IAT Journal Animal Technology and Welfare G Andrew Blake Tribute Award G Congress 2014 posters G Do you talk to your animals? Official Journal of the Institute of Animal Technology and European Federation of Animal Technologists ISSN 1742-0385 Vol 13 No 2 August 2014
IAT Journal  Animal Technology and Welfare  G Andrew Blake Tribute Award G Congress 2014 posters G Do you talk to your ani...
CONTENTS Vol 13 No 2 August 2014 Editorial Jas Barley, Chair of the Editorial Board ix Improving animal welfare for neurodegenerative mice Natalie Edwards 77 Raising concerns about laboratory animal welfare: report of a workshop at IAT Congress 2014 Penny Hawkins, Kathy Ryder, Norman Mortell and Duncan Patten 81 Comparison of flavoured treats for CD rats Marcia Morgan-Knight and Joanna Cruden 87 PAPER SUMMARY TRANSLATIONS 93 TECH-2-TECH Talking to animals in your care: a discussion Erik Moreau (Moderator), Genevieve Andrews-Kelly, Meagan McCallum, Evelyn Skoumbourdis, Thomas Ferrell, Harriet Hoffman, Jeannine Cason Rodgers, Renee Gainer, Kaile Bennet, Meagan Shetler, David Cawston, Polly Schultz, Jas Barley, Kayla Shayne, Jacqueline Schwartz, Natasha Down, Russell Yothers, Autumn Sorrells, Lynette Chave and Viktor Reinhardt POSTER PRESENTATIONS Refining fish health and welfare after undergoing experimental procedures Diane Hazlehurst, Lynda Westall, Nicola Goodwin, Nick Harman, Colin Barker and James Russell 105 109 NACWO Exchange Programme Sam Izzard and Tess Boreham 114 Does bedding type affect eye soreness in nude rats? Matt Smith, Lisa Doar, Natalie Dwyer, Amie Gyte and Dianne Tibbs 118 Life with automated watering – a review of our experiences after 5 years Matt Coleman, Vernon Smith and Brian Gwynne 122 Alternative handling methods: a small change John Waters, Kelly Gouveia and Jane Hurst 126 Harmonised welfare review system for non-human primates on long term studies Maria Martinez 129 Rabbit accommodation goes full circle Felicity Hood 136 Welfare first: developing a welfare culture by caring for the staff who care for the animals Norman Mortell 138 Method and refinements made to the semi occluded dose administration technique in rats Lauren Wilkinson and Caitlin Chapman 140 A method of obtaining large blood collections from Guinea pigs via the saphenous vessel Maria Rasmussen 143 How do adult female NZW rabbits respond to consistent handling? Debbie Ridley 148 Instructions to Authors 152 Index to Advertisers xviii ATW PROFILE Animal Technology and Welfare aims to be the medium for animal technologists and all those concerned with the care and welfare of animals used for research purposes to communicate ‘best practice. ATW especially aims to promote and develop the 3Rs particularly in respect of Refinement. More importantly, ATW promotes the generally accepted ‘4th R’, Responsibility. The responsibility that all animal technologists have in ensuring dissemination of ‘best practice’ to every institution using animals in research. ATW enjoys a unique position as the scientific publication for the leading organisations (IAT and EFAT) for the welfare of animals in research. Editor: Jas Barley atweditor@iat.org.uk i
CONTENTS  Vol 13 No 2 August 2014 Editorial Jas Barley, Chair of the Editorial Board  ix  Improving animal welfare for neu...
IAT REPRESENTATIVES OFFICERS President Dr Robin Lovell-Badge FRS Immediate Past President Professor Sir Richard Gardner MA PhD FSB HonFIAT FRS Vice-Presidents David Anderson MRCVS, Stephen Barnett BA MSc CBiol FSB RAnTech, John Bleby TD JP DVetMed DLAS CBiol FSB MRCVS, Brian Cass CBE, Miles Carroll PhD, Gerald Clough BSc PhD EurBiol CBiol MSB SFZSL, Paul Flecknell MA Vet MB PhD DLAS DipLECVA MRCVS, Barbara Mortimer BVetMed DLAS MRCVS, Judy MacArthur-Clark CBE BVMS DLAS CBiol FSB MRCVS, Fiona McEwen BSc BVM&S MSc MRCVS, Tim Morris BVetMed PhD DipACLAM DipECLAM CBiol FSB CertLAS MRCVS, José Orellana BVSc MSc, Clive Page PhD BSc, Sophie Petit-Zeman PhD, Gail Thompson RLATG, Robert Weichbrod PhD RLATG, Sheila Whitehead BVMS MSc CertLAS MRCVS, Lord Robert Winston FMedSci DSc FRCOG FRCP FRCS Ed FSB Life Members Roger Francis MSC FIAT RAnTech, Pete Gerson MSc FIAT RAnTech, John Gregory BSc (Hons) FIAT CBiol FSB RAnTech, Patrick Hayes FIAT DipBA RAnTech, John Kelly FIAT, Robert Kemp FIAT(Hon) RAnTech, Keith Millican FIAT CBiol MSB, Phil Ruddock MIAT RAnTech, Ted Wills HonFIAT RAnTech, Dorothy Woodnott FIAT Honorary Members Andy Jackson MIAT, John Lesley FIAT RAnTech, Brian Lowe MSc FIAT RAnTech, Ronald Raymond FIAT RAnTech, Peter Russell FIAT RAnTech, David Spillane FIAT, Ray Thatcher FIAT RAnTech, Pete Willan DMS FInstLM MIAT RAnTech Members of Council Ken Applebee OBE, Jas Barley, Kate Burton, Charlie Chambers, Steven Cubitt, Andy Cunningham, Glyn Fisher, Cathy Godfrey, Alan Graham, John Gregory, Linda Horan, Elaine Kirkum, Adele Kitching, Sarah Lane, Norman Mortell, Steve Owen, Wendy Steel, Allan Thornhill, Lynda Westall, Debbi Young Council Officers Chair: Steve Owen FIAT RAnTech Vice Chair: Wendy Steel BSc (Hons) FIAT RAnTech Honorary Secretary: Linda Horan Honorary Treasurer: Glyn Fisher FIAT RAnTech Assistant Treasurer: Charlie Chambers MIAT RAnTech Chair Board of Educational Policy Ken Applebee OBE FIAT CBiol FSB RAnTech Chair Board of Moderators: Cathy Godfrey FIAT RAnTech Chair Registration & Accreditation Board: Charlie Chambers MIAT RAnTech Chair ATW Editorial Board: Jas Barley MSc FIAT RAnTech Bulletin Editor: Sarah Lane MSc FIAT RAnTech Assistant Bulletin Editor: Elaine Kirkum MIAT RAnTech MIScT Branch Liaison Officer: Lynda Westall BSc (Hons) FIAT DMS RAnTech EFAT Representatives: Charlie Chambers MIAT RAnTech, Council Website Coordinator: Allan Thornhill FIAT RAnTech IAT INFORMATION Animal Welfare Officers & LABA Representatives: Sarah Lane, Debbi Young ATW/Bulletin Editorial Board: Jas Barley (Chair), Patrick Hayes (Editorial Assistant), Elaine Kirkum, Sarah Lane, Lynda Westall Board of Educational Policy: Ken Applebee (Chair), Steven Cubitt (Secretary), Sarah Lane Board of Moderators: Cathy Godfrey (Chair), Glyn Fisher (Secretary), Moderators: Gary Childs, Joanna Cruden, Nicky Gent, Linda Horan, Sue McHugh Communications Group: Norman Mortell (Chair), Kate Burton, Linda Horan, Elaine Kirkum, Allan Thornhill, Lynda Westall Registration and Accreditation Board: Charlie Chambers (Chair), Ken Applebee, Gerald Clough, John Gregory, Cathy Godfrey, Sarah Lane, Ron Raymond, Wendy Steel (Secretary), Steve Owen, Stuart Stevenson, Carol Williams Observers: Charles Gentry (Certificate Holders Forum), Adrian Deeny (LASA), Kathy Ryder (Home Office), Lucy Whitfield (LAVA) Advertisement Managers: PRC Associates Ltd Email: mail@prcassoc.co.uk IAT OFFICERS MAY BE CONTACTED VIA: IAT Administrator: iat101@btconnect.com OR VIA THE IAT WEBSITE AT: www.iat.org.uk OR VIA THE REGISTERED OFFICE: 5 South Parade, Summertown, Oxford OX2 7JL Although every effort is made to ensure that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement appear in the journal, the Institute of Animal Technology wish to expound that the data and opinions appearing in the articles, poster presentations and advertisements in ATW are the responsibility of the contributor and advertiser concerned. Accordingly the IAT, Editor and their agents, accept no liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, statement or advertisement being published. Furthermore the opinions expressed in the journal do not necessarily reflect those of the Editor or the Institute of Animal Technology. © 2014 Institute of Animal Technology All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. BRANCH SECRETARIES 2014 Aberdeen: Cambridge: North West: Edinburgh: Hertfordshire & Essex: Huntingdon, Suffolk & Norfolk: Ireland: London: Midlands: North East England: Oxford: Surrey, Hampshire & Sussex: West Middlesex: West of Scotland: ii Ms Donna Wallace Ms Fran Flack Ms Nicky Windows Ms Janice Young Ms Helena Box Ms Jo Martin Mr Colin Travis Ms Amanda Dickson Mr Ian Fielding Ms Rachael Handisides and Joanne Bland Mr Adrian Woodhouse Ms Lesley Hughes Mrs Wendy Steel Ms Linda Horan aberdeenbranch@iat.org.uk cambridgebranch@iat.org.uk cheshirebranch@iat.org.uk edinburghbranch@iat.org.uk hertsessexbranch@iat.org.uk hssbranch@iat.org.uk irelandbranch@iat.org.uk londonbranch@iat.org.uk midlandsbranch@iat.org.uk northeastbranch@iat.org.uk oxfordbranch@iat.org.uk shsbranch@iat.org.uk westmiddxbranch@iat.org.uk westscotlandbranch@iat.org.uk
IAT REPRESENTATIVES  OFFICERS President Dr Robin Lovell-Badge FRS Immediate Past President Professor Sir Richard Gardner M...
August 2014 Animal Technology and Welfare THE INSTITUTE OF ANIMAL TECHNOLOGY ETHICAL STATEMENT “IN THE CONDUCT OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL DUTIES ANIMAL TECHNOLOGISTS HAVE A MORAL AND LEGAL OBLIGATION, AT ALL TIMES, TO PROMOTE AND SAFEGUARD THE WELFARE OF ANIMALS IN THEIR CARE AND TO RECOGNISE THAT GOOD LABORATORY ANIMAL WELFARE IS AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF GOOD LABORATORY ANIMAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE” Editorial Jas Barley Chair of the Editorial Board Welcome to this ‘Congress 2014’ issue of Animal Technology and Welfare. Along with reports from Congress and several of the posters displayed and in some cases, presented, I am delighted to be able to include the winning article of the Andrew Blake Tribute Award by Natalie Edwards. Natalie who works at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, applied a very simple idea of placing wet mash into the cage later on in the day and always in the same place for her colony of degenerative mice. This idea improved the longevity of her mice by a substantial time and more importantly this principle can be applied to any models requiring mash. The judging panel thought it was a well written, novel paper which had far reaching implications for the welfare of the animals in our care as it is often the little things that make a lasting difference. It is very fitting that the winning paper deals with the welfare effects of neurodegeneration as Andrew Blake, suffered from a genetic disorder, Fredreich’s Ataxia and died aged 39 shortly before he was to receive an MBE. For over a decade, he campaigned to support the humane use of animals in medical science and was a vocal opponent to calls for a ban on testing. The Andrew Blake Tribute Award is given to the Animal Technologist judged to have made the most significant contribution to improving standards in laboratory animal welfare over the previous twelve months. By entering the Andrew Blake Tribute Award not only do Animal Technologists gain recognition for their hard work but also spread the information to a wider audience. Much of the work reported in this issue would qualify for the Award so please consider entering, the closing date for the 2015 award is 28th November 2014. The prize includes a £250 cash award and engraved glass plaque. The award winner will be invited to Congress 2015 as a guest to receive their award. In addition to Natalie’s presentation, other contributions on animal welfare include a report from Penny Hawkins on a Congress workshop on raising concerns about laboratory animal welfare. Eye Soreness in rats is dealt with by Matt Smith and his colleagues and the refinement of Fish Health and Welfare following experimental procedures is covered by the group at the Sanger Institute. How we handle our animals of course can have a major impact on their welfare and the poster by John Waters and colleagues show once again how small changes in handling can make a difference to our animals without significant inconvenience to science or animal husbandry routines. A novel approach to rabbit housing is reported by Felicity Hood in her poster Rabbit accommodation goes full circle. We are all aware that our work can be emotionally draining and I am pleased to offer posters dealing with the welfare of technical staff from Norman Mortell and Alison Hopkins. I think it is fairly obvious from this issue that not only do the animals in our care matter, so do the people! Look after yourself. ix
August 2014  Animal Technology and Welfare  THE INSTITUTE OF ANIMAL TECHNOLOGY  ETHICAL STATEMENT    IN THE CONDUCT OF THE...
August 2014 Animal Technology and Welfare Improving animal welfare for neurodegenerative mice NATALIE EDWARDS University of Cambridge, Central Biomedical Services, Addenbrookes Hospital Site, Box 103, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2SP Corresponding author: Ne247@cam.ac.uk Winner of the Andrew Blake Tribute Award 2014 Summary Can the progressive weight loss in neurodegenerative mice be slowed by simply providing fresh mash twice a day and ensuring it is always placed in the same area? From 3 months of age Sandhoff disease model mice (Hexb KO) start to have neurological decline and reduced movement so mashed diet is provided. There were four experimental categories; the categories covered the placement of mash within a cage and how often the mash was provided. All mice were weighed daily. The results show that placing the mash in the same place twice a day promoted the animals’ welfare and the mice had a longer survival time compared to the other categories. Introduction In humans, Sandhoff disease is a rare, genetic, lipid storage disorder resulting in the progressive deterioration of the central nervous system. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hexosaminidase which results in the accumulation of certain fats (lipids) in the brain and other organs of the body resulting in a wide range of symptoms mostly connected to motor and neurological function. Sandhoff diseased mice, are Hexb KO mice, which were on a B6/CBA mixed background. From 3 months of age the mice start to show signs of the disease and deteriorate quickly developing neurological problems such as tremor, limb clasping and ataxia which over time restricts their movement. As part of the welfare regime devised to lessen the effects of this deterioration, mice would be weighed on a regular basis and a softened diet was given. Feeding sick animals mash is recommended to keep them hydrated (Barnett, 2008)1 and also to provide the nutrition they require. In addition, feeding mash on the cage floor means they use as little energy as possible to get their nutrients when they are sick. Furthermore, these mice have restricted movement so they may not be able to reach the hoppers, therefore mash on the floor is essential for this strain. Mash was made by adding water to SDS CRM Breeding and Maintenance expanded food pellets3, this was soaked for at least an hour until it became softened. All the mice were humanely euthanised when they reached the severity limit of 20% weight loss which is stipulated in the Project Licence (PPL) held under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986. Previous to the experiment, during routine husbandry I had developed the habit of always placing the mashed food in the same place. I believe the mice became accustomed to this and learnt this routine as, after several days of receiving mash, I was aware that they would immediately walk to the mash and start to feed. Figure 1. Sandoff diseased mouse I noticed when different staff members fed these mice they would place the mashed food in different places compared to myself. I would see the mice starting to gather in the usual spot where I would usually place the mash but it would not be there for them to feed. This made me consider whether I could improve the welfare 77
August 2014  Animal Technology and Welfare  Improving animal welfare for neurodegenerative mice NATALIE EDWARDS University...
Improving animal welfare for neurodegenerative mice of neurodegenerative mice by always placing their mash in the same place. Mice would be culled when they had reached their 20% weight loss limit. Another theory is that rodents are usually cautious both in leaving the home base and in approaching a food source2 so when the food is repeatedly in different places they may become ver y war y and food consumption may be reduced. All mice were handled in accordance to the Animals (Scientific Procedure) Act, 1986. Results Cages are designed with hoppers in which the food is placed; this supports the theory as the mice have a ‘safe source’ of food always found in the same place – so I thought this should be implemented when placing food on the floor. I observed that a number of cages had an empty mash pot in the afternoons, so the mice had no mash during the night which is their normal feeding time. I would also see the mash dried up by the afternoon. In these instances I provided the cage with more fresh mash. This made me believe that providing mash twice a day could also improve their welfare. I believed that I could set up an experiment to show that animal welfare could be improved and weight loss rate reduced by ensuring mice could always find food and always had a fresh source/enough to last until the next feeding. Figure 3. Weight loss over time for all four categories Categories Average no. of days survived after 3 months of age Group 1 (Mash am/pm same place) Method The mice would reach 3 months of age and would be labelled up to one of the four categories. Group 1 – Mash supplied at 9am and 3pm in the same place. Group 2 – Mash supplied at 9am and 3pm in a different place. Group 3 – Mash supplied at 9am in the same place. Group 4 – Mash supplied at 9am in a different place. The instructions were followed for each group and all mice were weighed daily at 9am. 38.7 Group 2 (Mash am/pm different place) 29 Group 3 (Mash am same place) 25 25 Group 4 (Mash am different place) 19 Table 1. Length of survival beyond 3 months of age Discussion For groups 1 and 3 the mash was always placed directly under the water bottle as seen in the picture (left). For groups 2 and 4 the fresh mash pot was always placed back in a different position within the cage so that no two positions were consecutive. 78 The results can be analysed by the two variables: a) does placing the mash in the same place promote animal welfare and b) does providing fresh mash twice a day also promote animal welfare? Group 1 had the most steady weight loss and therefore sur vived the longest after 3 months of age. Surprisingly, the next category which had the most steady weight loss was Group 2; this suggests that providing fresh mash twice a day contributes towards the animals’ welfare. However, Group 1 had a more significant survival rate and more steady weight loss than Group 2, supporting the theory of placing the mash in the same area of the cage improves welfare.
Improving animal welfare for neurodegenerative mice  of neurodegenerative mice by always placing their mash in the same pl...
Improving animal welfare for neurodegenerative mice Groups 3 and 4 had a more rapid weight loss than Groups 1 and 2 but the group to have the most rapid weight loss was Group 4 which also supports that having mash in the same area promotes animal welfare. Acknowledgements Maggie Green, Gemini Bevan, Timothy Cox, Timothy Sergeant, all staff who assisted in weighing References Group 1 still had a significant difference in weight loss compared to Group 3 which supports the theory that the mice needed fresh mash twice a day. Group 1 had the most steady weight loss that suggests food consumption in this group was higher compared to those in the other groups. I believe its food consumption was higher than the other groups as the mice learnt where to find their food with the least amount of energy expended or they preferred to feed at a trusted source. 1 2 3 Barnett, S.W. (2008). Manual of Animal Technology. Institute of Animal Technology, Blackwell Publishing. Whishaw, I., Haun, F. and Kolb, B. (1999). Analysis of Behaviour in Laboratory Rodents in Modern Techniques in Neuroscience Research, Ed: Windhorst, U. and Johansson H. Pub: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Chapter 44 pp: 1243-1275 SDS; Special Diets Services, Witham, Essex CM8 3T However, the results do not completely support this, as I expected Group 3 to have a more steady weight loss than Groups 2 and 4 but the results did not show this. I believe that supplying mash twice a day is an influencing factor as the mice are nocturnal; therefore, supplying fresh mash in the afternoon as well as in the morning provides a more appetising option for them to feed on during the night as it is fresher than the mash would have been if fed in the morning. To find a more accurate answer to my initial questions two more groups should have been implemented in this experiment. These would have been mash supplied at PM in the same place and mash supplied at PM in different places. The results from these two extra groups may have created a clearer picture as to whether the time in which fresh mash is supplied is the influencing factor in the experiment or the frequency of fresh mash being provided. Do the mice just need feeding mash in the afternoon or can welfare be improved by providing mash twice a day? Conclusion The results clearly appear to confirm the initial hypothesis and that neurodegenerative mice need to have their mash pots supplied in the same place twice a day. Further experiments could be carried out to determine if just supplying fresh mash in the afternoon is what led to Groups 1 and 2 having a more steady weight loss and to clarify if providing mash twice a day promotes the animals’ welfare. Although this experiment was carried out on Sandhoff disease knockout mice, this feeding regime may be beneficial to other strains of neurodegenerative mice and lead to improved welfare. It is intended that further studies will be carried out in order to gather more information on areas that may improve animal welfare such as providing mash on PM checks rather than AM checks. 79
Improving animal welfare for neurodegenerative mice  Groups 3 and 4 had a more rapid weight loss than Groups 1 and 2 but t...
