 percent and the UK 25 8 percent Current literature and recent studies point to a vibrant and stable entrepreneurial landscape women are twice as likely to be entrepreneurially active 9 2 percent as women in the UK 4 8 percent and Germany 3 3 percent Driven by favorable local business and economic conditions total early stage entrepreneurial activity TEA rates in the US has remained high and stable for four consecutive years with a minimum of 13 percent of US adults are starting and running new business the 2nd highest TEA rate in 2014 among 26 developed markets A breakdown of the three components reveal the US performance to be solid across most indicators Not only is women enrollment in tertiary education at par with men they have the highest degree of access to financial services and products Women Financial Inclusion F M at 100 0 rank 1 Women also stand to benefit from very solid SME support 91 6 rank 3 trailing only Switzerland at 91 7 and New Zealand at 92 2 Apart from having equal access to financial services by law custom as men women also have access to outreach financial programs SME training and development programs bank loans and affordable financial services such as insurance and trade finance Policies that have been put in place in support of women s enterprise development include i the Women s Business Act 1988 which led to long term infrastructure being put in place to support women s entrepreneurial development and ii Federal recognition and sustained commitment to women s enterprising development What is more inspiring is that this high rate of enterprising is accompanied by high levels of innovativeness and growth potential 36 7 percent of US entrepreneurs products services were innovative and nearly half 44 8 percent expected to grow their businesses by six or more employees in the next five years This is further augmented by high opportunity perceptions among the society reaching the highest level reported by GEM since 1999 more than half 50 9 percent of the 18 to 64 population believe there are good entrepreneurial opportunities in 2014 Complementing this is upbeat capabilities perceptions more than half 53 3 percent of the 18 to 64 population believe they have the right skill sets knowledge and experience to start a business Such positive mindsets help offset the relatively high fear of business failure 30 percent low for a developed economy but higher than prerecession levels Although the average US entrepreneur is more likely to be male entrepreneurial activity rate among women is relatively healthy Out of every 100 women in the work force 9 2 are planning to start an entrepreneurial activity or have started one for a maximum of three and a half years Male 14 6 percent This is considered high among the developed and high income economies but low compared to the less wealthy economies due to the fact that most entrepreneurial activities in the lower income economies are likely driven by necessity or unregistered in the informal sector What is more noteworthy is the observation that women are just as opportunity driven as their male counterparts 77 8 percent for women vs 78 0 percent for men This is encouraging given that the US offers a tremendous diversity of business opportunities in highly entrepreneurial regions like Silicon Valley and Boston 128 Technology Corridor GEM Country Profile on US 2014 Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 5 Case Study United States 43
5.5   U n i te d Sta tes      Highly conducive entrepreneurial conditions  Least likelihood of financial gender discrimina...
5 5 U n i te d Sta tes Highly conducive entrepreneurial conditions Least likelihood of financial gender discrimination High Income High Women Business Ownership High Overall Index Score A Top Performer With an overall Index score of 69 9 United States boasts a global ranking among the top 3 rank 3 Women s business ownership is also high at 30 7 percent putting it at par with other high income peers such as Spain 30 8 percent Poland 29 6 percent Singapore 29 2 percent and ahead of Germany 25 5 percent and the UK 25 8 percent Current literature and recent studies point to a vibrant and stable entrepreneurial landscape women are twice as likely to be entrepreneurially active 9 2 percent as women in the UK 4 8 percent and Germany 3 3 percent Driven by favorable local business and economic conditions total early stage entrepreneurial activity TEA rates in the US has remained high and stable for four consecutive years with a minimum of 13 percent of US adults are starting and running new business the 2nd highest TEA rate in 2014 among 26 developed markets A breakdown of the three components reveal the US performance to be solid across most indicators Not only is women enrollment in tertiary education at par with men they have the highest degree of access to financial services and products Women Financial Inclusion F M at 100 0 rank 1 Women also stand to benefit from very solid SME support 91 6 rank 3 trailing only Switzerland at 91 7 and New Zealand at 92 2 Apart from having equal access to financial services by law custom as men women also have access to outreach financial programs SME training and development programs bank loans and affordable financial services such as insurance and trade finance Policies that have been put in place in support of women s enterprise development include i the Women s Business Act 1988 which led to long term infrastructure being put in place to support women s entrepreneurial development and ii Federal recognition and sustained commitment to women s enterprising development What is more inspiring is that this high rate of enterprising is accompanied by high levels of innovativeness and growth potential 36 7 percent of US entrepreneurs products services were innovative and nearly half 44 8 percent expected to grow their businesses by six or more employees in the next five years This is further augmented by high opportunity perceptions among the society reaching the highest level reported by GEM since 1999 more than half 50 9 percent of the 18 to 64 population believe there are good entrepreneurial opportunities in 2014 Complementing this is upbeat capabilities perceptions more than half 53 3 percent of the 18 to 64 population believe they have the right skill sets knowledge and experience to start a business Such positive mindsets help offset the relatively high fear of business failure 30 percent low for a developed economy but higher than prerecession levels Although the average US entrepreneur is more likely to be male entrepreneurial activity rate among women is relatively healthy Out of every 100 women in the work force 9 2 are planning to start an entrepreneurial activity or have started one for a maximum of three and a half years Male 14 6 percent This is considered high among the developed and high income economies but low compared to the less wealthy economies due to the fact that most entrepreneurial activities in the lower income economies are likely driven by necessity or unregistered in the informal sector What is more noteworthy is the observation that women are just as opportunity driven as their male counterparts 77 8 percent for women vs 78 0 percent for men This is encouraging given that the US offers a tremendous diversity of business opportunities in highly entrepreneurial regions like Silicon Valley and Boston 128 Technology Corridor GEM Country Profile on US 2014 Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 5 Case Study United States 43
5.5   U n i te d Sta tes      Highly conducive entrepreneurial conditions  Least likelihood of financial gender discrimina...
