IAT Journal Animal Technology and Welfare G Andrew Blake Tribute Award 2015 winning article G Enhanced housing for male rabbits G Final 2014 Congress posters G AS-ET 2014 – part two Official Journal of the Institute of Animal Technology and European Federation of Animal Technologists ISSN 1742-0385 Vol 14 No 1 April 2015
IAT Journal  Animal Technology and Welfare  G Andrew Blake Tribute Award 2015 winning article G Enhanced housing for male ...
CONTENTS Vol 14 No 1 April 2015 Editorial Jas Barley, Chair of the Editorial Board ix Refinements in action! Moving from head cap to harness for cannulating laboratory rats Clare Sims 1 Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits Joanna Cruden, Jonathan Cooper and Oliver Burman 7 Report of the 2014 RSPCA/UFAW rodent welfare group meeting Penny Hawkins (Secretary), Manuel Berdoy, Charlotte Bur, Debbie Bursnall, Joanna Cruden, Wanda McCormack, Amy Miller, Helen Proctor, David Whittaker, Maggy Jennings and Robert Hubrecht 19 PAPER SUMMARY TRANSLATIONS 29 TECH-2-TECH Improving animal welfare, reducing energy cost and increasing flexibility? Preben Leonhardt and Andy Domone 41 AS-ET SPECIAL TRAVEL BURSARY 2014 ESSAYS Advantages and disadvantages of animal technologists performing regulated procedures in research Angelika Kosciolek 44 Advantages and disadvantages of animal technologists performing regulated procedures in research Adam Johnson 47 Advantages and disadvantages of animal technologists performing regulated procedures in research Melanie Dunscombe 49 POSTER PRESENTATIONS Introducing an objective animal health and welfare assessment system into the biological resources unit of Cancer Research UK London Research Institute Danielle Cox, Valerie Borel-Vannier, Claire Harper, Gary Martin, Mercedes Sanchez and Gary Childs 51 The development of hormone loaded diets to promote xenograft growth Alison Ritchie, Pam Collier, Niovi Nicolaou and Anna Grabowska 55 Managing emotions in the workplace for those working with research animals Alison Hopkins 57 A simple solution to prevent the abdominal migration of temperature loggers and to facilitate their smooth retrieval post-study in macaques Leo van Geest, Merei Keehnen, Rianne Klomp, Jacco Bakker, Robin van der Schilt and Jan Langermans 59 Welfare changes in high disease containment research using farm animals Hugh Simmons 62 Choosing a system for managing training records Angela Kerton, Alison Hopkins and Andreas Staubi 64 Experimental and husbandry procedures impact results and animal well-being Laura-Anne Roberson, Anna-Karin Gerdin, Natalia Igosheva, Ozama Ismail, Natasha Karp, Mark Sanderson, Emma Cambridge, Carl Shannon, David Sunter, Ramiro Ramirez-Solis, James Bussell and Jacqueline K. White 67 An evidence based approach to determine the environmental requirements for animal holding rooms Steven Cubitt, Fintan Lyons, Peter Barrington and Gene Murray 69 The Siberian hamster-breeding and husbandry techniques Melissa Bean 71 Instructions to Authors 74 Index to Advertisers xx ATW PROFILE Animal Technology and Welfare aims to be the medium for animal technologists and all those concerned with the care and welfare of animals used for research purposes to communicate ‘best practice. ATW especially aims to promote and develop the 3Rs particularly in respect of Refinement. More importantly, ATW promotes the generally accepted ‘4th R’, Responsibility. The responsibility that all animal technologists have in ensuring dissemination of ‘best practice’ to every institution using animals in research. ATW enjoys a unique position as the scientific publication for the leading organisations (IAT and EFAT) for the welfare of animals in research. Editor: Jas Barley atweditor@iat.org.uk i
CONTENTS  Vol 14 No 1 April 2015 Editorial Jas Barley, Chair of the Editorial Board  ix  Refinements in action  Moving fro...
IAT REPRESENTATIVES OFFICERS President Dr Robin Lovell-Badge FRS Immediate Past President Professor Sir Richard Gardner MA PhD FSB HonFIAT FRS Vice-Presidents David Anderson MRCVS, Stephen Barnett BA MSc CBiol FSB RAnTech, John Bleby TD JP DVetMed DLAS CBiol FSB MRCVS, Brian Cass CBE, Miles Carroll PhD, Gerald Clough BSc PhD EurBiol CBiol MSB SFZSL, Paul Flecknell MA Vet MB PhD DLAS DipLECVA MRCVS, Judy MacArthur-Clark CBE BVMS DLAS CBiol FSB MRCVS, Fiona McEwen BSc BVM&S MSc MRCVS, Tim Morris BVetMed PhD DipACLAM DipECLAM CBiol FSB CertLAS MRCVS, José Orellana BVSc MSc, Clive Page PhD BSc, Gail Thompson RLATG, Robert Weichbrod PhD RLATG, Sheila Whitehead BVMS MSc CertLAS MRCVS, Lord Robert Winston FMedSci DSc FRCOG FRCP FRCS Ed FSB, Wendy Jarrett MA Life Members Roger Francis MSC FIAT RAnTech, Pete Gerson MSc FIAT RAnTech, John Gregory BSc (Hons) FIAT CBiol FSB RAnTech, Patrick Hayes FIAT DipBA RAnTech, Robert Kemp FIAT(Hon) RAnTech, Keith Millican FIAT CBiol MSB, Phil Ruddock MIAT RAnTech, Ted Wills HonFIAT RAnTech, Dorothy Woodnott FIAT Honorary Members Andy Jackson MIAT, Brian Lowe MSc FIAT RAnTech, Peter Russell FIAT RAnTech, David Spillane FIAT, Ray Thatcher FIAT RAnTech, Pete Willan DMS FInstLM MIAT RAnTech Members of Council Ken Applebee OBE, Jas Barley, Kate Burton, Charlie Chambers, Steven Cubitt, Andy Cunningham, Glyn Fisher, Cathy Godfrey, Alan Graham, John Gregory, Linda Horan, Elaine Kirkum, Adele Kitching, Sarah Lane, Norman Mortell, Steve Owen, Wendy Steel, Allan Thornhill, Lynda Westall, Haley Daniels Council Officers Chair: Steve Owen FIAT RAnTech Vice Chair: Wendy Steel BSc (Hons) FIAT RAnTech Honorary Secretary: Linda Horan BSc (Hons) MIAT RAnTech Honorary Treasurer: Glyn Fisher FIAT RAnTech Assistant Treasurer: Charlie Chambers MIAT RAnTech Chair Board of Educational Policy Ken Applebee OBE FIAT CBiol FSB RAnTech Chair Board of Moderators: Cathy Godfrey FIAT RAnTech Chair Registration & Accreditation Board: Charlie Chambers MIAT RAnTech Chair ATW Editorial Board: Jas Barley MSc FIAT RAnTech Bulletin Editor: Sarah Lane MSc FIAT RAnTech Assistant Bulletin Editor: Elaine Kirkum MIAT RAnTech MIScT Branch Liaison Officer: Lynda Westall BSc (Hons) FIAT DMS RAnTech EFAT Representatives: Charlie Chambers MIAT RAnTech, Council Website Coordinator: Allan Thornhill FIAT RAnTech IAT INFORMATION Animal Welfare Officers and LABA Representative: Sarah Lane ATW/Bulletin Editorial Board: Jas Barley (Chair), Patrick Hayes (Editorial Assistant), Elaine Kirkum, Sarah Lane, Lynda Westall Board of Educational Policy: Ken Applebee (Chair), Steven Cubitt (Secretary), Sarah Lane Board of Moderators: Cathy Godfrey (Chair), Glyn Fisher (Secretary), Moderators: Gary Childs, Joanna Cruden, Nicky Gent, Linda Horan, Sue McHugh Communications Group: Norman Mortell (Chair), Kate Burton, Linda Horan, Elaine Kirkum, Allan Thornhill, Lynda Westall Registration and Accreditation Board: Charlie Chambers (Chair), Ken Applebee, Gerald Clough, John Gregory, Cathy Godfrey, Sarah Lane, Ron Raymond, Wendy Steel (Secretary), Steve Owen, Stuart Stevenson, Carol Williams Observers: Charles Gentry (Certificate Holders Forum), Adrian Deeny (LASA), Kathy Ryder (Home Office), Lucy Whitfield (LAVA) Advertisement Managers: PRC Associates Ltd Email: mail@prcassoc.co.uk IAT OFFICERS MAY BE CONTACTED VIA: IAT Administrator: iat101@btconnect.com OR VIA THE IAT WEBSITE AT: www.iat.org.uk OR VIA THE REGISTERED OFFICE: 5 South Parade, Summertown, Oxford OX2 7JL Although every effort is made to ensure that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement appear in the journal, the Institute of Animal Technology wish to expound that the data and opinions appearing in the articles, poster presentations and advertisements in ATW are the responsibility of the contributor and advertiser concerned. Accordingly the IAT, Editor and their agents, accept no liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinion, statement or advertisement being published. Furthermore the opinions expressed in the journal do not necessarily reflect those of the Editor or the Institute of Animal Technology. © 2015 Institute of Animal Technology All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. BRANCH SECRETARIES 2015 Aberdeen: Cambridge: Edinburgh: Hertfordshire & Essex: Huntingdon, Suffolk & Norfolk: Ireland: London: Midlands: North East England: North West: Oxford: Surrey, Hampshire & Sussex: West Middlesex: West of Scotland: ii Ms Donna Wallace Ms Fran Flack Ms Janice Young Ms Helena Box Ms Jo Martin Mr Colin Travis Ms Amanda Dickson Mr Ian Fielding Ms Rachael Handisides and Joanne Bland Ms Nicky Windows Mr Adrian Woodhouse Ms Lesley Hughes Mrs Wendy Steel Ms Linda Horan aberdeenbranch@iat.org.uk cambridgebranch@iat.org.uk edinburghbranch@iat.org.uk hertsessexbranch@iat.org.uk hssbranch@iat.org.uk irelandbranch@iat.org.uk londonbranch@iat.org.uk midlandsbranch@iat.org.uk northeastbranch@iat.org.uk cheshirebranch@iat.org.uk oxfordbranch@iat.org.uk shsbranch@iat.org.uk westmiddxbranch@iat.org.uk westscotlandbranch@iat.org.uk
IAT REPRESENTATIVES  OFFICERS President Dr Robin Lovell-Badge FRS Immediate Past President Professor Sir Richard Gardner M...
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare THE INSTITUTE OF ANIMAL TECHNOLOGY ETHICAL STATEMENT “IN THE CONDUCT OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL DUTIES ANIMAL TECHNOLOGISTS HAVE A MORAL AND LEGAL OBLIGATION, AT ALL TIMES, TO PROMOTE AND SAFEGUARD THE WELFARE OF ANIMALS IN THEIR CARE AND TO RECOGNISE THAT GOOD LABORATORY ANIMAL WELFARE IS AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF GOOD LABORATORY ANIMAL TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE” Editorial Jas Barley Chair of the Editorial Board It seems rather odd to be writing this in January and still be thinking in terms of a New Year as well as a new volume of Animal Technology and Welfare (ATW) when I know that you will not be reading this until mid-March. However as with all aspects of Animal Technology forward planning is essential. Preparation for each issue takes approximately three months so the earlier you provide copy the stronger the possibility of getting your article published in a timely manner. Having said that sometimes the volume of material is such that we cannot publish everything at once and this has been the situation in both the case of the Congress 2014 posters and the AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2014 entries. The fact that some of this material is only just being published is in no way an indication of its value but is simply due to pressure of space. Although the AS-ET entries in this issue did not win the bursary they all offer different views of the advantages and disadvantages of animal technologists performing procedures and there is a strong sense of how much they care about the animals in their charge. Whilst I am on the subject of forward planning, the December issue for 2015 will once again be themed and will take as its subject Animal Behaviour and the natural history of the species used in biomedical science. Therefore, if you have any projects which will be of interest to our readers please start preparing your manuscripts as soon as possible – I would be pleased to hear from you in advance if you would like to discuss your offering. Returning to a more immediate timescale, as well as including the final Congress 2014 poster, this issue includes the winning paper of the 2015 Andrew Blake Tribute Award. The award is given to the Animal Technologist judged to have made the most significant contribution to improving animal welfare over the previous twelve months. This year’s winner is Clare Sims from the University of Bristol with her entry Refinements in action! Moving from head cap to harness for cannulating laboratory rats. The paper describes how technologists and researchers worked together to refine cannulation surgery for the benefit of both the animals and the research. As well as a cash award of £250 and an engraved plaque, the author of the winning entry is invited to Congress as a guest of the Institute of Animal Technology to receive their award. Considerable preparation and observations have also been necessary to produce the paper from Jo Cruden and colleagues which reports on a pilot study to enhance the housing for male rabbits. Well, having put 2014 finally to bed Congress 2015 is very much on the horizon and my thoughts are on the August issue which means I would like to make my annual plea to Congress platform presenters and poster authors to make their contribution to the meeting available to ATW so that those members/readers who cannot get to Congress can benefit from the information you are making public. Remember that the Journal goes to over 2500 members and subscribers in 28 countries worldwide. Many of our subscribers are libraries of large Universities and global companies so the potential audience for your results is enormous. I will not promise that material will definitely appear in August but if you do not write it I am unable to publish it! ix
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  THE INSTITUTE OF ANIMAL TECHNOLOGY  ETHICAL STATEMENT    IN THE CONDUCT OF THEI...
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare Refinements in action! Moving from head cap to harness for cannulating laboratory rats CLARE SIMS Dorothy Hodgkin Building, University of Bristol, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY Corresponding author: svces@bristol.ac.uk Winner of the 2015 Andrew Blake Tribute Award Abstract Rats are jugular vein cannulated to enable blood samples to be taken using an automated blood sampling (ABS) system. These blood samples are used to measure hormone levels present in the blood over time. In the original protocol the jugular vein cannula is exteriorised from the body of the rat via an incision on the top of the head. It is then fed through a protective metal spring and attached to the ABS system. The metal spring is anchored in place by two metal screws implanted into the skull of the rat. The refinement to this protocol is that the cannula exteriorises on the back of the rat and a vascular access harness anchors the protective spring in place. The results show that by refining this protocol, animal welfare and husbandry has been improved and the number of animals used overall in the study has been reduced. It is also shown that the amount of stress response hormone corticosterone in the blood does not increase with the use of the vascular access harness. Key words: Rats, jugular cannulation, access harness, corticosterone, refinement stress response hormone corticosterone (cortisol in man). The HPA axis is the main hormonal system that provides a rapid response to stress. Corticosterone is released from the adrenal gland. For normal metabolism corticosterone is released in hourly pulses over the 24 hour period and exhibits a circadian and ultradian rhythm which is controlled by the hypothalamus. In response to environmental stressors corticosterone levels in the circulating blood will increase in an attempt to counteract the stress on the body. Levels of corticosterone in the circulating blood of the rat can be measured using an automated blood sampling (ABS) system. This system collects small blood samples from the rat via a flexible cannula implanted into the jugular vein over time, while the animal is conscious, giving an accurate account of how corticosterone levels in the blood change during the 24 hour cycle. The ABS system is controlled by a computer and takes up to 172 samples of no more than 40µl at a frequency of one sample every 5-10 minutes over 12 to 24 hours. It does this using a peristaltic pump which replaces the blood volume taken from the animal with an equivalent volume of sterile heparinised saline, so that the blood volume of the animal remains unchanged during the experiment. ABS samples are taken in a soundproof room so there are no outside influences on the circulation corticosterone levels. Introduction The main focus for the research that this specific surgery facilitates is into the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis and rats are used as the HPA axis in the male rat is very similar to that of man. The rat is also the species most widely used in research into the function and control of the HPA axis. The HPA axis activity is characterised by a negative feedback loop within the body that regulates the levels of circulating glucocor ticoid hormones.1 Glucocor ticoids regulate metabolism and resistance to stress2 and include the The surgery to implant the jugular vein cannula is carried out under general isoflurane anaesthesia maintaining asepsis at all times. In the original surgical protocol the cannula is exteriorised from the rat through a scalp incision and is fed through a protective metal spring. The spring is anchored in place via two stainless steel screws that are embedded into the skull of the rat. In order to do this two very shallow holes are drilled into the bone. Dental acrylic is then applied over the screws and incision to form the head cap (Figure 1). 1
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  Refinements in action  Moving from head cap to harness for cannulating laborato...
Refinements in action! Moving from head cap to harness for cannulating laboratory rats Figure 1. WKY rat with head cap Figure 4. Lister Hooded rat wearing the harness The spring and cannula are attached to a swivel mounted above the cage on ‘scaffolding’ to allow full free movement around the cage (Figure 2). This protocol has been refined to include the use of a vascular access harness™ (Instech Laboratories, USA)3 to replace the head capping technique. The harness (Figure 3) fits around the rat’s body and consists of soft adjustable belly bands and a hard plastic dome on the back. The cannula now exits the body further back from the head and is fed through the plastic dome, which adds protection to the incision site, and into the protective spring which fits into a hole in the plastic (Figure 4). One of the adverse effects outlined in the project licence is intra-cranial haemorrhage from tissue damage when drilling and securing the screws into the skull (expected incidence <2%). A haemorrhage will cause increased pressure within the skull resulting in fatal consequences on almost all occasions. Unfortunately, a small number of rats were lost due to this adverse effect. Consequently an alternative method for anchoring the cannula and spring was sought in order to avoid the inherent risk incurred by the head cap method. The method outlined below is the protocol that is followed now after much trial and error and good team work and ideas from both the academic staff and the animal technologists working together. The process to get to this final method and the facilitation of the movement from head cap to harness is the main focus of this paper. The trial and error involved and cooperation of all parties is outlined in the discussion. Method Figure 2. Cage set up after surgery Figure 3. Harness, spring and swivel 2 1. Rats arrive in groups of 8 or 16 from Harlan® at a weight of 220g on a Wednesday afternoon and are group housed in 4s in conventional open rooms with food and water ad lib. Cages consist of Lignocel substrate, paper bedding and a cardboard tube. The animals are rested overnight. 2. Handling of each animal starts daily on the following afternoon, spending between 3-5 minutes with each rat. 3. 5 days later the animals are moved to the sound proof rooms and dressed in their harness and individually housed to allow them to acclimatise to their harness for 24 hours. 4. The surgery to implant the cannula is carried out the following day in the morning and the springs are attached to the swivels (Figure 5). The room set up can be seen in Figure 6. 5. Due to the fact that the animals have permanent indwelling cannula they are unable to have
Refinements in action  Moving from head cap to harness for cannulating laboratory rats  Figure 1. WKY rat with head cap Fi...
