Most tundras are located in the Northern Hemisphere. When looking at plant life, the tundra consists of mosses, such as the Arctic and Caribou Moss. The tundra is mostly is filled with shurbs, sedges, lichens, and grasses. There is also about 400 varieties of flower, including the Pasque flower. There are many animals in the tundra. Alot of land mammals are found, including herds of carabou, wolverines, bears, foxes, and hares. In the summertime, tiny bugs such as, black flies, deer flies, and mosquitoes, roam throughout the tundra. Birds, such as the harlequinn duck, migrate to the tundra.
In the winter, temperatures in the tundra can decrease to -94 degrees Faranheit, with averaging annual temperature at -18 degrees Faranheit. During the summer, average temperatures range from 37 degrees Faranheit -60 degrees Faranheit. The average yearly precipitation is a total of 6-10 inches of rain. The average precipitation per year is 18 inches, most of it falling as snow. The primary soil type is gelisols and are usually frozen.
Many people live in the tundra to work in the mines and oil rigs. They have built roads and towns, which shields animals away from reaching shelters and denning grounds. Many animals starve from their feeding patterns being disrupted and are shot from humans. For instance, the Alaskan oil pipeline also built across a carabou route, and raised above ground making it available for the carabou to pass underground. The use of pesticides to control insects, decreasing the large amount of insects for the birds that migrate to the tundra. Also, pollution from the mining and drilling for oil has polluted the lakes, rivers, and air. Not much protection for the Tundra has been enacted becuase the oil and gas industries control most of the area.