5 6 United Kingdom High Income Healthy Women Business Ownership Healthy Overall Index Score A Strong Performer The overall Index score and ranking 67 6 rank 9 and Women Business Ownership 25 8 percent rank 26 show the progress of women entrepreneurship in the United Kingdom to be healthy underpinned by favorable entrepreneurial enabling factors The competitive local business environment helps drive internal market dynamics where opportunities for new businesses are high and barriers to market entry are low Effective rules of law and high quality of governance help keep corruption at bay and systems and policies in place rendering vital efficiencies to the entrepreneurial landscape Ease of Doing Business 82 7 rank 6 Compared to their global peers UK s Quality of Governance is among the best 88 2 rank 9 especially in terms of government effectiveness e g quality of public services civil services regulatory quality voice and accountability and control of corruption In terms of political stability and threats of violence 62 4 UK trails that of advanced economies such as Switzerland Sweden Ireland Singapore New Zealand and Japan but remains nearly on par with Germany 70 0 and France 56 7 Results for key indicators tracking women s opportunity to become leaders business owners and gain access to financial services and products are encouraging In terms of business leadership British women are slightly ahead of their peers in Germany and France 35 6 percent of total vs 29 5 percent for Germany and 31 7 percent for France Women in the UK also have high access to financial services and products Women Financial Inclusion at 95 7 vs 95 0 for Germany and 88 1 for France Overall Support for SMEs 77 3 rank 22 is healthy driven by the availability of women only outreach financial programs SME training mentoring and business development programs affordability of financial services and relatively high ease of obtaining business loans The availability of entrepreneurial awareness schemes offered throughout the education sector and good access to office space and IT and broadband infrastructure are key enabling factors Constraints Untapped Talents Fear of Failure Low perceived capabilities opportunities High staffing costs A gender breakdown of Fear of Failure showed women to be more risk averse than their counterparts 36 8 percent for males vs 42 6 percent for females a constraint that is certainly holding back on women s motivation and confidence to start a business venture This explains the low female entrepreneurial activity rate out of every 100 working age women in the workforce only 4 8 are planning to start an entrepreneurial activity or have started one for more than three and a half years compared to 9 1 for men Other hurdles include high staffing costs low perceived capabilities and challenges in obtaining finance for business expansion to overseas markets For instance compared to the United States the percentage of 18 64 population who believe they have the required skills and knowledge to start a business is much lower in the UK 38 percent compared to 53 percent in the US Similarly perceived business opportunities are also lower UK 37 percent vs US 51 percent but more aligned with Germany 38 percent Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 6 Case Study United Kingdom 45
5.6   United Kingdom  High Income, Healthy Women Business Ownership, Healthy Overall Index Score - A Strong Performer The ...
5 6 United Kingdom High Income Healthy Women Business Ownership Healthy Overall Index Score A Strong Performer The overall Index score and ranking 67 6 rank 9 and Women Business Ownership 25 8 percent rank 26 show the progress of women entrepreneurship in the United Kingdom to be healthy underpinned by favorable entrepreneurial enabling factors The competitive local business environment helps drive internal market dynamics where opportunities for new businesses are high and barriers to market entry are low Effective rules of law and high quality of governance help keep corruption at bay and systems and policies in place rendering vital efficiencies to the entrepreneurial landscape Ease of Doing Business 82 7 rank 6 Compared to their global peers UK s Quality of Governance is among the best 88 2 rank 9 especially in terms of government effectiveness e g quality of public services civil services regulatory quality voice and accountability and control of corruption In terms of political stability and threats of violence 62 4 UK trails that of advanced economies such as Switzerland Sweden Ireland Singapore New Zealand and Japan but remains nearly on par with Germany 70 0 and France 56 7 Results for key indicators tracking women s opportunity to become leaders business owners and gain access to financial services and products are encouraging In terms of business leadership British women are slightly ahead of their peers in Germany and France 35 6 percent of total vs 29 5 percent for Germany and 31 7 percent for France Women in the UK also have high access to financial services and products Women Financial Inclusion at 95 7 vs 95 0 for Germany and 88 1 for France Overall Support for SMEs 77 3 rank 22 is healthy driven by the availability of women only outreach financial programs SME training mentoring and business development programs affordability of financial services and relatively high ease of obtaining business loans The availability of entrepreneurial awareness schemes offered throughout the education sector and good access to office space and IT and broadband infrastructure are key enabling factors Constraints Untapped Talents Fear of Failure Low perceived capabilities opportunities High staffing costs A gender breakdown of Fear of Failure showed women to be more risk averse than their counterparts 36 8 percent for males vs 42 6 percent for females a constraint that is certainly holding back on women s motivation and confidence to start a business venture This explains the low female entrepreneurial activity rate out of every 100 working age women in the workforce only 4 8 are planning to start an entrepreneurial activity or have started one for more than three and a half years compared to 9 1 for men Other hurdles include high staffing costs low perceived capabilities and challenges in obtaining finance for business expansion to overseas markets For instance compared to the United States the percentage of 18 64 population who believe they have the required skills and knowledge to start a business is much lower in the UK 38 percent compared to 53 percent in the US Similarly perceived business opportunities are also lower UK 37 percent vs US 51 percent but more aligned with Germany 38 percent Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 6 Case Study United Kingdom 45
5.6   United Kingdom  High Income, Healthy Women Business Ownership, Healthy Overall Index Score - A Strong Performer The ...
