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September 19, 2017
These membrane bound organelles contains enzymes for numerous biochemical pathways e.g. The oxidation of compounds including hydrogen peroxide, amino acids, uric acid and fatty acid
Peroxisomes - Another Enzyme Package
There are many ways that peroxisomes are similar to lysosomes. They are small vesicles found around the cell. They have a single membrane that contains digestive enzymes for breaking down toxic materials in the cell. They differ from lysosomes in the type of enzyme they hold. Peroxisomes hold on to enzymes that require oxygen (oxidative enzymes). Lysosomes have enzymes that work in oxygen-poor areas and lower pH.
Peroxisomes absorb nutrients that the cell has acquired. They are very well known for digesting fatty acids. They also play a part in the way organisms digest alcohol (ethanol). Because they do that job, you would expect liver cells to have more peroxisomes than most other cells in a human body. They also play a role in cholesterol synthesis and the digestion of amino acids.
Creating Hydrogen Peroxide
Peroxisomes work in a very specific way. Their enzymes attack complex molecules and break them down into smaller molecules. One of the byproducts of the digestion is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Peroxisomes have developed to a point where they are able to contain that hydrogen peroxide and break it down into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2). The water is harmless to the cell and the oxygen can be used in the next digestive reaction.
Mysteries of the Peroxisome
Peroxisomes have a single membrane that surrounds the digestive enzymes and dangerous byproducts of their work (hydrogen peroxide). The protein enzymes are usually created by lysosomes floating in the cell. They then insert the proteins into the peroxisome bubble. Peroxisomes continue to grow until they split in two. Where does the membrane come from? Scientists are still researching that answer. It may come from the endoplasmic reticulum, but it may be created in a way different from lysosomes.
This cell was first discovered by a Belgian scientist named Christian de Duve. The peroxisome also rids the cell of toxic substance and releases it after it is safe to release back to other cells. Peroxisomes are similar in appearance to Lysosomes but they are different at the same time because lysosomes are formed in the Golgi complex and peroxisomes self replicate, but peroxisomes do not have their own internal DNA molecules.
Some metabolic disorders have been caused by defects in peroxisomes, which include peroxisome biogenisis which means the organelle fails to produce normally, making numerous peroxisomes proteins. The second case is involves defects of single peroxisomal enzymes. one in 20,000 has some type of peroxisomal disorder. The most serious of this disorder is zellwegger syndrome, by the absence or reduced number of peroxisomes in the cells. Zellwegger syndrome has no cure or effective treatment and usually causes death within the first year of life.