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August 2014 Animal Technology and Welfare Raising concerns about laboratory animal welfare: report of a workshop at IAT Congress 2014 *PENNY HAWKINS1, KATHY RYDER2, NORMAN MORTELL3 and DUNCAN PATTEN4 1 2 3 4 Research Animals Department, Science Group, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex RH13 9RS Animals (Scientific Procedures) Division, Home Office, PO Box 6779, Dundee DD1 9WW Agenda Resource Management, PO Box 24, Hull HU12 8YJ Huntingdon Research Centre, Woolley Road, Alconbury, Cambridgeshire PE28 4HS *Corresponding author: penny.hawkins@rspca.org.uk Introduction Some establishments have well-defined systems for identifying concerns that staff may have about animal welfare. Such concerns can include issues with a wide range of implications for both the animals and the establishment; from feelings that a potential refinement is not being implemented without a justifiable reason (e.g. not enough material provided for mice to make a proper nest), through to concerns that there may have been an infringement and potentially even to concerns that cruelty has occurred. There is wide recognition that enabling people to raise concerns, so that these can be quickly and effectively resolved, is a constructive way to help maintain good standards of both animal welfare and staff morale – and to prevent non-compliance with the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 (ASPA). A good system for raising, investigating and resolving concerns is also integral to achieving openness within the establishment and appropriate documentation and feedback may contribute to transparency and public accountability. The following factors are especially important in establishing and maintaining a good system for achieving all of the above: G G G people with concerns must have the confidence to raise them – they should not feel that expressing their concerns will be detrimental to their status, job prospects or relationships with their colleagues routes for raising and dealing with concerns within establishments should be clear and known to all and there should be internal mechanisms for checking that such issues have been dealt with to everyone’s satisfaction, including repor ting any potential technical infringements or non-compliance to the Home Office With the above in mind, a workshop on raising concerns about laboratory animal welfare was held at IAT Congress 2014. The aim was to provide animal technologists with an opportunity to discuss the systems in place at their establishments and how they might act upon any concerns about animal welfare. Thir ty people registered, comprising animal technologists from several academic and industry establishments and one Named Veterinary Surgeon (NVS). This workshop report was written with three main aims. First, for animal technologists, including those who are Named Persons, to review and consider whether they feel properly informed and supported. In respect to raising concerns; second, to stimulate discussion at an establishment level; and third, for those involved with training to assess whether topics related to raising concerns are adequately covered in courses into which they have input. The workshop began with three presentations, followed by a discussion session. These are summarised below followed by some conclusions and recommendations. Individual responsibilities and accountability – what constitutes a good culture of communication and care? Home Office Inspector Dr Kathryn Ryder explained the lines of responsibility and accountability under the ASPA for communicating and raising any concerns about welfare, on the basis of the Guidance to the 81
August 2014  Animal Technology and Welfare  Raising concerns about laboratory animal welfare  report of a workshop at IAT ...
Raising concerns about laboratory animal welfare: report of a workshop at IAT Congress 2014 ASPA.1 The holder of the procedure establishment licence holder (PELH) is ultimately both responsible and accountable for ensuring that concerns are recognised, communicated and dealt with. The PELH is usually the Named Person Responsible for Compliance (NPRC); a role which has a number of responsibilities relevant to establishing and maintaining a good system of communication. These include: G G G G G G providing leadership; ensuring compliance with the ASPA and its guidelines and codes of practice ensuring the Three Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement) are implemented as fully as possible ensuring there are enough staff in place, with systems to ensure their competence – this is with support from the Named Training and Competency Officer (NTCO) setting up and running the Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Body (AWERB) and ensuring that all Named Persons have the necessary authority to perform their roles From an animal technologist’s point of view, there should be a clear chain of responsibility from the individual with the concern, to the Named Animal Care and Welfare Officer (NACWO) to the PELH. This is set out within the ‘standard’ conditions of the establishment licence, number 21 of which requires the licence holder to ‘make adequate and effective provision for regular and effective liaison with and between those entrusted with responsibilities under the Act and with others who have responsibility for the welfare of the protected animals kept at the establishment’. In effect, this is recognising that the animal technologist acts as the ‘eyes and ears’ of the PELH. There are also standard conditions associated with project and personal licences that are relevant to ensuring proper communications, which may be used for raising concerns. Personal licence condition 13 requires the Personal Licence Holder to notify the project licence holder as soon as possible if it appears that the severity limit of a procedure, or the constraints in adverse effects described in the licence, have been – or are likely to be – exceeded. In addition, project licence condition 18 requires that the licence holder ensures adherence to severity limits and other controls described in the licence. If the constraints appear to have been, or are likely to be, breached, the project licence holder has to ensure that the Secretary of State is notified (via the Home Office Inspector). Personal licence condition 14 mandates that the licence holder ensures that suitable arrangements exist for the care and welfare of the animals if they are away and condition 15 requires the holder to ensure that veterinary advice and treatment are obtained for the animals in their care wherever necessary. 82 All of the above standard conditions, for establishment, project and personal licences, demonstrate that there is a sound legal basis for animal technologists to raise concerns and to expect these to be passed up the chain of responsibility. This may be to the Establishment Licence Holder via the NACWOs or other senior animal technologists, or in some cases by bringing an issue to the attention of the AWERB. For example, the AWERB may be the appropriate forum for raising concerns about day-to-day welfare where an infringement is not suspected, or for reviewing unexpected adverse effects and ensuring there is adequate follow-up and prevention in future studies. In a good culture of care, the animal technologist should know the reporting structure and be confident that it works. There should also be a high level of teamwork, in which scientists explain clearly what procedures involve, why they are being performed, what the endpoints are and the reasons for them, to avoid any potential misunderstandings about the clinical signs observed in the animals. All involved should be able to feel comfortable that the benefits justify the harms. Animal technologists should feel comfortable helping researchers to understand the needs of the animals, contributing towards better monitoring and implementation of refinement to reduce suffering and improve welfare. However, if concerns are raised and nobody appears to be listening, it is important as an animal technologist to remember that the law is there for the protection of the animals being used for scientific purposes. Those to whom you complain should be able to explain what is happening, so that you can be satisfied that animal welfare and/or ethical concerns have been fully considered and adequately addressed. If you are not satisfied, it is always preferable to try to solve the problem locally – for example, by taking the concern straight to the PELH – but if this does not lead to a satisfactory resolution, you should discuss this with your local Home Office Inspector. Building a relationship with the Inspector before there are any concerns would also be helpful; a straw poll of participants showed that NACWOs liaised with their Inspector but only three non-NACWOs did this. Good communication between all those involved with animals used in research is most likely to facilitate raising and resolving concerns. ‘Welfare first’ – caring for the staff who care for the animals Norman Mortell, of the Agenda Resource Management life science employment and facility management agency, outlined their ‘Welfare First’ programme which aims to recognise the importance of animal welfare in the life sciences, support the Three Rs and also promote staff welfare.2 This recognises that people
Raising concerns about laboratory animal welfare  report of a workshop at IAT Congress 2014  ASPA.1 The holder of the proc...
Raising concerns about laboratory animal welfare: report of a workshop at IAT Congress 2014 whose morale is good are more likely to be conscientious, confident and motivated to support good animal welfare and to speak up if there are any issues that concern them. All animal technologists working for Agenda sign a ‘Welfare Contract’, which states their legal and moral responsibilities, includes a commitment to the Three Rs and sets out the process for reporting concerns. The Contract also explains the standards of behaviour that are expected of animal technologists, including having (and displaying) a respectful attitude towards both animals and one another. For example, ‘gallows humour’ may have been acceptable in animal units once but this should no longer be the case; not only because it gives a bad impression but also because a disrespectful attitude can ultimately lead to infringements. The ‘Got a Concern?’ system sets out eleven ways in which questions or concerns can be raised (listed in Table 1). The aim is to take account of people’s lifestyles, behaviours and feelings about raising concerns, so that there is no excuse for not communicating. Staff are encouraged to use the client’s official channels first but they might not have been told what these are, or they may find staff unapproachable. Use official Text Agenda Raise at the Secure client channels weekly call Facebook® – the preferred received by all page option Animal welfare – a concern of everyone Duncan Patten, NTCO and Named Information Officer (NIO) at Huntingdon Life Sciences, gave a presentation explaining their system for raising animal welfare concerns. This begins on the first day of employment for all employees, when they receive an ‘Animal Welfare Card’ in their welcome pack. This includes an explanation of the process for reporting concerns (Box 1). 1. Your responsibility: If a member of staff is concerned about any aspect of animal welfare within HLS, or that there might have been a breach of an SOP relating to animals, they should report it immediately. 2. Who to contact: Your Supervisor OR Animal Facility Manager, OR Named Animal Care and Welfare Officer (NACWO), OR Named Veterinary Surgeon, OR Establishment Licence Holder. 3. How to contact? Face to face, by e-mail or by phone. 4. What will happen? The person you contact will meet with you to discuss your concerns and make appropriate notes with your consent. 5. What follow-up will occur? The written report will be given to the Establishment Licence Holder. A full investigation will take place and the Establishment Licence Holder in consultation with members of the Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Body will consider what fur ther actions need to be taken as a consequence and outcome of the investigation. 6. Your name need not be disclosed during any preliminary investigations. Agenda staff Email Agenda Discuss at Anonymous e- appraisals suggestion box Discuss at Feedback in Telephone the Out of hours Agenda office 24/7 helpline face-to-face meetings postassignment process Table 1. The eleven ways of communicating included in the ‘Got a Concern?’ system Raising concerns is strongly encouraged and whatever the chosen method of communication, concerns are treated seriously, documented, followed up and resolved. Outcomes are recorded and fed back to the member of staff who raised the issue. Box 1. Animal Welfare Card text Every employee attends an Animal Welfare Module as part of their company induction, which includes an indepth explanation of the system for reporting concerns. All in-house and agency animal technologists and care staff, at all levels, also receive a presentation on the Culture of Care. In addition, all staff involved in animal care and procedures (including scientific staff) attend an annual Culture of Care presentation which is revised and updated every year to reflect current good practice and thinking. Company intranet pages provide further information on the ASPA and individuals’ responsibilities and these are always available to everyone. The system has worked well for HLS staff involved in animal care and use, and there is a supportive culture for raising issues and communicating concerns. Discussion Following the presentations, delegates were divided into groups and each was given one of four hypothetical ‘test cases’ to discuss. These are reproduced overleaf, 83
Raising concerns about laboratory animal welfare  report of a workshop at IAT Congress 2014  whose morale is good are more...
Raising concerns about laboratory animal welfare: report of a workshop at IAT Congress 2014 with summaries of the participants’ discussions on each one. Case 1 A senior academic in a university regularly operates on animals without using proper aseptic technique. When challenged by an animal technologist, he replies that he has always done it that way and the animals are “fine” and never suffer any infections. He later refuses to sterilise his instruments properly when asked to do so and tells the technologist to stop interfering. The animal technologist tells the NVS, who says that she will investigate … but the researcher is still operating without properly sterilised instruments a month later. What should the technologist do next? Responses Participants agreed that the animal technologist should see the vet again and find out whether she/he has spoken to the scientist. If she has not, the matter should be brought to the attention of the PELH, either directly or via the NACWO. There should be a defined and structured reporting path to facilitate this. If the vet has spoken to the scientist and she/he still will not comply, the animal technologist should present him with a copy of the Guidance to the ASPA and inform him that she/he must comply, as failure to use the most refined technique is a breach of project and personal licence standard condition 4 (see Home Office Guidance to the ASPA1). The technologist should observe the next booked session of surgery and, if the scientist persists in operating without observing proper standards of asepsis, she/he should notify both the PELH and the Home Office Inspector. (although one person who was new to the position explained that they would not be worried about speaking out). More experienced animal technologists and NACWOs were more confident that they would be able to stand their ground and convince the researcher. Two opportunities for animal technologists at any level to gather support were the NVS and the AWERB, although the level of awareness of the membership and roles of the AWERB were generally low amongst participants. The tasks of the AWERB include advising staff on matters related to animal welfare, in relation to their acquisition, accommodation, care and use, and also advising on the application of the Three Rs – including refinement.1,3 Therefore, the AWERB has a clear mandate to request justification from the scientist for using a less-than-best-practice regime of housing. The IAT Code of Professional Conduct4 requires animal technologists to ‘work closely with your colleagues to establish best practice in welfare and husbandry for all animals in your care’, which could also provide useful backup when seeking support. Senior technologists should be able to support their juniors in these discussions. It was felt that modular training courses should provide information and guidance on good practice for housing and care, including how this can be implemented and enforced. In particular, courses should include clear instruction that the Code of Practice requires that animals should have enrichment as standard, and that the researcher should supply sound scientific justification in the project licence (since January 2013), or verbally for older licences, if they wish it to be withheld. Case 3 Case 2 Rats used in pharmacokinetics studies in a pharmaceutical establishment are housed in standard caging with just a small scoop of sawdust litter. An animal technologist attends an IAT Congress and hears a talk by someone from another pharmaceutical company on the enrichment that they provide for their rats on similar studies – a refuge, nesting material and chew blocks. She/he asks the project licence holder whether the rats he cares for could have these things. The project licence holder says no, because it will cost money and she/he does not accept that the animals will benefit. Should the tech accept this? If not, what should she/he do? Responses This scenario led to discussions about the level of authority that animal technologists personally feel they have, depending on the culture at their establishment and the stage of their career. It was generally felt that a relatively inexperienced tech would have to be brave in order to persist with the case for enrichment 84 An animal technologist caring for mice used in telemetry studies is concerned that the animals are showing signs of pain following implantation surgery. She/he tells the researcher who carried out the surgery, who replies that the mice receive one dose of Buprenorphine after surgery, which he believes is more than sufficient. She/he tells her that the mice are “perfectly happy” when she/he uses them in procedures a week after surgery and she/he refuses to come and look at the animals. What should the animal technologist do? Responses Participants strongly believed that this was a matter of upholding the duty of care to the animal. As this was likely to be an emotive and controversial issue, it was considered vital to observe the animals carefully and record these observations before taking any further action. Then, two courses of action were suggested; one was to report the concern to the NACWO, then jointly ask the scientist to explain and justify their refusal to provide more pain relief and – if not satisfied – take it to the NVS. The other was simply to call the
Raising concerns about laboratory animal welfare  report of a workshop at IAT Congress 2014  with summaries of the partici...
Raising concerns about laboratory animal welfare: report of a workshop at IAT Congress 2014 NVS and administer analgesia under his or her direction, unless the scientist had justified in advance why further analgesia was to be withheld. NB in either case, the NVS should be informed so they can reconsider whether the advised regime of analgesia will need to be changed. Case 4 A trainee animal technologist is ‘shadowing’ an experienced colleague who is showing her/him how to administer oral gavage to rats. The demonstrator does not appear to carry out the procedure very well and the rat begins to struggle and squeaks audibly. After five attempts, the demonstrator gives up and puts the rat back into his cage in a manner that looks rough to the trainee, saying that rats are tough and obstinate and you need to “show them who’s boss”. The demonstrator has worked at the establishment for a long time, and the trainee also finds her intimidating. What should the trainee do? Responses There was unanimous agreement that this person simply should not be a trainer! Notwithstanding this, participants felt that in such a situation it would be unacceptable to let this go without further action, although challenging the trainer face to face would be very difficult for an inexperienced animal technologist. The suggested course of action was to speak to another, independent senior animal tech and tell them what happened. The incident should then be progressed through appropriate management structures to consider, with one possible outcome retraining of the trainer, under close supervision and involving a review of attitude. Feedback should also be given to the trainee who reported the concern, to demonstrate that this was taken seriously and that such behaviour towards animals will not be tolerated. – Get to know your Named Persons and your local Home Office Inspector; feel free to communicate and discuss a range of issues with them at any time, not just when you suspect something has gone wrong. – Get to know your establishment’s AWERB, what it does and how it does it; asking to attend a meeting is a good starting point. – Do not jump to conclusions. Ask the researcher about your concerns; there may be a justifiable reason for what you have seen. – Use records and observations to enable you to describe your concerns more effectively and make your case. – Remember that, as an animal technologist, you have the law on your side – and the IAT Code of Professional Conduct as additional backup.4 – Use IAT qualifications to reinforce and improve your status. – Suggest that the AWERB reviews the system for raising concerns, as part of its task to ‘establish and review management and operational processes for monitoring, reporting and follow-up in relation to the welfare of animals’.1,3 And: If you are a NACWO – remember that you are there to champion the culture of care and encourage appropriate attitudes among all staff. If you are involved in licensee training or employee inductions, review this report and consider whether raising concerns and all the issues surrounding the topic, are adequately covered in current courses. References 1 Conclusions and recommendations The overriding conclusion was that it is critically important for animal technologists to understand the true level of responsibility and/or authority that they hold under the ASPA, with respect to both raising concerns and implementing good practice regarding animal care and use. It is essential that a supportive management structure exists and that there is an effective system for raising concerns that is accessible to, and understood by, all members of staff. This will contribute to the individual establishment’s culture of care. The following recommendations were drawn out of the workshop and discussions: 2 3 4 Home Office (2014). Guidance on the Operation of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. https:// www.gov.uk/research-and-testing-using-animals (last accessed 9 May 2014). Agenda Resource Management (2014). Welfare First. http://www.agendatechtalk.co.uk/Downloads/WelfareFir st/welfarefirst.pdf (last accessed 12 May 2014). RSPCA/LASA (2010). Guiding Principles on Good Practice for Ethical Review Processes. http:// www.lasa.co.uk/PDF/GP-ERPJuly2010printFINAL.pdf (last accessed 12 May 2014). IAT (2008). IAT Guide to Professional Conduct. IAT, Oxford. – If you have any level of concern, always do something about it – or you become part of the problem. – Make sure that you know the channel(s) for raising issues and concerns at your establishment 85
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August 2014 Animal Technology and Welfare Comparison of flavoured treats for CD rats MARCIA MORGAN-KNIGHT and *JOANNA CRUDEN GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP *Corresponding author: joanna.l.cruden@gsk.com Introduction Wild rats are opportunist omnivores and will forage to find food sources even when satiated, eating little so they know the whereabouts of food8 and they can return to the source when they are hungry. Laboratory rats have food available continuously from the same place which prevents them performing a natural foraging behaviour. However, when offered the opportunity they will choose to forage over taking food from a hopper.4 Standard chow diet gives them all the nutrients they require and laboratory rats do not tend to be offered a variety of different foods or flavours. When young rats start to forage on their own, their food choices can be influenced by social interactions that may take place away from foraging sites. Rats can smell foods on the fur, whiskers and especially the breath of other rats and will prefer the foods that those rats had previously eaten.3,7,9 The chemical (CS2) which is present in rat breath is the cue in terms of what other rats have eaten. When rats are presented with foods swabbed with CS2 and nonswabbed foods, rats preferred the food swabbed with CS2.2 The principle of eating what others have successfully consumed helps the rat identify potential foods and expand its feeding repertoire at small risk to itself. Rats are not born with knowledge of safe foods and poisons. Instead, they have the ability to learn which items in their environment are safe to eat and which are not. In our facility the health monitoring sentinel rats are routinely given sunflower seeds as a form of foraging enrichment. However, these have the potential to cause changes in the physiology of the rat which are not acceptable for our experimental animals due to the possible variables in the experimental results from unknown constituents of a sunflower seed. We wanted to find an appropriate alternative to sunflower seeds which the experimental rats would eat without causing any such variables in study results. We sourced a nutritionally balanced rat treat which had a certificate of analysis and could be given to all of our rats without compromising the study results. We wanted to investigate whether: G there was a flavour the rats would actively avoid; G they had no preference to any flavour; G eating treats affected the growth and health of the rats; G there would be value in offering rats treats in the home-cage. Method Rats were fed LabDiet 5LF2 (IPS), and housed in Arrowmight type lll rat cage with a 2017 cm2 floor area. The home-cage was cleaned out each Monday, substrate used was Lignocel, (IPS), nesting was Envirodri™ (LBS), and they were also given a cardboard tunnel, compressed paper shelter and an Aspen wood chew block (Datesand). To reduce variability between the groups, the homecages were moved to a new position on the home rack several times per week by the technologist. The holding room was on a light cycle of 12: 12 and the lux level 150–400. The temperature for the room was between 19-23˚C and the relative humidity was 55% +/– 10%. There were 15-20 air changes per hour in the room. The eight male CD rats used in this study were purchased from a commercial source aged 6-8 weeks and ultimately euthanised as part of the routine sentinel health screening for the animal facility; they exhibited no abnormal findings. They were split into pairs at the start of the study, were numbered 1-8 and divided across four cages. Rats 1, 3, 5, and 7 had an additional black mark on their heads to distinguish the individuals in each cage. Rats were marked using non-toxic Pentel jet pens to enable individual identification during the study and markings were refreshed prior to filming. Before the main study commenced each pair was acclimatised to their cage being moved from the homerack to the experimental-rack on a daily basis for a 3 87
August 2014  Animal Technology and Welfare  Comparison of flavoured treats for CD rats MARCIA MORGAN-KNIGHT and  JOANNA CR...
