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Grade Course Listings Section 3a
Agriculture & Natural Resources Page 1
Business, Management & Marketing Education Page 2
Engineering Technology Education Page 4
Information Systems Technology Page 5
Family and Consumer Sciences Page 7
CAREER TECHNICAL EDUCATION*
*Fees may apply
Agriculture & Natural Resources
(SkillsUSA activities will be integrated into all Agriculture & Natural Resource classes.)
Zoology/Fish and Wildlife Science
AG 0530
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 10, 11, 12 One Year Course; Two Hour Block
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 4; Eligible for science credit(s)
Offered At: Dennis Professional-Technical Education Center, 8201 W. Victory Rd. Busing provided.
Content: This class is designed for students with an interest in outdoor careers and recreation such as
fishing, hiking, hunting, or other wildlife-related activities. It is an active, outdoor class with
numerous field trips and projects. Topics include fish and wildlife and management, and the
biology, habitat, and population management techniques for a wide array of terrestrial and
aquatic species.
Ecology/Natural Resource Science
AG 0520
Open to: 11, 12 One Year Course; Two Hour Block
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Zoology/Fish and Wildlife Science
Credit: 4; Eligible for science credit(s)
Offered at: Dennis Professional-Technical Education Center, 8201 W. Victory Rd. Busing provided.
Content: This class is designed for students who are pursuing a career in zoology, wildlife biology,
natural resource management or veterinary medicine. The primary topics of this class are
ecology, biodiversity, natural resource conservation, ecosystem management and wildlife
based research techniques. It is an active, outdoor class with numerous field trips and projects.
Each student will be required to conduct a long-term wildlife research project. This course will
prepare students for college level zoology/natural resource programs.
Ecology/Environmental Science AG 0525
Open to: 12 One Semester Course; Two Hour Block
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Zoology/Fish and Wildlife Science and Ecology/Natural Resource
Science
Credit: 2; Eligible for science credit(s)
Offered At: Dennis Professional-Technical Education Center, 8201 W. Victory Rd. Busing provided.
Content: This class is designed for students with an interest in outdoor careers and recreation such as
fishing, hiking, hunting, or other wildlife-related activities. It is an active, outdoor class with
numerous field trips and projects. This class is the continuation of Zoology/Fish and Wildlife
Science course and focuses on land-based wildlife management practices and principles,
including conservation biology, forestry and habitat management.
Fundamentals of the Plant Industry
AG 0150
Open to: 12 One Semester Course; Two Hour Block
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Zoology/Fish and Wildlife Science, Ecology/Natural Resource
Science, and Ecology/Environmental Science
Credit: 2; Eligible for science credit(s)
Offered At: Dennis Professional-Technical Education Center, 8201 W. Victory Rd. Busing provided.
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Content: A course designed to examine soil and plant relationships that affect the production of food and
fiber. Topics include soils, irrigation, land judging, plants, crop and weed identification,
diseases, insects and chemicals.
Occupational & Career Experience Environmental Science Technology
AG 9800
Open to: 12 One Year Course; Two Hour Block
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Zoology/Fish and Wildlife Science, Ecology/Natural Resource
Science, concurrent enrollment in Ecology/Natural Resource Science or Fundamentals of the
Plant Industry and instructor approval
Credit: 4
Offered at: Dennis Professional-Technical Education Center, 8201 W. Victory Rd.
Content: This class is a community based work experience activity organized and planned to develop
advanced skills necessary to gain and maintain employment. This course may encompass a
broad range of paid/unpaid work experiences related to the career objectives of the student.
The experiences will be supervised and monitored by an instructor. Students must provide
own transportation.
Business, Management & Marketing Education
(BPA or DECA activities will be integrated into all Business, Management & Marketing classes.)
Introduction to Small Business Ownership
BE 0150
Open to: 10, 11, 12 One Year Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 2
Content: Students will learn about different types of business ownership from sole proprietorships and
partnerships to corporations. Students will explore trends in the market and how to recognize
opportunities as well as how to grow a business opportunity locally, nationally, and globally.
Local business owners often visit as guest speakers and students participate in projects,
computer simulations, and field trips to further enhance and enrich the classroom instruction.
Second semester of this course, students participate in a Junior Achievement Program which
centers around running a company with departments in the areas of Human Resources, Public
Relations, Finance, Distribution, Marketing and Sale, and includes a class elected CEO. This
student-run company sells stock, creates a startup business, operates and runs the business
over the course of the semester and finally dissolves the company with the goal of issuing
dividends to its stockholders. This is a hands-on class providing real world business
experience for students.