5 7 G ermany High Income Healthy Women Business Ownership Healthy Overall Index Score Average Performer With an overall Index score of 64 4 rank 22 and Women Business Ownership of 25 5 percent rank 27 Germany s ranking is mid range Despite being a wealthy and highly innovation and technology oriented economy the progress in entrepreneurship has been disappointingly low at the global level Although the underlying entrepreneurial enabling conditions and government policy support are favorable Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions 78 0 rank 11 other aspects such as women s advancement outcomes e g business leadership and knowledge assets and financial access are notably weak For instance women are lagging their counterparts in their careers as leaders and corporate general managers Out of 100 business leaders women account for just over one quarter of the headcount 29 5 percent rank 33 Entrepreneurial drive dismally low among males and females What is disappointing is that total entrepreneurial activity rate TEA encompassing both males and females in the population is very low Only 5 3 percent of the population aged 18 to 64 are engaged in some form of entrepreneurial activity Findings from GEM reveal that although knowledge intensive start ups are quite frequent the progress of entrepreneurship is severely hindered by a lack of entrepreneurial spirit among the majority of the population and a very low appetite for business risk Entrepreneurial Intention 6 percent and Fear of Failure at 40 percent This implies that nearly half of the population aged 18 to 64 40 percent will not want to pursue any entrepreneurial endeavor due to fear of failure Women s engagement in entrepreneurial activities is also low Out of every 100 working age women in the population only 3 3 are contemplating starting some form of entrepreneurial activity or have started a business for more than three and a half years compared to men at 6 1 This is likely due to the fact that most women prefer to be employed in the workforce as employees as opposed to taking on a business venture risk This is evident from the results which show that of those women that are in the workforce only around 7 percent are engaged in non employee work roles Women Entrepreneurial Activity Rate F M at 54 0 rank 32 This is similar to what is observed in other advanced economies such as Denmark 53 2 rank 34 France 60 4 rank 28 Hungary 52 8 rank 36 Ireland 44 5 rank 47 Italy 42 5 rank 48 and Poland 47 8 rank 44 However this level of enterprising activity is very low compared to markets such as Australia 65 2 Korea 71 8 Spain 78 8 Chile 74 5 Canada 84 3 Brazil 93 9 and Argentina 79 5 Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 7 Case Study Germany 47
5.7 G ermany High Income, Healthy Women Business Ownership, Healthy Overall Index Score - Average Performer With an overal...
5 7 G ermany High Income Healthy Women Business Ownership Healthy Overall Index Score Average Performer With an overall Index score of 64 4 rank 22 and Women Business Ownership of 25 5 percent rank 27 Germany s ranking is mid range Despite being a wealthy and highly innovation and technology oriented economy the progress in entrepreneurship has been disappointingly low at the global level Although the underlying entrepreneurial enabling conditions and government policy support are favorable Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions 78 0 rank 11 other aspects such as women s advancement outcomes e g business leadership and knowledge assets and financial access are notably weak For instance women are lagging their counterparts in their careers as leaders and corporate general managers Out of 100 business leaders women account for just over one quarter of the headcount 29 5 percent rank 33 Entrepreneurial drive dismally low among males and females What is disappointing is that total entrepreneurial activity rate TEA encompassing both males and females in the population is very low Only 5 3 percent of the population aged 18 to 64 are engaged in some form of entrepreneurial activity Findings from GEM reveal that although knowledge intensive start ups are quite frequent the progress of entrepreneurship is severely hindered by a lack of entrepreneurial spirit among the majority of the population and a very low appetite for business risk Entrepreneurial Intention 6 percent and Fear of Failure at 40 percent This implies that nearly half of the population aged 18 to 64 40 percent will not want to pursue any entrepreneurial endeavor due to fear of failure Women s engagement in entrepreneurial activities is also low Out of every 100 working age women in the population only 3 3 are contemplating starting some form of entrepreneurial activity or have started a business for more than three and a half years compared to men at 6 1 This is likely due to the fact that most women prefer to be employed in the workforce as employees as opposed to taking on a business venture risk This is evident from the results which show that of those women that are in the workforce only around 7 percent are engaged in non employee work roles Women Entrepreneurial Activity Rate F M at 54 0 rank 32 This is similar to what is observed in other advanced economies such as Denmark 53 2 rank 34 France 60 4 rank 28 Hungary 52 8 rank 36 Ireland 44 5 rank 47 Italy 42 5 rank 48 and Poland 47 8 rank 44 However this level of enterprising activity is very low compared to markets such as Australia 65 2 Korea 71 8 Spain 78 8 Chile 74 5 Canada 84 3 Brazil 93 9 and Argentina 79 5 Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 7 Case Study Germany 47
5.7 G ermany High Income, Healthy Women Business Ownership, Healthy Overall Index Score - Average Performer With an overal...