Refinements in action! Moving from head cap to harness for cannulating laboratory rats cardboard tubes within the cage for enrichment to avoid entanglement. Therefore they are provided with Aspen wood chew blocks, Nestlets and paper bedding for enrichment (Figure 7). 6. The animals are allowed to recover from surgery for 5 days to allow the circulating Cort levels to return to normal basal value. During this time the cannula are flushed daily with sterile heparinised saline. 7. Following recover y, in the last 24 hours the experiment starts, when the animals are connected to the ABS system. Personnel do not enter the room during this time and the animals are checked by CCTV cameras above each cage viewed on a monitor outside the room. Figure 5. Close up of swivel and cannula All procedures were performed under the prevailing principles and authority of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986. Results Figure 6. Soundproof room set up Figure 8 shows the amount of circulating corticosterone in the blood stream of the rats over a full 24 hour period and clearly compares the base line data for those fitted with a head cap and those fitted with a harness. The chart illustrates the pulsatile nature of the release of corticosterone which will naturally be at higher levels during the night or the ‘dark phase’ as this is when the animals are most active due to their nocturnal behaviour. It can be seen that the circulating cor ticosterone at several time points (notably 8:30am, 11am and 9pm) is higher for the head cap method but overall the two methods have roughly the same pattern on the chart. In addition to no changes in their circulating Cort levels, it has also been observed that no animals have suffered intra-cranial haemorrhage or other surgical complication in the last 12 months since using the harness method. Figure 7. Cage set up Figure 8. Pulsatile baseline circulating corticosterone levels over 24 hours 3
Refinements in action  Moving from head cap to harness for cannulating laboratory rats  cardboard tubes within the cage fo...
Refinements in action! Moving from head cap to harness for cannulating laboratory rats Discussion The results illustrate a very similar 24 hour pattern of circulating corticosterone for both the head cap and the harness method. This base line data shows no exaggerated corticosterone response in the animals wearing the harness. As corticosterone is a stress response hormone it indicates that wearing the harness is not more stressful for the animals than the head cap method. This means the refinement has been successful and good results can be obtained. It also means that data obtained before and after the refinement are still comparable. The movement from one method to the other has not been without its problems however. Initially when the experiments were carried out using the new harness method, the animals were not habitualised to the harness for 24 hours prior to the surgery. The harness was first fitted to the rat when they were under general anaesthesia for the jugular vein cannulation. This meant that the animal was coming round from anaesthesia after a major surgery, housed alone, with a strange harness fitted around their bodies with the cannula and protective spring fixed to the swivel. It was observed that all these things combined were quite stressful for the animals, indicated by increased porphyrin staining around the eyes and mouth upon recovery from surgery, which had not previously been observed in the head cap method. Although the animals had become acclimatised by the last experimental day and this did not affect the results, it was felt that in terms of animal welfare that this was a problem that needed to be addressed. It was therefore decided that the animals would be introduced to the harness for 24 hours prior to surgery to allow them to get used to the feeling of the soft adjustable belly bands of the harness around their body, so eliminating one stressful factor from the recovery period. Acclimatising the rats to the harness for 24 hours did however raise other points. The rats would now have to be singly housed for an extra day. Singly housing social species such as rats is well known to be a stressful experience for them. An attempt was made to see if two rats could be acclimatised for 24 hours to the harness while being housed together. This however just resulted in two harnesses being completely chewed to pieces overnight! So this was not an option. After discussions with the Named Veterinary Surgeon (NVS) it was decided that the potential refinement to the protocol outweighed the stress that might be incurred from singly housing for an extra day. This decision however brought on the next problem. Having to dress the rats in their harness while they were awake proved to be rather difficult. As the harness had initially been put on under general 4 anaesthesia this had not yet been an issue. Due to the fact the rats had not been handled other than when they arrived and when cleaned out they were not used to this higher level of human interaction and resisted the harness. For some individuals it was impossible to dress them without the use of general isoflurane anaesthesia. It was discussed and decided that this process in itself was quite stressful and also the project licence in question only allows anaesthesia for a maximum of three times per animal for this protocol. Using one for this when it may be needed after the surgery for repair of stitches etc., was thought to be too risky. So a handling regime was devised for the animals to allow them to get used to humans and to facilitate the dressing with the harness and so reduce stress. The harnesses themselves have taken a bit of getting used to; including getting the tightness of the bands right around the rat so they are not restricting but neither so loose that the rat slips out. They are easily adjustable and soft but it was found that the free ends of the belly bands were irritating the rat’s ears causing them to try and ‘shake’ it off. This increased shaking was sometimes opening the cage clasps and for a while it was thought that we had been sent rather intelligent rats! Extra cage clips have been added and the free ends of the harness are now always tucked in. Also the protective spring that was sent with the harness from the company was too stiff and did not provide full flexibility and restricted movement around the cage. It was decided to go back to using the old springs which were custom made for purpose. With all of these refinements finally in place it was evident that the protocol had been vastly improved and the move from the head cap to harness facilitated well. The handling has greatly reduced stress as the animals now trust their handlers and they can be easily dressed in the harness and are much easier to work with throughout the whole process. There is now little to no porphyrin staining after the surgery and any effect from singly housing the animals has been reduced because they now interact with the staff instead of an animal companion and seem bright and happy. This new technique has also refined the surgery time as the animals are under general anaesthesia for a much shorter period which is better for their recovery. This is because the head cap part of the surgery is the part which took the most time. The results also show there have been no surgical complications since using the harness method which has reduced the number of animals used for these experimental procedures. In addition to implantation of the jugular cannula for blood sample collection, this new technique has also been found to be an excellent refinement for other types of cannulation, such as sub-cutaneous cannulation for drug administration.
Refinements in action  Moving from head cap to harness for cannulating laboratory rats  Discussion The results illustrate ...
Refinements in action! Moving from head cap to harness for cannulating laboratory rats Conclusion The whole process of facilitating this change has shown many refinements and improved animal husbandry. Simplifying the surgical procedure has eliminated the surgical complications associated with the head cap method and has improved recovery for the animals. All of which are positives and are prime examples of the animal care staff and the academic staff working closely together and listening to each other’s ideas which is of great importance for good scientific practice and significant results from animal experiments. It also shows that a major change to facilitate a refinement to an existing protocol can be introduced in the middle of long term work with little consequence if everyone works together. There is often reluctance to change things in the middle of a study even if it is a refinement or improvement to animal welfare for fear of altering results, but it can be done. Throughout this process there has been involvement and full support from the Named Veterinary Surgeon (NVS), Named Animal Care and Welfare Officer (NACWO) and the Home Office Inspector here at the University of Bristol and efforts are being made to encourage other groups to star t using this method and also educating individuals on the benefits of handling animals for experimentation. Acknowledgements Francesca Spiga, John Roe, Gareth Gough and Peter Gardiner References 1 2 3 Spiga, F., Waite, E.J., Liu, Y., Kershaw, Y.M., Aguilera G. and Lightman, S.L. (2011). ACth-Dependant Ultradian Rhythm of Cor ticosterone Secretion. Endocrinology 152(4), pp. 1448-1457. Tortora, G.J. and Derrickson, B. (2011). Principles of Anatomy & Physiology, Maintenance and Continuity of the Human Body. 13th ed. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Instech Laboratories (2014) Tethers [Online]. Available at: http://www.instechlabs.com/Infusion/tethers/ 5
Refinements in action  Moving from head cap to harness for cannulating laboratory rats  Conclusion The whole process of fa...
6
6
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits; a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens *JOANNA CRUDEN1, JONATHAN COOPER2 and OLIVER BURMAN2 1 2 GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP Animal Behaviour, Cognition and Welfare Research Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Joseph Banks Laboratories, Lincoln LN7 6TS *Corresponding author: joanna.l.cruden@gsk.com Abstract At the current facility we usually individually house male rabbits in cages with twice weekly access to floor pens measuring 2.5m2. After a review of rabbit housing the decision was made to transfer a population of male rabbits to floor pens on a permanent basis. This offered an opportunity to view behavioural changes in rabbits when they are moved from cages to floor pens. Before transfer to floor pens, a cohort of 4 individually housed male rabbits were videoed for one 24 hour period in their home cages; this was repeated after they had been housed in floor pens for two weeks. Video records were analysed using fixed inter val instantaneous focal sampling, with a record of activity, posture and position in the cage or floor pen made every 15 minutes. Rabbits spent significantly less time in the central area of the cage compared to central area of the floor pen (p = 0.012), ate less (p = 0.002) and there was a significant reduction in grooming (p = 0.002) and sitting (p=0.019) in the floor pens. Rabbits also appeared to spend less time at the back of the floor area and less time engaged in interaction with enrichment in the floor pen, though there appeared to be an increase in exploratory behaviour, rearing and time spent fully stretched out. However none of these differences were statistically significant at the sample sizes used in this study (0.1>p>0.05). This pilot study suggests there are behavioural benefits to floor housing male rabbits due to increased space and behavioural oppor tunities, though fur ther studies would be beneficial to assess if these findings are representative of the general laboratory rabbit population. Key words: laboratory rabbits, floor pens, behaviour, welfare Introduction Rabbits are routinely housed in cages that do not offer the opportunity to perform a wide range of natural behaviours;1 for example they may be restricted in opportunities to dig, rear or lie fully stretched. In biomedical science it is generally accepted that robust scientific results rely on animals which are healthy and do not display signs of physiological or psychological abnormalities. A fundamental part of ensuring the wellbeing of captive animals is meeting their behavioural requirements through increasing the variety and range of species-appropriate opportunities.2 Species-appropriate accommodation and consistency throughout studies, as well as, husbandry procedures such as gentle handling, also help to reduce variables in experimental design.3 The rabbit is a well-established animal research model. In 2010 the total number of rabbits used in the EU was 335,910, representing 2.8% of all laboratory animals.4 The most common form of housing for laboratory rabbits is individual caging; an approach that has remained largely unchanged over 30 years. At the time of the study in 2013, the size of cages for singly housed adult rabbits in the UK Code of Practice was 4000 cm2 floor area and 45 cm height.5 Housing rabbits in large floor pens may encourage a more natural behavioural repertoire but space alone is unlikely to address all of a captive animals’ behavioural needs. A number of studies have suggested that when provided with appropriate environments, captive rabbits display few behavioural differences to their wild counterparts6,7,8 which could suggest that they would value access to a larger space with appropriate furnishings. For example, rabbits have been observed to forage when given the opportunity,8 including sifting or scratching at foraging substrates such as hay thrown on the floor of the pen or cage. Currently the majority of laborator y rabbits are housed in cages where opportunity to forage is limited as pelleted food tends to be offered in hopper, whilst hay or other forages (if 7
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits  a pilot study investigating poten...
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits; a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens provided) are placed in metal hay racks. Furthermore, existing laboratory housing with limited environmental resources offer the rabbit limited control over their micro-environment. Research with other species is often aimed at improving their wellbeing through enhancing the control that they have over their microenvironment, for example, by offering them motivationally significant, or other wise valuable resources such as nesting materials and nest boxes10,11,12 and/or more complex environments. Previous studies investigating the behaviour of rabbits housed in cages against those in floor pens involved two independent sets of rabbits12,13 with comparisons between the two populations, rather than using a ‘within-rabbit’ design, whereby the same rabbit is observed in both a cage and a floor pen. This pilot study used a within-rabbit design to control for individual variation in behaviour as well as potentially reduce the number of animals required for valid comparison. All animal studies were ethically reviewed and carried out in accordance with Lincoln University Ethical Review Procedure and the GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Policy on the Care, Welfare and Treatment of Animals, which determined the work did not constitute a procedure under Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 (ASPA). the minimum allowed by law in UK (4000cm2 floor area and minimum height 45cm) and contained more cage furniture than many laboratory rabbits may experience. The floor pens were 308cm x 160cm giving a floor area of 42980cm2 or about 7x the floor area of the cages, with side walls 1m tall and no roof. Environmental resources in the floor pen included a ramp, the “fun” tunnel, chew block, sawdust on the epoxy resin flooring and an upside-down guinea pig cage. The home cages were adjacent cages within a single room, the floor pens were adjacent to each other in a separate room to the cages. Rooms were maintained at 20˚C during study period on a 12L: 12D light cycle. Time lapse low light CCTV cameras and web video CCTV video manager software equipment were supplied by Tracksys Ltd. The night vision camera had an infra-red light source, this allowed recording of rabbits’ behaviour during night hours without undue disturbance. The PC screen was only switched on when the observer was in the room (normally at 10am on test days for no more than 10 minutes), at all other times the screen was turned off. There was no discernible noise to humans, although this was not tested for rabbits; there was no perceptible change in rabbit behaviour when the recording equipment was switched off and on. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects on behaviour of individually housed male Chinchilla rabbits, when housed in cages and when they were moved to a floor pen. Materials and methods Four adult male Chinchilla rabbits from Charles River Laboratories in Germany were assigned to the study and initially housed individually in 4 large rabbit cages (Arrowmight), with clear Perspex panels and door, floor space: 70cm x 85cm (= floor area of 5950 cm2 floor area) and 50 cm height, a shelf, cardboard “fun” tunnel and chew block. The cages were therefore larger than Figure 1. Rabbit lying on an upside-down guinea pig cage 8 Figure 2. Rabbit cage
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits  a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens  provided  are ...
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits; a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens The rabbit cages were cleaned out once a week and the tray liners were replaced daily or as required. Rabbits received water via bottles and were fed a high fibre maintenance diet 5325 from PMI with a handful of irradiated hay each day. Rabbits had been acclimatised to the cages for 14 days prior to being videoed and videoed for a 24 hour period on the 15th day in the home cages. floor pen made every 15 minutes over a 24 hour period (see working ethogram below). The rabbits were then moved to the individual floor pens by technologists who were not aware of which rabbits were being filmed to negate any pen location selection bias being made for the 4 selected rabbits. Videoing did not commence until the rabbits had been acclimatised to the pens for 14 days. The observer was blind to rabbits’ identities when they were moved to the floor pens to avoid familiarity bias. Figure 5. Camera overlooking floor pen Figure 3. Rabbit floor pen Rabbits were a time lapse gave a high requirements for analysis. videoed continuously for 24 hours using schedule of 3 frames per second which quality image whilst reducing memory thus enabling more footage to be filmed Figure 6. View into floor pen Figure 4. Floor pen room video camera set up The video was analysed by a trained observer using fixed interval instantaneous focal sampling, with a record of activity, posture and position in the cage or Figure 7. Rabbit in cage 9
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits  a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens  The rabbit cag...
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits; a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens Posture of the rabbit Ambulate – Movement around the cage16 or pen but normal locomotor activity is slow, usually observed while rabbits are foraging or exploring. Body Resting – Rabbit is in sternal recumbent position with legs tucked under the body. Eyes open but rabbit is relatively inactive,16 or the back is relaxed at the shoulders with a slightly hunch appearance and ears may or may not be erect, or the rabbit has a squat appearance and looks to be ‘tucked up’ with its back arched.14 Figure 8. Rabbit in floor pen Working ethogram The working ethogram or list of behavioural categories was developed from published ethograms14,15,16 with alterations derived from pilot observations of rabbits in similar cages and floor pens. This enabled rabbit activities to be defined for recording using the following working ethogram of behaviours. For the purpose of instantaneous sampling: an activity was defined as what an animal was doing whilst it was mobile or stationar y; posture was defined as the exact deportment of the body; and position was defined as the location of the rabbit in the cage or pen. Activity Alert – Rabbit’s ears are forward during an activity such as ambulate, hop and sit. Doze – Lying or sitting down with eyes partially open. The rabbit appears to have an awareness of the environment, which includes small movements in response to the activity and noise and attending technologists. One or both ears of the rabbit is erect and may rotate in response to auditory stimulation, or both ears will be dorsal with eyes half open.16 Eat – Feeding from the hopper and chewing rabbit pellets or eating hay.1,16,14 Body Relaxed – Rabbit in a left or right lateral recumbent position with forelimbs and hind limbs partly extended beyond the body and the backbone in a convex position, or the forelimbs and hind limbs are extended fully extended. Hop – Rabbit has an arch of the back as it moves forward, a faster pace than ambulate. Lay fully recumbent – The rabbit is lying in a fully recumbent position with the trunk of the body and all limbs fully stretched out, usually in a straight line across the floor. Sit (alert) – The forelimbs are not folded beneath the body but are straight so the thorax and abdomen are clear of the floor and visible, with ears erect. All paws are still on the floor distinguishing this behaviour from rear.16 Stand (alert) – Standing with ears upright or forward, space between abdomen and floor, rabbit is prepared for flight. Rear – Sitting on haunches or hind feet, both forepaws clear of the floor, rabbit is partially or fully stretched and often uses this stance to sniff the roof of the cage, ears back or partially back.7 Rabbits may rest forepaws on the sides of the cage or be freestanding. Both front feet sometimes leave the floor during washing or grooming, but this was not recorded as rearing.16,7 Position Exploratory – Rabbit ambulates across the area, sniffing, nibbling and nosing through sawdust/hay, sniffs at sides of the cage or pen and is alert when mobile at a slow pace. Groom – The teeth of the rabbit are used on the coat. Fur is passed through the mouth, (unlike washing where only the tongue is used). The rabbit appears to nibble at its coat, using quick movements of the jaw.16 Tunnel interaction – Rabbit enters the tunnel and either strips the inner part of the tunnel or hops through. 10 Cage or pen location of rabbit (see Figure 9). Back of the cage or pen (1) – rabbit is at the back of the cage/pen either under the shelf or in the general cage/pen area. Middle of cage or pen (2) – rabbit is in the mid area of the cage/pen. Front of cage or pen (3) – rabbit is in the front of the cage, or pen, either under the shelf or at the front of the cage outside of the shelf.
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits  a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens  Posture of the...