Business Finance and Investing
BE 0190
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Introduction to Small Business Ownership
Credit: 1
Content: Students will learn about personal and business finance. Students will gain skills in analyzing
and managing finances both on a personal level and in the area of business. Financial record
keeping and preparing financial statements will also be included in this class. The course will
focus on obtaining small business start-up financing and growth capital. Feasibility analysis:
testing potential opportunities and writing a business plan will be a part of this class. Local
business owners often visit as guest speakers and students participate in projects, computer
simulation and field trips to further enhance and enrich the classroom instruction. Students
learn about the power of investing throughout the semester by participating in the stock market
games a simulation where students across the nation are given $100,000 of mock money to
invest in a game that mirrors the actual stock market real time.
Business Law/Ethics Applications
BE 0151
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Introduction to Small Business Ownership and Business Finance and
Industry
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Credit: 1
Content: Students will study business law fundamentals and legal principles. Students will learn about
the legal environment in which he/she lives as well as laws governing society. Topics include
the American legal system, crimes and torts, contracts and agreements. Other topics:
Ownership of property, wills and estate planning, legal principles affecting insurance and the
legal aspects of buying and selling merchandise. The Internet will be used for research.
Marketing I: Economics
ME 0200
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 10, 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 1
Content: Students will receive an overview of marketing, its scope, significance and social
responsibilities in the U. S. free enterprise system. Theories and principles of the economic
free enterprise system will be related to the study of marketing principles in a free market
system in today’s society. Note: The Economics graduation requirement may be met through
the Marketing Education program.
Marketing II: Promotions
ME 0400
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 10, 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Marketing I
Credit: 1
Content: Students will learn how a business communicates with its customers through the promotional
elements of advertising, visual merchandising, display, public relations, publicity and personal
selling. Included will be field trips, guest speakers, role-playing, and computer simulations.
Note: The Economics graduation requirement may be met through the Marketing Education
program.
Marketing Education Lab
ME 0700
Open to: 11, 12 One Semester or One Year Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Marketing I and Marketing II
Credit: 1 - 2
Content: Marketing Education Lab turns a student-based enterprise into a learning laboratory.
Developed in conjunction with DECA, this one-of-a-kind program presents the planning needed
to develop and start a student-based enterprise, as well as the business functions involved in
its successful operation. Career preparation is infused throughout the program, as students
learn the skills and attitudes required in any job.
Marketing Research
ME 0225
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Marketing I and Marketing II
Credit: 1
Content: This course focuses on the “Marketing Information Management” function of Marketing.
Students participate in project-driven learning through research projects. Students identify
research issues, design research tools, conduct and analyze research and make
recommendations based on their findings. A written project is presented as the culminating
activity in the course. Projects may be entered and presented at the State DECA Development
Conference.
Marketing III: Entrepreneurship/Creating Your Own Business
ME 0150
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Marketing I and Marketing II
Credit: 1
Content: Students will receive an overview of entrepreneurship, including pros and cons of owning a
business. Included will be the profile of a successful entrepreneur, the development of a
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business plan, the planning of major marketing strategies for a new business, as well as
sources of funds and financial needs. Note: The Economics graduation requirement may be
met through the Marketing Education program.
Marketing IV: Business Management/Sports & Entertainment
ME 0550
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Marketing I, Marketing II and Marketing III
Credit: 1
Content: The student will receive an overview of the tools and techniques used to successfully operate a
business within the sports and entertainment arena. Instruction will focus on the marketing of
the business and its product involving the creation of a marketing plan and strategies. Included
will be field trips, guest speakers, role-playing and computer simulations focusing on the sports
and entertainment industry. Note: The Economics graduation requirement may be met through
the Marketing Education program. Student must provide own transportation.
Marketing Cooperative Education
ME 9900
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Semester or One Year Course; One - Two Hour Block
Prerequisite: Completion of Two Semesters of Marketing Classes, current enrollment in a Marketing Class
and Instructor Approval
Credit: 1 - 4
Content: The student and marketing teacher will identify marketing career areas of interest and locate
job openings for which the student will apply. A job sponsor will be designated and then a
training agreement and plan will be created. The student will average fifteen hours per week
for one credit or twenty hours per week for two credits. Student must provide own
transportation.
Intro to Interactive Media
BE 0273
Open to: 10, 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 1
Content: A course designed to introduce students to interactive technologies. Topics include designing,
editing, and producing video, audio and graphical elements using digitally-generated or
computer enhanced media.