Constraints Surplus of good job offers employee benefits Lack of cultural support Poor entrepreneurial education The enterprising landscape in Germany may be best described as a double edged sword Compared to their global peers Germany has some of the most conducive conditions for doing business and effective quality of governance This is evident inthe very high scores for the three indicators in component C Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions 78 0 rank 11 i Ease of Doing Business 79 9 rank 11 ii Quality of Governance 89 3 rank 8 and iii Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors 80 5 rank 3 Yet despite such favorable conditions and good physical infrastructure the interplay of Germany s market dynamics do not seem to be working towards driving the entrepreneurial landscape One of the most intriguing features about the German work culture and economic dynamics is that despite putting in less hours a week 27 hours compared to 40 in most countries the country offers a very high standard of living and has one of the strongest economic systems in the European Union This is further exacerbated by the poor integration of entrepreneurial education and training in the school system and poor cultural acceptance and perception of women entrepreneurs A breakdown of the Cultural Perception of Women Entrepreneurs 64 7 rank 35 show low levels of social acceptance and encouragement of women entrepreneurs compared to other societies in Australia Hong Kong Denmark Sweden United Kingdom Canada Malaysia This likely explains the fact that women here continue to face gender discrimination conditions in terms of exposure to good business opportunities Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 7 Case Study Germany 49
    Constraints  Surplus of good job offers   employee benefits, Lack of cultural support, Poor entrepreneurial education ...
Constraints Surplus of good job offers employee benefits Lack of cultural support Poor entrepreneurial education The enterprising landscape in Germany may be best described as a double edged sword Compared to their global peers Germany has some of the most conducive conditions for doing business and effective quality of governance This is evident inthe very high scores for the three indicators in component C Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions 78 0 rank 11 i Ease of Doing Business 79 9 rank 11 ii Quality of Governance 89 3 rank 8 and iii Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors 80 5 rank 3 Yet despite such favorable conditions and good physical infrastructure the interplay of Germany s market dynamics do not seem to be working towards driving the entrepreneurial landscape One of the most intriguing features about the German work culture and economic dynamics is that despite putting in less hours a week 27 hours compared to 40 in most countries the country offers a very high standard of living and has one of the strongest economic systems in the European Union This is further exacerbated by the poor integration of entrepreneurial education and training in the school system and poor cultural acceptance and perception of women entrepreneurs A breakdown of the Cultural Perception of Women Entrepreneurs 64 7 rank 35 show low levels of social acceptance and encouragement of women entrepreneurs compared to other societies in Australia Hong Kong Denmark Sweden United Kingdom Canada Malaysia This likely explains the fact that women here continue to face gender discrimination conditions in terms of exposure to good business opportunities Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 7 Case Study Germany 49
    Constraints  Surplus of good job offers   employee benefits, Lack of cultural support, Poor entrepreneurial education ...
5 8 U g an da Unique opportunities in some industries High new business formation rate Low Income Medium Overall Index Score High Women Business Ownership Surprise Performer Average entrepreneur is female Unique Internal Market Dynamics In Uganda the extraordinarily high percentage of women business owners 34 8 percent is reflected through the strong Women Entrepreneurial Activity Rate F M 100 rank 1 suggesting that women are as likely as men to start a business activity and have started one for a maximum of three and a half years They have also been active over the past 12 months seeking to borrow or set aside funds to set up a business Women Borrowing or Saving for Business F M 90 5 percent rank 4 The results for Component C Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions show cultural and social acceptance of women entrepreneurs to be healthy a key ingredient in the country s high women business ownership representation A recent 2012 report by GEM commended Ugandans to be opportunity seekers and risk takers attributes that are key in shaping them to be highly inspired to become entrepreneurs A breakdown of the sub indicator Culture Risk Taking underscore a high appetite for business risk that is encouraged culturally 71 4 third highest among 54 markets trailing only Israel and the US at 85 6 and 80 6 respectively The steady growth of female entrepreneurship in Uganda since 2003 has been impressive and instrumental in driving new business startup momentum despite underlying constraints such as lack of government support policies and access to financing Some of the most outstanding progress achieved and highlighted in the GEM report include Highest new business formation rate 28 percent Nearly one third of Ugandan adults have started a new business within the last two years compared to less than 25 percent for all other African countries This growth trend is very strong gaining 9 percent since 2012 and is mostly necessity driven for survival Opportunity driven entrepreneurship growing stronger than necessity entrepreneurship rising from 15 7 percent in 2010 to 18 9 percent in 2012 especially in the central regions where development is most advanced and the population densest What is most inspiring is that the average entrepreneur in the country is a female between 18 34 years old with at least secondary education and working in the customer service sector The report accredited the country s own internal market dynamics as the key enablers supporting entrepreneurial activities Although the underlying support system for SMEs in the country is very poor and among the weakest globally 49 3 rank 52 the setup of various associations such as Enterprise Uganda and the Uganda Women Entrepreneurs Association Limited UWEAL have been crucial in extending vital support and resources to entrepreneurs including the youth cohort through training business advisory services financial literacy guidance leadership training and credit facilitation services UWEAL is also focused on advocating favorable policies that help women entrepreneurs to flourish and sets up programs to support women doing business within the East African region Challenges Poor Governance Support Gender related Challenges The very low score of 50 5 rank 49 for the Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions component suggests that women are confronted with immense challenges with it comes to setting up a business With the exception of Cultural perceptions of women entrepreneurs 68 8 points rank 21 the other three indicators are dismally low i Ease of Doing Business 57 8 rank 46 ii Quality of Governance 28 9 rank 48 and iii Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors 56 6 rank 41 The employment situation in the country paints a grey picture notwithstanding the high percentage of working age women in the work force 82 3 percent 87 7 percent for males only a handful 15 3 percent stand a chance of landing a job compared to 27 5 percent for men These constraints are further compounded by other obstacles such as unsupportive government policies with regards to bureaucracy complications and taxes There are also gender related challenges that hinder women from prospering in business such as family responsibilities taking care of children and elderly and taking on reproductive roles In addition women entrepreneurs at the micro level are especially disadvantaged due to the lack of access to financial services and funding most have no credit history and are unable to obtain bank loans for business startups Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 8 Case Study Uganda 51
5.8   U g an da      Unique opportunities in some industries, High new business formation rate  Low Income, Medium Overall...