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits; a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens Under the shelf or hide (4) – rabbit is under the cage shelf or fully within the hide of the pen, hidden from view. On top of the shelf or hide (5) – rabbit is on top of the shelf or hide. Hidden from view – not in vision, rabbit has entered the hide found in the exercise pen but cannot be seen or heard (only available in the pen). 1 Shelf 5 4 Figure 10). There was a significant decrease in the number of times rabbits were observed eating in the floor pen (t = 9.67, p = 0.002). The rabbits showed a tendency to carry out exploratory behaviour more often in the floor pens than cages though this was not significant (t= –2.90, p = 0.062) including moving around the available floor space, sniffing part of the environment, or moving sawdust. There was a significant reduction in self-grooming after the rabbits were moved to the floor pens (t= 9.92, p = 0.002). The pens and cages had enrichment items included however, the only interaction with an enrichment item recorded during the observation period was with the cardboard tunnel and whilst this interaction diminished when the rabbits were moved to floor pens, it was a not significant (t= 2.63, p = 0.077). 2 3 Front of cage Figure 9. The rabbit in the diagram would be counted as ‘middle of the cage’ Statistical analysis The data was prepared for analysis using Microsoft Excel to count the number of time points each rabbit was observed engaged in a behavioural category listed in the working ethogram. Because each rabbit was observed in both environments, a paired two tailed Ttest (Statistica) was used to investigate differences in behaviour between cage and floor pen. As this was a pilot study, the differences were considered significant at statistical probability p < 0.05, though it is important to note firstly that there was potential for type 1 errors due to multiple comparisons and secondly type 2 errors due to the small sample size. As a consequence of the small sample size, there was only a significant difference for the whole group if there was large difference in behaviour across all rabbits. If one of the rabbits showed no difference in behaviour between the floor pen and cage or these differences were small for some rabbits, then the difference only approached significance. For these reasons behaviours where statistical probability p was below 0.1 but above 0.05 are also presented in results. Results During the observation period there was no significant difference in time spent alert (Paired t-test t= –2.14, p = 0.121) or dozing (t = 0.61, p = 0.583) when rabbits were moved from cages to the floor pens (Table 1, Table 1. Total observation counts of the activity of each rabbit in the cage or floor pen Figure 10. Table showing mean ± SE of each activity for all rabbits when housed in cage or floor pen There was no significant difference between the number of times rabbits were obser ved to be 11
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits  a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens  Under the shel...
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits; a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens ambulating (t= –2.06, p = 0.130) (Table 2, Figure 11). There was no difference between rabbits in the resting position (t= 0.46, p= 0.675), the relaxed position (t= 1.70, p= 0.185), hopping (t= –1.05, p = 0.369) when they were moved to floor pens. The data suggested an increase in the number of occasions rabbits lay fully extended in the floor pens, this was statistically not n-significant (t= –2.50, p = 0.087). There was a significant reduction in sitting after the rabbits were moved to the floor pens (t= 4.56, p = 0.019). When the rabbit was recorded as in the ‘sit’ position it was always alert. When the rabbit was recorded in a ‘stand’ position it was always alert and about to move, there was no statistical difference time spent standing when the rabbits were moved to the floor pen (t= 0.77, p = 0.495). The rabbits were not often observed to rear, however there was an increase in how many times rearing was observed when they were moved from the cage to the floor pen which approached significance (t= –3.00, p = 0.057). e lat bu am p ho l… t… ful no lie re stu po r rea d ng axe resti rel sit nd sta Figure 11. Table showing mean ± SE of each posture for all rabbits when housed in cage or floor pen To simplify the comparisons of position, the ramp and Guinea pig cage were counted as a ‘shelf’ in the floor pen (Table 3, Figure 12). There appeared to be a decrease in the number of times rabbits were seen at the back of the floor area when they were moved from cages to floor pens but this was not significant (t= 2.66, p= 0.076). There was a significant increase in the number of times rabbits were observed to be in the middle of the floor area when they were moved to the floor pen (t = –5.46, p = 0.012). There was no significant difference shown in time at front of the cage (t = 2.20, p=0.115) when the rabbits were in the cages compared to when they were moved to the floor pen. Table 3. Total observation counts of the position of individual rabbits when housed in either cage or floor pen There were no significant differences shown between when the rabbits were in the cages and when they were moved to the floor pens for either the number of counts observed on the shelf (t= 0.16, p = 0.882) or under the shelf (t = –0.22, p = 0.843). Table 2. Total observation counts of the posture of each rabbit in the cage or floor pen 12 Rabbits were awake more often during the dark period
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits  a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens  ambulating  t ...
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits; a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens (Figure 16) and spent more time dozing in the light period (Figure 17) regardless of whether they were in a cage or floor pen. Figure 12. Table showing mean ± SE of each position for all rabbits when housed in cage or floor pen Figure 15. Rabbit lying fully recumbent Figure 13. Rabbit resting in the floor pen Figure 14. Rabbit relaxing in the floor pen Figure 16. Number of counts for awake 13
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits  a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens   Figure 16  an...
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits; a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens rabbits housed in cages when they were offered a fixed amount of food.8 Our rabbits were fed ad lib chow and offered hay during the afternoons. This may explain the difference in the eating pattern which could be further explored as eating less while exercising more may help with obesity, increase bone density and muscle tone. Water intake was not recorded in this study as the bottles in the floor pens were in a blind spot for the camera and rabbits pull at the bottles which may skew the results if bottles were weighed. Exploratory behaviour Figure 17. Number of counts for doze, regardless of pen or cage housing Studies have shown that rabbits have a positive reaction to more stimuli in the environment.18,19 In the pilot study, there was a non-significant increase in explorator y behaviours including environmental interactions when the rabbits were moved to a floor pen. This was maybe due to either greater floor space or increase in furniture or the combination of these two factors. A number of environmental interactions were rare or never scanned in the home cage. For example a new behaviour that they carried out in the floor pen was pushing their nose through the sawdust in a similar way to wild rabbits nosing through natural substrates such as vegetation. Discussion Despite the relatively small sample size, changes in rabbit behaviour between the cage and floor pen were sufficiently large to find significant differences in location, posture and activity, including less time eating, grooming and sitting in the floor pen compared to the home cage. Furthermore a number of behaviours of welfare importance17 were potentially more common in the floor pen than the cage, including exploratory behaviour, lying fully stretched and rearing. Whilst these differences were not significant at the sample size used in this pilot study, they would also be of interest if replicated in larger samples. For these reasons and to provide insight into the value of these activities, this discussion will talk about the impact on each behaviour in turn. Activity Feeding behaviour When moved to the floor pens the rabbits spent less time eating. Increased food consumption (as well as other activities such as increased grooming) has been related to lack of behavioural opportunities or low environmental stimulation in captive animals. Furthermore elevated feed intake, coupled with lower exercise can lead to obesity and poor body condition particularly in rabbits. In this study, there was no evidence of obesity and lower feed intake has not been noted in other studies of floor pen use. For example no dif ferences were found in feeding behaviour between rabbits housed in floor pens vs. 14 Figure 18. Picture sequence 1-4 rabbit pushing the tunnel around a floor pen In contrast, there were a few occasions that rabbits in the cage used escape behaviours such as scratching at the bars or cage corners and these behaviours were not observed in the floor pens. Indeed no potentially abnormal behaviours were observed in this study, with the exception of one circling incident (i.e. one record) in the cage. The absence of these activities in the floor pen is another potential benefit of floor housing. The relatively low frequency of escape attempts or redirected activities in the cage is also noteworthy, which may be a consequence of its relatively large size (almost 6000 cm2 floor area), height (50 cm) and provision of enrichment resources.
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits  a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens  rabbits housed...
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits; a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens Grooming There was a significant reduction in self-grooming that correlates with previous studies of floor housing8 which found that whether rabbits were housed in cages or in pens, more enrichment in their environment appeared to reduce abnormal or excessive grooming. Whilst the level of grooming observed in our rabbits was not high and there was no evidence of injury due to excessive grooming, over-grooming can be a behavioural problem for captive animals, leading to fur loss and skin lesions in extreme cases. Although some cases of overgrooming have been associated with specific illnesses, in the general population, low environmental complexity, leading to more free time has been implicated in the development of over-grooming. The increased space as well as providing opportunity for more behavioural expression, can indirectly improve health and welfare by reducing incidence of undesirable or harmful activities.16,17 Posture Ambulating and hopping Rabbits were recorded as ambulating when they moved slowing through the cage or floor pen, this included when they nosed through hay and moved forward as they ate. There was no difference in the number of times rabbits were seen ambulating or hopping. There was however, a difference in the form of hopping behaviour between the floor pen and the cage noted during observation. In the cage the rabbit could complete one large hop in any direction, whereas in the floor pens, it could complete up to six large hops or many small hops across the floor area. The rabbits were rarely seen only performing having one hop in the floor pens which suggests that they fully utilise the space that they are offered. It is interesting that pet rabbit legislation such as that adopted by the Welsh Assembly24 requires hutches to allow room for at least 3 hops. full height in the floor pens without their ears touching the top. Related work in pet rabbits17 has found that rabbits with 45 cm roof height reared less than those with 75 cm roof height, but that removing the roof altogether further increased rearing even in smaller rabbits able to fully rear in 75 cm high enclosures. This suggests that low cage height may place both physical and psychological restrictions on the rabbit’s ability and willingness to rear. Position of rabbit in the cage Each floor pen had a ramp (Figure 19) under which rabbits were observed to rest underneath during the day and spend time on top at night. The reason for this may need further investigation, although it may be as it is the highest point in the pen, the rabbits could reach to look out for the other rabbits. Studies carried out by Seaman et al (2008)1 showed that rabbits worked hard to gain access to a shelf but did not always use it.1 This finding concurs with the current study where the rabbits in the floor pen did not spend time on top of the higher areas offered. They were usually observed under the ramp with their noses pointing towards the lowest angle. This may help them feel more secure while allowing them to have a good look-out position when staff entered and exited the room. Similarly in the cages the rabbits were usually observed under the shelf with their noses at the front which would give them maximum observation of activity in the holding room. The cage and pens were divided into thirds for the observation period. While every effort was made to ensure the sections were an equal size there was a possibility that the “middle of the pen” incorporated a higher proportion of the floor area than “middle of the cage” and thus increased the amount of times rabbits were clearly observed in this area. However the difference between the cage and the pen was highly significant for the middle of the pen. Lay fully recumbent Rabbits were observed to be fully recumbent with hind legs fully extended in the cages on a number of occasions; this behaviour was frequently observed in the floor pens but rare in the home cages. The increase in the number of times they were observed to be fully recumbent in the floor pen may be an indication that when given more space rabbits will have a preference to lay fully recumbent.17 Further research is needed to investigate this resting or stretching behaviour as it may be an indication that current cage sizes are too small. Rear The rabbits were noted to rear significantly more in the floor pens than the cages, this may be an indication the rabbits were more aware of each other in the floor pens and may be because they had the ability to rear to their Figure 19. Top left – ramp, top right – rabbit curled round feed bowl 15
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits  a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens  Grooming There...
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits; a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens When housed in floor pens the rabbits were offered food in a large round food bowl in the centre of the pen and were often observed to have their body wrapped around the food bowl (Figure 19) suggesting that, if housing more than one rabbit together, providing a food bowl per rabbit may reduce fighting and/or any potential for rabbits to avoid feeding due to the close proximity of another individual at the food bowl. It would be interesting to determine whether they would continue to spend time resting by the food hopper if it was in a different position within the pen. The position of the food resource may have been the reason the rabbits spent significantly more time in the middle of the floor pen, although resting close to the food hopper was not observed often in the cage. 22 23 24 25 Light and dark phase During the light phase the rabbits appeared to be generally inactive (Figure 16) except when they were disturbed by technical staff, which was then followed by a period of activity by the rabbits, whether in the cages or floor pens. When the dark phase began, rabbits had periods of inactivity followed by long periods of activity (Figure 17). This diurnal pattern of behaviour needs further investigation over a longer period of time and with more animals. For example observation during day time only may overestimate resting time and underestimate activity periods and consequently the effects of providing additional space and environmental enrichment. 26 27 28 29 10 Conclusion In conclusion, moving to floor pens had a number of positive benefits for rabbit behaviour and welfare, increasing time in key activities such as exploration, rearing and stretching, whilst reducing grooming and eating. Although there were few signs of frustration in the large, enriched cage, the additional space in the floor pen increased behavioural opportunities. In the current study the significant reduction in grooming and feeding suggested the rabbits were otherwise occupied with different activities when moved to a floor pen. Having more useable space encouraged the rabbits to spend more time in the open area of the pen and increased the interactions with their environment. 11 12 13 14 15 Acknowledgements My manager at GSK Dr Greg Whelan for his help and advice and Dr Mark Lennon for his help with the data analysis. For their diligent study support, all of the team at Laboratory Animal Science, Stevenage especially Terry Ballard, Mervin Saville and Will Traylen. 16 17 18 References 21 16 Seaman, S.C., Waran, N.K., Mason, G. and D’Eath, R.B. (2008). Animal economics: assessing the motivation of female laboratory rabbits to reach a platform, social contact and food. Animal Behaviour, 75 (1) 31-42. Mellen, J. and Sevenich MacPhee, M. (2001). Philosophy of environmental enrichment: Past, present, and future. Zoo Biology, 20 (3) 211-226. Verwer, C.M., van der Ark, A. van Amerogen, G., van den Bos, R. and Hendriksen, C.F.M. (2009). Reducing variation in a rabbit vaccine safety study with particular emphasis on housing conditions and handling. Laboratory Animals, 43 (1) 155-164. European Regulations. (2010). Sixth Report on the Statistics on the Number of Animals used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes in the Member States of the European Union Sec 1107. European Commission Sixth. 8-12-2010. 6-6-2013. Home Office Code of Practice for Animals housed in Scientific Procedure Establishments Hawkins, P. Hubrecht, R. Buckwell, A. Cubitt, S. Howard, B. Jackson, A. and Poirier, G.M. (1993). Refining rabbit care – a resource for those working with rabbits in research, RSPCA UFAW. Mykytowycz, R. and Hesterman, E.R. (1972). An Experimental Study of Aggression in Captive European Rabbits, Orctolagus cunniculus (L.). Behaviour, 52 (1/2) 104-123. Selzer, D. and Hoy, S. (2003). Comparative investigations on behaviour of wild and domestic rabbits in the nestbox. World Rabbit Science, 11 (1) 13-21. Krohn, T.C., Ritskes-Hoitinga, J. and Vendsen, P. (1999). The effects of feeding and housing on the behaviour of the laboratory rabbit. Laboratory Animals, 33 (2) 101107. Manser, C.E., Broom, D.M., Overend, P. and Morris, T.H. (1998). Operant studies to determine the strength of preference in laboratory rats for nest-boxes and nesting materials. Laboratory Animals, 32 36-41. Blom, H.J.M., Van Tintelen, G., Van Vorstenbosch, C.J.A.H.V., Baumans, V. and Beynen, A.C. (1996). Preferences of mice and rats for types of bedding material. Laboratory Animals, 30 234-244. Van Loo, P.L.P. and Baumans, V. (2004). The importance of learning young: the use of nesting material in laboratory rats. Laboratory Animals. 38 17-24 Podberscek, A.L. Blackshaw, J.K and Beattie, A.W. (1991). The behaviour of group penned and individually cages laborator y rabbits. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 28 353-363 Ferrante, V., Verga, M., Canali, E. and Mattiello, S. (1992). Rabbits kept in cages and in floor pens: reactions in the open-field test. J. Appl. Rabbit Res., 15 700-707. Gunn, D. and Morton, D.B. (1995). Inventory of the behaviour of New Zealand White rabbits in laboratory cages. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 45 277-292. Held, S.D.E., Turner, R.J. and Wooton, R.J. (1995). Choices of laboratory rabbits for individual or grouphousing. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 46 81-91 Dixon, L.M., Hardiman, J.R. and Cooper, J.J. (2010). Assessing the spatial needs of pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Journal of Veterinary Behaviour 5 303-308. Stauffacher, M. (1994). Improved husbandry systems – an ethological concept. In: Welfare and Science, Proceedings of the Fifth FELASA Symposium. Bunyan, J. (ed), 68-73. Royal Society of Medicine Press, London, UK.
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits  a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens  When housed in...
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits; a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens 19 20 21 22 23 24 Whary, M., Peper, R., Borkowski, G., Lawrence, W. and Ferguson, F. (1993). The effects of group housing on the research use of the laboratory rabbit. Laboratory Animals, 27 (4) 330-341. Lidfors, L. (1997). Behavioural effects of environmental enrichment for individually caged rabbits. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 52 157-169. Hansen, L.T. and Berthelsen, H. (2000). The effect of environmental enrichment on the behaviour of caged rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 68, (2) 163-178. Lockley, R.M. (1965). The private life of the rabbit. Book Club Associate, 86-87. Hansen, L.T. and Berthelsen, H. (2000). The effect of environmental enrichment on the behaviour of caged rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 68, (2) 163-178. Welsh Assembly (2006). Code of practice for the welfare of rabbits following the code ISBN 978 0 7504 5356 1 © Crown copyright September 2009 17
Enhanced housing for male laboratory rabbits  a pilot study investigating potential benefits of floor pens  19  20  21  22...