Interactive Media Video I & II
BE 0316
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 10, 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion Intro to Interactive Media
Credit: 1 - 2
Content: A course designed to provide in-depth knowledge of audio-visual production equipment and
processes. Students will be introduced to video editing skills and techniques for planning,
designing and developing video. Skills to be obtained are file management, audio and visual
capturing, adding events to timelines, editing multiple video tracks, transitions, voice over
production and key framing.
Engineering Technology Education
(SkillsUSA activities will be integrated into all Engineering Technology classes at the high school
level and TSA activities will be integrated into Technology 9 classes at the jr high level.)
Technology 9 (Fundamentals of Engineering Technology)
TE 1905
Open to: 9 One Year Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 2
Content: Students will gain an insight and understanding of technology and its impact on his/her life.
Computers, related technology and equipment will be used as the student develops critical
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thinking and problem solving skills. Activities will include instruction in communications,
manufacturing, construction and power, energy and transportation.
Introduction to Engineering Design (IED)
TE 1502
Open to: 10, 11, 12 One Year Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: Must be concurrently enrolled in a math class
Credit: 2
Content: This course emphasizes the development of a design. Students use computer software to
produce, analyze and evaluate models of project solutions. Students study design concepts of
form and function and use state-of-the-art technology to translate conceptual design into
reproducible products. Students sketch within computer software to design models, apply the
design process to solve problems, utilize mathematics (density, surface area, inertia, gyration
radii and more) to evaluate parametric models; and explore quality control, marketing and
related career opportunities. Display portfolios are also developed.
Principals of Engineering (POE)
TE 1501
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Year Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion of IED and must be concurrently enrolled in a math class
Credit: 2
Content: A course that helps students understand the field of engineering/engineering technology.
Exploring various technology systems and manufacturing processes helps students learn how
engineers and technicians use math, science and technology in the engineering problem
solving process to benefit people. The course also includes concerns about social and political
consequences of technological change.
Civil Engineering and Architecture (CEA)
TE 1520
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Year Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion of IED and must be concurrently enrolled in a math class
Credit: 2
Fee: $20.00
Content: This course is an introduction to civil engineering and architecture and will emphasize: History
and the influence and impact of architecture and the responsibilities of both fields including
ethics and values. Students will be introduced to the stakeholders and role players involved.
Students will consider the effects of past, present and future projects. Students will research
architectural and civil engineering designs and produce models of their designs.
Engineering Design and Development (EDD)
TE 1525
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Year Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion of IED and POE or CEA
Credit: 2
Content: This is an engineering research course in which students will work in teams to research,
design, test and construct a solution to an open-ended engineering problem. The product
development life cycle and a design process are used to guide and help the team to reach a
solution to the problem. The team presents and defends their solution to a panel of outside
reviewers at the conclusion of the course. The EDD course allows students to apply all the
skills and knowledge learned in previous engineering technology courses. The use of 3D
design software helps students design solutions to the problem their team has chosen. This
course also engages students in time management and teamwork skills, a valuable set for
students in the future.
Information Systems Technology
(SkillsUSA activities will be integrated into the Information Systems Technology programs.)
Computer Essentials
TI 0551
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Open to: 10, 11, 12 One Year Course; Two hour block
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 4
Location: Dennis Professional-Technical Education Center, 8201 W. Victory Rd. Information Technology
wing. Busing provided.
Content: Students will gain knowledge and skills related to being a help desk/computer support
technician. Therefore, students will learn how to build a computer, troubleshoot hardware and
software as well as improve their customer service skills. The course will also cover networking
and security such as setting up and configuration of Internet hardware and software.
Computer Support II
TI 0604
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Year Course; Two hour block
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Computer Essentials
Credit: 4
Location: Dennis Professional-Technical Education Center, 8201 W. Victory Rd. Information Technology
wing. Busing provided.
Content: Students will build upon knowledge and skills gained from Computer Essentials I and will
continue becoming successful in the desktop support/help desk industry. Course material
involves advanced hardware and software troubleshooting by using utilities, tools and programs
in Windows 7 and Windows 8. Also course material will mainly be delivered through use of
real-world and team-based projects. Home and small business networking security, Internet
security and virtualization will be covered. The course continues to cover effective customer
service skills. Knowledge and skills gained in this course can provide the opportunity for
students to earn industry certifications.
Computer Support III
TI 0609
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Year Course; Two hour block
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Computer Essentials and Computer Support II
Credit: 4
Location: Dennis Professional-Technical Education Center, 8201 W. Victory Rd. Information Technology
wing. Busing provided.