5 8 U g an da Unique opportunities in some industries High new business formation rate Low Income Medium Overall Index Score High Women Business Ownership Surprise Performer Average entrepreneur is female Unique Internal Market Dynamics In Uganda the extraordinarily high percentage of women business owners 34 8 percent is reflected through the strong Women Entrepreneurial Activity Rate F M 100 rank 1 suggesting that women are as likely as men to start a business activity and have started one for a maximum of three and a half years They have also been active over the past 12 months seeking to borrow or set aside funds to set up a business Women Borrowing or Saving for Business F M 90 5 percent rank 4 The results for Component C Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions show cultural and social acceptance of women entrepreneurs to be healthy a key ingredient in the country s high women business ownership representation A recent 2012 report by GEM commended Ugandans to be opportunity seekers and risk takers attributes that are key in shaping them to be highly inspired to become entrepreneurs A breakdown of the sub indicator Culture Risk Taking underscore a high appetite for business risk that is encouraged culturally 71 4 third highest among 54 markets trailing only Israel and the US at 85 6 and 80 6 respectively The steady growth of female entrepreneurship in Uganda since 2003 has been impressive and instrumental in driving new business startup momentum despite underlying constraints such as lack of government support policies and access to financing Some of the most outstanding progress achieved and highlighted in the GEM report include Highest new business formation rate 28 percent Nearly one third of Ugandan adults have started a new business within the last two years compared to less than 25 percent for all other African countries This growth trend is very strong gaining 9 percent since 2012 and is mostly necessity driven for survival Opportunity driven entrepreneurship growing stronger than necessity entrepreneurship rising from 15 7 percent in 2010 to 18 9 percent in 2012 especially in the central regions where development is most advanced and the population densest What is most inspiring is that the average entrepreneur in the country is a female between 18 34 years old with at least secondary education and working in the customer service sector The report accredited the country s own internal market dynamics as the key enablers supporting entrepreneurial activities Although the underlying support system for SMEs in the country is very poor and among the weakest globally 49 3 rank 52 the setup of various associations such as Enterprise Uganda and the Uganda Women Entrepreneurs Association Limited UWEAL have been crucial in extending vital support and resources to entrepreneurs including the youth cohort through training business advisory services financial literacy guidance leadership training and credit facilitation services UWEAL is also focused on advocating favorable policies that help women entrepreneurs to flourish and sets up programs to support women doing business within the East African region Challenges Poor Governance Support Gender related Challenges The very low score of 50 5 rank 49 for the Supporting Entrepreneurial Conditions component suggests that women are confronted with immense challenges with it comes to setting up a business With the exception of Cultural perceptions of women entrepreneurs 68 8 points rank 21 the other three indicators are dismally low i Ease of Doing Business 57 8 rank 46 ii Quality of Governance 28 9 rank 48 and iii Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors 56 6 rank 41 The employment situation in the country paints a grey picture notwithstanding the high percentage of working age women in the work force 82 3 percent 87 7 percent for males only a handful 15 3 percent stand a chance of landing a job compared to 27 5 percent for men These constraints are further compounded by other obstacles such as unsupportive government policies with regards to bureaucracy complications and taxes There are also gender related challenges that hinder women from prospering in business such as family responsibilities taking care of children and elderly and taking on reproductive roles In addition women entrepreneurs at the micro level are especially disadvantaged due to the lack of access to financial services and funding most have no credit history and are unable to obtain bank loans for business startups Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 8 Case Study Uganda 51
5.8   U g an da      Unique opportunities in some industries, High new business formation rate  Low Income, Medium Overall...
5 9 Argentina Upper Middle Income Medium Overall Index Score Medium Women Business Ownership Healthy Performer Potential Although the overall Index score and ranking for Argentina is average 59 9 rank 37 women are capable of somehow augmenting on these conditions to produce better than average representation as women business owners compared to men This is evident through the rather high proportion of Women Business Owners 25 9 percent The higher tertiary enrollment rate among women compared to men 99 5 percent vs 65 2 percent could explain why women have a strong representation in the workforce as professionals or technical personnel 56 4 rank 11 and the relatively high women business leadership representation as well 30 1 female leaders out of every 100 leaders The lack of bias against women s financial inclusion is pivotal in their ability to Borrow Save for their business 62 0 rank 19 Deterrents Challenges Ahead Conservative Hindered by Political Institutional Economic Instability Like Uganda entrepreneurs in Argentina also benefit from a relatively vibrant entrepreneurial ecosystem that is driven by healthy entrepreneurial intention 31 percent and reasonably low fear of failure rate 25 percent Findings from the 2014 GEM Report for Argentina reveal remarkable progress driven by a vibrant and dynamic ecosystem i high growth rate of entrepreneurial start ups up 40 percent since 2001 ii growth of new business owners of between three and 42 months more than doubling in last decade and iii growth of women s entrepreneurship more than doubling since 2000 However the lack of political and economic stability has dampened the risk appetite of entrepreneurs many are innovative but remain highly conservative in terms of business expansion locally and internationally The results show women entrepreneurs to be highly driven by necessity 45 8 percent vs 27 4 percent for men as opposed to being inspired by business opportunities or to gain financial independence This is due to the lack of employment opportunities available for women Out of 100 women who are of working age less than half are in the workforce 48 5 percent a stark contrast to men at 74 4 percent This constraint has likely driven forced women to start their own businesses to support themselves and or their families Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 9 Case Study Argentina 53
5.9   Argentina  Upper Middle Income, Medium Overall Index Score, Medium Women Business Ownership- Healthy Performer - Pot...