Comparison of flavoured treats for CD rats day period. Once on the experimental rack a Trespa trough with 4 metal bowls (Figure 1) was placed in the home-cage and CCTV recorded the rats’ feeding behaviour onto a blank DVD disk for subsequent review. Study design The 4 flavours used were the only ones available from the supplier in the certified range suitable for our work. Each test consisted of two flavour options; 16 x 1 gm pellets Supreme Mini-Treats™ (Datesand) were randomly distributed over 4 bowls (4 of the same flavour treat pellets per bowl, 2 bowls per flavour) each test time, using a balanced randomisation scheme to address the effect of bowl position. The video was analysed after the tests were completed. Video analysis consisted of the observer using a stop watch to determine the time it took each rat to collect a treat. Once a treat was removed by a rat, the timer was stopped and the video paused so a note could be made of the time. The video and timer were then both restarted until the subsequent treat was collected. Treats were considered to have been taken if they were removed from the bowl irrespective of whether they were fully eaten, partially eaten, hidden or left on the cage floor. The number of treats eaten of each flavour, in each cage was aggregated for the analysis. To account for the different total number of treats eaten in each cage, the difference in the number of treats eaten of each flavour was standardised by the total number of treats eaten in that cage (see Results section). Figure 2. Bowls with two different flavour treats After each study the troughs and bowls were removed for cleaning; any remaining treats were removed and counted. Bodyweights were taken daily throughout the 3 study periods. However, measurement of food and water consumption was reduced to weekly for the final 8 weeks of the study as there was no apparent change in consumption (Table 1). Figure 1. Rat taking a Very Berry treat from bowl A Each home-cage was moved to the test rack twice a week for 30 minutes, the camera was positioned above the cages giving a clear view of the cage. Enrichment was removed during the filming period to allow for a clear view of the animals and the bowls; it was difficult to determine whether the short term absence of nesting would have an impact on rat behaviour, as all rats had the same experience the results should still be comparable between animals. The video was switched on as soon as the cage was in position (as rats would often grab treats as soon as the bowls were placed in the cage) the treat bowls were then placed at the back of the cage. Although rats are thigotaxic6 (tend to keep to the edges) it was considered unlikely this behaviour would have an effect on choice in the home-cage which was enclosed and familiar to the rats. 88            !                  "  #$%% & ' '                 $ %$ %$%!(  ( *         %($%%      %$%() %$%,* %$)%   $ +   %$%#  )#         %($%%      & ' $   %$%() %$ ) %$%,# Table 1. Treat times and days including results of the one-sample t-test on normalised difference D2
Comparison of flavoured treats for CD rats  day period. Once on the experimental rack a Trespa trough with 4 metal bowls  ...
Comparison of flavoured treats for CD rats All animal studies were ethically reviewed and carried out in accordance with Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and the GSK Policy on the Care, Welfare and Treatment of Animals. Results and discussion To compare taste preference, we computed the difference in the number of treats removed for every flavour within each study period for each cage. This total was normalised to account for the number of treats removed in each cage, resulting in the standardised difference D2: D2=on (loess) was used to fit the curve. The mean proportion (Figure 3) of the total treats eaten that were of a specified flavour per data collection session has been plotted for each of the three comparisons. A smooth curve has been fitted to the data to enable visualisation of possible trends. There is no evidence of a meaningful trend in the proportion of treats eaten of one flavour in any of the three comparisons. There were some complications during the Very Berry vs Marshmallow study. At the 11th data collection session, in two of the cages, one of the bowls contained five treats instead of the usual four. This deviation from the protocol complicates analysis of the data because at the affected time point a fair comparison cannot be made – the rats had the opportunity to consume more treats of one flavour than the other. Rats often removed treats without eating them during the videoed period; the true value of the flavoured treats for the rats is unknown. We postulated that the rats were unlikely to remove a treat they did not want to eat, especially as no treats were found in the cages the following day. During future studies we would either video the rats over a 24 hour period or remove the treats directly after filming. The rats were not fasted so the desire to eat within the 30 minute period may have been reduced especially as it was in the light phase and rats are nocturnal, so offering the treats and videoing at night may lead to more relevant results. Using the information that we have, it seems unlikely that correcting this one erroneous time point would result in a different conclusion. Treat preference over time We investigated whether either rat treat consumption or flavour preference changed over time. For example, did the rats eat more or fewer treats in total as the study progressed and did their preference change (Figure 3)? At the end of the study the rats ate, on average, more treats at each session compared to the early data collection sessions Figure 3. However, we cannot determine whether this difference is caused by changes in rat appetite over time, or by the different flavours of treat offered to the rats. Increased rat age, or familiarity to a previously offered flavour of treat, may have affected rat treat consumption. Factors such as these could be investigated by modifying the study design to control for them. Rat development All rats gained weight steadily throughout the study, they did not have a higher than average growth curve for rats of their age (data not shown). Food and water consumption was similar across rats and there were no clear changes post treat time suggesting that there was no dramatic reduction in food intake when treats were offered to the rats. Rat food consumption declined over the course of the study, most likely because older animals need less energy for growth. Figure 3. Average total treats consumed per pair of rats, per data collection session, regardless of treat flavour. 89
Comparison of flavoured treats for CD rats  All animal studies were ethically reviewed and carried out in accordance with ...
Comparison of flavoured treats for CD rats Treat preference Banana + Marshmallow flavoured treats were lighter in colour and the Very Berry + Chocolate flavoured treats were dark to make it easier for the observer to identify the different flavours when reviewing the footage. Albino rats have few photoreceptors in their eyes10 so they have very poor eyesight, indicating it is unlikely they could distinguish between treat colours. They have an excellent sense of smell10 which may have hastened their decision process for treat selection if they had found a preferred flavour. It is unlikely they had any real preference between the treats offered, although the technical staff observed one or two rats seemed to select banana-flavoured treats the least at the start of the study but it did not affect the overall results. This flavour is often used as a reward for rats in behavioural studies2,3 which suggests it is very unlikely that they were avoiding the flavour. An alternative reason for these observations could be that taste preference changes as a rat ages.11 It is very likely had they been offered banana flavour during a later test the results would have shown no significant differences. Throughout the study period each pair of rats appeared to have frequently consumed all the treats of a particular flavour (Figure 3 and Figure 4). If so, this severely limited the ability to detect a difference in preference as the data only reflects how willing the rats were to take the less-preferred flavour after consuming 8 treats of the preferred flavour. Future studies along these lines should ensure the rats can eat as many treats of their favourite type as they want, for example offering both choices in the cage ad libutum. The rats were tested twice a week. The dates and times had to be changed following phase 1 to accommodate the Christmas and New Year break. A visual check of the data did not reveal any changes from the break in data collection, nor significant rat-torat variation throughout the study. prevent treats being taken before the video equipment could be switched on. Conclusion Power calculations are difficult to perform without adequate preliminary data. The data from this study will inform power calculations for future experiments. This study has shown that overall giving rats small numbers of treats twice weekly does not seem to affect their growth cur ve. Apart from a possible lower preference for banana flavoured treats, the rats appeared to have no preference for one flavour over another; a larger study with a different design, including other strains and sexes of rats may demonstrate a different range of preferences. Offering rats treats in bowls may encourage natural behaviours and improve their wellbeing, although further research is needed in this area. The rat handlers observed that the rats showed a positive anticipation towards treat time and therefore may value forage with different flavours placed in the cages. In this study we do not see evidence of a flavour preference in any of the comparisons. It is difficult to say which flavour rats prefer overall without further experiments using a refined study design. There may be no value in knowing whether there is a preference for one flavour over another as a treat, although determining the flavour of treat a rat will work hardest for may be useful for positive reinforcement studies. Acknowledgements Erika Cule for her statistical advice LAS Stevenage, especially John Farr, Debbie Ridley, Rob Ives and Nella Rebisz Keith Preston and Louise Wrona for the data collection References 21 The treat presentation gave the rats opportunity for a more natural method of food collection, they were able to forage and manipulate the food with their paws and take the food away to eat. These behaviours are important to a rat;5 treats and food could be placed in a home-cage to encourage foraging. Video Within 15 minutes no further treats were removed from the bowls, so for future studies the filming duration could be reduced. Once rats had been acclimatised to the treat cages, a visible expectation for treats could be seen in the rats by the technical staff, which meant that filming had to be started before the treats went into the cage to 90 22 23 24 25 Martinez, R. and Morato, S. (2004). Thigotaxis and exploration in adult and pup rats, Journal of Ethology (online) Available from http://pepsic.bvsalud.org/ scielo.php?pid=S151728052004000100007&script=sci _artt... [accessed 09/02/2012] Galef, Jr. B.G., Mason, J.R., Preti, G. and Bean, N.J. (1988). Carbon disulfide: A semiochemical mediating socially-induced diet choice in rats. Animal Behaviour (42) pp 119-124 Burke, K.A., Franz, T.M., Miller, D.N. and Schoenbaum, G. (2008). The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in the pursuit of happiness and more specific rewards. Nature, 454 (7202) 340-344 Johnson, S.R., Patterson-Kane, E.G. and Niel, L. (2004). Foraging enrichment for laboratory rats. Animal Welfare, 13305-312 Posada-Andrews, A. and Roper, T.J. (1983). Social transmission of food preferences in adult rats. Animal Behaviour 26510.
Comparison of flavoured treats for CD rats  Treat preference Banana   Marshmallow flavoured treats were lighter in colour ...
Comparison of flavoured treats for CD rats 26 27 28 29 10 Boyd, E.S. (1977). A cortical evoked potential that reflects the conditioned, positive incentive value of the stimulus. III. Manipulative motivation and the value of the reward. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology Hatch, A., Wiberg, G.S., Balazs, T. and Grice, H.C. (1963). Long-term isolation stress in rats. Science, 142 (3591) 507 Rat Behaviour (2014). What do rats see? Available from http://www.ratbehavior.org/RatVision.htm [Accessed 25 March 2014]. Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior. (2014). Taste preference changes in different life stages of rats.” ScienceDaily. Available from www.sciencedaily.com/ releases/2013/07/130730091403.htm [Accessed 25 March 2014]. Galef, Jr. B.G. and Wigmore S.W. (1983). Transfer of information concerning distant foods: A laborator y investigation on the ‘information-centre’ Hypothesis. Animal Behaviour (31) 748-758 Other Useful references: Baumans, V. (2005). Environmental enrichment for laboratory rodents and rabbits: requirements of rodents, rabbits, and research. ILAR 46, 162-170. 91
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August 2014 Animal Technology and Welfare PAPER SUMMARY TRANSLATIONS INHALTVERZEICHNIS Verbesserung des Tierschutzes für neurodegenerative Mäuse NATALIE EDWARDS University of Cambridge, Central Biomedical Services, Addenbrookes Hospital Site, Box 103, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2SP Korrespondierende autorin: ne247@cam.ac.uk Abstract Kann die fortschreitende Gewichtsabnahme neurodegenerativer Mäuse verlangsamt werden, indem sie lediglich zweimal täglich mit frischem Futterbrei versorgt werden, der stets an derselben Stelle platziert wird? Ab einem Alter von drei Monaten beginnen Modellmäuse (Hexb KO) mit der Sandhoff-Krankheit eine neurologische Verschlechterung und eingeschränkte Bewegung zu zeigen, sodass sie Futter in Breiform erhalten. Dazu erfolgten Versuche in vier Kategorien. Hierbei ging es um die Platzierung des Breis in einem Käfig sowie um die Häufigkeit der Bereitstellung des Breis. Alle Mäuse wurden täglich gewogen. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass durch die Platzierung des Breis an derselben Stelle zweimal am Tag das Wohlbefinden der Tiere gefördert wurde und die Mäuse gegenüber denen in den anderen Kategorien eine längere Überlebenszeit aufwiesen. Zusammenfassung Kann die fortschreitende Gewichtsabnahme neurodegenerativer Mäuse verlangsamt werden, indem sie lediglich zweimal täglich mit frischem Futterbrei versorgt werden, der stets an derselben Stelle platziert wird? Ab einem Alter von drei Monaten beginnen Modellmäuse (Hexb KO) mit der Sandhoff-Krankheit eine neurologische Verschlechterung und eingeschränkte Bewegung zu zeigen, sodass sie Futter in Breiform erhalten. Dazu erfolgten Versuche in vier Kategorien. Hierbei ging es um die Platzierung des Breis in einem Käfig sowie um die Häufigkeit der Bereitstellung des Breis. Alle Mäuse wurden täglich gewogen. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass durch die Platzierung des Breis an derselben Stelle zweimal am Tag das Wohlbefinden der Tiere gefördert wurde und die Mäuse gegenüber denen in den anderen Kategorien eine längere Überlebenszeit aufwiesen. 93
August 2014  Animal Technology and Welfare  PAPER SUMMARY TRANSLATIONS INHALTVERZEICHNIS Verbesserung des Tierschutzes f  ...
Paper Summary Translations Bedenken über Labortierschutz äußern: Berict über einen Workshop auf dem IAT-Kongress 2014 *PENNY HAWKINS1, KATHY RYDER2, NORMAN MORTELL3 und DUNCAN PATTEN4 1 2 3 4 Research Animals Department, Science Group, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex RH13 9RS Animals (Scientific Procedures) Division, Home Office, PO Box 6779, Dundee DD1 9WW Agenda Resource Management, PO Box 24, Hull HU12 8YJ Huntingdon Research Centre, Woolley Road, Alconbury, Cambridgeshire PE28 4HS *Korrespondierende autorin: penny.hawkins@rspca.org.uk Abstract Dieser Workshop-Bericht wurde mit drei Hauptzielen verfasst. Erstens gilt es für Tiertechniker, darunter die namentlich benannte Personen, zu prüfen und zu erwägen, ob sie in Bezug auf das Äußern von Bedenken angemessen informiert und unterstützt werden. Zweitens geht es um die Anregung einer Diskussion auf Ebene der jeweiligen Einrichtung. Drittens sollen die mit der Ausbildung beauftragten Personen bewerten, ob Sachverhalte im Zusammenhang mit dem Aussprechen von Bedenken in Kursen, bei denen sie mitwirken, hinreichend behandelt werden. Einige Einrichtungen verfügen über genau festgelegte Systeme zur Identifizierung von Bedenken, die Mitarbeiter möglicherweise im Zusammenhang mit Tierschutz haben. Dies kann Sachverhalte betreffen, die weitreichende Implikationen sowohl für Tiere als auch Einrichtungen haben – angefangen vom Empfinden, dass eine potenzielle Vervollkommnung nicht ohne triftigen Grund umgesetzt wird (dass z. B. nicht genug Material zum ordentlichen Nestbau für Mäuse zur Verfügung gestellt wird), bis hin zu Befürchtungen, dass ein Verstoß bzw. sogar Tierquälerei begangen wurde. Mitarbeitern das Äußern von Bedenken zur schnellen und effektiven Lösung von Problemen zu ermöglichen, gilt allgemein als eine konstruktive Methode zur Wahrung guter Standards für Tierschutz und Mitarbeitermoral zugleich – und damit zur Verhinderung von Verstößen gegen den Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 (ASPA). Ein gutes System zum Äußern, Untersuchen und Ausräumen von Bedenken ist auch wichtig zur Gewährleistung von Offenheit innerhalb der Einrichtung, Entsprechende Dokumentation und Feedback können zu Transparenz und öffentlicher Nachprüfbarkeit beitragen. Die folgenden Faktoren sind besonders wichtig beim Aufbau und der Wahrung eines guten Systems zur Erreichung oben erwähnter Ziele: G G G Wenn Mitarbeiter Bedenken hegen, müssen sie sich sicher sein können, diese auch ansprechen zu dürfen. Sie sollten nicht das Gefühl haben, dass dies ihren Status, ihre Berufsaussichten und Beziehungen zu Kollegen beeinträchtigen könnte. Die Wege zum Ansprechen und Behandeln von Bedenkeninnerhalb von Einrichtungen müssen eindeutig und allen bekannt sein. Es sollten interne Mechanismen bestehen, um überprüfen zu können, ob derartige Belange zur Zufriedenheit aller geklärt wurden. Dazu gehört auch die Meldung potenzieller technischer Verstöße bzw. Nichtbefolgen von Vorschriften an das Innenministerium. Die oben erwähnten Einzelheiten bildeten die Grundlage für einen auf dem IAT-Kongress 2014 abgehaltenen Workshop zum Äußern von Bedenken am Schutz von Versuchstieren. Ziel des Workshops war es, Tiertechnikern die Möglichkeit zur Diskussion des in ihrer Einrichtung vorhandenen Systems und der Verfahrensweise bei Bedenken über Tierschutz zu bieten. 94
Paper Summary Translations  Bedenken   ber Labortierschutz   u  ern  Berict   ber einen Workshop auf dem IAT-Kongress 2014...
Paper Summary Translations Vergleich von aromatisierten Leckerlis für CD-Ratten MARCIA MORGAN-KNIGHT und *JOANNA CRUDEN GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP *Korrespondierende autorin: joanna.l.cruden@gsk.com Abstract Wildratten sind opportunistische Allesfresser, die nach Futterquellen suchen, selbst wenn sie satt sind. Sie fressen etwas davon, damit sie wissen, wo sich das Futter befindet und sie bei Hunger wieder zu dieser Quelle zurückkehren können. Laborratten steht ständig Futter an derselben Stelle zur Verfügung. Damit wird ein natürliches Futtersuchen verhindert. Doch wenn sie die Wahl haben, dann suchen sie lieber nach Futter als sich aus einem Behälter zu versorgen. Standardrattenfutter bietet ihnen alle Nährstoffe, die sie benötigen, und Laborratten erhalten normalerweise keine Auswahl an unterschiedlichem Futter oder Geschmacksrichtungen. Wenn junge Ratten beginnen, selbst auf Futtersuche zu gehen, kann ihre Futterwahl durch soziale Interaktionen, die nicht an Futterplätzen stattfinden, beeinflusst werden. Ratten können Futter auf dem Fell, den Barthaaren und besonders im Atem anderer Ratten riechen und bevorzugen dann das Futter, das diese anderen Ratten zuvor gefressen haben. Die im Rattenatem enthaltene Chemikalie (CS2) verrät, was andere Ratten gefressen haben. Wenn Ratten die Wahl zwischen mit CS2 betupftem Futter und Futter ohne CS2 haben, ziehen sie das mit CS2 bestrichene vor. Das Prinzip, das zu fressen, was andere bereits schon problemlos konsumiert haben, dient Ratten zur Identifizierung potenziellen Futters und zur Erweiterung ihres Futterrepertoires, ohne dabei ein großes Risiko einzugehen. Ratten werden nicht mit dem Wissen um sicheres Futter und Gifte geboren. Sie haben stattdessen die Fähigkeit zu lernen, welches Futter in ihrer Umgebung sicher ist und welches nicht. In unserer Einrichtung erhalten Sentinel-Ratten im Rahmen der Gesundheitsüber wachung routinemäßig Sonnenblumenkerne als Form der Futteranreicherung. Diese können jedoch potenziell Veränderungen in der Rattenphysiologie herbeiführen, die aufgrund der möglichen Variablen in den Versuchsergebnissen durch unbekannte Bestandteile von Sonnenblumenkernen für unsere Versuchsratten nicht akzeptabel sind. Wir wollten eine geeignete Alternative zu Sonnenblumenkernen finden, die die Versuchsratten fressen würden, ohne dass derartige Variablen bei den Untersuchungsergebnissen eine Rolle spielen würden. Wir wollten nährstofflich ausgewogene spezielle Rattenleckerlis mit einem Analysezertifikat finden, die all unseren Ratten ohne Beeinflussung der Untersuchungsergebnisse gegeben werden konnten. Wir wollten untersuchen, ob: 1) 2) 3) 4) es einen Geschmack gibt, den die Ratten aktiv meiden würden, sie eine/keine Vorliebe für einen bestimmten Geschmack hätten, das Fressen der Leckerlis Wachstum und Gesundheit der Ratten beeinflussen würde, es von Wert sein würde, Ratten im Heimkäfig Leckerlis anzubieten. Bei keinem der in dieser Studie angestellten Vergleiche ergab sich ein Hinweis auf eine geschmackliche Vorliebe. Ohne weitere Versuche mittels einer optimierten Untersuchung ist es schwierig zu sagen, welchen Geschmack Ratten insgesamt bevorzugen. Es mag unerheblich sein zu wissen, ob es bei Leckerlis eine Vorliebe für eine bestimmte Geschmacksrichtung im Vergleich zu einer anderen gibt. Dennoch könnte die Bestimmung des Geschmacks, den Ratten bevorzugen, für positiv verstärkte Untersuchungen nützlich sein. Ratten Leckerlis in Schüsseln anzubieten, mag zu natürlichen Verhaltensweisen anregen und ihr Wohlbefinden verbessern, obgleich hierzu weitere Forschung erforderlich ist. 95
Paper Summary Translations  Vergleich von aromatisierten Leckerlis f  r CD-Ratten MARCIA MORGAN-KNIGHT und  JOANNA CRUDEN ...