Content: This senior-level capstone course will prepare students for opportunities in IT careers and
higher education. Technical writing and documentation will be taught as students implement
processes related to project management. Knowledge and skills gained in the course can
provide opportunity for students to earn industry certifications.
Networking Support II
TI 0600
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Year Course; Two Hour Block
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Computer Essentials
Credit: 4
Location: Dennis Professional-Technical Education Center, 8201 W. Victory Rd. Information Technology
wing. Busing provided.
Content: Students continue preparing themselves for professional careers in the Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) profession by learning how a network works. This course will
empower the student with knowledge and skills required to implement defined network
architecture. Students also learn how to manage computer networks over large distances and
how to troubleshoot problems efficiently. Upon completion of these in-depth courses, students
are prepared for the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) certification.
Networking Support III
TI 0607
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Year Course; Two Hour Block
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Computer Essentials and Networking Support II
Credit: 4
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Location: Dennis Professional-Technical Education Center, 8201 W. Victory Rd. Information Technology
wing. Busing provided.
Content: This course covers LAN segmentations using advanced device configurations, LAN switching
theory, virtual LANs, OSI model and advanced LAN design technologies. The course also
extends encapsulation methods, server security and network design and troubleshooting.
Candidates will be able to make basic solution recommendations, analyze network traffic and
be familiar with common protocols and media types. Students learn customer support skills
designed for the new Microsoft Certified Desktop Support Technician (MCDST) credentials.
Upon completion, students are prepared for the Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP)
credential exam at a private testing facility.
Occupational & Career Experience Computer Support & Network Support (Internship)
TI 9855
Open to: 12 One Year Course; Two Hour Block
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Computer Essentials, Computer Support II and Concurrent enrollment
in Computer Support III and instructor approval or Successful completion of Computer
Essentials, Networking Support II and Concurrent enrollment in Networking Support III and
instructor approval
Credit: 4
Location: Dennis Professional-Technical Education Center, 8201 W. Victory Rd. Information Technology
wing.
Content: This class is a community based work experience activity organized and planned to develop
advanced skills necessary to gain and maintain employment. This course may encompass a
broad range of paid/unpaid work experiences related to the career objectives of the student.
The experiences will be supervised and monitored by an instructor. Students must provide
own transportation.
Family and Consumer Sciences*
FCCLA (Family, Career and Community Leaders of America) activities will be integrated into all
Family and Consumer Sciences offerings.
Teen Living 1
FC 0101A
Open to: 9 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 1
Content: Students will focus on being a participating and contributing member of the family. Emphasis
will be on managing money, shopping skills, nutrition, appearance, wellness, family meal
preparation, personal and family goals and interaction between the family and work (school).
Work skills and careers will be explored.
Teen Living 2
FC 0101B
Open to: 9 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 1
Content: Teen Living 2 stresses the importance of friendship and the need for meaningful relationships
throughout one’s life. This class provides an opportunity to learn about the normal
developmental stages of childhood. It teaches the value of nurturing. The student is shown
that each individual thrives in a comfortable living space. Furthermore, students deal with
personal and family clothing decisions, as well as learning basic sewing. Class activities allow
students to put into practice the skills they have learned.
Life and Career Exploration (Exploring the World of Work)
FC 0040
Open to: 9, 10, 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 1
Content: Students critically analyze their personal aptitudes and how it relates to finding a career.
Students study job seeking and keeping skills, stress management, anger management and
human relations. Also included are business ethics, goals and values necessary for a career
pathway. Students create a FCCLA career portfolio.
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Career and Personal Development
FC 0204
Open to: 10, 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 1
Content: Students study the variety of job opportunities available and explore his/her personal interests
and skills to determine appropriate occupational interests. Ways to find success and
satisfaction in work will be emphasized.
Parenting & Child Development
FC 0202
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 10, 11, 12 One Year Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 2
Content: This is a 1 2 semester course that emphasizes parenting choices and parenting decisions.
Content includes pregnancy stages of prenatal development and the physical, intellectual,
social and emotional development of the infant and young child. This course is designed to
strengthen parenting and guidance skills, positive family relationships, safety and health
practices. Students will learn to evaluate child care services and to explore careers related to
young children. Students will have hands-on experience working with young children. Student
must provide own transportation.
Early Childhood Professions I
OF 0530
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12, One Year Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Parenting and Child Development
Credit: 2
Content: This course is designed to prepare students for employment in entry level positions in the field
of early childhood care, education and related services or for further education in early
childhood professions. Learning experiences target employability skills, standards and laws, as
well as management in early childhood professions. Child development and guidance, health
and safety, nutrition and on-the-job training are also emphasized throughout the program.