5 9 Argentina Upper Middle Income Medium Overall Index Score Medium Women Business Ownership Healthy Performer Potential Although the overall Index score and ranking for Argentina is average 59 9 rank 37 women are capable of somehow augmenting on these conditions to produce better than average representation as women business owners compared to men This is evident through the rather high proportion of Women Business Owners 25 9 percent The higher tertiary enrollment rate among women compared to men 99 5 percent vs 65 2 percent could explain why women have a strong representation in the workforce as professionals or technical personnel 56 4 rank 11 and the relatively high women business leadership representation as well 30 1 female leaders out of every 100 leaders The lack of bias against women s financial inclusion is pivotal in their ability to Borrow Save for their business 62 0 rank 19 Deterrents Challenges Ahead Conservative Hindered by Political Institutional Economic Instability Like Uganda entrepreneurs in Argentina also benefit from a relatively vibrant entrepreneurial ecosystem that is driven by healthy entrepreneurial intention 31 percent and reasonably low fear of failure rate 25 percent Findings from the 2014 GEM Report for Argentina reveal remarkable progress driven by a vibrant and dynamic ecosystem i high growth rate of entrepreneurial start ups up 40 percent since 2001 ii growth of new business owners of between three and 42 months more than doubling in last decade and iii growth of women s entrepreneurship more than doubling since 2000 However the lack of political and economic stability has dampened the risk appetite of entrepreneurs many are innovative but remain highly conservative in terms of business expansion locally and internationally The results show women entrepreneurs to be highly driven by necessity 45 8 percent vs 27 4 percent for men as opposed to being inspired by business opportunities or to gain financial independence This is due to the lack of employment opportunities available for women Out of 100 women who are of working age less than half are in the workforce 48 5 percent a stark contrast to men at 74 4 percent This constraint has likely driven forced women to start their own businesses to support themselves and or their families Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 9 Case Study Argentina 53
5.9   Argentina  Upper Middle Income, Medium Overall Index Score, Medium Women Business Ownership- Healthy Performer - Pot...
5 10 Japan Good SME Support System overshadowed by Lack of Drive High Income Very Low Overall Index Score Women Business Ownership Underperformer Of all the high income economies Japan is ranked among the lowest in both the overall Index and Women Business Ownership At 17 6 percent Japan s representation of women business owners is 27 5 percent lower than the average of high income economies Japan s overall Index score of 50 8 rank 45 is much lower than the average of high income economies Poor Opportunities for Leadership Professional Roles The results for Component A Women s Advancement Outcomes shows Japan lagging in all indicators In terms of Women Business Leaders only 12 6 percent of women have ascended to a leadership managerial role out of all leaders This is 58 5 percent lower than the average of high income markets and very similar to South Korea where women s representation as leaders is 11 0 percent Opportunities for women to be in Professional or Technical roles are also very poor 39 8 percent women working as professionals technical out of all professional technical workers In terms of attainment of knowledge assets and access to finance Japan fares better with regards to Women Financial Inclusion F M 100 0 rank 1 and Support for SMEs 82 6 rank 16 but lags in Women Borrowing or Saving for Business F M 38 0 rank 45 and Women Tertiary Education GER F M 88 4 rank 50 It is both encouraging and disappointing to note that although Japanese women are just as likely as their male counterparts to own a bank account a credit card and a debit card these privileges do not necessarily translate into actual attempts or intentions to seek bank loans for startups Compared to their high income peers Japan is well placed in SME Support i good access to outreach financial programs for women ii reasonable ease to bank loans iii good opportunities for SME training and business development and iv access to affordable business services such as insurance and trade finance Silver Lining High activity among those with positive attitudes GEM s findings point to one vital observation Although the entrepreneurship activity is very low 19 5 percent of Japanese adults who believe they have the capability to start a business are actually doing so This realization rate is significant and surpasses that of the U S 17 4 percent Another encouraging point to note is that although women s entrepreneurial activity rate is very low of the 1 5 percent that are entrepreneurs a significant proportion are opportunity driven 90 9 percent much higher than the figure for males at 73 9 percent This implies women entrepreneurs tend to be much more ambitious and adventurous in taking up the risk to pursue their business aspirations than men History of Protracted Sluggish Entrepreneurial Activity A gender breakdown of GEM s Total Early state Entrepreneurial Activity Rate shows Japanese women s participation to be among the lowest Out of all women of working age in the population only 1 5 percent are about to start an entrepreneurial endeavor or have started one for more than 3 5 years vs 6 1 percent for men This participation rate is 55 9 percent lower than that observed in high income economies As noted in GEM s 2014 report the history of protracted sluggish entrepreneurial activity in Japan dates back to 1999 when GEM started collecting data This is largely due to a muted entrepreneurial spirit and drive among the population whereby one s perception of business opportunities and capabilities is acutely downbeat Perceived Opportunities 7 percent and Perceived Capabilities 12 percent The lack of self confidence and appetite for risks and new ventures is evident in the typical entrepreneurial profile male aged 45 and above with a bachelor degree who started his business in the same industry where he has worked This implies that there is a low tendency for one to venture into other new business fields industries where the risks are likely to be higher a condition that is reflected in high Fear of Failure 55 percent and very low Entrepreneurial Intention 3 percent For women such subdued sentiments are further suppressed by very poor Cultural Perceptions of Women Entrepreneurs 49 5 rank 53 second lowest globally and 26 percent lower than average of high income cohort Such restrictive attitudes appear to far outweigh the advantages offered by the country s high Quality of Governance 86 8 rank 11 and Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors 75 9 rank 15 As noted in GEM s findings not only are cultural perceptions negative and discouraging they exert a powerful adverse influence on potential entrepreneurs For Japan this is perhaps the single greatest socio cultural hurdle to tackle Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 10 Case Study Japan 55
5.10  Japan      Good SME Support System overshadowed by Lack of Drive  High Income, Very Low Overall Index Score   Women ...