Animal Technology and Welfare August 2014 CONTENU DE LA REVUE Amélioration du bien-être animal pour les souris atteintes de maladies neurodégéneratives NATALIE EDWARDS Université de Cambridge, Central Biomedical Services, Addenbrookes Hospital Site, Box 103, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2SP *Auteur-ressource: ne247@cam.ac.uk Résumé La perte de poids progressive chez les souris atteintes de maladies neurodégénératives peut-elle être ralentie en leur donnant simplement de la pâtée fraîche deux fois par jour et en veillant à ce que celle-ci soit toujours placée dans le même endroit? À partir de l’âge de trois mois, les souris atteintes de la maladie de Sandhoff (Hexb KO) commencent à montrer des signes de déclin neurologique et une réduction de leurs mouvements; un régime à base de pâtée leur est donc donné. Il y avait quatre catégories expérimentales: les catégories concernaient l’endroit où la pâtée était placée dans la cage et la fréquence à laquelle on proposait celle-ci. Toutes les souris étaient pesées tous les jours. Les résultats démontrent que le fait de placer la pâtée au même endroit deux fois par jour améliorait le bien-être de l’animal et que les souris survivaient plus longtemps par rapport aux autres catégories. 96
Animal Technology and Welfare  August 2014  CONTENU DE LA REVUE Am  lioration du bien-  tre animal pour les souris atteint...
Paper Summary Translations Soulever les problèmes concernant la bientraitance animale en laboratoire: Rapport d’un atelier au congrès de l’IAT 2014 *PENNY HAWKINS1, KATHY RYDER2, NORMAN MORTELL3 et DUNCAN PATTEN4 1 2 3 4 Research Animals Department, Science Group, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex RH13 9RS Animals (Scientific Procedures) Division, Home Office, PO Box 6779, Dundee DD1 9WW Agenda Resource Management, PO Box 24, Hull HU12 8YJ Huntingdon Research Centre, Woolley Road, Alconbury, Cambridgeshire PE28 4HS *Auteur-ressource: penny.hawkins@rspca.org.uk Résumé Le rapport de cet atelier a été rédigé pour trois raisons principales. Tout d’abord, pour les technologues animaliers, notamment les personnes appointées, afin de vérifier et d’examiner s’ils se sentent correctement informés et soutenus lorsqu’il s’agit de soulever des problèmes; ensuite, pour stimuler la discussion au niveau de l’établissement; et enfin, pour les personnes participant à des formations, afin de déterminer si le thème de l’évocation des problèmes est suffisamment traité dans les formations auxquelles ces personnes participent. Certains établissements possèdent des systèmes bien définis pour identifier les motifs d’inquiétude que le personnel est susceptible d’avoir concernant la bientraitance animale. Parmi ces motifs d’inquiétude, peuvent figurer des problèmes impliquant un grand nombre de conséquences pour les animaux ainsi que pour l’établissement, que ce soit le sentiment qu’une amélioration potentielle n’est pas mise en place sans raison légitime (par exemple, on ne fournit pas assez de matériel pour que les souris fassent un nid correct), ou l’impression qu’il y a eu une infraction, en passant même par la crainte qu’il y ait eu acte de cruauté. Il est largement reconnu que le fait de soulever les problèmes, afin qu’ils puissent être résolus rapidement et efficacement, est une façon constructive de conserver de bons niveaux de bientraitance animale et un bon moral au sein du personnel, et d’empêcher la non-conformité avec l’Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act de 1986 (ASPA). La mise en place d’un bon système pour soulever, étudier et résoudre les problèmes participe également à part entière à l’établissement d’un climat de franchise au sein de l’établissement. Une documentation appropriée et un juste retour d’informations peuvent par ailleurs contribuer à la transparence et à une responsabilisation publique. Les facteurs suivants sont particulièrement importants pour créer et conserver un bon système permettant d’obtenir les résultats ci-dessus: G G G les gens qui ont des motifs d’inquiétude doivent avoir le courage de les aborder. Ils ne doivent pas se dire que s’ils expriment leur inquiétude, ils porteront préjudice à leur statut, leurs perspectives d’emploi ou leurs relations avec leurs collègues; la marche à suivre pour soulever et résoudre les problèmes au sein des établissements devrait être claire et connue de tous; et il devrait exister des mécanismes internes pour vérifier que les problèmes en question ont été résolus à la satisfaction de tous, comme, par exemple, le signalement d’infractions techniques potentielles ou d’actes de nonconformité au Ministère de l’Intérieur. En tenant compte de tous les éléments ci-dessus, un atelier sur l’évocation des problèmes s’est tenu au Congrès de l’IAT 2014 dans le but de donner aux technologues animaliers l’occasion de discuter des systèmes en place dans leurs établissements et de leur fournir les éventuels moyens de répondre à leurs inquiétudes concernant la bientraitance animale. 97
Paper Summary Translations  Soulever les probl  mes concernant la bientraitance animale en laboratoire  Rapport d   un ate...
Paper Summary Translations Comparaison des types de nourriture aromatisée pour les rats CD MARCIA MORGAN-KNIGHT et *JOANNA CRUDEN GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP *Auteur-ressource: joanna.l.cruden@gsk.com Résumé Les rats sauvages sont des omnivores opportunistes qui fouillent pour trouver des sources d’alimentation même lorsqu’ils sont repus. Ils mangent peu et sachant où se trouve la nourriture, ils peuvent retourner à la source quand ils ont faim. Les rats de laboratoire sont alimentés en permanence au même endroit, ce qui les empêche de rechercher naturellement leur nourriture. Néanmoins, lorsque l’occasion se présente, ils préfèrent fouiller eux-mêmes plutôt que prendre la nourriture dans une trémie. Un régime alimentaire standard leur apporte tous les nutriments dont ils ont besoin, et en général, on ne propose pas une grande variété de types de nourriture ou de saveurs aux rats de laboratoire. Lorsque les jeunes rats se mettent à rechercher leur nourriture seuls, leurs choix alimentaires peuvent être influencés par des interactions sociales susceptibles de se produire en dehors des sites de recherche. Les rats peuvent sentir la nourriture sur le pelage, les moustaches et surtout dans l’haleine des autres rats, et ils préfèreront les aliments que ces rats ont déjà mangés. La substance chimique (CS2) présente dans l’haleine du rat constitue un indice de ce que les autres rats ont mangé. Lorsque l’on propose aux rats de la nourriture tamponnée de CS2 et de la nourriture non tamponnée, les rats préfèrent la nourriture tamponnée de CS2. Le fait de manger ce que les autres ont consommé en toute sécurité aide le rat à identifier les types de nourriture potentiels et à développer son répertoire alimentaire à moindre risque pour lui. Les rats ne naissent pas en faisant la distinction entre les types de nourriture sans danger et les poisons. Par contre, ils ont la capacité d’apprendre quels éléments de leur environnement peuvent être consommés sans danger ou pas. Dans notre laboratoire, on donne régulièrement aux rats sentinelles du suivi sanitaire des graines de tournesol comme forme d’enrichissement de la recherche de nourriture. Néanmoins, ces graines sont susceptibles de causer des changements physiologiques chez le rat qui sont inacceptables pour nos rats de laboratoire à cause des variables potentielles dans les résultats des expériences, dues à des constituants inconnus présents dans la graine de tournesol. Nous souhaitions trouver une alternative appropriée aux graines de tournesol que les rats de laboratoire mangeraient et qui ne provoquerait pas de telles variables dans les résultats de l’étude. Nous avons recherché un type de nourriture pour rat, équilibré d’un point de vue nutritionnel, qui ait un certificat d’analyse et qui puisse être donné à tous nos rats sans compromettre les résultats de l’étude. Nous voulions savoir si: 1) 2) 3) 4) Il y avait une saveur que les rats évitaient systématiquement Ils n’avaient de préférence pour aucune saveur La consommation de ce type de nourriture affectait la croissance et la santé des rats Il serait utile de proposer la nourriture aux rats dans leur cage Dans le cadre de cette analyse, nous ne constatons de préférence au niveau des saveurs dans aucune des études comparatives. Il est difficile de définir quelle saveur les rats préfèrent dans l’ensemble sans faire d’expériences plus approfondies en utilisant un modèle d’étude perfectionné. Il n’est peut-être pas utile de savoir si le rat préfère une saveur plutôt qu’une autre dans son régime alimentaire. Cependant, la détermination de la saveur par laquelle le rat sera le plus attiré pourrait s’avérer utile pour des études de renforcement positif. Le fait de proposer aux rats de la nourriture dans des bols pourrait favoriser les comportements naturels et améliorer leur bien-être. Mais des recherches approfondies sont nécessaires dans ce domaine. 98
Paper Summary Translations  Comparaison des types de nourriture aromatis  e pour les rats CD MARCIA MORGAN-KNIGHT et  JOAN...
August 2014 Animal Technology and Welfare INDICE DE LA REVISTA Mejora del bienestar animal de los ratones neurodegenerativos NATALIE EDWARDS University of Cambridge, Central Biomedical Services, Addenbrookes Hospital Site, Box 103, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2SP *Autor correspondiente: ne247@cam.ac.uk Ganadora del Premio Homenaje Andrew Blake 2014 Resumen ¿La pérdida de peso progresiva en los ratones neurodegenerativos puede reducirse simplemente ofreciendo puré fresco dos veces al día, y asegurándose de que siempre se encuentre en la misma zona? A partir de los 3 meses de edad, los ratones del tipo con enfermedad de Sandhoff (Hexb KO) empiezan a experimentar un declive neurológico y una reducción del movimiento, por lo que se les ofrece una dieta de puré. El experimento se dividió en cuatro categorías; cada una cubría la ubicación del puré dentro de una jaula y la asiduidad con la que se suministraba. Todos los ratones se pesaban a diario. Los resultados demostraron que colocando el puré en el mismo lugar dos veces al día fomentaba al bienestar de los animales, y los ratones vivían durante más tiempo, en comparación con otras categorías. 99
August 2014  Animal Technology and Welfare  INDICE DE LA REVISTA Mejora del bienestar animal de los ratones neurodegenerat...
Paper Summary Translations Preocupación creciente sobre el bienestar de los animales de laboratorio: Informe de un taller realizado durante el Congreso del IAT de 2014 *PENNY HAWKINS1, KATHY RYDER2, NORMAN MORTELL3 y DUNCAN PATTEN4 1 2 3 4 Research Animals Department, Science Group, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex RH13 9RS Animals (Scientific Procedures) Division, Home Office, PO Box 6779, Dundee, DD1 9WW Agenda Resource Management, PO Box 24, Hull HU12 8YJ Huntingdon Research Centre, Woolley Road, Alconbury, Cambridgeshire PE28 4HS *Autore correspondiente: penny.hawkins@rspca.org.uk Resumen Este informe de taller se ha redactado teniendo en mente tres objetivos principales. En primer lugar, indagar si los técnicos de investigación con animales, incluidas aquellas personas designadas, se sienten debidamente informados y respaldados con respecto a la preocupación creciente. En segundo lugar, fomentar el debate a nivel institucional; y en tercer lugar, saber si los instructores de formación creen que los temas relacionados con la preocupación creciente se abordan debidamente en los cursos que imparten. Algunas instituciones tienen sistemas bien delimitados para identificar las preocupaciones que el personal pueda tener sobre el bienestar animal. Dichas preocupaciones pueden incluir otros temas con serias implicaciones, tanto para los animales, como para las instituciones; desde la sensación de que no se esté implementando un refinamiento potencial sin un motivo justificable (por ej., falta de materiales para que los ratones puedan hacer un nido debidamente), a dudas de que pudieran existir incumplimientos, e incluso que hubiera podido darse algún caso de maltrato animal. Existe un consenso generalizado de que permitir que las personas expongan sus preocupaciones, para que estas puedan resolverse rápida y eficazmente, es una forma constructiva de ayudar a mantener unos buenos estándares, tanto del bienestar animal, como de la moral del personal, así como para prevenir el incumplimiento de la Ley sobre animales (Procedimientos científicos) de 1986 (ASPA). Un buen sistema para exponer, investigar y eliminar preocupaciones es también fundamental para conseguir una apertura dentro de las instituciones, y una documentación y unos comentarios adecuados pueden ayudar a conseguir mayor transparencia y responsabilidad pública. A la hora de establecer y mantener un buen sistema para conseguir todo lo descrito anteriormente los siguientes factores son especialmente importantes: G G G Cualquier preocupación debería exponerse. Nadie debería sentir que expresar sus preocupaciones sea perjudicial para su puesto, perspectivas laborales o relaciones con sus compañeros. Las formas para expresar y tratar dudas dentro de las instituciones deberán ser claras y conocidas por todos. Y por último deberían existir mecanismos internos para comprobar que dichas dudas han sido tratadas para la satisfacción de todos, incluyendo la información sobre cualquier posible infracción técnica o incumplimiento de la normativa del Ministerio del Interior. Durante el Congreso del IAT en 2014, se realizó un taller en el que se abordó este tema y se expusieron las preocupaciones sobre el bienestar animal. El objetivo fue ofrecer a los técnicos de investigación con animales una oportunidad para debatir los sistemas vigentes en sus instituciones y para saber cómo actuar frente a posibles cuestionamientos sobre el bienestar animal. 100
Paper Summary Translations  Preocupaci  n creciente sobre el bienestar de los animales de laboratorio  Informe de un talle...
Paper Summary Translations Comparación de complementos alimentarios con sabor para ratas CD MARCIA MORGAN-KNIGHT y *JOANNA CRUDEN GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP *Autore correspondiente: joanna.l.cruden@gsk.com Resumen Las ratas salvajes son omnívoras oportunistas y escarban para encontrar fuentes de alimento incluso cuando estén saciadas, comen poco para saber dónde encontrar comida y volver más tarde cuando vuelvan a estar hambrientas. Las ratas de laboratorio tienen comida su alcance en todo momento y en el mismo lugar para evitar así evitar su instinto natural de escarbar. No obstante, si se les presenta la oportunidad, preferirán escarbar que comer de una tolva. Una dieta estándar les ofrece todos los nutrientes que requieren y a las ratas de laboratorio no se les suele ofrecer una gran variedad de comidas y sabores. Cuando las ratas jóvenes empiezan a escarbar por sí solas, su predilección de alimentos puede estar influída por interacciones sociales que ocurran lejos de los lugares donde escarban. Las ratas pueden oler comida en el pelaje, los bigotes y especialmente el aliento de otras ratas, y preferirán la comida que esas ratas han comido previamente. El contenido químico (CS2) presente en el aliento de las ratas es lo que indica lo que las otras ratas han comido. Cuando a las ratas se les da comida con muestras de CS2 y comida sin ninguna muestra, las ratas prefieren la comida con muestras de CS2. El impulso de comer lo que otras han consumido anteriormente ayuda a la rata a identificar posibles alimentos y a ampliar su menú sin apenas riesgo para su salud. Las ratas no saben distinguir entre comida segura y veneno. No obstante, tienen la capacidad de saber qué productos de su entorno son seguros para comer y cuáles no lo son. En nuestras instalaciones, a las ratas centinela para control sanitario se les ofrecen semillas de girasol de forma rutinaria para enriquecer así su naturaleza de escarbar. Sin embargo, esto tiene el potencial de causar cambios en la fisiología de la rata que no son aceptables para nuestros animales de experimentación, debido a las posibles variables en los resultados de los experimentos ocasionados por componentes desconocidos en una semilla de girasol. Buscamos un alimento alternativo a las semillas de girasol que fuera adecuado y que las ratas de experimentación comiesen sin causar tales variables en los resultados de los estudios. Y encontramos un complemento nutricionalmente equilibrado para ratas que tenía un certificado de análisis y que se podía dar a todas nuestras ratas sin poner en peligro los resultados de los estudios. Comprobamos los siguientes aspectos: 1) 2) 3) 4) Si Si Si Si existía un sabor que las ratas evitarían activamente. tenían o no alguna preferencia por algún sabor determinado. comer complementos alimentarios afectaría el crecimiento y salud de las ratas. se aportaría valor al ofrecer a las ratas complementos alimentarios en sus jaulas. En este estudio no vemos ninguna evidencia de una preferencia por un sabor en particular en ninguna de las comparaciones. Es difícil saber qué sabor prefieren las ratas, en general, sin realizar más experimentos utilizando un diseño de estudio refinado. Puede que no tenga ningún valor saber si existe una preferencia por un sabor u otro en los complementos alimentarios, aunque determinar el sabor por el que la rata lucharía más puede ser útil para estudios de refuerzo positivo. Ofrecer complementos alimentarios a las ratas en cuencos podría fomentar comportamientos naturales y mejorar su bienestar, aunque todavía se precisan más estudios en esta área. 101
Paper Summary Translations  Comparaci  n de complementos alimentarios con sabor para ratas CD MARCIA MORGAN-KNIGHT y  JOAN...
Animal Technology and Welfare August 2014 INDICE DELLA REVISTA Migliorare il benessere degli animali per i topi affetti da malattie neurodegenerative NATALIE EDWARDS University of Cambridge, Central Biomedical Services, Addenbrookes Hospital Site, Box 103, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 2SP *Autore corrispondente: ne247@cam.ac.uk Vincitrice del premio “Andrew Blake” 2014 Riassunto La perdita di peso progressiva nei topi affetti da malattie neurodegenerative può essere rallentata attraverso la semplice somministrazione, due volte al giorno, di un pastone riposto sempre nello stesso luogo? Dall'età di 3 mesi, i topi affetti dalla malattia di Sandhoff (Hexb KO) cominciano a riscontrare un deterioramento neurologico e una riduzione del movimento e, per tale ragione, viene somministrata una dieta di pastoni. Le categorie sperimentali erano quattro e riguardavano: il posizionamento del pastone all'interno della gabbia e la frequenza di somministrazione. Tutti i topi sono stati pesati quotidianamente. I risultati dimostrano che la sistemazione del pastone nello stesso luogo, due volte al giorno, ha promosso il benessere degli animali, aumentando la durata di sopravvivenza dei topi rispetto alle altre categorie. 102
Animal Technology and Welfare  August 2014  INDICE DELLA REVISTA Migliorare il benessere degli animali per i topi affetti ...
Paper Summary Translations Segnalare problemi relativi al benessere degli animali da laboratorio: Relazione sul workshop tenutosi presso il Congresso IAT 2014 *PENNY HAWKINS1, KATHY RYDER2, NORMAN MORTELL3 e DUNCAN PATTEN4 1 2 3 4 Research Animals Department, Science Group, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex RH13 9RS Animals (Scientific Procedures) Division, Home Office, PO Box 6779, Dundee, DD1 9WW Agenda Resource Management, PO Box 24, Hull HU12 8YJ Huntingdon Research Centre, Woolley Road, Alconbury, Cambridgeshire PE28 4HS *Autore corrispondente: nmazlan@rvc.ac.uk Riassunto Questa relazione è stata redatta per tre obiettivi principali: innanzitutto, per i tecnici stabularisti, comprese le persone nominate, al fine di analizzare e considerare se si ritengono ben informati e incoraggiati per la segnalazione di eventuali problemi; in secondo luogo, al fine di promuovere il dibattito all’interno della struttura; in terzo luogo, per coloro coinvolti nella formazione al fine di valutare l’adeguata copertura degli argomenti relativi alla segnalazione di problemi nei corsi da loro gestiti. Alcune strutture dispongono di sistemi ben definiti atti a identificare eventuali problematiche che il personale potrebbe avere nei confronti del benessere degli animali. Tali timori possono comprendere problematiche aventi un'ampia gamma di implicazioni sia per gli animali che per la loro struttura; dalla mancata implementazione di un potenziale miglioramento senza un motivo plausibile (es. scarsa fornitura di materiale per consentire ai topi di formare una tana adeguata), alle problematiche sulla violazione e persino sul possibile maltrattamento. È ampiamente risaputo che permettere agli individui di segnalare eventuali problemi, risolvendo la questione in modo rapido ed efficace, costituisce un modo costruttivo per mantenere standard elevati di benessere degli animali e di morale del personale e per evitare la mancata conformità alla normativa ASPA sulle procedure scientifiche del 1986 (Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act). Un sistema ottimale per segnalare, indagare e risolvere eventuali problemi aiuta anche a promuovere una cultura di franchezza all'interno della struttura e appositi documenti e riscontri possono contribuire alla trasparenza e alla responsabilità pubblica. I seguenti fattori sono di fondamentale importanza per stabilire e mantenere un sistema ottimale che consenta di realizzare gli obiettivi sopraccitati: G G G coloro che nutrono preoccupazioni devono avere la fiducia di segnalarli, senza timore che la segnalazione di tali problematiche possa compromettere le loro condizioni, prospettive di lavoro o relazioni con i colleghi; le procedure per segnalare e gestire i problemi all’interno di una struttura devono essere chiare e note a tutti; e devono essere presenti meccanismi interni volti a verificare che tali problematiche siano gestite, soddisfando tutti e includendo la segnalazione di potenziali violazioni tecniche o inadempienze al Ministero degli Interni britannico. Fermo quanto esposto, presso il Congresso IAT 2014 si è tenuto un workshop sulla segnalazione di problemi relativi al benessere degli animali da laboratorio. L'obiettivo è stato fornire ai tecnici stabularisti l'opportunità di discutere i sistemi in atto presso le loro strutture e le azioni da intraprendere in presenza di preoccupazioni sul benessere degli animali. 103
Paper Summary Translations  Segnalare problemi relativi al benessere degli animali da laboratorio  Relazione sul workshop ...