18
18
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare Report of the 2014 RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting *PENNY HAWKINS (SECRETARY)1, MANUEL BERDOY2, CHARLOTTE BUR3, DEBBIE BURSNALL4, JOANNA CRUDEN5, WANDA MCCORMICK6, AMY MILLER7, HELEN PROCTOR8, DAVID WHITTAKER,2 MAGGY JENNINGS1 and ROBERT HUBRECHT9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Research Animals Department, Science Group, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex RH13 9RS Department of Veterinary Services, c/o University Laboratory of Physiology, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PT Centre for Animal Welfare, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA Division of Biomedical Services, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester, Leicestershire LE1 7HB GSK Research and Development, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP Moulton College, West Street, Moulton, Northampton, Northamptonshire NN3 7RR School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU World Animal Protection, 222 Grays Inn Road, London WC1X 8HB UFAW, The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire AL4 8AN *Corresponding author: penny.hawkins@rspca.org.uk Introduction The RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group holds a oneday meeting every autumn so that its members can discuss current welfare research, exchange views on rodent welfare issues and share experiences of the implementation of the 3Rs of replacement, reduction and refinement with respect to rodent use. A key aim of the Group is to encourage people to think about the whole lifetime experience of laborator y rodents, ensuring that every potential negative impact on their wellbeing is reviewed and minimised. Our 21st annual meeting was held on 23rd October 2014, attracting 90 delegates from a wide range of universities and pharmaceutical companies throughout the UK. Presentation topics included animal sentience, reducing suffering during procedures, assessing rodent health and welfare and how to ensure the right decisions are made when providing ‘environmental enrichments’ such as running wheels. The day ended with a discussion on the ‘Culture of Care’ and how this can be recognised, promoted and maintained within institutions. This report summarises the meeting and ends with a list of action points for readers to raise at their own establishments. Animal sentience: what do we know and why does it matter? Helen Proctor, World Animal Protection Animal sentience can be defined as ‘the ability to feel both positive and negative emotions and to be aware of a variety of states and sensations.1’ Research into animal sentience is constantly expanding so that we can now infer more than ever about the subjective minds of animals.2 In recent years research has shown that some animals grieve,3 that decapod crustaceans can feel pain4 and that mice and rats can be empathetic.5,6 This fascinating area of science provides us with insights into the emotional lives of animals, with important implications for how we utilise and interact with them.1 However, because animal sentience is concerned with the inner mind of our fellow animals, studying sentience may be viewed as controversial due to its apparently subjective nature.1,7 Critics argue that it is impossible to ‘measure’ animal emotions objectively or even attribute any meaningful experience to them.8 But in a recent systematic review of the scientific literature we found that much research using animals does assess, and use, the subjective states of animals 19
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  Report of the 2014 RSPCA UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting  PENNY HAWKINS  SECR...
Report of the 2014 RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting objectively and scientifically.2 Furthermore, it uses these states to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of drugs for human therapy. Our systematic review included over 2,500 papers published between 1990 and 2012, selected on the basis of their inclusion of keywords specific to animals and animal sentience.2 We found that knowledge of animal sentience comes largely from laborator y research, given that over 79 % of relevant studies were conducted in the laboratory. The majority of studies (69%) were conducted for human benefit e.g. pharmaceutical research and development, rather than for the purpose of gaining insights into animal welfare or behaviour. Almost all studies assumed the existence of sentient traits such as pain, fear and pleasure. Rodents were the subject of most of the papers in our review and as a result we can infer a lot about their subjective minds. To give just three examples, studies have shown that rodents are capable of: – Regret, defined as recognising that you made a mistake and that, if you had done something differently, there would have been a better outcome. Researchers studying decision-making in rats found that animals who skipped the chance to have a highvalue treat, so they ended up with a lower-value reward, looked back at the location of the high-value treat. On the basis of the animals’ behaviour, the implication was that they regretted their decision. Neurological studies showed that the orbitofrontal cortex of the rat brain was active when the animals looked back, which is the same area that is active in the human brain when we are feeling regretful.9 – Empathy, or the ability to understand and share the feelings of another, has been examined in laboratory rats by placing a free rat into an arena containing a cagemate who is trapped in a restrainer.5 After several sessions, the free rat will learn to open the restrainer and free the trapped animal but they do not open restrainers that are empty or contain objects. Given a choice between opening two restrainers containing a cagemate or chocolate respectively, rats preferred to open the restrainer with the cagemate inside first, then open the second restrainer and share the chocolate. This provides strong evidence of empatheticallymotivated helping behaviour in the rat*. – Laughter, in the form of ultrasonic vocalisation patterns of around 50 kHz which have been recorded in rats, in response to play with other rats or tickling by humans. These ‘chirps’ are widely accepted to indicate positive ‘affect’ (or mood) and are increasingly believed to be analogous to laughter in humans#.10 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– * # See video at http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6061/1427/suppl/DC2 Article and video at http://www.wired.com/2013/09/tickling-ratsfor-science/ 20 Studies such as these have clear implications for those using or caring for laboratory animals. They may simply confirm what empathetic staff have already observed or indicate potential issues with respect to data quality (e.g. if social animals, capable of empathy, are housed individually) or help to identify ways of refining housing, husbandry and care. Of course, some of this research presents an ethical dilemma, if regulated procedures are used to generate data that can successfully improve the lives of other animals. Ultimately, encouraging wider recognition that animals are sentient beings and that their feelings matter, both to them and to us, can provide a driver to replace animal use. If you are interested in learning more about the science of animal sentience, then join the discussion. Visit the Sentience Mosaic (www.sentiencemosaic.org), where you can have your say in virtual debates, read inspiring interviews and learn about all the great scientific research taking place around the world. Skin to skin contact: looking at refinements in skin closure techniques Debbie Bursnall, University of Leicester Surgical embr yo transfer is a ver y commonly conducted procedure. So ensuring that the most refined techniques are used will have a significant impact on laboratory mouse welfare. Skin closure at the end of the procedure is an important area to consider. Many options are available for closing the skin, all of which aim to produce healing by ‘primary intention’, which is directly opposing the skin layers to facilitate quick, natural healing. Commonly used skin closure methods have developed from medical and veterinar y practice but there is little published information about the quality of the wound closure in mice. A new study involving the use of CD1 mice for embr yo transfer prompted a study to compare different skin closure methods, to see which was best tolerated and provided the most effective healing, as we wanted to ensure that we were observing good practice and minimising suffering. To avoid generating additional animal use, the mice used in the evaluation study were undergoing embryo transfer anyway as part of another project. The study compared four skin closure methods in surgical embr yo transfer mice; tissue adhesive (GLUture®, Abbott Animal Health), absorbable suture (Vicr yl™ 6/0, Ethicon), 7mm Autoclips® (Har vard Apparatus) and staples (Proximate® 35, Ethicon). Each of the four methods was used to close a single, lateral dorsal skin incision in 124 CD1 mice at 0.5 dpc, in a randomised study conducted over 15 days.
Report of the 2014 RSPCA UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting  objectively and scientifically.2 Furthermore, it uses these st...
Report of the 2014 RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting All mice were anaesthetised with isoflurane (2 to 2.5%) in oxygen and subcutaneous carprofen was administered (at 10 mg/kg) on induction for pain relief. A local anaesthetic (bupivacaine) was also administered at the incision site after shaving and then a scalpel was used to make a lateral dorsal skin incision of 5 to 6 mm, followed by a dorsal ventral muscle incision. An infundibulum embryo transfer was performed. The wound was then closed using either (i) a single blanket suture with 6/0 Vicryl™ (35 mice), (ii) a thin line of tissue adhesive (37 mice), (iii) two staples (19 mice) or (iv) a single 7 mm Autoclip® (33 mice). Wound closure took the least time with Autoclips® (25 seconds) and tissue glue took the longest time (140 seconds). The mice were closely monitored at least daily for 14 days post-operatively, focusing on skin condition and whether the closure device was retained and the wound still sealed. If a mouse had removed the device, they were carefully examined to see whether remedial action was necessary to alleviate pain or the risk of infection. Two skin samples from each closure method were taken post mortem and sent for histology at 4 and 9 weeks post-op, to evaluate skin healing. The results of the study are summarised in Table 1. Method Advantages Sutures Good skin-to-skin contact Does not need to be removed Excellent wound healing Tissue glue Staples Autoclips® Disadvantages Good skin-to-skin contact – but some mice removed the glue Does not need to be removed Excellent wound healing Skin needs to be dry Care is needed to control the amount applied Time consuming Can be removed by mouse Non-skin penetrating Good wound healing, even if mice remove staples Difficult to control on application Removed by all mice Quick to apply Needs to be removed with a separate tool Skin penetrating Skin puckers and is red after removal Moderate wound healing, larger scar than other methods Table 1. Comparison of four different wound closure techniques for embryo transfer in CD1 mice Although the advantages and disadvantages for the animals were given top priority when deciding which technique was to be preferred, we also reviewed the financial cost of the different methods. Sutures and glue worked out as £2.70 and £2.33 per animal respectively, while staples and Autoclips® were significantly cheaper but required outlay on equipment – £8.70 for the staples and over £400 in the case of Autoclips®. We concluded that sutures were the best tolerated and most effective method of skin closure for embryo transfer with our CD1 mice. If the closure using sutures failed it would heal well with no additional intervention, which is another advantage because it means that further wound repair procedures are not necessary. Sutures are also the most cost-effective method of wound closure. Sutures will therefore be used for skin closure in CD1 mice undergoing embryo transfer at our facility and other studies are planned to compare different suture types and patterns. We will also evaluate the optimum technique for skin closure for different strains, to help ensure that each surgical procedure is fully refined from beginning to end. A comparison of abdominal and scrotal approach methods of vasectomy and the influence of analgesic treatment in laboratory mice Amy Miller, University of Newcastle Like embr yo transfer, vasectomy is a commonly conducted procedure in the production of genetically altered (GA) animals – which also means that it is very important to ensure that it is fully refined so as to minimise suffering. There has been some debate as to which surgical approach is preferable from an animal welfare aspect. The BVAAWF/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement11 recommends that vasectomy is performed via an incision in the scrotal sac, rather than via laparotomy, arguing that the former could be less painful due to minimal tissue trauma. This recommendation was made on the basis that the abdominal musculature bears the weight of the abdominal contents and the scrotal approach would avoid trauma to this supporting musculature and requires a smaller opening, reducing the risk of infection. Incising the scrotal sac also allows the vas to be exposed without exteriorising the testis and only one suture is required for wound closure. People working in 21
Report of the 2014 RSPCA UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting  All mice were anaesthetised with isoflurane  2 to 2.5   in oxy...
Report of the 2014 RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting the field had also commented that mice appeared less hunched following surgery via the scrotal route. The recommendation was thus made on the basis of current thinking on good practice but empirical studies were needed to assess whether the scrotal sac route actually is less painful than laparotomy. We conducted a study to evaluate this for CD1 mice, funded by BBSRC and Pfizer, which has been published in Laboratory Animals12 so a brief summary will be presented here. All of the mice used in the project were required for the University’s transgenics production programme. In an initial pilot study, groups of mice underwent vasectomy via either abdominal or scrotal approach surgery. All animals received carprofen for pain relief because it is known that abdominal vasectomy affects behaviour in CD1 mice, so a control group without analgesia was not necessary. Mice were filmed for 15 minutes before surgery and at 1, 24 and 48 hours post surgery and data were obtained using automated behaviour recognition software (HomeCageScan, Cleversys Inc). Behaviour changes after surgery were compared between groups at each time point. Exploratory behaviours such as rearing, walking and sniffing were most greatly reduced one hour after surgery whereas the duration of grooming increased. By 48 hours these changes had largely subsided. Behaviours associated with pain occurred significantly more frequently one hour after abdominal surgery than with the scrotal approach, although there was an increase in belly pressing in animals who had undergone surgery via the scrotal sac. However, these differences were very small, so it was not possible to draw any definitive conclusions with respect to which method was better from an animal welfare aspect. The subsequent main study evaluated the responses of the mice to different levels of drug treatment, on the basis that more painful procedures would require more aggressive therapy, so this should help to better identify any differences in the effects of the two surgical approaches. Mice received three analgesic treatments; (i) meloxicam, (ii) meloxicam plus paracetamol or (iii) saline subcutaneously. We always consider the justification for withholding pain relief very carefully and in this case it was judged by our local ethical review process to be necessary in order to achieve meaningful data on the effectiveness of the analgesics. Unfortunately, the results of the main study showed that neither meloxicam, nor meloxicam plus paracetamol, had any demonstrable beneficial effects for the animals. This means that either the analgesia was ineffective, or the behavioural scoring was not sufficiently sensitive to pick up subtle indicators of the beneficial effects. These results did show us that the 22 control group was necessary, however, as without the control we may have concluded that both analgesic treatments were equally effective – when in fact both may have been equally ineffective. Our study and other recent data on the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in mice, suggest that either considerably larger doses of these or more potent analgesics, more precise monitoring of surgical outcomes or a combination of both these factors is needed to determine the true extent of pain experienced by mice undergoing vasectomy. Meanwhile, the skill of the surgeon may be more important than the surgical approach, so immediate welfare gains can be made by benchmarking the performance of surgeons and ensuring that they are skilled and competent. Development and validation of a body condition score for Guinea pigs Wanda McCormick, Jenna Catlin and Kate Leslie, Moulton College; John Lowe, Dodson & Horrell Ltd Body condition scores (BCS) have successfully been applied to a wide range of animal species in different contexts as tools for health and welfare assessment. However, to date no BCS system exists for use in Guinea pigs. This project aimed to create and validate a suitable BCS scale which can be used in a range of captive environments for Guinea pigs. This species was chosen because it is estimated that around half a million Guinea pigs are kept as ‘pets’ in the UK (accounting for 1.1 % of households) but their owners are often inexperienced in assessing and maintaining animal health, so these Guinea pigs often develop obesity and dental problems due to improper feeding. Although the BCS was devised with companion animals in mind, it will also be useful for assessing Guinea pigs in a laboratory setting, whether at a breeder or user establishment. We used an initial sample of 24 Guinea pigs, group housed in pens at Moulton College, to obtain a range of body measurements alongside the body mass of each animal. Measurements of girth, chest and length were found to be highly significantly correlated to body mass (p<0.01), with a multiple linear regression equation of: Body mass = 530 + 29.3gir th – 13.2chest + 36.0length (R-sq (adj) = 22.3%, F=2.15, p=0.165) These measurements, in conjunction with observational data on the prominence of the animals’
Report of the 2014 RSPCA UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting  the field had also commented that mice appeared less hunched f...
Report of the 2014 RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting ribs, spine and pelvis, were used to create a BCS. To validate the new BCS, body measurements were recorded from over a hundred Guinea pigs housed in a range of settings, including owners’ homes, pet stores, nurseries and rescue centres. Each Guinea pig was assessed for BCS independently by both an assistant and a researcher, then these results were compared. There was no significant difference (p = 0.452) between the two sets of BCS data, suggesting the scale is reliable for use by both trained and untrained persons. The measurements of body mass in this larger sample were again highly significantly correlated (p<0.001) to measurements of length, chest and girth. It is hoped that this new BCS will help keepers of Guinea pigs to assess their animals and manage their health more effectively. The new Guinea pig BCS has been published on the Pet Food Manufacturers Association website (Figure 1) with guidelines and images to allow for easy use (http://www.pfma.org.uk/guinea-pig-size-o-meter/). actually prefer and need instead of what we assume they do. This is where things often go wrong. I tend to think of a study as essentially a device to communicate with animals, a kind of universal translator, in a sense: in a study, we ‘ask’ the animals what they actually prefer (rather than what we think they do) and the animals can answer us via the medium of the data that we collect. Thus, the clearer the question we ask, the more likely we will be able to understand the answer. For example evaluation studies, like all studies, should have a clear hypothesis (yet many of them do not). A study should also include a control condition (sadly often not the case), so that data obtained from the animal, e.g. with and without the enrichment, can be properly compared. These are examples of good Experimental Design. The point here is that a bad study is almost worse than no study at all: it takes time, money, potentially causes stress to the animals and the results can be misleading. Although the elements of robust experimental design are not always immediately obvious for each project, the good news is that planning a good study usually involves no more than thinking carefully and seeking advice, about the elements which would render either our question to the animals unclear or the answer from the animals ambiguous. So what should we look for? As a taster, delegates were presented with a fictitious study (Figure 2) – can you spot some problems? Figure 1. The Guinea pig size-o-meter We are especially keen for those working with Guinea pigs in breeder, supplier and user establishments to try the Guinea pig BCS and send us feedback at wanda.mccormick@moulton.ac.uk Evaluating rodent enrichment: what could possibly go wrong? Manuel Berdoy, University of Oxford Quite a bit, it turns out. It is now widely accepted that refining rodent housing is important because it is good for animal welfare and good for science. What is often less clear is what constitutes a refinement and what form it should take. Evaluation studies play a crucial role in deciding which enrichment is appropriate for a particular species, strain or research programme. Studies of refinement are only useful if they are properly designed and analysed, so that the results are robust and give a realistic indicator of what animals                   •                    •                    •   ! !   "      #$## ### •     • %       +  !#  •    .  -                 #&##" !'## !(##  )  *      ,    /!$# +0    '     !#    )      1  2    3  4 2      4 2          6       ! !0 ' !# !0 $ # & $ !$ ! !! !' # !5 # ( ' 0# 0# 0#  # ' !! $ & $ !# !$#  !! !& 0 ( !5 !0 0 !## Figure 2. Norman’s shelter evaluation study Delegates spotted the following errors in the experimental design – how many did you get? (Note: 23
Report of the 2014 RSPCA UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting  ribs, spine and pelvis, were used to create a BCS. To validate...