5 10 Japan Good SME Support System overshadowed by Lack of Drive High Income Very Low Overall Index Score Women Business Ownership Underperformer Of all the high income economies Japan is ranked among the lowest in both the overall Index and Women Business Ownership At 17 6 percent Japan s representation of women business owners is 27 5 percent lower than the average of high income economies Japan s overall Index score of 50 8 rank 45 is much lower than the average of high income economies Poor Opportunities for Leadership Professional Roles The results for Component A Women s Advancement Outcomes shows Japan lagging in all indicators In terms of Women Business Leaders only 12 6 percent of women have ascended to a leadership managerial role out of all leaders This is 58 5 percent lower than the average of high income markets and very similar to South Korea where women s representation as leaders is 11 0 percent Opportunities for women to be in Professional or Technical roles are also very poor 39 8 percent women working as professionals technical out of all professional technical workers In terms of attainment of knowledge assets and access to finance Japan fares better with regards to Women Financial Inclusion F M 100 0 rank 1 and Support for SMEs 82 6 rank 16 but lags in Women Borrowing or Saving for Business F M 38 0 rank 45 and Women Tertiary Education GER F M 88 4 rank 50 It is both encouraging and disappointing to note that although Japanese women are just as likely as their male counterparts to own a bank account a credit card and a debit card these privileges do not necessarily translate into actual attempts or intentions to seek bank loans for startups Compared to their high income peers Japan is well placed in SME Support i good access to outreach financial programs for women ii reasonable ease to bank loans iii good opportunities for SME training and business development and iv access to affordable business services such as insurance and trade finance Silver Lining High activity among those with positive attitudes GEM s findings point to one vital observation Although the entrepreneurship activity is very low 19 5 percent of Japanese adults who believe they have the capability to start a business are actually doing so This realization rate is significant and surpasses that of the U S 17 4 percent Another encouraging point to note is that although women s entrepreneurial activity rate is very low of the 1 5 percent that are entrepreneurs a significant proportion are opportunity driven 90 9 percent much higher than the figure for males at 73 9 percent This implies women entrepreneurs tend to be much more ambitious and adventurous in taking up the risk to pursue their business aspirations than men History of Protracted Sluggish Entrepreneurial Activity A gender breakdown of GEM s Total Early state Entrepreneurial Activity Rate shows Japanese women s participation to be among the lowest Out of all women of working age in the population only 1 5 percent are about to start an entrepreneurial endeavor or have started one for more than 3 5 years vs 6 1 percent for men This participation rate is 55 9 percent lower than that observed in high income economies As noted in GEM s 2014 report the history of protracted sluggish entrepreneurial activity in Japan dates back to 1999 when GEM started collecting data This is largely due to a muted entrepreneurial spirit and drive among the population whereby one s perception of business opportunities and capabilities is acutely downbeat Perceived Opportunities 7 percent and Perceived Capabilities 12 percent The lack of self confidence and appetite for risks and new ventures is evident in the typical entrepreneurial profile male aged 45 and above with a bachelor degree who started his business in the same industry where he has worked This implies that there is a low tendency for one to venture into other new business fields industries where the risks are likely to be higher a condition that is reflected in high Fear of Failure 55 percent and very low Entrepreneurial Intention 3 percent For women such subdued sentiments are further suppressed by very poor Cultural Perceptions of Women Entrepreneurs 49 5 rank 53 second lowest globally and 26 percent lower than average of high income cohort Such restrictive attitudes appear to far outweigh the advantages offered by the country s high Quality of Governance 86 8 rank 11 and Entrepreneurial Supporting Factors 75 9 rank 15 As noted in GEM s findings not only are cultural perceptions negative and discouraging they exert a powerful adverse influence on potential entrepreneurs For Japan this is perhaps the single greatest socio cultural hurdle to tackle Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 10 Case Study Japan 55
5.10  Japan      Good SME Support System overshadowed by Lack of Drive  High Income, Very Low Overall Index Score   Women ...