Paper Summary Translations Confronto di fuoripasto aromatizzati per ratti CD MARCIA MORGAN-KNIGHT e *JOANNA CRUDEN GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP *Autore corrispondente: joanna.l.cruden@gsk.com Riassunto I ratti selvatici sono onnivori opportunisti che vanno alla ricerca di cibo anche quando sono sazi, mangiando piccole quantità; in tal modo, conoscono la posizione precisa del cibo e possono ritornarvi quando affamati. I ratti da laboratorio hanno continuamente a disposizione cibo derivante dalla stessa fonte, evitando, in questo modo, di ricercare cibo adottando il comportamento naturale. Tuttavia, quando viene concessa loro l’opportunità, sceglieranno di cercare cibo piuttosto che prenderlo da una tramoggia. La normale dieta variegata fornisce tutti i nutrienti necessari, mentre ai ratti da laboratorio non viene tendenzialmente fornita una diversa varietà di cibi o sapori. Quando i giovani ratti cominciano a ricercare cibo da soli, le loro scelte alimentari possono essere influenzate dalle interazioni sociali che si verificano lontano dalle fonti di cibo. I ratti possono annusare il cibo sul pelo, sui baffi e specialmente dall'alito di altri ratti, inducendoli a preferire cibi che questi ultimi hanno precedentemente consumato. Il costituente chimico (CS2) presente nell’alito di un ratto costituisce un indizio dei cibi consumati da altri ratti. In presenza di cibo contenente o privo di CS2, i ratti preferiscono quello contenente CS2. Mangiare quello che altri hanno consumato con successo aiuta il ratto a identificare cibi potenziali e, al contempo, ad ampliare il suo repertorio alimentare esponendolo a un rischio ridotto. Quando nascono, i ratti non sono a conoscenza dei cibi sicuri e dei veleni; al contrario, possiedono la capacità di apprendere quali cibi, presenti nel loro ambiente, siano sicuri o meno. Presso la nostra struttura, ai ratti “sentinella” per il monitoraggio della salute vengono somministrati regolarmente semi di girasole come forma di arricchimento alimentare. Tuttavia, ciò potrebbe causare cambiamenti nella fisiologia dei ratti che risulterebbero inaccettabili per gli animali utilizzati per fini sperimentali a causa delle possibili variabili nei risultati sperimentali derivanti dai componenti sconosciuti dei semi di girasole. Per tale ragione, abbiamo voluto individuare un’adeguata alternativa ai semi di girasole che i ratti utilizzati per fini sperimentali potessero mangiare senza causare variabili nei risultati dello studio. Abbiamo individuato un fuoripasto con certificato di analisi ed equilibrato dal punto di vista nutrizionale che potrebbe essere somministrato a tutti i nostri ratti senza compromettere i risultati dello studio. Inoltre, abbiamo voluto indagare se: 1) 2) 3) 4) ci fosse un sapore che i ratti avrebbero evitato attivamente non avessero preferenze in termini di sapore i fuoripasto avessero un impatto sulla crescita e sulla salute dei ratti valesse la pena offrire fuoripasto ai ratti in gabbia. In questo studio, non si hanno prove sulla preferenza di determinati sapori in nessuno dei confronti. Senza ulteriori esperimenti basati su un piano di studio ben definito, è difficile stabilire cosa i ratti preferiscono complessivamente in termini di sapore. Definire la preferenza di determinati sapori in termini di fuoripasto potrebbe non essere importante, tuttavia determinare il sapore di un fuoripasto che un ratto si impegnerebbe più duramente a ottenere potrebbe essere utile per il rafforzamento positivo degli studi. Offrire ai ratti i fuoripasto in ciotole potrebbe incoraggiare un comportamento naturale e migliorare il loro benessere. Tuttavia, sono necessari ulteriori studi in questa area. 104
Paper Summary Translations  Confronto di fuoripasto aromatizzati per ratti CD MARCIA MORGAN-KNIGHT e  JOANNA CRUDEN GlaxoS...
August 2014 Animal Technology and Welfare TECH-2-TECH Haven’t the time to write a paper but want to get something published? Then read on! This section offers readers the opportunity to submit informal contributions about any aspects of animal technology. Comments, observations, descriptions of new or refined techniques, new products or equipment, old products or equipment adapted to new use, any subject that may be useful to technicians in other institutions. Submissions can be presented as technical notes and do not need to be structured and can be as short or as long as is necessary. Accompanying illustrations and/or photos should be high resolution. NB. Descriptions of new products or equipment submitted by manufacturers are welcome but should be a factual account of the product. However, the Editorial Board gives no warranty as to the accuracy or fitness for purpose of the product. Talking to animals in your care: a laboratory animal refinement and enrichment forum discussion *ERIK MOREAU (MODERATOR), GENEVIEVE ANDREWS-KELLY (GENNY), MEAGAN MCCALLUM (MEGS), EVELYN SKOUMBOURDIS, THOMAS FERRELL (TOM), HARRIET HOFFMAN, JEANNINE CASON RODGERS, RENEE GAINER, KAILE BENNETT, MEAGAN SHETLER, DAVID CAWSTON, POLLY SCHULTZ, JAS BARLEY, KAYLA SHAYNE, JACQUELINE SCHWARTZ, NATASHA DOWN, RUSSELL YOTHERS, AUTUMN SORRELLS, LYNETTE CHAVE and VIKTOR REINHARDT *Corresponding author: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LAREF I had discussions with some Trainers who emphasised the importance of talking to your animals while they acclimatise to a new environment and to handling procedures and once the acclimatisation period is completed one should continue having “conversations” with the animals. Do you talk to your animals? If you do, what species are you working with? Do you find it is making a difference when you talk to your animals on a regular basis? (Erik) I definitely talk to all my animals: dogs, macaques, rabbits, swine and rodents. When I train new employees, I always encourage them to also talk to the animals in their charge. Every time we are in an animal room there is communication happening between us and our animals. More than just through words we are communicating emotionally and with our body language. These friendly “conversations” set and maintain a positive tone when we are with our animals. The conversations with my animals are highlights of my day! (Genny) Whenever I am around my animals – mostly dogs but also monkeys, rabbits, guinea pigs and rats – I talk about random things just so they can hear my voice. I always talk in a calm and soothing tone and I do think it helps them to feel at ease when I am with them but 105
August 2014  Animal Technology and Welfare  TECH-2-TECH Haven   t the time to write a paper but want to get something publ...
Tech-2-Tech it also makes me feel relaxed and calm; it certainly creates good vibes in the room. (Megs) have a better appreciation now as I too will call my animals some pretty silly things. (Erik) I talk to all animals – this includes the rodents – I am working with. When entering an animal room, I will greet ever ybody with “Hi guys/gals, Greetings meece, Afternoon ladies/gents,” etc. Not all animals are able to see the door – and not all animals have keen eyesight. My vocal welcome lets all animals of the room know that someone has entered. I know it does something positive because the animals’ body language shows me that they are not alarmed or afraid when I have entered. I will then speak to them as I walk around the room and while I work with individual animals or groups of animals. It’s just something I’ve always done. It sometimes happens that I have extended conversations with the larger animals, and I get responses from rabbits, dogs, monkeys and swine. Occasionally I’ll sing. I’m not very good at it but some of the monkeys and swine I am working with really respond nicely to it. Perhaps they like things off key?! Whenever I walk into their room, I talk to my critters – especially large animals – and continue talking to them while I am with them. IMHO, not the words as much as the tone of my voice serves to keep things level, myself included. Even if I’m only talking to myself I crack myself up sometimes. (Tom) Talking (and singing) to the animals in my charge makes them familiar with me and probably helps them understand that I mean no harm to them. (Evelyn) Not only do I talk to all the animals but on occasion also sing to them. I tell the staff that the rodents are really good listeners and don’t mind the terrible singing! (Renee) Singing may not always be the best form of communication in my experience. I had an aged mare who could hear very little but on me starting up singing in the stables, she would consistently run away – even from her food. I also had a cat who showed the very same reaction, though perhaps this says more about my singing than anything else! (Lynette) I know I talk to all the animals in our facility. I agree with you 100%! Talking to the animals in happy soothing tones helps foster a friendly relationship with them. They get to recognize you by your voice even before you enter their room. I work with a colleague who, whenever he walks in a room of monkeys – be it in the morning, at lunch or in the late afternoon – greets his charges with “Good morning.” Always cracks me up but the monkeys know who he is by gosh, just using that one statement. Sometimes I find myself singing and dancing in the room and I do believe the monkeys look at me like I am crazy; I just tell them “come on dance with me.” Hahaha maybe I am! (Harriet) Talk, sing, dance! Nothing better than a captive audience – LOL. (Jeannine) Walking into a monkey room, a pig room, a rabbit room or a rodent room I also greet everyone with “Hello” or “Good morning.” I believe this is a kind of courtesy, letting the animals know who is about to enter. They will not be frightened as they already know that a completely harmless and trustworthy human is about to enter. (Renee) The vervet monkeys I am working with seem to like it when I sing. When they hear “In the jungle, the mighty jungle, the lion sleeps tonight: oweemaway, oweemaway ...” they all come right up to the front of the cages and look at me: “YAY! The crazy lady is here!” It’s always amusing to see their amazed faces. (Jeannine) When acclimating new macaques while they’re in quarantine I spend some time each day sitting near their cages and read to them. This gives me something to say and allows me to avert my eyes naturally so they get comfortable with me. I have the impression that the reading lets them get used to conversational tones in my voice. Usually, I give them something to snack on during these visits to associate my voice with favoured treats. I am not a good singer, so I also only talk to the animals in my charge, regardless of species. I very much agree that it benefits not only the animals but also myself; it makes the animals relaxed in my presence and it makes me happy to be with them. Later, when the animals are on behavioral studies, I am talking to them all the time, say positive reinforcement/ affirmations or explain what I’m doing or what I’m about to do. They also have nicknames that I use when addressing individual animals. (Kaile) Besides talking to my pets at home, I was first introduced to the importance of talking to animals when I volunteered at a University swine complex. The manager had such a great rapport with his pigs! Every room he walked into, he greeted the pigs. At that time I did not understand why he called them all “Birds.” I Having a good conversation with your animals and humming or singing when you are in their room provides highest quality environmental enrichment for both, the animals and for you. The vocal contact with your animals is the basic foundation for the development of a trust relationship with them. Your voice is certainly of 106
Tech-2-Tech  it also makes me feel relaxed and calm  it certainly creates good vibes in the room.  Megs   have a better ap...
Tech-2-Tech more value for them than sound emitted from a radio or CD player. (Viktor) Rabbits appear more at ease when I talk or sing a lot thereby creating a kind of soothing background sound. Pigs love a good conversation, especially when I include some lip-smacks; it’s a language they understand! I always talk to rodents, even though we do all our work with them under hoods, so they cannot hear me. When talking to them, it is more for my sake, keeping me in a peaceful state of mind that hopefully affects the rodents in a positive way. Monkeys show with their body language that they like it when I chat with them or sing while cleaning their room. Since dogs can learn the meaning of words, talking to them is a very valuable tool for me when I work with them. (Meagan) Your comments really sum up what I was about to say. I believe that talking to our animals helps us and helps them. I stopped with my daughter yesterday to see some dairy heifers out on a pasture that we drove past. They were very typical cattle, shy but curious and spooky at first. The more we talked to them the more they settled down. When we left after about 20 minutes, the fence line was full of heifers looking for more attention. (David) Speaking to the macaques in my care fosters trust and a friendship with them! It helps them understand my intentions, and when they respond in their macaqueway that helps me understand what’s going on in their heads. No need for an interpreter (Polly) I think communicating with animals in their own language is even better than talking to them in human language which they don’t understand, albeit probably “feel” its meaning (Viktor). When I am with the macaques, I can’t even tell you how often I hoot, grunt, lip-smack and make the curious humming sound without even being aware of it. This “monkey talk” may sound pretty silly to an outsider but I can tell you, it connects me deeply with these creatures who depend on my proper understanding of their needs, wishes, pains and frustrations. (Polly) The hooting has also become a kind of background communication with my macaques. I once casually hooted while leading an inspection team in the room when one of my boys was begging for a treat; whoops! (Kaile) A happy lip-smack conversation with macaques – especially cynos – has always been a highlight for me; had also the good fortune to converse with pigtails – humming while presenting a duckbill face – and with baboons, the happiest grunters on earth. (Evelyn) I often wonder if non-human primates sometimes misunderstand us when we wear the obligatory face mask/goggles. Lip-smacking is a “vocabulary” I very often use when communicating with our macaques. I do realize that they can’t see my puckered lips – a facial expression that is part of the macaque-typical lipsmacking – yet I do it anyway. (Kaile) The monkeys do hear when you smack your lips, and they can also see the movement of the mask while you do the lip-smacking gesture. I think, these signs are enough for them to understand your message. Many of my macaques lip-smack back in typical macaque fashion when I lip-smack in front of them, irrespectively of the fact that I wear a facial mask. (Harriet) I talk to all my animals, primarily rodents and rabbits but also farm animals, birds and amphibia even though I’ve yet to see any response from the latter. All the Photo by Stan Hiatt Rather than talking, I start hooting whenever I’m approaching a room of our macaques; just to let them know I’m coming. They always hoot back – and the husbandr y technologists always laugh at me. (Jeannine) Photo by Liddy Roberts – Flickr Creative Commons 107
Tech-2-Tech  more value for them than sound emitted from a radio or CD player.  Viktor  Rabbits appear more at ease when I...
Tech-2-Tech warm-blooded animals appear to recognise my voice. When they hear me they will come forward to the front of their cage/pen, knowing that I always come with good intentions – if not with favoured treats. Pigs will always “talk” back when I address them. (Jas) I keep a conversation going with all my animals – they know much about my ups and downs in life. It’s probably anthropomorphism, but sharing my thoughts and emotions with them feels therapeutic (Kayla) It is possible that some animals do not actually hear us when we talk to them because the sound of a typical human voice is not within their hearing range. This may apply to rodents but perhaps also to large animals such a pigs; so when we are talking to these animals, we may as well just be talking to ourselves! (Russell) That is a good observation. I wonder, though, if such an animal doesn’t pick up the energy (with the eardrum) that is created by the human voice – without actually hearing the voice – and feels the quality of that energy in some way. It doesn’t really matter anyway if animals can hear us as they don’t speak our language but they can most likely feel the positive or negative energy that accompanies the sound of our voice. (Autumn) I agree, it’s all about the energy that we project. I suppose the talking or singing helps us in projecting the energy that is created by our positive or negative intentions and emotions. The “whisperer” in us all does not require actual audible speech. All of that aside, don’t get me wrong, I talk to my animals every day – sometimes in my language, and sometimes in theirs! (Russell) (or a little kid) nice things but when these words do not correspond with your true intentions, the animal will not “believe”/trust you. I find it amazing how animals (and little kids) can “read our minds” or, perhaps more correctly, “read our hearts”. (Viktor) When I enter their room and say “Good morning,” all the rats and all the guinea pigs in my charge come to the front of their cages without fail; they have learned to recognise my voice, as I am talking to them most of the time when I am with them. The guinea pigs get particularly excited, as my voice is a signal for them that they are going to get the hay they love so much. (Jacqueline) It seems to me that talking to another creature with whom we interact frequently is a spontaneous response. I have worked with a principal investigator who talked to rats before, during and after, he did experimental surgeries with them. The talking may help to stay in a relatively calm state of mind even in potentially disturbing situations. (Viktor) It is not an uncommon experience for me to come into a room where a researcher is having a chat with his/her mice. Pretty much all Principle Investigators (PI’s) performing surgery talk to their animals before and during surgery as well as after surgery when the animals are recovering. I think we all see it as essential for the animal who is subjected to a potentially painful and/or distressing situation to know someone they know is around. As with humans hearing seems to be the last sense that switches off during surgery and the animals always seem to go in and out of anesthesia much calmer when the surgeon is talking to them rather than does his/her job in silence. Likewise with euthanasia, we make sure that the last thing an animal hears is the voice of someone they are familiar with. (Jas) Being with and talking to animals who know me well is particularly important when they are recovering from surgery in single cages. It seems to me that hearing my voice makes them feel a little bit better, less scared and especially, less lonely. (Natasha) Photo by Amanda Majakoski – Flickr Creative Commons The words that we speak/sing in the presence of animals carry our emotional energy; it is the emotional quality of this energy that the animals can understand. There is no cheating possible! You can tell an animal 108 Talking to/with the animals in your care not only provides freely available environmental enrichment but also can serve as a tool. In my experience, talking reassuringly and compassionately to a highly distressed, seriously injured or seriously handicapped animal has a very calming effect that enables me to examine and treat the animal as needed without triggering a flight response. “It’s okay, I want to help you” is a magic phrase that all animals in distress seem to understand. (Viktor)
Tech-2-Tech  warm-blooded animals appear to recognise my voice. When they hear me they will come forward to the front of t...
August 2014 Animal Technology and Welfare POSTER PRESENTATIONS Originally presented at: IAT Congress 2014 Refining fish health and welfare after undergoing experimental procedures DIANE HAZLEHUST, *LYNDA WESTALL, NICOLA GOODWIN, NICK HARMAN, COLIN BARKER and JAMES BUSSELL Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI) – Research Support Facility and Engineering Support, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA *Corresponding author: law@sanger.ac.uk Introduction Zebra Danio fish are genotyped by removing a small section of tissue from their caudal fin which is placed into a well plate and each fish is transferred into a small static tank until their genotype has been established. Genotyping results can typically take in excess of 7 days and on occasion, when the results are delayed, the fish must be transferred back into their home tanks for feeding, resulting in them needing to be regenotyped as fish cannot be individually identified. This took our initial concept of a 96 well format and designed it into a tray and holding tank being for an in house trial. The prototype tray had the capability of holding up to 12 individual fish in moving system water from an existing fish module. Slots in the sides of the tanks allowed water to flow through and assisted with the movement of brine shrimp fed to the fish held in this prototype unit for an initial 4 week trial. The information from the trial has led to the development of a full size genotyping unit, capable of housing large numbers of Zebrafish for an indefinite period of time. Concerns with our current system are that we cannot: G G G Background maintain fish in flowing system water feed fish whilst waiting for genotyping results to be returned provide fish with any environmental enrichment Ideas were formulated in-house on how the environment for our fish could be improved whilst waiting for genotype results. These were discussed with onsite engineers but the ideas could not easily be progressed. We therefore approached a tank manufacturing company to see if we could work together to develop the ideas into a working model. The Zebrafish Mutation Project is a high throughout sequencing programme to enable identification of genes of interest with our human genome. Due to scale of the project large numbers of fish require genotyping on a daily and weekly basis. If fish are fed whilst waiting for genotype confirmation, the water parameters of each tank need to be monitored closely and water partially changed. This will reduce the risk of detrimental chemicals building up that may affect the wellbeing of the fish (preferred ammonia range 0.0 – 0.10). 109
August 2014  Animal Technology and Welfare  POSTER PRESENTATIONS Originally presented at  IAT Congress 2014  Refining fish...
Poster Presentations Parameter Day after 5 days after Unit of clipping clipping measure Conductivity 698 655 µs Water 22.6 22.8 O Nitrate 1.4 Nitrite A small section of dorsal fin is removed from anaesthetised fish and placed into the corresponding wells. C Identification (by location) of each fish is critical to prevent re-clipping. 0 mg/L After fin clipping, fish are housed in the identifiable tanks to recover from the anaesthetic. 0.1 0.04 mg/L Ammonia 0.07 0.18 mg/l pH 7.14 7.18 Temperature The static water is not replaced whilst the fish remain in these tanks. Table 1. Water results of fish in static tanks when not fed while awaiting genotyping results System water is used to fill each tank accessible via an adjacent fish holding room by a “system water” tap with attached hosing. Tanks are grouped and numbered to mimic a 96 well plate. Fish health and welfare is more difficult to observe towards the centre of tank layout. Figure 3. Identified static tank with fish Trial criteria G G G G G ensure animal welfare is not compromised ability to easily observe all fish top quality water is consistently provided to the fish ease of individual fish identification provide an easy to clean and use tanking system for everyone without compromising health and safety Initial WTSI design Figure 1. Layout of static tanks Figure 2. 96 Well plate layout 110 Figure 4. Visualised module design
Poster Presentations  Parameter  Day after  5 days after  Unit of  clipping  clipping  measure  Conductivity  698  655    ...
Poster Presentations The height of the potential design was based on an average person 5ft 8in tall. 3D schematics provided an idea of what it may look like and how it would fit within available space. Tank fits into holder to stop it from moving around System water could be piped in from an adjacent fish room into the rack and each outer tray. 2.5 cm water depth 2 mm slot gap Tray with handle to slide prototype drawer forwards and backwards Figure 6. Fin clip tank with divider housing 2 fish of 8 months old Feed hole 4 mm slots were engineered into the lids to prevent condensation from forming, thus reducing visibility in observing and assessing their welfare. 2 mm slots to encourage water flow and brine shrimp to swim freely but prevent fish from escaping Corners were rounded for easy cleaning. Solid bottom Method and results A prototype tray was connected to the end of an existing fish module to provide recirculating water throughout the trial. A self siphoning system was integrated into the tray. Figure 7. Lids with and without slots Figure 5. Prototype tray Animal welfare and observations The design of the tanks ensured fish remained in an aquatic environment in a water depth of 2.5 cm after removal from the tray. Figure 8. Debris in tray bottom 111
Poster Presentations  The height of the potential design was based on an average person 5ft 8in tall. 3D schematics provid...