Report of the 2014 RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting this is not meant to be an exhaustive list but an illustration of some typical problems.) – No clear question or hypothesis. What is the question exactly? How was ‘benefit’ decided? How was benefit measured? Is it this particular shelter or shelters in general? – There was no control condition; additional data should have been obtained from cages without added shelters. – Each mouse was chosen by the observer, which would have introduced bias (e.g. they may have selected dominant or submissive animals). The animals should have been chosen randomly (there are plenty of easy ways to do this). – Animals were only observed during their inactive phase (during the human working day); behaviour at night was not recorded and is likely to have been different. – No observations were made over the weekend, when animals may have behaved differently because fewer staff were in and noise levels were lower. – Insufficient number of animals – the sample size was actually just 6, not 180, because they are not “independent”. – No accounting for the effect of the observer – video cameras could have been used instead (and could also have been used to obtain more data). – No baseline data were taken before the shelters were added. – Only females were used – although this may not have been an issue if the aim was to evaluate the benefits of a shelter for a project involving only female mice. – No time apparently allowed for the mice to habituate to the shelter. – All cages were at the same level and in groups of 3; cages should have been randomly selected to allow for differences in height above the floor and light levels. Although Norman’s study showed that the chosen mice were interacting with the shelter when he made the observations, it is not robust enough to demonstrate a significant benefit or to help make a decision about the best type of shelter to provide for the animals. Evaluation studies like this need to have a hypothesis, asking a clear question that can be tested by the experiment. Incidentally, was Norman’s question really about benefits to the animals or about what the animals want? Both questions are good ones but they do not mean the same thing (animals – like humans – don’t always want what is good for them). Evaluation studies also need adequate (and independent) sample sizes and valid controls, with potential sources of variation included in the design (none of this was evident here). Sources of bias should also be recognised and addressed. Biases may occur in 24 selection or allocation (e.g. no randomising of animals/cages, self-selection), or in failing to take account of the behaviour of the species (e.g. response to novelty, circadian rhythms) or the influence of the observer (e.g. the subject may be stressed by, or attracted to, the observer). A further source of bias can be failure to implement ‘blinding’ when obtaining or analysing data. Ideally, the observer should not know which animals have received the treatment and nor should the person analysing the data. This may not always be possible and would not have been feasible in our hypothetical example but studies should always be blinded if they can be. There is currently much emphasis on the importance of good experimental design in the life sciences in general and studies to evaluate enrichment are no exception. It is always a good idea to obtain advice from someone with exper tise in statistics and experimental design when planning your study, and the first port of call for this would usually be the local AWERB, which should have access to a source of statistical advice*. Some useful publications are also listed in the reference section of this paper.13,14,15,16 Animal technologists have a great deal to offer with respect to evaluating, implementing and reviewing enrichment and you should be able to access the same level of support as the researchers at your establishment. The running wheel debate Charlotte Burn, Royal Veterinary College Running wheels are often provided as an ‘enrichment’, but there has been debate regarding their benefits. Here I discuss two questions: ‘Are running wheels good for rodent welfare (do they keep rodents healthy and do rodents actually want* them)?’ and ‘Do they make for better science?’ In rodent cages, oppor tunities for exercise are extremely limited, so unsurprisingly the provision of a wheel brings about many of the general health and cognitive benefits expected from regular exercise. These benefits include enhanced heart function18 and cognitive function.19 Rodents also do seem to ‘want’ running wheels, indicated by the fact that they are prepared to expend considerable energy e.g. by pressing a lever many times, to gain access to a wheel.20 The rewarding effects of wheel-running have been linked to the release of opioids21 and rats show ‘conditioned place preference’ for places that they associate with just having been for a run.22 However, another behavioural study has shown that rats avoid –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– * The NC3Rs Experimental Design Assistant will also soon be available; see https://www.nc3rs.org.uk/experimental-design (last viewed 2 January 2015).
Report of the 2014 RSPCA UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting  this is not meant to be an exhaustive list but an illustration...
Report of the 2014 RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting places that predict wheel access23 suggesting that rodents’ experiences of wheel running may not be straightforward pleasure. Despite the potential health benefits of wheel running to most rodents, individuals who wheel run excessively can develop physical deformities, such as arching of the spine (lordosis) or hyper flexion of the tail resembling ‘Straub tail’ (a response to morphine treatment in rodents). These morphological changes may or may not be associated with pain and can also affect data quality, e.g. in behavioural tests requiring good motor skills or balance.24 More research is needed into the effects of wheel design and length of time spent running, on both welfare and science.24 There has also been some debate as to whether wheelrunning is a stereotypy. Stereotypic behaviours have been defined as ‘repetitive, invariant and apparently functionless or goalless’25 and wheel-running does fit this description in some – but not all – individual rodents. On the other hand, providing stereotypic rodents with a wheel often reduces stereotypies but this could mean that either (i) the wheel is an enrichment (improving welfare and satisfying a previously frustrated motivation) or (ii) wheel-running is a redirected stereotypy (leaving welfare largely unchanged). The fact that both stereotypies and wheelrunning are reduced by fluoxetine and naloxone26,27 seems to support (ii) but it is not that conclusive because these substances tend to reduce per formance of all rewarding behaviours. Wheelrunning occurs in diverse environments and animals use wheels in a variety of ways (e.g. jumping on and off or building nests inside), which is less supportive of the idea that it is a stereotypy. It is perhaps more likely that wheel-running exists in both stereotypic and nonstereotypic forms.26 Similarly, extreme use of running wheels has parallels with addiction.24 For example, some individuals are seemingly unable to regulate their wheel use despite the onset of adverse effects (e.g. becoming physically deformed or emaciated), they spend such a large proportion of their day wheel-running that normal social and/or maintenance behaviours become disproportionately reduced and they become aggressive if wheel-running is prevented. Again, not all wheel-use follows this pattern. Turning to the implications of wheel-running for science, if performed to moderate levels, the many benefits of exercise in an other wise restrictive environment could probably lead to more physiologically ‘normal’ animals. Also, wheel-running itself can be a useful tool for assessing treatment effects in specific cases e.g. where treatments are –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– * ‘Want’ as defined by Dawkins (2004).17 hypothesised to affect activity levels. However, if performed to excess, the behavioural and physical effects of wheel-running could lead to welfare problems as well as abnormal treatment responses that may affect standardisation. Huge strain, sex and individual differences in propensity towards wheel-running exist,24 so evaluation of the welfare and scientific harms and benefits may require a case-by-case approach. In conclusion, excessive wheel use can be harmful to health, welfare and science – but moderate use can confer benefits: keeping rodents healthier, allowing them to do something they want to do and making them more physiologically normal ‘models’. In strains known to run to excess, wheels should be avoided and other enrichment provided to encourage exercise. Use of wheels should be monitored but care is needed if removing wheels from excessive users due to the potential for ‘withdrawal’ (similar to drug withdrawal) that could cause suffering.24 Safe wheel design is important, to avoid entrapment and deformity plus other enrichments should always be provided to allow choice and encourage a range of activities. Building a nationwide NACWO exchange initiative Jo Cruden and Sam Izzard, GSK Stevenage Requirements within the revised Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 (ASPA), such as actively ensuring adequate Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and keeping formal records of this, provide strong encouragement for people in named roles to develop and learn. However, over the past few years we have noticed a gap in the education of Named Animal Care and Welfare Officers (NACWOs), not in terms of training per se but with respect to having opportunities to build a strong network and learn about other facilities. The revisions to the ASPA prompted us to explore the potential for a scheme that would enable and support NACWOs to meet, spend time with each other and share their knowledge and ideas. We created a proposal for an exchange in which a NACWO will spend the day with another NACWO at a different facility and vice-versa. We envisage three main benefits: insight into day-to-day work in other facilities; opportunities to share ideas and good practices; and the ability to build up a network of contacts. Both the host and visiting establishment will gain Continuing Professional Development (CPD) credits, based on the number of hours spent actively visiting and discussing roles, responsibilities and how things are done at each establishment. A ‘tick list’ has been developed to help structure and prepare for visits, and a post-exchange report is completed and submitted to the Named Training and Competency Officers (NTCOs) at both 25
Report of the 2014 RSPCA UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting  places that predict wheel access23 suggesting that rodents    ...
Report of the 2014 RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting facilities. The exchange protocol can also be used for internal exchanges for NACWOs working at different sites within the same establishment, to help promote cross-site communication. A successful pilot study has been run in collaboration with Imperial College London, which was used to further refine the scheme in the light of feedback from the participants. A second exchange is well underway, with MRC Harwell and there has been a lot of interest from other groups interested in taking part. The scheme is now being rolled out nationally, in partnership with the IAT, including a secure section on the Institute’s website for NACWOs to keep records of visits and ideas to share, inviting participants to present at IAT Council and highlighting the scheme on the IAT website. Section of ASPA Guidance mentioning a ‘culture of care’ Establishment Licence Holder (ELH): Section 3.13.2 NACWO: Sections 8.8.1, 8.8.2 New participants will be led through the process by a guidance document detailing how the scheme works, what is expected of them and what they will gain from the exchange. Ideally, they will link up with someone who has already completed an exchange and contact exchange monitors will be listed within the secure section of the IAT website. Our vision is a network of NACWOs, communicating and sharing ideas as well and gaining CPD – although there are differences in the way our respective roles are structured, we all have the same goals when it comes to animal care and welfare. If you are interested in taking par t, please contact Andy Cunningham (ac572@le.ac.uk), and see the announcement in the back of this issue. David Whittaker, University of Oxford A ‘Culture of Care’ is much easier to say than it is to define, deliver and sustain. This now often (over) quoted sound bite first appeared formally in print in the 2000 edition of the Guidance to the ASPA and is directly referred to in several places within the 2014 Guidance28 as listed in Table 2. Fulfilling these requirements and recommendations requires careful thought about who and what the Culture of Care is for, who is responsible for its delivery, what it means in practice (inputs) and whether it can be ‘measured’ in terms of outputs or deliverables. The culture should also be sustainable, and sustained, in the long term. Simply put, the Culture of Care should demonstrate caring, respectful attitudes and behaviour towards animals and encourage acceptance of responsibility and 26 G G G Training – Local Module: Section 9.11 AWERBS: Section 10.5 A culture of care: a personal experience Requirement/recommendation G G You will need to be proactive and provide effective leadership. You will need good management and communication skills and the commitment to nurture a ‘culture of care’ in your establishment NACWOs should have appropriate personal authority to promote high standards and will need good communication and diplomacy skills to champion a culture of care amongst both scientific and husbandry staff The NACWO should… champion a culture of care at your establishment acting as a role model for all those who care for, and use, animals We recommend that each establishment should prepare a local module… information on the functions and processes of the local AWERB and how the local culture of care is promoted should be included More generally, AWERBS should… help to promote a ‘culture of care’ within the establishment and, as appropriate, in the wider community Table 2. References to a ‘culture of care’ in the 2014 ASPA Guidance document28 accountability.29 This goes beyond just meeting the minimum requirements of the legislation. While each organisation’s culture will depend upon the values and attitudes of its staff and the local processes in place that determine how people work and behave, all establishments should have a vision of what their own Culture of Care means – ‘how we do things around here’. Caring for, and about, animals is of course central to the concept but it should also encompass caring for the equipment, facilities and each other, including team members, users, customers, clients and other internal and external stakeholders. The specified roles and tasks of the ELH, NACWOs, trainers and AWERBs are set out in Table 2 but everyone has a part to play,
Report of the 2014 RSPCA UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting  facilities. The exchange protocol can also be used for interna...
Report of the 2014 RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting including and especially the animal technologist at the cageside. Information has to flow effectively in all directions, within a culture that supports openness between, and learning from, one another but has zero tolerance for poor practice or noncompliance. Think about what you can see, hear (and smell!) and consider whether it extends to, or goes beyond, compliance and how it makes you feel. If something does not feel right, you should be able to express your concerns safely and effectively. It is vitally important for all establishments to have a policy and procedure in place for any member of staff to raise concerns about any aspect of animal care or use. This should include clear communication channels that staff are confident to use without fear of negative consequences, either professionally or socially. The University of Oxford has a dedicated system for raising concerns in place, as do other establishments; see the report of the workshop on Raising Concerns about Laboratory Animal Welfare held at the 2014 IAT Congress.30 The new LASA/RSPCA Guiding Principles for AWERBs29 and the revised RSPCA resource book for lay members31 also discuss practical ways of developing and maintaining a culture of care, and these will both be good sources of ideas and inspiration for you and your establishment. List of action points based on all of the presentations and discussions – If embr yo transfers are conducted at your establishment, suggest a review of wound closure techniques to see whether the most effective, welltolerated technique is being used. – If males are vasectomised, suggest that the protocol is reviewed, using the relevant section of this report and reference 12 as a basis, to see whether further refinements could be implemented and evaluated. – Think about other commonly-conducted procedures, which are done according to standard protocols, at your establishment. Would any of these benefit from a review? You could suggest this to your AWERB, Named Persons or other relevant local committee. – If you care for Guinea pigs, try using the ‘size-ometer’ and provide some feedback to the contact above. – When designing studies that aim to evaluate husbandry refinements, including environmental enrichment, obtain advice from someone with expertise in statistics and experimental design to ensure that your data will be significant and robust. Ensure that you have identified and minimised sources of bias, including those due to the behaviour of the species, sex and/or strain. – If running wheels are routinely provided at your establishment, ask for the AWERB or relevant animal care committee to look at the section of the report outlining the debate. There may be a case for altering the wheel design, setting up a protocol for monitoring levels of use, or using alternative enrichments if running is excessive. – If you are a NACWO, participate in the exchange scheme – or if you are not, make sure your NACWOs are aware of it. – Think about your role in your establishment’s ‘Culture of Care’, whether or not you are a NACWO, trainer or sit on the AWERB. What does it mean to you, and could you become more active in maintaining a positive culture? Acknowledgements Thank you to all the speakers and delegates for the talks and discussions. We are also grateful to members of staff at the University of Leicester for giving up their time to take a group of delegates on a tour of their facility. References All the URLs below were last viewed on 2 January 2015. 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 10 Proctor, H. (2012). Animal sentience: Where are we and where are we heading? Animals, 2, 628-639. Download at http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/2/4/628 Proctor, H., Carder, G and Cornish, A.R. (2013). Searching for animal sentience: A systematic review of the scientific literature. Animals, 3, 882-906. Download at http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/3/3/882 King, B. (2013). When animals mourn. Scientific American, 309, 62-67. Elwood, R.W., Barr, S. and Patterson, L. (2009). Pain and stress in crustaceans? Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 118, 128-136. Bartal, I.B.-A., Decety, J. and Mason, P. (2011). Empathy and pro-social behavior in rats. Science, 334, 14271430. Download at http://tinyurl.com/knfsflw Langford, D.J., Crager, S.E., Shehzad, Z., Smith, S.B., Stocinal, S.G., Levenstadt, J.S., Chanda, M.L., Levitin, D.J. and Mogil, J.S. (2006). Social modulation of pain as evidence for empathy in mice. Science, 312, 1967–1970. Bekoff, M. (2005). Animal emotions and animal sentience and why they matter: Blending “science sense” with common sense, compassion and heart. In: Animals, Ethics and Trade: The Challenge of Animal Sentience. (Turner, J. and J D’Silva, J.) Earthscan, London, 27-40. Dawkins, M.S. (2012). Why Animals Matter: Animal consciousness, animal welfare, and human well-being. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Steiner, A.P. and Redish, A. (2014). Behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of regret in rat decisionmaking on a neuroeconomic task. Nature Neuroscience, 17, 995-1002. doi:10.1038/nn.3740 Panksepp, J. and Burgdorf, J. (2003). “Laughing” rats and the evolutionar y antecedents of human joy? Physiology & Behavior, 79, 533-547. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/S0031-9384(03)00159-8 27
Report of the 2014 RSPCA UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting  including and especially the animal technologist at the cagesi...
Report of the 2014 RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 28 Robinson, V., Morton, D.B., Anderson, D., Carver, J.F.A., Francis, R.J., Hubrecht, R., Jenkins, E., Mathers, K.A., Rosewell, I., Wallace, J. and Wells, D.J. (2003). Reduction and refinement in production of genetically modified mice. Laboratory Animals, 37 Suppl 1, 1-51. Miller, A.L., Wright-Williams, S.L., Flecknell, P.A. and Roughan, J.V. (2012). A comparison of abdominal and scrotal approach methods of vasectomy and the influence of analgesic treatment in laboratory mice. Laboratory Animals, 46, 304-310. BAP, BNA, ESSWAP and LASA (2013). Guiding Principles for Behavioural Laboratory Animal Science. Free download at http://tinyurl.com/on86a3g Bate, S.T. and Clark, R.A. (2014). The Design and Statistical Analysis of Animal Experiments. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Festing, M., Overend, P., Gaine Das, R., Cortina Borja, M. and Berdoy, M. (2002). The Design of Animal Experiments: Reducing the Use of Animals in Research Through Better Experimental Design. Royal Society of Medicine Press, London. Field, A. and Hole, G. (2003). How to Design and Report Experiments. SAGE Publications Ltd., London. Dawkins, M.S. (2004). Using behaviour to assess animal welfare. Animal Welfare, 13, S3-7. Werner, C., Fürster, T., Widmann, T., Pöss, J., Roggia, C., Hanhoun, M., Scharhag, J., Büchner, N., Meyer, T., Kindermann, W., Haendeler, J., Böhm, M. and Laufs, U. (2009). Physical exercise prevents cellular senescence in circulating leukocytes and in the vessel wall. Circulation, 120, 2438-2447. Ehninger, D. and Kempermann, G. (2003). Regional effects of wheel running and environmental enrichment on cell genesis and microglia proliferation in the adult murine neocortex. Cereb. Cortex, 13, 845-851. Sherwin, C.M. (1998). Voluntary wheel running: a review and novel interpretation. Anim. Behav., 56, 11-27. Lett, B.T., Grant, V.L. and Koh, M.T. (2001). Naloxone attenuates the conditioned place preference induced by wheel running in rats. Physiol. Behav., 72, 355-8. Belke, T.W. and Wagner, J.P. (2005). The reinforcing property and rewarding aftereffect of wheel running in rats: a combination of two paradigms. Behav. Processes, 68, 165-172. Masaki, T. and Nakajima, S. (2008). Forward conditioning with wheel running causes place aversion in rats. Behav. Processes, 79, 43-7. Richter, S.H., Gass, P. and Fuss, J. (2014). Resting is rusting: a critical view on rodent wheel-running behavior. The Neuroscientist, 20, 313-325. Mason, G.J. (1991). Stereotypies: a critical review. Anim. Behav., 41, 1015-37. Latham, N. and Würbel, H. (2006). Wheel-running: a common rodent stereotypy? In: Stereotypic Animal Behaviour: Fundamentals and Applications to Welfare. Second Edition. (Mason, G. and Rushen, J.) CABI, Wallingford, England, 91-92. Vargas-Perez, H., Sellings, L.H., Paredes, R.G., PradoAlcala, R.A. and Diaz, J.L. (2008). Reinforcement of wheel running in BALB/c mice: role of motor activity and endogenous opioids. J. Mot. Behav., 40, 587-93. Home Office. (2014). Guidance on the Operation of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. Download at: https://www.gov.uk/research-and-testing-using-animals 29 30 31 RSPCA and LASA. (2015). Guiding Principles on Good Practice for Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Bodies: A report by the RSPCA Research Animals Department and the LASA Education, Training and Ethics section. (Jennings, M.) Download at www.rspca.org.uk/ laymembers Hawkins, P., Ryder, K., Mortell, N. and Patten, D. (2014). Raising concerns about laborator y animal welfare: report of a workshop at IAT Congress 2014. Animal Technology and Welfare, 13, 81-85. Jennings, M. and Smith, J. (2015). A Resource Book for Lay Members of Ethical Review and Similar Bodies Worldwide. Third Edition. RSPCA, Southwater. Download at www.rspca.org.uk/laymembers
Report of the 2014 RSPCA UFAW Rodent Welfare Group meeting  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26...