5 11 Bangladesh Lower Middle Income Very Low Overall Index Score Very High Women Business Ownership Unique Entrepreneurial Traits Although Bangladesh is the weakest in terms of women s advancement outcomes knowledge assets financial access and supporting entrepreneurial conditions it delivers one of the highest Women Business Ownership percentage readings among the 54 economies measured 31 6 percent rank 6 trailing only Uganda 34 8 percent Botswana 34 6 percent New Zealand 33 3 percent Russia 32 6 percent and Australia 32 4 percent Findings from GEM 2011 show total early stage entrepreneurial activity rate TE in Bangladesh to be among the highest 12 8 percent of the 18 to 64 years old population are either a nascent entrepreneur or owner manager of a new business Role of Entrepreneurship in Bangladesh As a high growth economy with GDP at 7 05 percent year on year in the nine months of 2015 2016 fiscal year entrepreneurship plays an essential role in driving growth and alleviating poverty Findings from the National University of Bangladesh showed that conditions supporting entrepreneurship in the country remain underdeveloped due to the fact that the education system is not suitably designed to create awareness and motivate graduates to take business profession as an alternative source of employment most rush to the opportunities for salaried jobs In addition entrepreneurship courses and training programs are offered by organizations sporadically This has led to a lack of entrepreneurial skills and required experience to fully unleash entrepreneurship as one of the key engine of economic growth Results for the current SME Support system in Bangladesh show it to be among the least conducive globally At 51 2 points rank 49 Bangladeshi women have only half as many opportunities as their counterparts in accessing financial services Compared to other countries there are less financial programs and SME training and development programs offered EIU Women s Economic Opportunity Index Data from the World Economic Forum s Global Competitiveness Index also show Bangladesh rating extremely poorly in terms of access to bank loans and affordability of financial services Women s engagement low mostly driven by necessity Women in pursuit of entrepreneurship receive very little acceptance and encouragement from society Cultural Perceptions of Women entrepreneurs 54 9 rank 48 a socio cultural bias that is severely undermining their ability to rise to positions of leadership be exposed to good business opportunities and be perceived as being abled and skilled to take on business ownership roles This is also reflected in the low proportions of women business leaders 5 5 percent of total and professionals technical workers 25 percent of total The results show women to be much less inclined to be entrepreneurs than their counterparts Out of all working age women in the population only 4 3 percent are about to start an entrepreneurial activity or have started one for more than three and a half years men 21 percent Furthermore of the women in Bangladesh who are enterprising in various stage of business startup operation 34 percent are doing so out of necessity as opposed to in pursuit of a good business opportunity Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 11 Case Study Bangladesh 57
5.11  Bangladesh Lower Middle Income, Very Low Overall Index Score, Very High Women Business Ownership - Unique Entreprene...
5 11 Bangladesh Lower Middle Income Very Low Overall Index Score Very High Women Business Ownership Unique Entrepreneurial Traits Although Bangladesh is the weakest in terms of women s advancement outcomes knowledge assets financial access and supporting entrepreneurial conditions it delivers one of the highest Women Business Ownership percentage readings among the 54 economies measured 31 6 percent rank 6 trailing only Uganda 34 8 percent Botswana 34 6 percent New Zealand 33 3 percent Russia 32 6 percent and Australia 32 4 percent Findings from GEM 2011 show total early stage entrepreneurial activity rate TE in Bangladesh to be among the highest 12 8 percent of the 18 to 64 years old population are either a nascent entrepreneur or owner manager of a new business Role of Entrepreneurship in Bangladesh As a high growth economy with GDP at 7 05 percent year on year in the nine months of 2015 2016 fiscal year entrepreneurship plays an essential role in driving growth and alleviating poverty Findings from the National University of Bangladesh showed that conditions supporting entrepreneurship in the country remain underdeveloped due to the fact that the education system is not suitably designed to create awareness and motivate graduates to take business profession as an alternative source of employment most rush to the opportunities for salaried jobs In addition entrepreneurship courses and training programs are offered by organizations sporadically This has led to a lack of entrepreneurial skills and required experience to fully unleash entrepreneurship as one of the key engine of economic growth Results for the current SME Support system in Bangladesh show it to be among the least conducive globally At 51 2 points rank 49 Bangladeshi women have only half as many opportunities as their counterparts in accessing financial services Compared to other countries there are less financial programs and SME training and development programs offered EIU Women s Economic Opportunity Index Data from the World Economic Forum s Global Competitiveness Index also show Bangladesh rating extremely poorly in terms of access to bank loans and affordability of financial services Women s engagement low mostly driven by necessity Women in pursuit of entrepreneurship receive very little acceptance and encouragement from society Cultural Perceptions of Women entrepreneurs 54 9 rank 48 a socio cultural bias that is severely undermining their ability to rise to positions of leadership be exposed to good business opportunities and be perceived as being abled and skilled to take on business ownership roles This is also reflected in the low proportions of women business leaders 5 5 percent of total and professionals technical workers 25 percent of total The results show women to be much less inclined to be entrepreneurs than their counterparts Out of all working age women in the population only 4 3 percent are about to start an entrepreneurial activity or have started one for more than three and a half years men 21 percent Furthermore of the women in Bangladesh who are enterprising in various stage of business startup operation 34 percent are doing so out of necessity as opposed to in pursuit of a good business opportunity Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 11 Case Study Bangladesh 57
5.11  Bangladesh Lower Middle Income, Very Low Overall Index Score, Very High Women Business Ownership - Unique Entreprene...
Such a high rate of necessity driven entrepreneurship is probably also driven by the lack of tertiary education and employment opportunities for women Out of the all women of tertiary education age only 13 7 percent are enrolled in higher education institutions Out of the total female population of working age only 43 2 percent are active in the labor force nearly half of that of men at 81 percent Unique traits of high risk appetite resilience drive entrepreneurship Yet the unique traits of being very high risk takers and having undeniably outstanding resilience to hardships and natural calamities is helping to drive the entrepreneurship landscape and high women business ownership representation in this market Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 11 Case Study Bangladesh 59
Such a high rate of necessity-driven entrepreneurship is probably also driven by the lack of tertiary education and employ...
Such a high rate of necessity driven entrepreneurship is probably also driven by the lack of tertiary education and employment opportunities for women Out of the all women of tertiary education age only 13 7 percent are enrolled in higher education institutions Out of the total female population of working age only 43 2 percent are active in the labor force nearly half of that of men at 81 percent Unique traits of high risk appetite resilience drive entrepreneurship Yet the unique traits of being very high risk takers and having undeniably outstanding resilience to hardships and natural calamities is helping to drive the entrepreneurship landscape and high women business ownership representation in this market Index of Women Entrepreneurs MIWE 5 11 Case Study Bangladesh 59
Such a high rate of necessity-driven entrepreneurship is probably also driven by the lack of tertiary education and employ...
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