Poster Presentations The fish remained healthy and exhibited normal behaviour. They could swim around, up and down without bumping into the sides. Fish were introduced on 19th April 2013 and removed on 17th May 2013. Brine shrimp was fed twice daily and was readily chased and eaten. Two water samples taken from the tray and the module sump. Each mimicked the other when analysed 1 week apart. Debris did not build up inside the tanks but accumulated in the outer tray. Ease of use from an ergonomic prospective Only brine was fed as this is a recognised source of protein and environmental enrichment. Brine shrimp movement around the tray was checked to ensure the siphons were effective in removing uneaten food. Uneaten brine shrimp left over from 2 feeds was captured on filter material (16 hours). The outer tray can be drained to reduce its weight before removing the tray from its position. Integrated handles in the inner tray ensure the easy lifting of 12 tanks together. A handle located at the front of the outer tray enables it to be easily pulled forward to assess the health of the fish and to feed them. The tray proved to be self cleaning to a degree, thus reducing the need for regular manual handling to remove accumulated debris. The tanks, lids and dividers are easy to clean by hand. Additional Findings From the Initial Trial – Tanks The holding tanks were raised above the desired water level due to the design. This resulted in only 190mls of water instead of the required 700mls inside the tank. The reduced water level did not appear to cause the fish concern, this has resulted in a redesign to ensure water quantity is maintained. – Siphons 1-2 cm of water and debris remained due to aperture position. Repositioning to be developed. Figure 9. Water egress at back of tray Conclusion Water Quality Results for Trial Parameter Reading 8th May 2013 Reading 16th WTSI May 2013 Acceptable range Conductivity 602 555 600 +/- 50 Water 24.8 24.5 26 +/- 2 Nitrate 0.0 0.05 0.0 - 5 Nitrite 0.05 0.02 0.0 Ammonia 0.08 0.00 0.0 – 0.1 pH 6.77 6.92 7 +/- 0.3 Phase 2 will encompass: G G G Temperature Table 2. Water results from the tray and module sump 112 The initial results from the trial were positive in respect of fish health and welfare, water quality and tank handling. Phase two will see this concept move to a full size prototype unit for further trials and manufacture. G G G evaluation of feeding regimes post genotyping breeding performance health and welfare observation evaluation of water parameters durability through hygiene processes compatibility with other aquatic systems The above will allow us to develop a defined process and set of parameters that will support the Welfare of the fish we care for.
Poster Presentations  The fish remained healthy and exhibited normal behaviour. They could swim around, up and down withou...
Poster Presentations Figure 10. Prototype rack Acknowledgements RSF Aquatics staff – trialling the prototype and feedback on performance. Tecniplast UK – for helping to progress this project. 113
Poster Presentations  Figure 10. Prototype rack  Acknowledgements RSF Aquatics staff     trialling the prototype and feedb...
Animal Technology and Welfare August 2014 NACWO exchange programme SAM IZZARD1 and TESS BOREHAM2 1 2 GlaxoSmithKline, Laboratory Animal Science, Medicine Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY Imperial College London, Central Biomedical Services, St Mary’s Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG *Corresponding authors: sam.f.izzard@gsk.com and t.boreham@imperial.ac.uk Introduction The new Guidance on the Operation of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 19861 states that it is expected that all people fulfilling a function under the Act, will undertake sufficient CPD to ensure that knowledge and skills are maintained. To help facilitate this and to broaden the general knowledge for our NACWOs, a programme of exchange was initiated. This poster discusses the development of the scheme and the outcomes of the first NACWO exchange. What is in it for NACWOs? All schemes should offer participants something new and interesting. There are several benefits to each NACWO when they enter this process: Benefits G G G insight of the day to day work in various facilities sharing ideas and good practice network of contacts Figure 2. Ferret at ICL We developed a set of guidelines for each visit. We included the CPD point system used for Registered Animal Technicians (RAnTechs). Guidelines G G G G G G G G Figure 1. Rabbit at GSK 114 CPD should be calculated based upon the number of hours actively visiting/discussing the role and responsibilities host and visiting NACWO both gain credit hours the exchange is a planned visit to an external establishment participants will be expected to carry out and host a minimum of one visit per year establishment NTCOs will track visits the visit time is flexible there is a tick list to help in visit preparations a report for each visit will be completed and submitted to the NTCOs We adapted a template used for IAT moderators for our NACWO visit report form to maximise the benefit from each visit. All of the documents have been further refined by the pilot study NACWOs.
Animal Technology and Welfare  August 2014  NACWO exchange programme SAM IZZARD1 and TESS BOREHAM2 1  2  GlaxoSmithKline, ...
Poster Presentations Item Travel Responsible person completed Exchange flow chart A flow chart was created to guide NACWOs through the exchange programme. Host to send map and directions Lunch Arrangements dependent on length of visit Item Responsible person Travel completed Host to send map and directions Lunch Arrangements dependent on length of visit Figure 3. Sample table of tick list for NACWO visit The final part was to trial the exchange programme. We selected a NACWO from each facility for the pilot study. Sam and Tess were the pioneers. Visiting Imperial College London – Sam When I was asked to be involved in the NACWO exchange I did wonder how the day would be filled. Figure 4. Screen shot showing first part of the visit report Figure 5. Enrichment at Imperial 115
Poster Presentations  Item Travel  Responsible person  completed  Exchange flow chart A flow chart was created to guide NA...
Poster Presentations When I arrived at St Mary’s I realised that our facilities were very different. Tess is responsible for the animals she works with, whereas I am responsible for a different cohort of animals to those I work with. There are pros and cons for both set ups and they each fulfil what is expected of a NACWO. Figure 7. Rabbit pens at GSK Figure 6. Nasal flushing the ferrets It was good to see that enrichment, caging and husbandry regimes for both rats and mice were very similar to ours and that all the technicians were experts in the field and enjoyed their jobs. The ferret influenza work was of particular interest as it is part of our own portfolio. I thought the handling techniques were impressive. On the exchange I had time to ask questions so that I had the information I needed to write my report. I found the exchange very useful as it showed me different ways in which I could fulfil my duties and has also given me someone I can exchange ideas with. I would recommend this programme to all NACWOs and feel all could benefit. Visiting GSK – Tess When I was asked to take part in this NACWO exchange, I was keen to see how the NACWO role was carried out at an industry establishment rather than academia. Additional to this, like all NACWOs I wanted to see if there were any welfare tricks and tips we could utilise. At GSK the NACWOs are responsible for animals in a different area to the one they worked in. This guaranteed that there was no conflict of interest. They had a detailed database which is completed when finishing NACWO rounds enabling them to list any problems found and any action points that need to be taken. It was great to see a similar style of enrichment to what we have at Imperial. I was ver y impressed by the size and quality of the rabbit pens and think they are an amazing advancement for the animals’ welfare. 116 Figure 8. Metabolism cage for surgical rats I have taken back some ideas for things to try in future with regards to sick animals or post-operative models that could be added to current methods to improve recovery time and reduce weight loss. Changes made post visit G G the report form (completed by the visiting NACWO) has been made clearer in terms of who has written the report data/information sheets to provide more details of the type of establishment and species to aid in preparing questions beforehand and help them select an appropriate facility
Poster Presentations  When I arrived at St Mary   s I realised that our facilities were very different. Tess is responsibl...
Poster Presentations Conclusion Although we have differences in the way our role is structured, fundamentally it has the same goals which are animal care and welfare. The exchange programme aims to create a network of NACWOs with interchangeable ideas of the role and gain CPD. We would both recommend taking part in this exchange programme as you may find refinements such as the metabolism cage design at GSK and ferret handling techniques at ICL. These visit oppor tunities could make a positive difference to the animals in your care and the science being carried out. Acknowledgements GSK: Jo Cruden [joanna.L.cruden@gsk.com] and Karen Davis ICL: Mandy Thorpe [m.thorpe@imperial.ac.uk], Angela Kerton [a.kerton@imperial.ac.uk] and Wendy Steel Please contact us if you are interested in taking part! References 1 Guidance on the Operation of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. (2014). https://www.gov.uk/ research-and-testing-using-animals Print ISBN 9781474100281 Web ISBN 9781474100298. Printed in the UK by the Williams Lea Group on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office ID 2625897 03/14 36115 19585 117
Poster Presentations  Conclusion Although we have differences in the way our role is structured, fundamentally it has the ...
Animal Technology and Welfare August 2014 Does bedding type affect eye soreness in nude rats? *MATT SMITH, LISA DOAR, NATALIE DWYER, AMIE GYTE and DIANNE TIBBS AstraZeneca, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TF *Corresponding author: matthew.smith2@astrazeneca.com Background – At Alderley Park we see eye problems with nearly all our nude rats by 4-6 months of age. Nude rats do not have any eye lashes and this may contribute to the irritation. – We wanted to investigate if this was having a welfare impact (possible infection causing pain and distress) or business/scientific impact resulting in the loss of animals from experiments early due to eye problems. – Some of the clinical signs observed are: G brown/red discharge around the eye which becomes thicker and forms globules or a crust over time G peri-orbital swelling above and below the eye becomes apparent G eventually in the worst cases, this causes the eye to completely close – There is very little literature currently available focusing on eye problems in nude rats and how to alleviate them. Current literature focuses on comparison of bedding types for absorbency1, dust content2,3 and behavioural preferences.4,5 Healthwise the focus is on respiratory problems caused by dust content of the bedding or ammonia levels.3,6 – One study on nude mice found that the use of cotton nesting material caused conjunctivitis when Paseurella pneumotropica or Staphylococcus aureus was present (which is known to cause conjunctivitis in nude rats and mice), the theory being that the bedding caused irritation to the conjunctival sacs which then led to secondary infection by the bacteria.7 – Staphylococcus pyogenes is also known to cause dermatitis or conjunctivitis.8 It is known from health screen reports done on existing colony animals, the first two were definitely not present in the colony. There was Staphylococcus Spp present but the exact species is not specified. – Some bedding manufacturers produce bedding types targeted specifically at nude rats and mice. Datesand® states of its Pure-o’Cel™ bedding: “Dust 118 free performance – proven characteristics make it the ideal specification for nude/hairless mice”.9 Hypothesis – It is hypothesised that smaller particle size of bedding material may cause eye irritation in nude rats – We will investigate different types of bedding materials with different compositions and particle sizes to assess if they affect the degree of eye soreness seen in nude rats Figure 1 – Eye scoring scale with pictures 0 – If the eyes are completely normal, bright and wide open. There are no signs of discharge or swelling. 1 – If there is slight to moderate staining/discharge around one or both eyes. This tends to be red/brown in colour.
Animal Technology and Welfare  August 2014  Does bedding type affect eye soreness in nude rats   MATT SMITH, LISA DOAR, NA...
Poster Presentations 2 – If one eye has slight periorbital swelling (above and below the eye) causing one eye to be up to 1/3 closed. There is a moderate level of discharge which may be thickening and forming globules or a crust around at least one eye. 5 – Swelling is severe around both eyes causing both eyes to be 2/3 – completely closed. There is copious amounts of thick discharge forming globules or a crust around the eyes, or There is evidence of corneal damage on at least one eye (white or blue spots on the eyeball). This eye is showing corneal damage (blue/white spots on the eyeball).10 3 – If One eye has obvious periorbital swelling (above and below the eye) causing the eye to be 1/3 – 2/3 closed or Both eyes have periorbital swelling causing both eyes to be up to 1/3 closed. There is a moderate level of discharge which is becoming thick and forming globules or forming a crust around at least one eye. Bedding materials used Aspen chips4 Fibretron6 Figure 2 – 4 – If there is severe swelling around one eye causing the eye to be 2/3 – completely closed or Both eyes have obvious periorbital swelling causing them to be 1/3 – 2/3 closed. There is a moderate level of discharge which is becoming thick and forming globules or a crust around at least one eye. Pure-o’CelTM 119
Poster Presentations  2     If one eye has slight periorbital swelling  above and below the eye  causing one eye to be up ...
Poster Presentations Methodology G 34 female nude rats (HsdHan:RNU:Foxn1, Alderley G G G G G G G G Park UK) were randomised by weight and parentage. three types of Datesand bedding were compared (Figure 2): – Fiber tron6 (fine granular softwood currently used) – Aspenchip4 (large hardwood chips) – Pure-o’CelTM (paper chips) all cages contained standard, autoclaved, environmental enrichment – paper flake, a chewstick and a cardboard tunnel rats were weaned and randomised at 3 weeks of age they were housed in cages of 3/4 animals per cage and distributed over the rack in 3 rows of 3 cages with the order the groups run in alternating on each row cages were changed and the food hoppers topped up on the same day each week, after scoring, in case this caused a temporary increase of dust levels in the cage the cages were rotated weekly one place along the rack in a clockwise direction to allow for any environmental impact from air flow, light intensity etc. (see Figure 3) the animals were assessed 3 times per week by 3 different technicians with all previous data hidden from view during a scoring session a novel scoring system was developed for the eyes based on experience of resident rats combined with clinical parameters discussed with veterinar y surgeons. (see Figure 1) Figure 3 – Cage plan Methodology Figure 4 – plotted results Statistical report – Each nude rat was randomly allocated at weaning to one type of bedding material. Eye health was assessed three times a week for 22 weeks. The assessment gave a score on an ordinal scale running from 0 (no problem at all) to 5 (both eyes closed) in steps in 1. – Power calculations and expert prior belief as to the distribution of scores at the end of the study (for rats on the usual bedding material) suggested that an improvement (a shift downwards) in the distribution of scores by 1 would have a power of 80% with about 8 to 12 rats per bedding material. Analysis and result G 3 endpoints: average score over all 22 weeks; the final score in week 22; and profile plots of score versus week (see Figure 4) all showed that the bedding materials did not significantly affect eye health Conclusion and further work G G G G 120 this investigation indicates that the present bedding choice is not detrimental towards the animals’ welfare histology has been taken from these animals but was not available at time of publication statistically, the investigation showed that the bedding materials used did not significantly affect eye health and that there was little difference between them what the study did show was that around 16-17 weeks of age the condition of the eyes began to worsen
Poster Presentations  Methodology  G 34 female nude rats  HsdHan RNU Foxn1, Alderley G  G G G  G  G  G G  Park UK  were ra...
Poster Presentations G G although Paseurella pneumotropica or Staphylococcus aureus were not present on the animals that were tested from the same source, it would be interesting to see at what point these bacteria might have developed on the animals also Paseurella pneumotropica is believed to be transferred from animal to animal by contact, it would be interesting to investigate this further Acknowledgements Thanks to Jonathan Bright for the statistical analysis. References 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Potgieter, F.J. and Wilke, P.I. (1996). The dust content, dust generation, ammonia production and absorption properties of three different rodent bedding types. Laboratory Animals 30:79 Burn, C.C. and Mason, G.J. (2005). Absorbencies of six different rodent beddings: commercially adver tised absorbencies are potentially misleading. Laborator y Animals 39:68 Milton, D.K., Godleski, J.J., Feldman, H.A. and Greaves, I.A. (1990). Toxicity of intratracheally instilled cotton dust, cellulose and endotoxin. American Review of Respiratory Disease 142, 184-92 Blom, H.J.M et al. (1996). Preferences of mice and rats for types of bedding material. Laboratory Animals 30 234244 Krohn, T.C. and Hansen, A.K. (2008). Evaluation of Corncob as Bedding for Rodents. Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science 35 (4) 231-236 Smith, E. et al. (2004). Evaluation of Cage MicroEnvironment of Mice Housed on Various Types of Bedding Materials. American Association for Laboratory Animal Sciences 43 (4) 12-17 Bazille, P.G., Walden, S.D., Koniar, L. and Gunther, R. (2001). Commercial Cotton Nesting Material As a Predisposing Factor for Conjunctivitis in Athymic Nude Mice. Lab Animal Europe 1 (5) 28-30 Moore, G.J. (1983). Dermatitis in nude mice (nu/nu) associated with Staphylococcus pyogenes. Laboratory Animals 17, 42-44 Datesand Pure-o’cel specification sheet (2013). From Rat Forum webpage: http://images.google.com/ imgres?imgurl=http://i55.tinypic.com/ictft2.jpg&imgrefur l=http://www.ratforum.com/showthread.php%3F42297cloudy-swollen-eye&usg=__MvdhZidkovKbPctNY1rbbvNcIo=&h=638&w=479&sz=27&hl=en&st art=155&zoom=1&tbnid=NDgzD0FVimDNAM:&tbnh=137 &tbnw=103&ei=tQwiUciHCciBhQe_6oHIDQ &prev=/search%3Fq%3Drodent%2Bcloudy%2Beye%26sta r t%3D140%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26gbv%3D2%26tb m%3Disch&itbs=1&sa=X&ved=0CEYQrQMwDjiMAQ (Accessed March 2013) 121
Poster Presentations  G  G  although Paseurella pneumotropica or Staphylococcus aureus were not present on the animals tha...
Animal Technology and Welfare August 2014 Life with automated water – a review of our experiences after 5 years *MATT COLEMAN1, VERNON SMITH1 and BRIAN GWYNNE2 1 2 MRC Ares, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge CB22 3AT Formerly at MRC Ares, currently Interim Manager of Biological Service Facility, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT *Corresponding author: mac37@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk The MRC Ares Building, Cambridge is designed to house GM mice mainly in Tecniplast GM500 IVCs fitted with Automated Watering (AW). The facility opened in July 2008 and has the capacity to hold 12,600 cages, the current usage is 8500. Figure 3. Tecniplast GM500 cage with loft Figure 1. Ares Building Benefits of automated watering G Figure 2. Edstrom A160 water valve 122 provides a constant and consistent supply of clean high quality drinking water – in line with new EU Directive Figure 4. Cage rack in situ
Animal Technology and Welfare  August 2014  Life with automated water     a review of our experiences after 5 years  MATT ...
Poster Presentations G G G G low incidence of flooded cages better observation of mice significant labour reduction over bottles greatly reduced incidence of upper limb disorders commonly associated with changing bottles Welfare Cages Lofts The mouse loft is designed as a refuge from floods but with the added benefit of additional enrichment. Figure 7. Bedding Technologists High Flow Alarms G G G email and phone alarms indicate possible leaks on-call technologist responds 24/7 in reality these alarms commonly occur between 7.00-11.00pm Figure 5. Loft with mice in occupation Valve boots Valve seals with holes to allow escape of water. This adaptation significantly reduces fatalities. Figure 8. Mobile phone showing alarm message Figure 6. Valve boots showing holes for escape of water in event of a leak Husbandry G Bedding Approximately 1 cm deep, consistent size and grade Regular checks of bedding volumes and quality. G G G daily welfare observations of mice for dehydration all valves checked weekly acclimatise weaners and imported mice to AW give water gel for 1 week 123
Poster Presentations  G G G G  low incidence of flooded cages better observation of mice significant labour reduction over...
Poster Presentations Table 1. Incidence of leaks Reported leaks vary from a small wet patch to a substantial leak. Average fatalities of one cage every six months. Figure 9. Weaner cage with gel in loft Preventative maintenance General G G G activate one valve per rack daily Service engineers G new racks have overnight rack valve leak check before cages are occupied G the impact of floods on mice welfare has been significantly reduced over the last 24 months due to the good practices described G G two annual visits are carried out by the Edstrom service engineers full system checks with detailed service reports supplied parts held on site to minimise disruption with in house fixes email and telephone support Figure 10. Flooded cage showing mouse ‘high and dry’ in the loft Figure 11. Pressure reducing station 124
Poster Presentations  Table 1. Incidence of leaks Reported leaks vary from a small wet patch to a substantial leak. Averag...
Poster Presentations Maintenance staff G G daily checks to the RO machine and associated equipment recording of data to help monitor unexpected changes. ‘Watchdog’ email and voice message notification will alert nominated persons of any issues with the automated watering system 24/7 Figure 12. Reverse Osmosis equipment Service manager G G G regular checks of chlorine levels Figure 13. A160 water valve regular bacteriology screening of water samples to monitor for pathogens in the pipe work faulty valves are sent out with a report form for onsite inspection and service Conclusion Buy-in by all staff involved is essential for automated watering to work successfully. The reward is a water delivery system that benefits animals and staff alike. Contingency G G supply of alternative water supply using hydration gel packs stop or reduce daily flush to conserve water The future New products have come on to the market which allow detection of a valve leak at rack level or cage level if needed that will reduce the risk to animal welfare even further. Labour saving G G More time spent on animal welfare checks and husbandry A forum has been set up for discussion about ‘all things watering’. If you are interested in joining please contact Matt Coleman. using the automated watering system allows an annual saving of 1.5 members of staff at our current occupancy level of 8500 cages Staff satisfaction The results of a recent survey in Ares showed that technicians of all levels of experience are unanimously in favour of automated watering and would not change to bottles. 125
Poster Presentations  Maintenance staff G  G  daily checks to the RO machine and associated equipment recording of data to...