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare PAPER SUMMARY TRANSLATIONS INHALTVERZEICHNIS Verbesserungen im Einsatz! Haltegeschirr ersetzt Kopfhalterung beim Legen von Kanülen bei Laborratten CLARE SIMS Dorothy Hodgkin Building, University of Bristol, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY Korrespondierende autorin: svces@bristol.ac.uk Preisträger des 2015 Andrew Blake Tribute Award Abstract Ratten wird eine Kanüle in die Jugularvene gelegt, damit Blutproben entnommen und mithilfe eines automatischen Messsystems (ABS-System) analysiert werden können. Anhand dieser Blutproben wird der Hormonspiegel im Blut über einen bestimmten Zeitraum hinweg gemessen. Beim ursprünglichen Protokoll wird die Jugularvenenkanüle durch einen Zugang am Kopf der Ratte gelegt. Anschließend wird sie durch eine Schutzfeder aus Metall geführt und an das ABS-System angeschlossen. Die Metallfeder wird mit zwei im Schädel der Ratte implantierten Metallschrauben befestigt. Die Verbesserung des Protokolls besteht darin, dass der Zugang der Kanüle außen am Rücken der Ratte gelegt wird und dass das Haltegeschirr des vaskulären Zugangs die Schutzfeder in Position hält. Die Ergebnisse belegen, dass durch diese Verbesserungen im Protokoll das Wohlergehen der Tiere sowie die Tierhaltung verbessert wurden und dass die Anzahl der für die Studie benötigten Tiere insgesamt verringert wurde. Darüber hinaus wurde ersichtlich, dass der Spiegel des Stresshormons Corticosteron im Blut beim Einsatz des Haltegeschirrs nicht steigt. Stichwörter: Ratten, Jugularvenenzugang, Corticosteron, Haltegeschirr, Verbesserung 29
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  PAPER SUMMARY TRANSLATIONS INHALTVERZEICHNIS Verbesserungen im Einsatz  Haltege...
Paper Summary Translations Verbesserte Haltung von männlichen Laborkaninchen; eine Pilotstudie zu möglichen Vorteilen der Bodenhaltung *JOANNA CRUDEN1, JONATHAN COOPER2 und OLIVER BURMAN 1 2 GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP Animal Behaviour, Cognition and Welfare Research Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Joseph Banks Laboratories, Lincoln LN7 6TS *Korrespondenzautor: joanna.l.cruden@gsk.com Einleitung In der gegenwärtigen Einrichtung werden männliche Kaninchen üblicherweise in Einzelkäfigen gehalten, mit Zugang zu einer 2,5 m2 großen Bodenfläche zweimal pro Woche. Nach Überprüfung der Kaninchenhaltung wurde die Entscheidung getroffen, eine Gruppe von männlichen Kaninchen dauerhaft in Bodengehegen unterzubringen. Hierdurch ergab sich die Möglichkeit, Änderungen im Verhalten der Kaninchen zu beobachten, wenn sie von Käfigen in Bodengehege verlegt werden. Vor der Verlegung in die Bodengehege wurde eine Kohorte von 4 männlichen Kaninchen über einen Zeitraum von 24 Stunden in ihren Einzelkäfigen gefilmt; dieser Vorgang wurde wiederholt, nachdem sie zwei Wochen lang im Bodengehege untergebracht waren. Die Videoaufnahmen wurden anhand der Fokusmethode mit feststehenden Intervallen analysiert. Dazu wurde alle 15 Minuten die Aktivität, Körperhaltung und Position im Käfig bzw. im Bodengehege protokolliert. Die Kaninchen verbrachten erheblich weniger Zeit in der Mitte des Käfigs, verglichen mit dem mittleren Bereich des Bodengeheges (p = 0,012), sie fraßen weniger (p = 0,002), und im Bodengehege war eine signifikante Verringerung der Fellpflege (p = 0,002) und des Sitzens (p = 0,019) zu verzeichnen. Die Kaninchen schienen darüber hinaus weniger Zeit im hinteren Bodenbereich sowie in Interaktion mit Anreicherungen des Bodengeheges zu verbringen. Allerdings schienen Erkundungsverhalten, Aufrichten auf den Hinterpfoten sowie die Zeit, die sie vollständig ausgestreckt liegend verbrachten, zuzunehmen. Keiner dieser Unterschiede war jedoch bei der in dieser Studie verwendeten Stichprobengröße (0,1 > p > 0,05) statistisch signifikant. Diese Pilotstudie legt nahe, dass eine Bodenhaltung von männlichen Kaninchen aufgrund des erweiterten Raumes und der vermehrten Verhaltensmöglichkeiten verhaltensbezogene Vorteile mit sich bringt. Weitere Studien sind jedoch erforderlich, um zu untersuchen, ob diese Ergebnisse für die gesamte Laborkaninchenpopulation repräsentativ sind. Stichwörter: Laborkaninchen, Bodengehege, Verhalten und Wohlbefinden 30
Paper Summary Translations  Verbesserte Haltung von m  nnlichen Laborkaninchen  eine Pilotstudie zu m  glichen Vorteilen d...
Paper Summary Translations Bericht zur Tagung der RSPCA/UFAW-TierschutzGruppe für Nager 2014 *PENNY HAWKINS (SECRETARY),1 MANUEL BERDOY,2 CHARLOTTE BUR,3 DEBBIE BURSNALL,4 JOANNA CRUDEN,5 WANDA MCCORMICK,6 AMY MILLER,7 HELEN PROCTOR,8 DAVID WHITTAKER,2 MAGGY JENNINGS,1 und ROBERT HUBRECHT9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Research Animals Department, Science Group, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex RH13 9RS Department of Veterinary Services, c/o University Laboratory of Physiology, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PT Centre for Animal Welfare, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA Division of Biomedical Services, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester, Leicestershire LE1 7HB GSK Research and Development, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP Moulton College, West Street, Moulton, Northampton, Northamptonshire NN3 7RR School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU World Animal Protection, 222, Grays Inn Road, London WC1X 8HB UFAW, The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire AL4 8AN Einleitung Die RSPCA/UFAW-Tierschutz-Gruppe für Nager veranstaltet jeden Herbst ein eintägiges Treffen, bei dem die Mitglieder über Themen aktueller Tierschutz-Forschung diskutieren und Erfahrungen und Meinungen über nagerrelevante Tierschutz-Probleme sowie über die drei Prinzipien Vermeidung, Reduktion und Verfeinerung des Einsatzes von Nagern austauschen. Ein Hauptziel der Gruppe ist es, zum Nachdenken über die Gesamtheit der Lebenserfahrungen von Nagern als Laborversuchstiere anzuregen und sicherzustellen, dass jede potenzielle Beeinträchtigung ihres Wohlbefindens geprüft und auf ein Minimum gesenkt wird. An unserer 21. jährlichen Tagung am 23. Oktober 2014 nahmen 90 Teilnehmer von einer Vielzahl von Universitäten und Pharmazieunternehmen aus dem ganzen Vereinigten Königreich teil. Die Präsentationen drehten sich um Themen wie die Empfindungen von Tieren, das Lindern von Schmerzen bei Eingriffen, die Einschätzung des Gesundheitszustandes und von Tierschutzmaßnahmen sowie das Sicherstellen von richtigen Entscheidungen im Bezug auf die Ausgestaltung des Lebensumfeldes, z.B. durch das Bereitstellen von Laufrädern. Die Tagung endete mit einer Diskussion über ‘Culture of Care’ und wie diese in Instutionen erkannt, gefördert und aufrecht erhalten werden kann. Dieser Bericht fasst die Tagung zusammen und enthält am Ende eine Liste von Aktionspunkten, die die Leser in Ihren eigenen Einrichtungen ansprechen könnten. 31
Paper Summary Translations  Bericht zur Tagung der RSPCA UFAW-TierschutzGruppe f  r Nager 2014  PENNY HAWKINS  SECRETARY ,...
Animal Technology and Welfare April 2015 CONTENU DE LA REVUE Amélioration en action! Du cylindre au harnais pour la canulation de rats de laboratoire CLARE SIMS Dorothy Hodgkin Building, University of Bristol, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY *Auteur-ressource: svces@bristol.ac.uk Gagnant du prix Andrew Blake Tribute Award 2015 Résumé Une canule est introduite à l’intérieur de la veine jugulaire des rats afin que les échantillons de sang soient prélevés au moyen d’un système automatisé de prélèvement sanguin. Ces échantillons de sang sont utilisés afin de mesurer les niveaux d’hormones contenues dans le sang au fil du temps. Dans le protocole de départ, la canule introduite dans la veine jugulaire ressort du corps du rat par une incision opérée au sommet de la tête. Le rat est ensuite alimenté au travers d’un ressort métallique protecteur et relié au système automatisé de prélèvement sanguin. Le ressort métallique est maintenu en place par deux vis en métal fixées au crâne du rat. L’amélioration de ce protocole consiste à faire en sorte que la canule ressorte dans le dos du rat et qu’un harnais d’accès vasculaire maintienne le ressort protecteur en place. Les résultats démontrent qu’améliorer ainsi le protocole permet une amélioration du bien-être des animaux et des pratiques d’élevage ainsi qu’une réduction du nombre total d’animaux utilisés tout au long de l’étude. Ils prouvent également que le taux de corticostérone sécrétée en réponse au stress éprouvé n’augmente pas lors de l’utilisation du harnais d’accès vasculaire. Mots clés: Rats, canulation jugulaire, corticostérone, harnais d’accès, amélioration. 32
Animal Technology and Welfare  April 2015  CONTENU DE LA REVUE Am  lioration en action  Du cylindre au harnais pour la can...
Paper Summary Translations Hébergement amélioré pour lapins de laboratoire mâles; étude pilote enquêtant sur les avantages potentiels des enclos au sol *JOANNA CRUDEN1, JONATHAN COOPER2 et OLIVER BURMAN2 1 2 GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP Animal Behaviour, Cognition and Welfare Research Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Joseph Banks Laboratories, Lincoln LN7 6TS *Auteur-ressource: joanna.l.cruden@gsk.com Résumé Dans l’installation actuelle, les lapins mâles sont généralement hébergés dans des cages individuelles avec accès deux fois par semaine à un enclos au sol de 2,5 m2. Après un examen des conditions d’hébergement des lapins, la décision a été prise de transférer définitivement une population de lapins mâles dans des enclos au sol. Cela permettait d’observer les changements de comportement des lapins lorsqu’ils sont transférés de leurs cages à des enclos au sol. Avant leur transfert dans des enclos au sol, une cohorte de 4 lapins mâles hébergés individuellement a été filmée pendant 24 heures dans les cages d’hébergement ; cela a ensuite été répété après qu’ils aient été transférés dans des enclos au sol pendant deux semaines. Les enregistrements vidéo ont été analysés en utilisant un échantillonnage instantané focalisé à intervalle fixe, avec un enregistrement d’activité, de posture et de position, effectué toutes les 15 minutes, dans l’enclos ou la cage. Les lapins passaient beaucoup moins de temps dans la zone centrale de la cage par rapport à la zone centrale de l’enclos au sol (p = 0,012), mangeaient moins (p = 0,002), et on constatait une réduction significative du toilettage (p = 0,002) et de la position assise (p = 0,019) dans les enclos au sol. Dans l’enclos au sol, les lapins semblaient également passer moins de temps à l’arrière et moins de temps à interagir de manière enrichissante, mais il semblait y avoir une augmentation du comportement exploratoire et du temps passé à se dresser sur les pattes arrière ou à être entièrement étendus. Aucune de ces différences n’était toutefois statistiquement significative à l’échelle des échantillons utilisés dans cette étude (0,1> p> 0,05). Cette étude pilote suggère qu’héberger les lapins mâles dans des enclos au sol serait avantageux pour leur comportement en raison de l’augmentation des possibilités spatiales et comportementales que cela confère, mais d’autres études seraient bénéfiques pour évaluer si ces résultats sont représentatifs de la population des lapins de laboratoire en général. Mots clés: Lapins de laboratoire, enclos au sol, comportement et bien-être. 33
Paper Summary Translations  H  bergement am  lior   pour lapins de laboratoire m  les    tude pilote enqu  tant sur les av...
Paper Summary Translations Rapport de la réunion du Groupe sur la bientraitance des rongeurs de la RSPCA/UFAW 2014 *PENNY HAWKINS (SECRÉTAIRE),1 MANUEL BERDOY,2 CHARLOTTE BUR,3 DEBBIE BURSNALL,4 JOANNA CRUDEN,5 WANDA MCCORMICK,6 AMY MILLER,7 HELEN PROCTOR,8 DAVID WHITTAKER,2 MAGGY JENNINGS,1 et ROBERT HUBRECHT9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Research Animals Department, Science Group, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex RH13 9RS Department of Veterinary Services, c/o University Laboratory of Physiology, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PT Centre for Animal Welfare, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA Division of Biomedical Services, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester, Leicestershire LE1 7HB GSK Research and Development, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP Moulton College, West Street, Moulton, Northampton, Northamptonshire NN3 7RR School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU World Animal Protection, 222, Grays Inn Road, London, WC1X 8HB UFAW, The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire AL4 8AN Introduction Le Groupe sur la bientraitance des rongeurs de la RSPCA/UFAW organise une réunion d’une journée chaque automne afin que ses membres puissent discuter des recherches en cours sur la bientraitance, échanger des idées sur les problèmes de bientraitance des rongeurs et partager leurs expériences relatives à la mise en place des 3 R : remplacement, réduction et perfectionnement en ce qui concerne l’utilisation des rongeurs. L’un des objectifs clés du groupe consiste à encourager une réflexion sur la vie des rongeurs de laboratoire et à faire en sorte que chaque impact négatif potentiel sur leur bien-être soit corrigé et minimisé. Notre 21e réunion annuelle du 23 octobre 2014 a regroupé 90 délégués venus d’un grand nombre d’universités et de sociétés pharmaceutiques du Royaume-Uni. Parmi les sujets présentés, citons : la sentience des animaux ; comment réduire la souffrance pendant les procédures ; comment garantir la santé et le bien-être des rongeurs ; et comment faire en sorte que les bonnes décisions soient prises lorsque des « améliorations environnementales », telles que des roues d’exercice, sont mises en place. La journée s’est terminée par une discussion sur la « culture des soins » et sur la façon dont celle-ci peut être reconnue, encouragée et maintenue dans les institutions. Ce rapport résume la réunion et se termine par une liste de mesures à envisager par les lecteurs dans leur propre établissement. 34
Paper Summary Translations  Rapport de la r  union du Groupe sur la bientraitance des rongeurs de la RSPCA UFAW 2014  PENN...
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare INDICE DE LA REVISTA ¡Nos unimos a la sofisticación! Pasamos de usar dispositivos para la cabeza a arneses para la canulación de ratas de laboratorio CLARE SIMS Edificio Dorothy Hodgkin, Universidad de Bristol, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY Autor para correspondencia: svces@bristol.ac.uk Ganador del premio Andrew Blake Tribute Award de 2015 Resumen Para tomar muestras de sangre a ratas mediante un sistema de tomas de muestras de sangre automatizado (ABS, por sus siglas en inglés) se les introduce una cánula en la vena yugular. Estas muestras se utilizan para calcular los niveles de hormonas presentes en la sangre con el paso del tiempo. En el protocolo original la cánula de la vena yugular se coloca fuera del cuerpo de la rata mediante una incisión en la parte posterior de la cabeza. Se le alimenta a través de un surtidor de metal protector y se conecta a un sistema ABS. El surtidor de metal se ancla con dos tornillos metálicos implantados en el cráneo de la rata. La sofisticación que presenta este protocolo consiste en que la cánula se encuentra ahora en el exterior del lomo de la rata y un arnés de acceso vascular ancla el suministro protector en su sitio. Los resultados demuestran que mediante la sofisticación del protocolo se ha mejorado el bienestar y la cría de los animales, y ha disminuido el número total de animales utilizados en el estudio. Del mismo modo, también se ha demostrado que el nivel de la hormona del estrés, la corticosterona, en la sangre no aumenta con el uso de arneses de acceso vascular. Palabras clave: ratas, canulación yugular, corticosterona, arnés de acceso, sofisticación. 35
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  INDICE DE LA REVISTA   Nos unimos a la sofisticaci  n  Pasamos de usar disposit...
Paper Summary Translations Conejeras optimizadas para conejos macho de laboratorio: estudio piloto de investigación de los posibles beneficios de las jaulas de cercado hasta el suelo *JOANNA CRUDEN1, JONATHAN COOPER2 y OLIVER BURMAN2 1 2 GlaxosmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP AnimalBehaviour, Cognition and Welfare Research Group (Grupo de investigación del comportamiento, conocimiento y bienestar animal), Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad de Lincoln, Laboratorios Joseph Banks, Lincoln LN7 6TS *Autora para correspondencia: joanna.l.cruden@gsk.com Resumen En las instalaciones actuales, los conejos macho normalmente se alojan en jaulas individuales y tienen acceso dos veces por semana a jaulas de cercado hasta el suelo de 2,5 m2. Tras replantearse el alojamiento para conejos se tomó la decisión de transferir los grupos de conejos macho a jaulas de cercado hasta el suelo de manera permanente. De esta forma, se tuvo la oportunidad de observar los cambios de comportamiento de los conejos al trasladarlos de jaulas individuales a jaulas de cercado hasta el suelo. Antes del traslado a cajas de cercado hasta el suelo, se grabó en vídeo durante 24 horas a un grupo de cuatro conejos macho alojados individualmente. Se repitió el proceso después de haberlos alojado en jaulas de cercado hasta el suelo durante dos semanas. Se visualizó el metraje grabado con muestreo focal instantáneo de intervalo fijo, gracias a lo cual se obtuvo información sobre la actividad, la postura y la posición de los conejos en la jaula individual o en la jaula de cercado hasta el suelo cada 15 minutos. Los conejos pasaron mucho menos tiempo en la zona central de la jaula individual, en comparación con la zona central de la jaula de cercado hasta el suelo (p = 0,012), comieron menos (p = 0,002) y se produjo una reducción significativa del aseo (p = 0,002) y del tiempo que pasaban sentados (p=0,019) en las jaulas de suelo. Se pudo percibir que los conejos pasaban menos tiempo en la parte trasera de la jaula y dedicaban menos tiempo a la interacción con los accesorios del entorno en la jaula de cercado hasta el suelo, aunque se apreció un incremento en la exploración, la posición erguida y el tiempo que pasaban completamente estirados. No obstante, desde el punto de vista estadístico ninguna de estas diferencias se ha considerado significativa, a tenor del tamaño de las muestras recogidas en el presente estudio (0,1>p>0,05). Este estudio piloto apunta a que existen beneficios de comportamiento al alojar conejos macho en jaulas de cercado hasta el suelo debido a un espacio más amplio y a las oportunidades de comportamiento, no obstante, unos estudios complementarios serían beneficiosos para valorar si estos resultados son representativos de la población de conejos de laboratorio en general. Palabras clave: conejos de laboratorio, jaulas de cercado hasta el suelo, comportamiento y bienestar. 36
Paper Summary Translations  Conejeras optimizadas para conejos macho de laboratorio  estudio piloto de investigaci  n de l...