Students will be placed at a local preschool and will have weekly related assignments to
develop an early childhood portfolio. Student must provide own transportation.
Early Childhood Professions II
FC 0532
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Semester Course; Maximum of 2 Semesters; Two Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Parenting and Child Development, Early Childhood Professions I and
successful placement at approved site.
Credit: 2 - 4
Content: Early Childhood Professions primary focus is hands-on, offsite early child development
experiences in the field of early childhood care, education and related services or for further
education in early childhood professions. Experiences include: Program planning and
management, resource and facility management, supervising recreational and play activities,
preparing and implementing a large variety of learning experiences for children, the application
of individual teaching skills and preparation for a career and/or entrepreneurial opportunities.
Students will be placed at a worksite and will have independent learning activities to complete.
Students must complete a related FCCLA project that positively impacts children and/or helps
prepare the student for a career in this arena. Student must provide own transportation.
Adult Living 1
FC 0301A
Open to: 10, 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 1
Content: Students will acquire knowledge and skills necessary for fulfilling leadership roles in individual
and family life. Students will study balancing work life and family life, interpersonal and family
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relationships, lifestyles, effective communication strategies, decision-making skills, managing
financial resources, nutrition, food management, meal planning and preparation.
Adult Living 2
FC 0301B
Open to: 10, 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 1
Content: Students will focus on lifestyles, lifecycles, family roles, family relationships, parenting issues
and concerns. Students will study management techniques for life, dealing with home, family
and work.
Education Assistant
OF 0580
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Year Course; Two Hour Block
Prerequisite: Parenting and Child Development suggested but not required
Credit: 4
Content: The course is designed to prepare individuals to: Demonstrate professionalism, critically
contemplate teaching as a possible career choice and organize and lead activities for children
that stimulate physical, emotional, intellectual and social growth. Students are required to
participate in FCCLA. This will include attending FCCLA District convention and/or FCCLA
Cluster and/or Star Events. Student must provide own transportation.
Advanced Education Assistant
OF 0585
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 12 One Year Course; Two Hour Block
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Education Assistant
Credit: 4
Content: Elementary Teacher Intern II allows the student to further explore the field of education as a
potential career. Students will participate as “Enrichment Room” tutors in designated
elementary schools. Students will: Demonstrate professionalism, critically contemplate
teaching as a possible career choice, organize and lead activities that stimulate physical,
emotional, intellectual and social growth and participate as a tutor. Student must provide own
transportation.
Nutrition and Foods
FC 0201
Open to: 10, 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 1
Content: Nutrition and Foods is designed to emphasize nutrition, consumer skills and food preparation.
The diet, health link and cultural heritage broadens the students’ understanding of the impact
food has on their lives. Career options in nutrition related fields are also discussed. Content
emphasis includes food safety and sanitation, food preparation techniques, meal management
skills and application of food science principles.
Introduction to Culinary Arts
OF 0540
(College credit may be available)
Open to: 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Nutrition and Foods
Credit: 1
Location: Borah High School students from all high schools can attend
Content: The course provides students with a foundation in professional food preparation with practical
application in career opportunities, reinforced basic skills, food safety and sanitation, use of
commercial equipment, industrial food preparation, business management, service techniques
and employability skills. Student must provide own transportation.
Advanced Culinary Arts*
OF 0545
(College credit may be available)
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Open to: 11, 12 One Year Course; Two Hour
Prerequisite: Successful completion of Introduction to Culinary Arts
Credit: 4
Location: Renaissance Magnet High School’s Professional Technical Center, West Ada School District
Content: This course will provide students with a guided, practical, in-house experience. Students will be
eligible to take the Serve Safe, Certified Culinarian (CC), and the Certified Pastry Culinarian
(CPC) Examinations offered by the American Culinary Federation (ACF). This course will
feature a “Guest Chef” program where demonstrations will be provided in the exposition
classroom. Presentations will be recorded in a DVD format and placed into a library for future
use. Student must provide own transportation.
Fashion/Textiles
FC 0555
Open to: 10, 11, 12 One Semester Course; One Hour
Prerequisite: None
Credit: 1
Content: This course introduces students to the various aspects of fashion, textiles and garment construction
including selection, characteristics, care and repair techniques. This course reflects on fashion history, exposes
students to the science of textiles and requires students to demonstrate knowledge and skill in various applications
of basic design. Students examine the social and psychological aspects of fashion, understanding how acquisition
of clothing has changed over time. While Fashion/Textiles provides the preliminary essential component of an
occupational sequence in fashion design and merchandising, course work is beneficial to students as consumers
today and in the future