Animal Technology and Welfare August 2014 Alternative handling methods; a small change *JOHN WATERS, KELLY GOUVEIA and JANE HURST Mammalian Behaviour and Evolution Group, Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Neston, South Wirral, Cheshire CH64 7TE *Corresponding author: kimmy@liverpool.ac.uk Abstract Recent studies have indicated that the method choice in handling laboratory mice is important to animal welfare. Hurst & West 20101, showed that handling mice via their tail induces aversion and high anxiety, whereas using alternatives such as a tunnel or the open hand leads to voluntary approach to the handler, low anxiety and readily accepting some physical restraint. Hurst and West’s findings were consistent across strains and sex of laboratory mice, handlers with differing levels of experience and different light periods (light/dark). In 2013, just over 3 million mice were used across the UK, making up 75% of all animals used within Home Office procedures. Given the large amount of mice within global facilities, mouse welfare should be given high priority. Improved handling not only leads to more consistent scientific data, it can also lead to improved animal welfare. Historically mice have been handled by their tail and this has been passed down to generations of technologists and is widely accepted as a method of handling. Alternatives to tail handling Tunnel handling G G G mice firmly guided into a tunnel (min 120mm long) with free hand lifted above cage without direct contact tip mice out of the tunnel backwards Tunnel and cup handling are two alternative methods for handling mice which reduce anxiety and lead to a higher level of tolerance by the mice. From a welfare perspective you will see that the response from the mice on a daily basis is a positive step in the right direction. Handling methods Tail handling G G G G G G the base of the tail is gripped between thumb and forefinger lift above cage, then support (hand/arm) replace mouse in cage and release widely used and accepted method quick perceived reduction in biting 126 G G G G G fast habituation of mice to handling ideal for less experienced handlers minimal risk of being bitten during handling easy inspection of abnormal behaviour for direct contact, the mouse can be tipped gently backwards onto the open hand
Animal Technology and Welfare  August 2014  Alternative handling methods  a small change  JOHN WATERS, KELLY GOUVEIA and J...
Poster Presentations G G clear plastic tunnels are ideal for handling tunnel does not have to be present in home cage but increases familiarity Cup handling G G G gently place hands on either side of mouse gently scoop mice into the palms lift hands clear of cage G G G can also habituate by – holding between closed hands when transferring to clean cages – pick up in tunnel and tip backwards onto hand less costly alternative to tunnel handling (does not require acquisition of a handling device) increase in animal-handler bond Barriers All new methods and procedures come with potential barriers to implementation. Cost or scientific protocol is not deemed to be a barrier. Time is the main reason why technologists are reluctant to change their method of handling. Resistance to new methods: Responses to non-implementation of new methods G G BUT inexperienced mice may jump off the hand on first handling, close hands loosely around mouse (5-10s often sufficient) There is no significant difference in the time taken to transfer mice via tunnel or cup, compared with the tail, during a cage cleaning session Importance of tunnel type G G plastic transparent tunnels are best for handling and inspecting mice tunnel colour choice is unimportant as tunnels are not used for nesting 127
Poster Presentations  G G  clear plastic tunnels are ideal for handling tunnel does not have to be present in home cage bu...
Poster Presentations G ideal measurements: 50mm diameter; 120-180mm length (length to fit cage type) Acknowledgements Supported by a BBSRC Sparking Impact award and an NC3Rs studentship. Thanks to all the animal care team at MBE Group for their help and support. Reference 1 Although the clear tunnels have many benefits over other types of tunnel, both red and cardboard tunnels can be used, as this is still better for animal welfare than picking up by the tail. Summary Continually striving for improvements in animal welfare is an important aspect of all animal technicians’ roles. Any small change that results in an improvement to the daily lives of laboratory mice has to be deemed a necessity. A very minor change in the way we routinely handle laboratory mice positively enhances their overall experiences. No laboratory mouse should experience fear, anxiety or stress at the hands of its handler. A change in the way we approach handling does not impinge on working practices but results in a better experience for our mice. To help with the implementation of the alternative methods of handling mice we have produced a tutorial DVD. Please get in contact with the author for your free copy. “This small change to husbandry protocol has such a profound positive effect on animal welfare” 128 Hurst, J.L. and West, R.S. (2010). Taming anxiety in laboratory mice. Nature Methods 7 (10): 825-842
Poster Presentations  G  ideal measurements  50mm diameter  120-180mm length  length to fit cage type   Acknowledgements S...
August 2014 Animal Technology and Welfare Harmonised welfare review system for non-human primates on long term studies MARIA MARTINEZ University of Oxford, Department of Biomedical Services, c/o Department of Experimental Psychology, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3UD *Corresponding author: l3manager@bms.ox.ac.uk Process A. Regular record keeping of clinical and experimental events, welfare and experimental parameters. B. Regular meeting to review each animal. C. Final report circulated via e-mail. (NB. All the data shown is fictitious and all forms are adapted according to requirements) A. Regular record keeping Experimental records Life records G G daily data of experimental parameters collected by Personal Licence Holders (PILs) Experimental records A. Regular record keeping G record of experimental, health and husbandry events G including any interventions, treatment and recovery notes G maintained by animal care staff, veterinar y surgeons and PILs 129
August 2014  Animal Technology and Welfare  Harmonised welfare review system for non-human primates on long term studies M...
Poster Presentations Welfare monitoring records G G G G daily behavioural monitoring data (group and individuals) fortnightly body weight monthly alopecia and body condition scoring collected by animal care staff 130
Poster Presentations  Welfare monitoring records G G G G  daily behavioural monitoring data  group and individuals  fortni...
Poster Presentations 131
Poster Presentations  131
Poster Presentations B. Formal meeting G bi-annual formal review meeting G attendance by Named Veterinary Surgeon (NVS), NACWO & PPL/PIL G summary of records prepared by PIL and NACWO and circulated prior to meeting G co-ordinated by NACWO 132 C. Final report Form A: Prospective and retrospective study parameters summary G Form B: Welfare parameters summary and outcome of review G Circulated via e-mail after the meeting G
Poster Presentations  B. Formal meeting G bi-annual formal review meeting G attendance by Named Veterinary Surgeon  NVS , ...
Poster Presentations BSB Level 3 – Animal Review Record (Form A) 133
Poster Presentations  BSB Level 3     Animal Review Record  Form A   133
Poster Presentations BSB Level 3 – Animal Review Record (Form B) 134
Poster Presentations  BSB Level 3     Animal Review Record  Form B   134
Poster Presentations Benefits G G G G proactive (rather than reactive) assessment of welfare and progress throughout long term studies regular input from NVS and NACWO consistency across projects compliance with: – PPL standard conditions – PPL additional conditions and requirements Internal and Home Office liaison and reporting tool Key for success G G collaboration between scientists, animal care staff and veterinarians good record keeping Acknowledgements NHP Researchers, Animal Care Staff, Veterinarians and Database Manager at University of Oxford. 135
Poster Presentations  Benefits G G G G  proactive  rather than reactive  assessment of welfare and progress throughout lon...
Animal Technology and Welfare August 2014 Rabbit accommodation goes full circle FELICITY HOOD Charles River Ltd, Tranent, Edinburgh EH33 2NE *Corresponding author: felicity.hood@crl.com Introduction Study challenges Housing rabbits in floor pens has been under discussion within Charles River Edinburgh for some time. However, when presented with two long term studies that required housing rabbits up to 78 weeks, minds became more focused and the team within the rabbit area set about evaluating possible designs. Once satisfied that all animals had ad lib access to food and water and the correct level of environmental enrichment had been established, the team decided to run an initial 26 week IM study in the floor pens. With assistance from our onsite engineer and after several preliminary trials, the team derived a simple circular pen constructed in transparent polycarbonate. This pen was able to be assembled with in ease, connecting 4 rectangular panels into a circle, with slots inserted for water bottles. The pens are just as easy to dismantle for washing purposes or pen change over. This design proved to be simple and relatively inexpensive and more importantly, the rabbits loved it. The team then set about evaluating numerous environmental enrichment products to be included in the pen. The selection criteria of these items was not only to keep the animals amused but to maximise exercise, reducing potential for excessive weight gain over the duration of the study. Figure 1. Circular pen showing group housing, joining panels, floor space, food hoppers, slots with water bottle and various enrichments. Enrichment included soft wood shavings which brought out the rabbits’ natural behaviours such as burrowing, pushing shavings into a pile and then knocking this down. Upturned cages were placed in pens which served as sleeping quarters or hidey holes as well as the top of the upturned cage which produced a viewing platform for them. Cardboard ‘bunny tunnels’ in the pen allowed the rabbits to seek refuge and to move away from the more active rabbits in the group, several of these in a pen worked like the burrow systems which rabbits have in the wild. Despite the minor setback of male aggression, it is considered that conducting group housed rabbit studies in floor pens was a major success. The team worked extremely hard, not only in the refinement of the initial floor pens but with their ability to think through and overcome issues/obstacles that this project presented. 136 Figure 2. Technologist interaction in the pen.
Animal Technology and Welfare  August 2014  Rabbit accommodation goes full circle FELICITY HOOD Charles River Ltd, Tranent...
Poster Presentations Housed in groups of 8 per pen, separated by sex, 32 males and 32 females were assigned to study. In the initial weeks of the study both male and female groups were successfully group housed and the animals appeared to greatly benefit from the floor pen accommodation i.e. demonstrated natural behaviours such as burrowing in the shavings within the pen, increased activity running around chasing pen mates, socialising behaviour including sleeping side by side and grooming of each other. In study week 2 however, around the time the males reached sexual maturity, minor signs of aggression between animals were noted. In order to eliminate the risk of any animals injuring others, the decision was reluctantly taken to return the males to single housing in conventional caging. Figure 3. Upturned cage used as hidey hole and sleeping quarters, and as a viewing platform. In addition, these male animals had access to an exercise pen for set periods several times a week. The exercise pen was filled with enrichment that would increase inquisitiveness which was varied each week, rotating enrichment. The study was successfully completed and the females continued to be group housed in floor pens for the full 26 week duration. The males remained singly housed and continued on the exercise plan. Figure 4. Cardboard play tunnels being used in the pen for chewing, hiding, sleeping and for escaping from their more energetic pen mates. Although the 78 week study was also successfully completed, it did present additional challenges. Males were single housed and had access to the exercise pen several times a week. In the last phase of the study a decision was made to house them from caging to their own pens of a smaller scale allowing these animals to live side by side. The slots in the panel and the transparency of the pen allowed the rabbits to visually interact with the animals in adjacent pens i.e. mimic behavioural actions and smell each other through the slots. Conclusions The team has learned many aspects and gained an increase in knowledge of rabbit behaviours, including enjoying the animals’ interaction with them as friendly, approachable and tactile when they entered the pen. It was noticed that rabbits would do jumping back kicks (binkie) which is viewed as an expression of contented and happy. Acknowledgements Special thanks to Colin Reed, Andy Hamilton, Kerryann Mooney, Elaine Raffer ty, Leanne Purdie, Stuar t Dommershuizen and Michelle Davis who all helped to make this happen. Figure 5. Transparency of the pens showing several pens in a room. 137
Poster Presentations  Housed in groups of 8 per pen, separated by sex, 32 males and 32 females were assigned to study. In ...
Animal Technology and Welfare August 2014 Welfare first: developing a welfare culture by caring for the staff who care for the animals NORMAN MORTELL Agenda Resource Management Limited, PO Box 24, Hull HU12 8YJ *Corresponding author: norman@agenda-rm.co.uk Delivering great animal welfare depends on well trained and dedicated individuals who care passionately about animal care and welfare. The Welfare First programme was designed to bring Security assured Security guidance, advice and training delivered to all staff, annual security screening of staff provides reassurance, signed social media code of conduct and confidentiality agreements clarify and suppor t requirements. Having a secure environment enables technicians to flourish. Communication Keen to engage all technologists, a Welfare First e-newsletter, Tech Talk web resources and a defined “Got a Concern” process were developed. A Welfare 138 together the key elements that support, maintain and underpin this welfare culture. The Welfare First programme enables this commitment to be clearly expressed by using six key principles, the primary features of which are expressed below: First brochure for staff and articles explaining the concept were published in staff newsletters. Recognition Regular appraisals and reviews identify excellent per formance. Agenda Quality and Technician of the Year awards in addition to recognition for completion of qualifications and courses, lead to career development and promotion. The Hall of Fame recognises achievement and inspires technicians to achieve more.
Animal Technology and Welfare  August 2014  Welfare first  developing a welfare culture by caring for the staff who care f...
Poster Presentations Welfare contract* Hall of fame A clear statement of the organisations’ expectations with regards to welfare and expected behaviours, signed by staff to express their commitment. It specifies the organisational position on the use of animals in research and also requires the immediate reporting of welfare concerns. Technician care The aim of this key principle is to support technicians by providing 24/7 help, advice, training mentors, handbooks, technician care packs and occupational health support amongst other initiatives such as a ‘birthday’ day off. Training and development People with animal care qualifications are hired and then supported with CPD and an annual training bank account to continue their development. As an Investor in People, e-learning and professional memberships are also provided. Newsletters and Tech Talk web resource provide training course notifications. Brochure Got a concern? Conclusion The Welfare First programme has joined up the dots to support those who deliver excellent animal care and welfare. *The Welfare Contract concept was kindly reviewed by Understanding Animal Research and several other research sector bodies. 139
Poster Presentations  Welfare contract   Hall of fame  A clear statement of the organisations    expectations with regards...
Animal Technology and Welfare August 2014 Method and refinements made to the semi-occluded dose administration technique in rats *LAUREN WILKINSON and CAITLIN CHAPMAN Huntingdon Life Sciences, Eye Research Centre, Occold, Eye, Suffolk IP23 7PX *Corresponding author: pattend@ukorg.huntingdon.com Introduction Dermal dosing is the route of administration in which a test substance is applied to an area of an animal’s skin usually a rat’s back, for a given amount of time in order to replicate the intended clinical route in humans or animals or it is the expected route for the exposure of chemicals. This is usually performed employing the ‘semi-occluded’ method covering of the test site whilst still allowing the skin to breathe – as outlined in this poster. Other routes of dermal application include fully occluded (where the test site is totally covered allowing maximum exposure of test material) and non-occluded, where the test site is left exposed. The non-occluded method is not considered suitable for rats in most instances as it allows them oral access to the test material which may then be ingested. this type of study as the animals would be inclined to interfere with each other’s bandages. Preparation and equipment The animals have the test site clipped and marked out with the use of a cardboard stencil. The stencil is measured as 3 cm x 3 cm, no less than 10% of the rats surface area. Clipping the fur maximises exposure to the test site. To avoid any potential irritation this is usually performed 24 hours before the first dosing occasion. The aim of the procedure is to maximise the effectiveness and security of the semi-occluded dressing whilst minimising any discomfort for the animal. Although group housing is preferred for rats as they are social animals, it would not be appropriate for Figure 2. Clipped and marked test site Before dosing can commence equipment must be prepared in advance, including: Figure 1. A typical set up of a dermal study room 140 – Tape for fixing bandages to the animal is pre-cut for each animal to make the dosing procedure easier and more time effective. At our laboratories tape will normally be attached to an unused mouse cage rack (the spacing between the cage runners is ideal for gauging the length of tape required). – Separate types of tape are used for securing the bandage to the animal as opposed to securing it to the gauze. This is because the gauze tape is not designed to be stuck to skin and may cause irritation to the animal. – Pre-cut bandages including elasticated bandage (Tubigrip™) cut to 7 cm in length, long gauze (roughly 14 cm in length for females and 20 cm in
Animal Technology and Welfare  August 2014  Method and refinements made to the semi-occluded dose administration technique...
Poster Presentations length for males), cotton wool pads and square cut gauze (which usually comes pre-cut from the supplier but needs to be of a size that covers the exposed test site). Equipment is prepared onto trays with the right amount of bandages for each day’s worth of dose application. Other equipment required: G G G G G G bandage specific scissors clippers water bath and thermometer standard use tissues elizabethan collars sensitive unscented soap (study depending) Figure 4. Application of elasticated bandage Figure 5. Use of tape to secure bandage to animal Figure 3. Equipment Application and exposure Test material is applied to the dose site using a pipette or spreading tool, depending on the presentation of the compound (liquid, gel, powder). A cotton wool pad is then placed over the test material, and covered with a piece of square cut gauze. Bandage is then wrapped around the animal and taped to keep it in place. Finally, Tubigrip™ is placed over the bandaging, ensuring that the rest of the bandage is covered. Tape is used to secure the Tubigrip™ to the animal. By sticking the tape to the animal’s fur it minimises any irritation to the skin. Although not common, some animals may interfere with their dressings. A bandage check is performed on completion of dosing and then roughly halfway through the exposure period to ensure all animals are still in their bandages. Figure 6. Rat in bandage Enrichment Although the dressing does not appear to cause the animals pain or significant discomfort the dressing will restrict free movement of the animals for the duration of the exposure. It is important to provide adequate incage enrichment, not just for comfort but also to distract the rat from interfering with the bandage. This would typically include; G deeper bedding (2-3 cm deep), to provide extra Removed bandages can be reapplied (using any original bandage that has been in contact with the test material). G forage pellets of diet are provided at each dose Badly damaged bandages are also reapplied as the animal might get tangled in it or distressed by it. G wooden chew block comfort for the rat occasion G fun tunnels to allow the animal some privacy and somewhere to hide 141
Poster Presentations  length for males , cotton wool pads and square cut gauze  which usually comes pre-cut from the suppl...
Poster Presentations Bandage removal After the required exposure time, the bandage is removed from the animal. Before this procedure is performed, a water bath is prepared to wash any remaining test material from the dose site. Some studies require the use of soap when cleaning the dose site. The water bath must be kept at a temperature of 30 to 35˚C so that it is not too hot or cold for the animal. To remove the bandage the animal is restrained in the same way as for the dosing procedure. Purpose designed bandage scissors (such as Lister) are used to remove the bandage. They allow for safe removal without any danger of harming the animal. The bandage is always cut away from the head (to avoid possible injury to the head should the animal struggle) and along the side of the body so avoiding any unnecessary discomfort along the back and having to cut through the materials covering the test site. The back is then gently washed, rinsed and dried to remove any excess test material. Because the animal is more likely to try and wash the test site whilst it is still wet, as Elizabethan collars are applied for a minimum of half an hour post bandage removal. Collars are secured firmly enough so they are not likely to fall off but do not cause the animal any discomfort. Tunnels are removed from the cage whilst the animals are wearing collars on so that they do not get trapped. The dose site is checked at bandage removal, with any clinical signs recorded at this time. N Enrichment helps to distract the animal from interfering with the bandage. – Animals removing collars: animals are observed during collar restraint to eliminate any problems as soon as they happen. Refinements to the procedure The dermal dosing procedure at our laboratories is constantly being refined through experience. Below are listed some important refinements that we have developed while performing our studies: Elasticated bandage – cut to set templates to give a better fit on the rat’s body. It has been found that the higher up the bandage is placed around the rat (over the rib cage and right up to the forelimbs), the less the animals movement is restricted. This also greatly reduces the number of bandages that slip down the body during the exposure period. Also by lifting the elasticated bandage from the top end of the holder’s wrist and over the hand rather than pulling it straight down from the bottom end allows for better placement of the bandage on the animal. Bandage specific scissors – the way that specific scissors are made with a raised blunt end allows for safe removing of the bandage without risk of cutting or damaging that rat’s skin. This makes it very important that these types of scissors are used. Extra bandage check – by checking animals straight after they have been dosed allows any problems with the bandage to be adjusted as soon as possible, not only to reduce any discomfort to the animal but also to ensure that the test substance has maximum exposure in the time given. Future developments Neck braces? – specially made neck braces instead of the standard Elizabethan collars, which would allow the rats even less restricted movement and visibility during the dosing procedure, and would obviate the need to remove fun tunnels. Figure 7. Application of Elizabethan collar after bandage removal Potential problems – Difficult to handle animals: regular handling ahead of dosing helps to make the animals more manageable – Animals removing bandage during occlusion time and/or becoming tangled in bandage: make sure bandages are properly secured before the animal is returned to the cage (no loose ends). The bandage checks ensure replacement of bandages in good time. 142 Summary Our described dermal dosing method has been developed and refined over several years and, although it appears to be a relatively straightforward procedure, the successful application of the protective bandages takes training, skill and experience to prevent animal inter ference whilst minimising discomfor t to the animals. All work was performed under the prevailing principles and authority of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986.
Poster Presentations  Bandage removal After the required exposure time, the bandage is removed from the animal. Before thi...