Paper Summary Translations Informe sobre la reunión del Grupo para el bienestar de roedores RSPCA/UFAW 2014 *PENNY HAWKINS (SECRETARIA),1 MANUEL BERDOY,2 CHARLOTTE BUR,3 DEBBIE BURSNALL,4 JOANNA CRUDEN,5 WANDA MCCORMICK,6 AMY MILLER,7 HELEN PROCTOR,8 DAVID WHITTAKER,2 MAGGY JENNINGS,1 y ROBERT HUBRECHT9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Research Animals Department, Science Group, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex RH13 9RS Department of Veterinary Services, c/o University Laboratory of Physiology, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PT Centre for Animal Welfare, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA Division of Biomedical Services, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester, Leicestershire LE1 7HB GSK Research and Development, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP Moulton College, West Street, Moulton, Northampton, Northamptonshire NN3 7RR School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU World Animal Protection, 222, Grays Inn Road, London WC1X 8HB UFAW, The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire AL4 8AN Introducción El Grupo para el bienestar de roedores RSPCA/UFAW celebra una reunión de un día cada otoño para que sus miembros puedan tener un debate sobre la investigación actual sobre bienestar, intercambiar opiniones sobre temas relacionados con el bienestar de roedores y compartir su experiencia respecto a la implementación de las 3 R (reemplazo, reducción y refinamiento) en relación al uso de roedores. Uno de los objetivos primordiales del Grupo es fomentar que las personas piensen sobre la experiencia vital de los roedores de laboratorio garantizando a su vez que cualquier impacto negativo posible en su bienestar sea revisado y reducido. Nuestra vigésimo primera reunión anual tuvo lugar el 23 de octubre de 2014 en la que participaron 90 delegados de un amplio número de universidades y farmacéuticas de todo el Reino Unido. Los temas de presentación incluyeron conciencia animal, reducción del sufrimiento durante procedimientos, evaluación del bienestar y salud de roedores, y cómo garantizar que se toman las decisiones adecuadas al suministrar “mejoras ambientales” como ruedas para correr. La jornada finalizó con un debate sobre la “cultura de atención” y sobre esta puede ser reconocida, promocionada y mantenida con la instituciones. Este informe resume la reunión y finaliza con una lista de puntos de acción para los lectores para presentar en sus propias instalaciones. 37
Paper Summary Translations  Informe sobre la reuni  n del Grupo para el bienestar de roedores RSPCA UFAW 2014  PENNY HAWKI...
Animal Technology and Welfare April 2015 INDICE DELLA REVISTA Perfezionamenti in azione: dal casco alla bardatura per l’incannulamento dei ratti da laboratorio CLARE SIMS Dorothy Hodgkin Building, University of Bristol, Whitson Street, Bristol BS1 3NY *Autore corrispondente: svces@bristol.ac.uk Vincitore del premio Andrew Blake Tribute Award 2015 Riassunto Sui ratti viene eseguito l’incannulamento della vena giugulare per consentire il prelievo di campioni di sangue mediante sistema automatico (ABS). Questi campioni servono a misurare i livelli di ormoni nel sangue nel corso del tempo. Nel protocollo originale, la cannula per la vena giugulare viene esteriorizzata dal corpo del ratto mediante un’incisione sulla parte superiore del cranio. Quindi, viene inserita lungo una molla protettiva in metallo e collegata al sistema ABS. La molla viene mantenuta in posizione con due viti metalliche fissate nel cranio del ratto. Il perfezionamento di questo protocollo prevede che la cannula venga esteriorizzata sulla parte posteriore del ratto e che la molla protettiva sia mantenuta in posizione con una bardatura per accesso vascolare. I risultati mostrano che questo perfezionamento del protocollo migliora sia il benessere dell’animale che la prassi zootecnica e porta a una riduzione nel numero complessivo di animali utilizzati nello studio. Indicano, inoltre, che l’uso della bardatura per l’accesso vascolare non porta a un aumento della risposta ormonale allo stress (corticosterone) nel sangue. Parole chiave: ratti, incannulamento giugulare, corticosterone, bardatura di accesso, perfezionamento. 38
Animal Technology and Welfare  April 2015  INDICE DELLA REVISTA Perfezionamenti in azione  dal casco alla bardatura per l ...
Paper Summary Translations Alloggi potenziati per conigli maschi da laboratorio: studio pilota di valutazione dei potenziali vantaggi di box a terra *JOANNA CRUDEN1, JONATHAN COOPER2 e OLIVER BURMAN2 1 2 GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP Animal Behaviour, Cognition and Welfare Research Group, School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Joseph Banks Laboratories, Lincoln LN7 6TS *Autore corrispondente: joanna.l.cruden@gsk.com Riassunto Nella struttura attuale, solitamente i conigli maschi vengono alloggiati singolarmente in gabbie, con accesso bisettimanale a box a terra di 2,5 m2. A seguito di una rivalutazione degli alloggiamenti per conigli, è stato deciso di trasferire una popolazione di conigli maschi nei box a terra in maniera permanente. Tale decisione ha permesso di osservare i cambiamenti comportamentali dei conigli trasferiti dalle gabbie ai box. Prima del trasferimento a quest’ultimi, sono state effettuate registrazioni video all’interno delle gabbie di una coorte di 4 conigli maschi alloggiati singolarmente per un periodo di 24 ore; tale operazione è stata ripetuta a due settimane dalla sistemazione nei box a terra. I comportamenti sono stati registrati con campionamento focale istantaneo a intervalli fissi, raccogliendo dati sulle attività, la postura e la posizione all’interno della gabbia o del box ogni 15 minuti. I conigli hanno trascorso molto meno tempo nell’area centrale della gabbia rispetto a quella del box a terra (p = 0,012) e hanno consumato meno cibo (p = 0,002), oltre a dedicare meno tempo alla pulizia (p = 0,002) e a stare seduti (p=0,019) nei box a terra. Si è notato, inoltre, che i conigli hanno trascorso meno tempo sulla parte posteriore del pavimento o a interagire con l’arricchimento del box a terra, benché si sia osservato un comportamento esploratorio più accentuato e un periodo di tempo prolungato in posizione eretta o sdraiata. Tuttavia, nessuna delle differenze rilevate può considerarsi statisticamente significativa per la dimensione dei campioni utilizzati nello studio (0,1>p>0,05). Questo studio pilota conferma la presenza di vantaggi comportamentali nell’alloggiamento a terra di conigli maschi derivanti da uno spazio più ampio e da opportunità di cambiamento del comportamento, anche se sarebbe utile condurre ulteriori studi per valutare se i risultati ottenuti sono rappresentativi della popolazione complessiva di conigli da laboratorio. Parole chiave: conigli da laboratorio, box a terra, comportamento e benessere. 39
Paper Summary Translations  Alloggi potenziati per conigli maschi da laboratorio  studio pilota di valutazione dei potenzi...
Paper Summary Translations Relazione sull’incontro del RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group (Gruppo sul benessere dei roditori) del 2014 *PENNY HAWKINS (SEGRETARIA),1 MANUEL BERDOY,2 CHARLOTTE BUR,3 DEBBIE BURSNALL,4 JOANNA CRUDEN,5 WANDA MCCORMICK,6 AMY MILLER,7 HELEN PROCTOR,8 DAVID WHITTAKER,2 MAGGY JENNINGS,1 e ROBERT HUBRECHT9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Research Animals Department, Science Group, RSPCA, Wilberforce Way, Southwater, West Sussex RH13 9RS Department of Veterinary Services, c/o University Laboratory of Physiology, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PT Centre for Animal Welfare, The Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA Division of Biomedical Services, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester, Leicestershire LE1 7HB GSK Research and Development, Park Road, Ware, Hertfordshire SG12 0DP Moulton College, West Street, Moulton, Northampton, Northamptonshire NN3 7RR School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU World Animal Protection, 222, Grays Inn Road, London WC1X 8HB UFAW, The Old School, Brewhouse Hill, Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire AL4 8AN Introduzione Durante il periodo autunnale, RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group (Gruppo sul benessere dei roditori) indice annualmente un incontro della durata di un giorno, permettendo ai suoi membri di discutere degli attuali studi di ricerca sul benessere, di scambiare opinioni sulle problematiche inerenti al benessere dei roditori e di condividere esperienze sull’applicazione del principio delle 3R: sostituzione (replacement), riduzione (reduction) e perfezionamento (refinement) nell’utilizzo di roditori a scopi scientifici. Uno degli obiettivi principali del Gruppo è incoraggiare le persone a considerare l’esperienza di vita dei roditori da laboratorio nel suo insieme, assicurando il controllo e la riduzione di ogni possibile impatto negativo sul loro benessere. Il 21° incontro annuale, tenutosi il 23 ottobre 2014, ha attirato 90 delegati provenienti da diverse università e case farmaceutiche di tutto il Regno Unito. Gli argomenti trattati hanno incluso la sensibilità animale, la riduzione del grado di sofferenza durante le procedure, la valutazione della salute e del benessere dei roditori e come assicurare che vengano prese le giuste decisioni sugli “arricchimenti ambientali” come, ad esempio, le ruote. L’incontro si è concluso con un dibattito sulla “cultura della cura” e su come questo elemento può essere riconosciuto, promosso e mantenuto all’interno degli istituti. La presente relazione riassume l’incontro e si conclude con un elenco di provvedimenti che i lettori possono mettere a punto presso le proprie strutture. 40
Paper Summary Translations  Relazione sull   incontro del RSPCA UFAW Rodent Welfare Group  Gruppo sul benessere dei rodito...
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare TECH-2-TECH Haven’t the time to write a paper but want to get something published? Then read on! This section offers readers the opportunity to submit informal contributions about any aspects of animal technology. Comments, observations, descriptions of new or refined techniques, new products or equipment, old products or equipment adapted to new use, any subject that may be useful to technicians in other institutions. Submissions can be presented as technical notes and do not need to be structured and can be as short or as long as is necessary. Accompanying illustrations and/or photos should be high resolution. NB. Descriptions of new products or equipment submitted by manufacturers are welcome but should be a factual account of the product. However, the Editorial Board gives no warranty as to the accuracy or fitness for purpose of the product. Improving animal welfare, reducing energy cost and increasing flexibility? *PREBEN LEONHARDT and ANDY DOMONE Scanbur Technology A/S, Silovej 16-18, DK-2690, Karlslunde, Denmark *Corresponding author: preben.leonhardt@scanbur.eu Introduction The Full Economic Costing System (FEC) for Animal Units came into use at Universities and Government establishments in 1998. It provides a focus of the costs involved in animal research and what researchers are then charged for using the animal unit facilities. Energy costs are increasingly a large part of the FEC. The required number of air changes and a need to maintain a relative humidity of 55% make animal unit buildings some of the highest energy consumers. changes/hour compared with 15-20 for a room. Typically the total air volume that needs to be humidified is reduced by 80% or more. In the United States of America (USA) biotechnology industry it is commonplace to connect the IVC racks directly to the buildings central ventilation system. In Europe an air handling unit placed in the animal room supplying pressure and ventilation of the IVC racks is more usual. This USA system of direct supply does mean that the contained micro-environment can be treated independently. Over the last decade there has been a move away from open cages towards containment systems such as ventilated cabinets or Individually Ventilated Cages (IVCs). These containment systems provide a superior micro-environment for rodents but pose the question: Why not treat this micro-environment independently from the room? The disadvantages are that it requires additional ducting, more space in the technical area and allows little flexibility in the use of the building. The rooms are dedicated to IVC racks in a specific layout. Full investment in this central system is required from day one. Capacity cannot be adjusted at a later stage. Immediately we can see that an advantage would be that the total air volume required for the contained animals would be much lower than that for the room. This, despite contained systems needing 60-80 Consequently there are many advantages to using a mobile air handling and humidification supply unit that can control the micro-climate in contained systems as good as a centralised system – if not better. 41
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  TECH-2-TECH Haven   t the time to write a paper but want to get something publi...
Tech-2-Tech New technology available Energy savings The Danish company Scanbur A/S has developed a new product named ScanClime Mini. It is specifically designed for use with IVC racks and has the same features as a standard air handling unit e.g. High Efficiency Par ticulate Air (HEPA) 14 filters, positive/negative pressure variable and can run 4 single or 2 double-sided racks. In addition it supplies a controlled humidity for the air within the IVC cages. As described earlier, it is possible to save energy by humidifying only the air of the IVC cages compared with centrally humidifying the air of a complete room e.g. a standard animal room often is 3 x 5 metres and 3 metres high and the room volume of air is app. 50 m3. In such a room with up to 20 air changes per hour 1.000 m3 of air per hour is needed to be humidified centrally. Alternatively, a standard IVC rack contains 0.6 m3 of air and is ventilated up to 80 times per hour. When connecting 4 racks to an IVC it is only 200 m3 of air per hour need to be humidified and consequently it is possible to obtain an 80% reduction in volume. Animal welfare The ambient weather conditions of Northern Europe dictate that the relative humidity around the research models is controlled up to 80% of the year to keep it within the 45 – 65 % range required for animal welfare.1 Most central ventilation systems in an animal unit have a variation of +/- 10% of the relative humidity and a poor, old or badly maintained system will vary up to +/15%. With these variations it is always difficult to operate safely within the 45 – 65% range as this would require a set point of 55% in relative humidity. Many systems cannot achieve 55% as a set point but will due to lack of steam capacity have a set point at 45%. With these variables many animal units will have shorter or longer periods where the relative humidity is considerably below the stipulated threshold in the current legislation.1 Too low humidity will have a negative effect on animal welfare and ringtail is one of the most significant examples of compromised welfare due to low relative humidity. Another example is nu-nu athymic mice being prone to dry skin conditions. The cost of centrally humidifying the above room is GBP. £2,574 per year. The cost of humidifying 4 IVC racks would be GBP. £439. On a larger scale an animal unit with 8 rooms and annual increase in energy cost of 5% would mean a saving over 10 years of GBP. £205,000 by changing from central to de-central humidification. The above calculations are based on an animal room at maximum capacity of racks. In many units rooms also contain a cage changing station, working tables, etc. Some units also humidify laboratories and corridors. In these situations the savings using decentral humidification will be even higher. For the Full Economic Costing (FEC) the advantage is that the running cost goes hand in hand with the number of cages in use when choosing a decentralised solution. The Scanclime Mini provides humidity control with a variation of +/- 3% from a chosen set RH point of 55%. The humidity will remain close to the set level all year round. This new technology has been unavailable earlier and is standardising studies focused in current eye, skin and respiratory system research providing a stable relative humidity that is controlled and repeatable within a tight narrow range. (See pink graph line.) Flexibility The Scanclime Mini is simply adjustable to 65% RH for specific work with nu-nu mice avoiding skin conditions. When the building then is needed for another purpose e.g. as a laboratory, the cost of rebuilding is much Figure 1. Humidity in IVC cage connected to ScanClime Mini. 42 Research today is moving faster than ever. Research groups are often reorganised, split off and moved around a university campus on a frequent basis. This creates an even greater need for buildings that can be flexible and changeable to the user. With these decentralised units it is now possible to build more standardised laboratory buildings and use them quickly as animal units. Capital building costs are reduced.
Tech-2-Tech  New technology available  Energy savings  The Danish company Scanbur A S has developed a new product named Sc...
Tech-2-Tech lower than today. With a decentralised humidification solution the animal unit can bring their equipment to a new facility when moving. Flexibility will also be practical in daily use as the basic room condition for laboratories and animal rooms will be identical. Only the mobile equipment in the rooms defines the rooms use. The room’s layout can change and adapt to the changes in research. Flexibility also applies for the capital investment required. With the current central ventilation systems from day one it should be an installed system providing for a maximum capacity even when only working at less than half full. The decentralised system needs only be utilised where and when needed and expanded as expansion happens at the pace of the research. For the refurbishment of existing animal units, a decentralised system can be installed in stages, one room or area at a time; whilst the animal unit is occupied. Investment can be spread over several years whereas the current central systems require 100% investment from the start of refurbishment and in all probability the facility will have to be closed for the duration. Conclusion New technologies have always influenced the work in animal units. Contained systems have improved the protection of vulnerable animal strains. Walk In cage changing systems have improved the protection of staff against allergens and robotic systems have improved the ergonomics in the wash area. With this new development of decentralised humidification for IVC caging a new standard for stable humidification has been set. This brings about an improved cage environment, reduced energy costs and greater flexibility within the animal unit. This will assist animal units to meet the increasing demands for good animal welfare standards. It will improve cost effective research and bring about true flexibility of use of buildings and rooms adapting to the ever changing needs of the research groups. References 1 European Commission (2010). Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. Official Journal of the European Union, L276, 33-79. 43
Tech-2-Tech  lower than today. With a decentralised humidification solution the animal unit can bring their equipment to a...