Animal Technology and Welfare August 2014 A method of obtaining large blood collections from Guinea pigs via the saphenous vessel MARIA RASMUSSEN University of Cambridge, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Innes Building, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES Corresponding author: ml596@cam.ac.uk Introduction Guinea pigs are often overlooked in antibody and vaccine studies due to the difficulty in obtaining reasonable blood samples and quite often the need for cardiac puncture with recovery in order to obtain a prebleed reference sample. At the University of Cambridge we have developed some subtle but highly effective refinements that have alleviated these issues meaning no further cardiac punctures being required and maximum sample legal volumes being attained. Due to the fact that Guinea pigs do not have a tail, or big ears, they are considered to be a tricky species to work with in studies where it is needed to collect large volumes of blood. At the same time it has been reported previously that Guinea pig antibody responses are comparable to that of a rabbit. In certain instances the response has been several fold higher during the same period1. Saphenous bleeding For antibody studies that are carried out using Guinea pigs at our facilities, we are required to do a pre-bleed before anything else is done to the animal. The blood sample is used as reference sample for any following experiments. For this reason it is vital to get the maximum safe volume of blood on the primary bleed. Historically we have taken the pre-bleed sample via cardiac puncture with recovery. This is a procedure that comes with some risks and therefore something we were eager to refine. We had used saphenous vessel bleeding for smaller blood samples in the past but we were not successful enough with this technique to use it for the much larger pre-bleed samples. However a few small refinements to the process has now made that possible. As shown on the illustration the saphenous vein and the saphenous artery run very close together. When bleeding from the saphenous it is possible to puncture either of these vessels. For the studies carried out at our facilities it does not matter if we get arterial or venous blood but this would need to be taken into consideration for other studies. When the vessel is punctured it is normally possible to tell the difference by the way the blood flows. Blood 143
Animal Technology and Welfare  August 2014  A method of obtaining large blood collections from Guinea pigs via the sapheno...
Poster Presentations from the vein is dark and flows steadily, while blood from the artery is lighter and a slight pulsation can be observed in the blood flow. f h Step 1: Heating After removal from their pens the Guinea pigs are placed in a heating cabinet set at 37 degrees Celsius for 15 to 20 minutes. This is an essential part of the procedure as it is difficult to get the required amount of blood from them if they have not been warmed up first. Bleeding the animals without heating will prolong the procedure and thereby the amount of time the animals are handled. There is also a bigger risk of failing to obtain the required blood portion and a later attempt would be necessary. That would cause unnecessary stress to the animals. In our experience the cost of the potential discomfort that could be associated with heating the animals is outweighed by the benefits. However no such signs have been observed. blood vessels in the G. Pig2 Figure 1. Position of saphenous blood vessels in the Guinea Pig2 Figure 2. Settings on heating chamber Technique step by step: (The procedure will require 2 people.) Equipment Figure 3. Guinea pigs in heating chamber Step 2: Holding and Shaving After taking the Guinea pigs out of the heating cabinet the area on the inside of the leg is shaved where the vessel will be punctured. The handler will use one hand to hold the animal around the chest and the other hand to support the animal underneath. 144
Poster Presentations  from the vein is dark and flows steadily, while blood from the artery is lighter and a slight pulsat...
Poster Presentations Step 3: Alcohol Disinfection Figure 7. The shaved area is sprayed with alcohol to avoid infections Step 4: Petroleum Jelly: The shaved area is smeared with petroleum jelly. There are three reasons for this: 1. The resulting shiny surface of the leg makes the vessel more clearly visible. 2. The smooth and slippery surface of the leg makes the blood run off the skin instead of sticking to it. 3. The blood flows better from the puncture wound and is less likely to clot. Figure 4. Showing position of Guinea pig for shaving Figure 8. Applying petroleum jelly Figure 5. Shaving the site Figure 6. The shaved leg Figure 9. Blood vessels clearly visible 145
Poster Presentations  Step 3  Alcohol Disinfection  Figure 7. The shaved area is sprayed with alcohol to avoid infections ...
Poster Presentations Step 5: Bleeding A 23 G needle is used to puncture the vessel. The needle is inserted on top of the ankle joint. The vessel is unlikely to move here and fairly easy to find. If the first attempt is unsuccessful another attempt can be done further up the leg. It is not recommended to use more than three needle sticks for any one attempt3. Figure 10. Position for insertion of the needle The needle is inserted parallel with the vessel. When it is correctly inserted the transparent plastic hub will fill up with blood and the needle can then be removed. It is essential that the assistant holding the Guinea pig is skilled in the process as the assistant is as important as the main operative. They need to apply pressure on the leg from just before the needle is inserted until the Figures 11 and 12. Collection of blood needle has been removed. The pressure is released slowly when the collection tube is held under the leg to control the blood flow and avoid spilling part of the valuable sample. It has been observed that failing to control the blood flow may cause the flow to stop early without obtaining the required amount. Step 6: Stopping the blood flow When the required sample has been obtained, the bleeding is easily stopped by holding a piece of gauze on the puncture wound applying light pressure. When the bleeding is completely stopped the animal can be returned to its pen. Figure 13. Control of blood flow by direct pressure 146
Poster Presentations  Step 5  Bleeding A 23 G needle is used to puncture the vessel. The needle is inserted on top of the ...
Poster Presentations Safe volumes According to NC3RS4 guinea pigs have a blood volume of 69-75 ml/kg. The safe volume for a single bleed is up to 10% of the total blood volume. The graph below shows the safe blood sample volume for body weights ranging from 500 to 1200g based on the NC3Rs table. To ensure that we do not exceed the safe volume, we always use the lowest blood volume (69 ml/kg) to determine the safe blood sample volume which is shown in blue in the graph. large groups without showing any aggression towards each other. They are also easily handled without risking injury either to the handler or the animal. Hopefully using this refined saphenous bleeding technique Guinea pigs could potentially be a more attractive research model for antibody studies. Acknowledgements Graph 1. Guinea pig blood sample volumes for single bleed Thanks to Chris Brown, Paul Tonks, Jo Keeley, Jon Lock, Emma Filby and Morten Rasmussen for valuable input, discussions and assistance. Adverse effects References For about 10% of the Guinea pigs that we bled using this method small hematomas or bruising of the skin was observed following the procedure. The hematoma normally shows just after the vessel is punctured and will leave a red bruising on the skin when the bleeding is stopped. These bruises do not seem to have any effect on the animal's ability to use the leg or to move normally. The skin will appear normal again after three days. 1 2 3 Conclusion The adjustments to our bleeding technique have been developed gradually over a period of time. Each refinement might not appear significant. However, combined they have made a noticeable difference to the blood volumes we have been able to take from this route. 4 Flatt, P.R. and Swanston-Flatt. S.K. (1981). Stimulation of antiglucagon antibodies in rabbits and guinea pigs using a glucagon-carbodiimide-albumin conjugate. Endocrinol Exp. 1981; 15(1):3-16. Zimmermann, K., Hein, A., Hager, U., Kaczmarek, J.S., Turnquist, Clapham, D.E. and Reeh, P.W. (2009). Phenotyping sensory nerve endings in vitro in the mouse. Nature Protocols 4, 174-196 (2009). Published online: 22 January 2009. National Centre for the Replacement Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs). Guinea pig, Saphenous vein. http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/blood samplingmicrosite/page.asp?id=393. 23 March 2014. National Centre for the Replacement Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs). Blood Sample Volumes. http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/blood samplingmicrosite/page.asp?id=426. 23 March 2014. We have found the heating of the animals is crucial to being successful with this procedure. We have also realised that the animal handler has a big part to play as the process becomes much easier and faster if pressure is applied on the vessel at the right time. Also the petroleum jelly used to lubricate the skin seems like a very small adjustment but it is probably the one that has made the biggest difference. Guinea pigs are good animals to work with in a laboratory animal facility. Females are easily housed in 147
Poster Presentations  Safe volumes According to NC3RS4 guinea pigs have a blood volume of 69-75 ml kg. The safe volume for...
Animal Technology and Welfare August 2014 How do adult female NZW rabbits respond to consistent handling? DEBBIE RIDLEY GlaxoSmithKline, Laboratory Animal Sciences, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY *Corresponding author: debbie.2.roddis@gsk.com Introduction Materials In scientific literature it has been established that the handling process is stressful for prey species such as rabbits and can lead to different results depending on the lifetime experience of the animal. 8 individually housed female NZW rabbits from Harlan UK laboratories at 2-2.5 kg (13-14 weeks) were housed in cages; floor space: 6106 cm2 and 50 cm height. Rabbits will adapt to being handled and sensitive handling leads to a more compliant animal (Podberscek et al 1991).1 We wanted to examine whether giving individually housed rabbits access to floor pens for an hour daily would affect their behaviour towards being handled. Figures 1 and 2. Individual rabbits in floor pens 148 Figure 3. Rabbit cages
Animal Technology and Welfare  August 2014  How do adult female NZW rabbits respond to consistent handling  DEBBIE RIDLEY ...
Poster Presentations Each cage had a shelf, perforated base and clear Perspex sides which enabled the rabbits to observe each other. Their enrichment was a cardboard fun tunnel (25 x 20 cm), aspen chew block. Rabbits were fed a high fibre maintenance diet 5325 (PMI). They had free access to food and water and hay was provided daily. Cages were fully changed weekly and the tray liner was changed 3 times a week. Each rabbit was weighed and health checked weekly. The rabbit room had a radio on during the light period. The light was on between 07.00–19.00. Rabbits were exercised individually in a floor pen measuring 2.5m2. Category 1 Methods Rabbits were acclimatised for 2 weeks prior to the study period. The study was carried out over an 8 week period throughout June – August 2012. Each rabbit was randomly given an individual number and allocated to group 1 or 2. Pen access was given as illustrated in table 1. Weeks Group 1 Group 2 1-4 Pen access No Pen access 5-8 No Pen access Pen access 1-8 Handling on Handling on Mon, Wed, Fri Table 1. Study design Category 2 All rabbits were removed from the cages three times a week and taken to a trolley where they were stroked for 1-3 minutes per rabbit and then either put back in the cage or moved to a pen depending on the study period and group number. Throughout this time the handlers categorised their observations of the rabbits. Objectives Determine how rabbits respond to consistent handling. Determine whether there are changes in the rabbits’ behaviour towards handlers after time. Categories Rabbit response to the cage opening was categorised as follows: Category 1. Comes forward. Rabbit hops towards the handler when the cage door is opened. Category 3 Category 2. Remains stationar y. Rabbit flattens against the base when the cage door is opened. Results Category 3. Retreats to the back. Rabbit retreats to the back of the cage to evade capture. All observations were analysed using SAS software. There were insufficient data points for a full statistical analysis. 149
Poster Presentations  Each cage had a shelf, perforated base and clear Perspex sides which enabled the rabbits to observe ...
Poster Presentations In group one rabbits 2 and 4 came towards the handler when the cage door was opened, rabbits in group 2 were generally more reticent. Once the handler had placed their hand on the rabbit group 2 were more likely to remain stationary. There was no clear difference between groups of rabbits choosing to retreat to the back of the cage, one rabbit from each group retreated over 60% of the time. The latency of the rabbits to approach the handler was not recorded during this pilot study. Discussion Handling was consistent between each rabbit throughout the study. They were removed from the Chart 1. Average percentage of total counts per animal over the duration of the study Figures 4 and 5. Rabbit being stroked prior to cage removal 150 Figures 6-8. Stroking rabbits on the bench
Poster Presentations  In group one rabbits 2 and 4 came towards the handler when the cage door was opened, rabbits in grou...
Poster Presentations home cage and placed on a bench. Each rabbit was stroked from the head to tail, it was allowed to move around the bench if it chose. The handler always maintained contact with the rabbit to prevent any opportunity for it to jump off the bench. Rabbits in group 2 were more likely to retreat to the back of the cage or remain stationary, these are both indications that the rabbits may not view human contact as a positive interaction. In group 1 there was one rabbit which never came forward but appeared to have a preference for being caught at the back of the cage, whereas the group 2 rabbits retreated to avoid capture. Rabbits often moved around the bench and investigated the wall and handler, they never attempted to jump off the bench. All the rabbits regardless of group were compliant on the bench. Rabbits 2, 4 and 6 would rear up and place their forepaws on the handler’s chest, although rabbit 6 was reluctant to come forward in the cage unlike 2 and 4. Handlers could see differences between temperaments of each group and a larger cohort of rabbits might have enabled a statistical analysis which may have reduced the impact of any outliners. The results were variable between individual rabbits suggesting temperament is an important factor to take into account when handling animals. Group 1 rabbits appeared to react in a positive manner to human contact and had a calm temperament. They may have found the transfer from a cage to the large floor pen a positive experience and made a parallel between human contact and the oppor tunity to exercise. Group 2 rabbits actively avoided human contact. Handling the rabbits on the bench without the opportunity to escape human contact and no real positive benefit during the first 4 weeks of the study may have had a downbeat effect. When 4 randomly selected rabbits were moved to a different study with researchers blinded to the current study, the least compliant rabbits were both from group 2. This indicates that the group 2 rabbits may have built up a negative experience from the study compared to group 1 rabbits. Further research with a large cohort of rabbits, blinded observers to record each behaviour and time the latency of each rabbit to approach the handler would give more rigorous results. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of a robust study design and the animals having the same lifetime experience. Even a subtle change in our care for the animals could impact a study. Acknowledgements Thanks to the Laboratory Animal Science staff at GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage and in particular Mark Lennon and Joanna Cruden. Reference 1 Podberscek, A.L., Blackshaw, J.K. and Beattie, A.W. (1991). The effects of repeated handling by familiar and unfamiliar people on rabbits in individual cages and group pens. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 28:4 pp 365-373 Figures 9-11. Interactions with rabbits 151
Poster Presentations  home cage and placed on a bench. Each rabbit was stroked from the head to tail, it was allowed to mo...
Animal Technology and Welfare August 2014 Instructions to Authors Subjects considered for publication may include original articles, technical notes and reviews pertaining to all aspects of animal science and technology, management and education. The Editorial Board wishes to offer particular encouragement to papers leading to improvements in environmental enrichment, the general care and welfare of the animals used, in particular those species and strains exhibiting harmful genetic defects, and papers describing refinements in techniques, a reduction in the number of animals that need to be used or alternatives to animal use. Papers describing experimental procedures will only be accepted for publication if authors clearly state that the procedures conform to the prevailing principles and Codes of Practice of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986. Papers submitted from outside the U.K., should state what legislation and/or ethical approval the work has been carried out under. In addition, authors who describe surgical techniques with recovery should include details of post-operative care and any analgesic therapy provided. All submissions should follow the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) guidelines (Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC, Emerson M, Altman DG (2010) Improving Bioscience Research Reporting: The ARRIVE Guidelines for Repor ting Animal Research. PLOS Biol 8(6): e1000412. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000412) The Editorial Board reser ves the right to seek independent advice on any aspect of the content of an article but the final decision on acceptance or rejection remains with the Board. Submission Material submitted for publication will be considered provided that it is contributed exclusively to Animal Technology and becomes the property of the Institute of Animal Technology. The relevant ar ticle must clearly indicate where photographs and/or graphs are to be inserted. Address for submission: atw@iat.org.uk Hard copy The original manuscript plus two copies should be sent to the address below together with a copy on disk (CD or DVD). All sheets should be typewritten on one side in double spacing and serially numbered. Any photographs or graphs should be supplied as originals and conform to the format in 4) below. Address for submission: Journal Editorial Board Chairman, 5 South Parade, Summertown, Oxford OX2 7JL. No responsibility will be accepted for loss or damage to such articles. Electronic files of submissions are required together with separate files of photographs and any graphics that appear in the manuscript. Electronic submissions should be sent via email via atw.iat.org.uk alternatively, manuscript plus two copies may be sent as hard copy to the address below. All sheets should be typewritten on one side in double spacing with 4 cm margins and serially numbered. Additionally, a copy on disk should be provided or sent by email via atw@iat.org.uk Articles for submission should be sent to: Journal Editorial Board Chairman, 5 South Parade, Summertown, Oxford, OX2 7JL. No responsibility will be accepted for loss or damage to such articles. Format Articles may be submitted either electronically or by hard copy as follows: 1). The first sheet of the article should contain the following: Electronic i. the full title of the paper ii. the initials and last name of the author(s) iii. the full address of the depar tment(s) and institution(s) where the work was carried out. iv. the address for correspondence if different to above. Articles should be submitted in Word format with double spacing to the lines and all pages serially numbered. Any photographs or graphs must be submitted as separate files and conform to the format in point 4) below. 152 2). For the remainder of the paper, the text should be
Animal Technology and Welfare  August 2014  Instructions to Authors Subjects considered for publication may include origin...
Instructions to Authors clear and concise and, where appropriate, sub-divided under the following headings: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Summary Introduction Methods Results Discussion Acknowledgements References 3). Measurements should be given in metric units – see The use of S.I. Units (1969) British Standards Institution publication and spelling should follow that of the Oxford English Dictionary. Abbreviations must be defined in full at their first appearance in the text. The 24 hour clock should be used for times. Words to appear in italic type should be underlined. Designation of inbred strains should be in accordance with the International Index of Laboratory Animals, 6th edition, compiled, edited and published by M.W. Festing, 1993. 4). Photographs should have clear and well contrasted tone values and be in colour. All illustrations, charts (e.g. histograms and graphs) and photographs should be submitted separately and bear on the reverse side the author’s name, a number corresponding to the order in which it appears in the text e.g., Figure 1, and an arrow pointing to the top. Journals:- Surname and initials of author(s) (date), title of article. Name of journal in full, volume number, first and last page numbers. e.g. Saigeman, S. (1998). Environmental enhancement of cats – what? why? how? Animal Technology, Vol 49, No.3, 145-154. Books:- Surname and initials of author(s) (date), title of book. Name of publisher, Town of publisher. e.g. Flecknell, P.A. (1987). Laborator y Animal Anaesthesia. Academic Press, London. Chapter from a multi-author book:- Surname and initials of chapter author(s) (date), title of chapter. In: title of book (surname and initials of book editors). Name of publisher, Town of publisher, first and last page numbers of chapter. e.g. Gregory, J.A. (1985). Principles of Animal Husbandry. In: Laboratory Animals – An Introduction for Experimenters. Second Edition. (Tuffrey, A.A.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, 87-105. Papers accepted for publication but not yet published should be included in the list of references followed by ‘(in press)’. Papers in preparation, personal communications and unpublished observations should be referred to as such in the text only. Illustrations, charts and photographs supplied on disk should be in JPEG, TIFF or EPS formats and have a resolution of no less than 300dpi. Content The captions for illustrations, charts and photographs should be typed in double spacing in numerical order on a separate sheet of paper. Papers describing procedures involving the use of animals should always include full details of the animals and husbandry conditions used. These would be as follows: 5). References: Only essential references should be included. Authors are responsible for verifying them against the original source material. ATW uses the Vancouver referencing system: references should be identified in the text by superscript Arabic numbers e.g. 12 after any punctuation and numbered and listed at the end of the paper in the order of when they are first cited in the text. Automatic numbering should be avoided. References should include the names and initials of up to six authors. If there are more than six authors, only the first three should be named, followed by et al. Publications for which no author is apparent may be attributed to the organisation from which they originate. Simply omit the name of the author for anonymous journal articles – avoid using ‘Anonymous’. References should be set out as follows: Animals Species Breed or strain Sex Age and weight at start of procedure Genetic status: inbred; outbred; hybrid; mutant Source Microbiological status: conventional; specified pathogen free (define which pathogens animals are free from); gnotobiotic (define which microorganisms are present) Quarantine or acclimatisation period Husbandry during procedure Type of housing: material; size; cage type if relevant Number of animals per cage or unit Bedding: type; quality; any pretreatment 153
Instructions to Authors  clear and concise and, where appropriate, sub-divided under the following headings  i. ii. iii. i...
Instructions to Authors Type of system: conventional; barrier; ventilated rack; isolator Environmental temperature (°C ± range) Relative Humidity (% ± range) Lighting: natural; artificial (state hours of light and dark) Ventilation: number of air changes per hour Period of acclimatisation before start of procedure Feed: type; composition; any pretreatment; amount; frequency Water: type; quality; any pretreatment; amount; frequency Scientific procedure Number of animals and any pretreatment Time of day of procedure(s) Quantity and frequency of any samples Statistics Tests used should be named Reprints Free reprints are no longer provided but the ATW Editorial Board are happy to provide PDF files of articles after publication. Use of these files is subject to Copyright restrictions. 154
Instructions to Authors  Type of system  conventional  barrier  ventilated rack  isolator Environmental temperature    C  ...
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS August 2014 3Rs LAB ............................................................................................................................xiv ARMIS – R & W Associates .................................................................................................vii Bell Isolation Systems .......................................................................................................xiii Edstrom ..............................................................................................................................xi Harlan Laboratories ...........................................................................................................viii Institute of Animal Technology ......................................................................iv, xii, xiv, xvi, xviii IPS Product Supplies Ltd ..................................................................................................IBC LBS ....................................................................................................................................vi LBS ..................................................................................................................................xvii Learning Curve (Development) Ltd ........................................................................................iii PFI Systems .........................................................................................................................v Special Diets Services ....................................................................................................IFC Sychem Ltd ..........................................................................................................................x Tecniplast UK ..................................................................................................................OBC VetTech Solutions ...............................................................................................................xv
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS  August 2014  3Rs LAB ..................................................................................