Animal Technology and Welfare April 2015 AS-ET SPECIAL TRAVEL BURSARY 2014 ESSAYS Advantages and disadvantages of animal technologists performing regulated procedures in research ANGELIKA KOSCIOLEK University College London, Biological Services Unit, Cruciform Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6AU Corresponding author: waymak@ucl.ac.uk AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2014 entry Instructions to applicants Many animal technical staff have a dual role; they are responsible for the care and welfare of animals in their charge but also licensed to carry out regulated procedures on those animals. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of animal care staff performing procedures on animals in their care, explaining ways in which any potential conflict between the two roles can be minimised. “Some men see things as they are and say why – I dream things that never were and say why not.” George Bernard Shaw.1 It is with this same determination and passion that animal care staff make a difference in the world of animal science. They play one of the most important roles in animal research. Their work, which is often underestimated, makes a great impact within the industry and this is of notable importance for the welfare of laboratory animals. They are not only responsible for the care and well-being of the research animals but they also make sure the suffering of animals undertaking experiments is reduced to a minimum. They closely follow the 3Rs requirements and Home Office guidance and constantly strive to improve animal comfort and welfare. Moreover, animal technical staff gain sufficient knowledge about the animals under their care through attending regular courses, equivalent lectures and seminars and by continuously improving their experience within the field. They always try to stay up to date with current affairs 44 in the industry, which, in turn, benefits experimental animals and scientists working alongside the technologists. As with any career there are both good and bad sides. The goal is to find a happy medium where the good overpowers the bad and all the disadvantages are diminished. To start with, animal technologists have a great advantage over the scientists since they work closely with animals on a regular daily basis. They tend to know these animals much better than a scientist who may perform a procedure. This is one of the advantages that need highlighting since getting to know the animal will enable the animal technologist to per form procedures with a greater care and compassion and will allow them to take extra care to ensure that animal welfare is to the highest standard. Consequently, this will lead to a less stressful and more comfortable environment for the animal where it can relax and feel at ease. Furthermore, the knowledge about particular animals may help animal technologists in identifying any abnormal behaviour before, during or after a procedure. For instance, an animal that feels threatened or alarmed may behave unpredictably and will try to defend itself. In this situation it is important for a technologist to get to know the animal well before performing any procedure. Getting to know an animal under care can also have its disadvantages. There are cases of technical staff becoming attached to the animal, resulting in an ethical dilemma that could
Animal Technology and Welfare  April 2015  AS-ET SPECIAL TRAVEL BURSARY 2014 ESSAYS Advantages and disadvantages of animal...
AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2014 essays affect the technologists ability to perform procedures. This emotional distress may lead to inaccurate results. The technologists can try to minimise attachment with research animals by taking into account the overall result of their work. For example, using one laboratory animal may help or even save many other lives of both humans and other animals. If a technologist takes this into consideration and accepts the fact that they are doing a job for a greater good, the distress may lessen. These circumstances may especially apply to higher animals belonging to such orders as primates, carnivora or artiodactyla where getting to know the animal well before starting any experiment is usually essential. On the other hand, learning about different species and the way they behave may have a great impact in understanding how animals react to different situations and how they manage to survive in the wild. This can also be very helpful in planning and maintaining future welfare management. For example, by encouraging animal technologists to participate in a variety of inhouse welfare studies one can learn how to handle different species and strains. This may be very useful during procedures since diverse strains of the same species may exhibit a completely different type of behaviours and reaction to stress. Controlling animal diet and keeping record of its consumption can serve as an example in that the way food is eaten varies amongst different strains of mice. This may indicate that some strains are more likely to get stressed more easily than others. It also may suggest that levels of boredom across diverse strains differs. Taming of newly arrived animals can be yet another example of inhouse studies, rabbits, for instance, arriving from a designated breeding establishment need some time to adjust to the new environment and surroundings. During this time technicians can make a difference by spending at least 15-30 min a day to try to make these animals less stressed, nervous or frightened. Another example was given by Hall2 at the 2014 IAT Congress when she discussed the importance of good welfare and knowledge of the laboratory-housed dogs while refining a technique of oral gavage. During this study, a Welfare Assessment Framework (WAF) was developed where patterns of behaviour, cardiovascular, nociceptive and affective measures showed improvements in many parameters in dogs that were previously trained and whom technicians spent more time with. All the above examples benefit from creating a calmer environment for the animals, technicians and even scientists. Hence, once again, studying and observing animal behaviour may have a great impact towards experiments, research and procedures being performed. As discussed, the disadvantage to this may be an emotional attachment and distress to the laboratory animals. Another aspect is that at times performing a procedure or a surgery can become stressful or even disturbing to both the animal care staff and their animals. This is why a constant practice, improvement and refinement of one’s ability to perform procedures using the “3Rs” are essential. One such example may be illustrated by performing intravenous or intraperitoneal injections. If an animal technologist is not experienced enough to perform such injections it may result in distress to the animal under procedure as well as to the technologist. This problem can be overcome by gaining confidence and practice in doing different kinds of injections on cadavers and by improving understanding of the impor tance of safeguarding animal welfare, the integrity of studies and compliance with ASPA. A disadvantage from the animal technologists point of view may be that they will have to euthanise the animals to practise procedures, although usually animals euthanised for other reasons will be used rather than a novel animal. However, an advantage to this will be a highly experienced and confident technologist who is able to perform procedures with ease and confidence. Consequently, this conflict can be simply justified on the grounds that the animal technologists will save more lives and improve welfare of future laboratory animals under their care. Another great advantage of being an animal technologist qualified to perform procedures is the involvement in experiments and research. Knowing that one can be part of discovering cures, new medications and assisting in a breakthrough in combating diseases is certainly very satisfying and rewarding. This aspect can be mutually beneficial to humans and other animals as many drugs and treatments developed for human medicine go on to be used in veterinary medicine and much is learnt about animal anatomy during post-mortems etc. This is also a great way to obtain experience and knowledge in carrying out procedures or small surgeries on different species. A disadvantage to this may be that even after applying the 3Rs on occasion more animals may be euthanised than a technologist would like. Balance is key here, in the sense that one must be a realist yet also compassionate with regard to the research and the animals. Promoting balanced approaches towards present research will help the general public to understand the significance of the work being carried out whilst also addressing their concerns. Following the previous dilemma another disadvantage to the animal technologist may arise. The fact that, even nowadays, the general public knows very little about the work of the animal technologist which can be very discouraging at times. On this basis animal care staff are usually persecuted for what they do and where they work. After years of intimidation from animal rights extremists, technical staff and researches are becoming more open about the use of animals in 45
AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2014 essays  affect the technologists ability to perform procedures. This emotional distress ...
AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2014 essays research. The best approach to this problem is by animal technologists and scientists to constantly encourage the public sector to learn more about animals in research in the form of a variety of seminars and free events and advertise the industry through the media. Further, according to Deeny3 more than 70 scientific organisations, such as universities, charities, research councils and learned societies have now joined the Concordat on Openness on Animal Research. Leech4 also informs that The European Animal Research Association (EARA) has been established in response to the need (expressed by the research community) to inform the European public on the continued need for and benefit of, the human use of animals in biomedical research. This development may increase public awareness and understanding which, in turn, will help research and technical sectors to promote and develop their work to the highest standards. To sum up the animal care staff will always encounter predicaments and emotional discomfort. However, they should not to be discouraged but be proud of what they do and the difference they make in the world. Their work is outstanding and exemplary and has been and will continue to be a great contribution to humanity and the animal kingdom. References 1 2 3 4 46 George Bernard Shaw (2012). Back to Methuselah, Act 1. Selected Plays and Prefaces. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (25 August 2012) ISBN= 10.1479194476 Hall, L. (2014). Refining oral gavage: assessing and improving animal welfare in the laboratory-housed dog. IAT Congress 2014 abstracts. PRC Associates Ltd Deeny, A. (2014). Times Higher Education. At the heart of the higher education debate. Closed minds: the media and animal research. Available at: http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/comment/opinio n/closed-minds-the-media-and-animalresearch/2013836.article [Accessed 27.06.2014] Leech, K. (2014). Animal research: Time to talk. IAT Congress 2014 abstracts. PRC Associates Ltd
AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2014 essays  research. The best approach to this problem is by animal technologists and scien...
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare Advantages and disadvantages of animal technologists performing regulated procedures in research ADAM JOHNSON The University of Manchester, BSF, 4th Floor, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT Corresponding author: adam.johnson@manchester.ac.uk AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2014 entry It is the intention of this essay to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of animal technologists being responsible for the care and welfare of animals in their charge and performing procedures on these same animals. The essay will also attempt to explain how, if potential conflict exists between these two roles, it may be minimised. This is an issue that some laborator y animal technologists may have to deal with on a daily basis whilst others may not par ticipate in per forming regulated procedures on the animals they care for. For those that do, the issue may sometimes be multifaceted with both obvious and less-obvious advantages and disadvantages. These technologists will be used to balance these points against each other when considering how to approach the given task. These pros and cons will often be specific to the species, their individual behaviour traits and the personal opinions of the technologist. This short essay will aim to illustrate some of the most common aspects of the issue. also been used to great effect with other species, including rats.4 In practice, the trainer is often the person undertaking the daily husbandry responsibilities and the actual regulated oral dosing may be undertaken by a different person. In the author’s personal experience, marmosets can become quite unsettled when a person, other than the regular husbandry staff, enters the housing room. A further refinement to the above would be to ensure, where possible, that the technical staff member that has trained the marmosets to take the apple juice voluntarily and is present on a daily basis for substantial amounts of time, is the same person that offers the actual oral dose. The marmosets would ordinarily be more trusting of this person and be more relaxed about taking the oral dose than if it were offered by a less familiar face or indeed one that was only present for regulated procedures and whom the marmosets may therefore, associate with negative situations. An example of a situation in which it may be advantageous for technical staff to both perform procedures and attend to the daily husbandry duties may be the oral dose training of marmosets. In marmoset models of Parkinson’s disease, it is typical that treatments are given via the oral route.1,2 However, if it is accepted that some animals may form negative associations with people that are performing regulated procedures, it must also be accepted that the technologist could also be associated with stressful situations. In the case of the oral dosing of marmosets, this is unlikely but it could certainly be true for other scenarios. It is a common refinement to train the marmosets to receive the oral treatments by periodically offering them a desirable treat, such as apple juice, via syringe for a period prior to offering the treatments.3 This method ser ves the purpose of acclimatising the marmosets to the procedure and therefore reducing the stress that it may cause. It also eliminates the need for handling which generally induces a stress response in marmosets. Similar styles of training have If this becomes a concern, the solution may vary between species. With the marmosets, spending extra time with the affected animals is almost always beneficial. Simply sitting in the enclosure and offering occasional treats often has a positive effect on the way that the animals view their carer. Introducing new environmental enrichment and simple games will also keep the marmosets occupied and less concerned about the presence of the technologist. 47
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  Advantages and disadvantages of animal technologists performing regulated proce...
AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2014 essays Whilst our primary focus is providing the highest standards of welfare and care for the animals that we work with, we may sometimes put our own emotion to one side. A potential disadvantage of technical staff per forming regulated procedures with the same animals that they care for on a daily basis is the emotional effect this may have on that person. Although this may be true, it often appears to be the case that animal technologists prefer to carry out the procedures themselves. The reason for this is usually that they have a knowledge of each individual animal that is difficult for another person to understand. A technologist may have a greater understanding of how different animals are likely to respond to a given procedure and be able to take subtle measures to further reduce the potential impact that the procedure may have upon the welfare of the animal. A typical example of this might simply be the approach towards the initial handling of the animal prior to the procedure. The animal technologist will often be the person most capable of calming the animal prior to the procedure as they handle the same animal on a regular basis and will be familiar with the personal behaviours of each individual. As scent is an extremely important sense to many animals, the familiar scent of the technologist is also likely to reassure an otherwise apprehensive animal. In attempting to minimise the emotional impact upon the technical staff, one of the most important factors to consider is the quality of training they receive. If a technologist is confident that they can perform the procedure well and minimise, to the highest degree possible, the level of suffering that the animal is likely to experience, they are likely to be more comfortable in that situation. Of course, under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 19865 it is a legal requirement that any person carrying out a regulated procedure must be certified as fully competent to perform that procedure but the important point with regards to this discussion is that the technologist feels confident enough in their technique that they are able to assure themselves there is a benefit to the animals welfare in them performing such a procedure. A technologist should not be forced to perform a procedure that they were unhappy with so it is important that they consider each new procedure carefully before committing to it. Anecdotally, in Japan it is customary for some of those that work with animals in biomedical research to hold a grieving ceremony for the animals that they have worked with. This is partly due to cultural traditions regarding animals and whilst commendable, may not be a solution that directly translates quite as appropriately within our own society. However, it does address an issue that is sometimes overlooked within our own culture. It is important to nurture a culture of support between colleagues within facilities to ensure 48 that the challenges of animal care staff performing regulated procedures are met with maximum confidence and minimum stress for both the animal and the technologist. In conclusion, it is clear that some advantages and disadvantages do exist where technical staff are performing regulated procedures on the same animals that they care for on a daily basis. The most significant advantage being that technologists are often able to reduce stress and suffering to a level that might not be possible for someone, less familiar with the animals, to achieve. The disadvantages of animals creating negative associations with their carer or the emotional effect the situation may have upon the technologist are sometimes unavoidable but we are able to minimise the impact of these factors with high quality training, the support of colleagues and recognising the needs of individual animals. From the wider ethics of laboratory animal research to maintaining quality of research whilst simultaneously prioritising animal welfare, technical staff are not strangers to problems that have no clear right or wrong answer. When confronted with an issue such as the one addressed in this essay, laborator y animal technologists are typically well equipped to find a solution that benefits the animals in their care and also, importantly, a solution in which they can have confidence. References 1 2 3 4 5 Pearce, R.K. et al. (2002). The monoamine re-uptake blocker brasofensine reverses akinesia without dyskinesia in MPTP – treated and levodopa – primed common marmosets. Movement Disorders. 17 (5): 877886. van Vliet, S.A. et al. (2006). Neuroprotective effects of modafinil in a marmoset Parkinsonmodel: behavioural and neurochemical aspects. Behavioural Pharmacology. 17 (5-6): 453-462. Erkert, H.G.E. (1999). in Poole, T and English, P. (eds.) The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals. (7th ed.) Terrestrial Vertebrates, Vol 1, pp 574-590, Blackwell Science, Oxford. Atcha, Z. et al. (2010). Alternative method of oral dosing for rats. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. 49 (3): 335-343. Home Office (1986). Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. HMSO, London.
AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2014 essays  Whilst our primary focus is providing the highest standards of welfare and care ...
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare Advantages and disadvantages of animal technologists performing regulated procedures in research MELANIE DUNSCOMBE Biomedical Research Facility, University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine, Mail Point 828, Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD Corresponding author: m.s.dunscombe@soton.ac.uk AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2014 entry Many animal technical staff have a dual role; they are responsible for the care and welfare of animals in their charge but are also licensed to carry out regulated procedures on those animals. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of animal care staff performing procedures on animals in their care, explaining ways in which any potential conflict between the two roles can be minimised. Animal technology has always been a controversial and highly emotive subject. Over the past few decades animal research has gone from being demonised in the media to an almost underground issue because of this, only recently has it started being portrayed in a positive light. Over the years the nature of the work has changed dramatically, from Louis Pasteur’s work on the germ theor y of disease in 1881 to the Roslin Institute’s cloning of sheep in 1996.1 The wide variety of procedures that animal technical staff carry out are potentially stressful, both for the animals and for the technicians involved. themes in the field of animal experimentation. All data is valuable when the experiment has been condensed and compacted down to the absolute minimum number of animals in order for it to be viable. It will have reached the point where each animal is vital and the procedures need to be performed precisely so that the experiment is worthwhile. Technologists regularly carry out a large number of experimental procedures, developing specific skills and ultimately achieving an extremely high level of competence. Another advantage is that there will be a good continuity of care if the same technologist is able to carry out a procedure on an animal and follow it up with all the appropriate aftercare. Technologists routinely spend a lot of time observing the behaviour of the animals in their care, as well as their physical condition, and as a result will generally be able to pick up on a slight deviation from normal much faster than another technologist who is not the primary carer for the animals in question. Researchers may not necessarily be able to check on their experimental animals daily, they may have to delegate to another member of their team who may not know the animals so well. One of the main advantages of animal care staff being licensed to carry out regulated procedures on the animals in their charge is that the animals’ interests will be their priority. Researchers, on the other hand, could be preferentially considering the financial costs of their reagents or equipment ahead of animal welfare. The cost of reagents cannot be ignored completely, for example an antibody which has taken months to acquire and is consequently very valuable will obviously be of consideration but as a general rule the cost of the procedure will always be weighed in favour of the cost, in terms of suffering, that the animal will pay. Also some researchers have little or no experience with animals and as a result have no idea about how to approach them, whereas with animal technicians it is very common for them to have had a great deal of experience with a wide variety of animals. Animal technologists, by the nature of their choice of career, have a great deal of love and respect for animals and have generally built this up throughout their lives by having all kinds of different pets and hobbies involving animals. Researchers are taught a lot about careful experimental design – the three Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement) are constant recurring It is beneficial to involve animal care staff in the more technical side of the experiments that are happening with the animals in their care. It is helpful if 49
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  Advantages and disadvantages of animal technologists performing regulated proce...
AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2014 essays technologists are able to take an interest in what the researchers are trying to find out about, then the role of licensee has more meaning. A better understanding of the nature of the research being done also helps with aftercare; knowing about specific symptoms to look for and normal levels of deterioration to expect prior to recovery are essential. The application of local anaesthetic prior to blood samples being taken has been a topic of discussion in my experience. Some researchers could neglect to factor in the time needed for local anaesthetic to be applied and left to take effect. There are time constraints involved with sample processing and subsequent data analysis when working in a laboratory with a lot of researchers; keeping to the bookings of analytical equipment could mean that they neglect the welfare of the animal. The technologist might have to attempt to enforce the application of anaesthetic and allow time for it to be effective. The fact that animal technologists, by the nature of their choice of career, have a great deal of love and respect for animals can also be a disadvantage when it comes to carrying out experimental procedures on the animals in their care. There will undoubtedly be a strong personal conflict regarding the humane treatment of animals in captivity; such questions as, “What gives us the right to decide that animals are experimental equipment for humans? Is there any justification that can be deemed good enough to warrant the restraint and environmental manipulation of, surgical or genetic interference with, infection and treatment and ultimately the killing of a living, sentient animal? Is the benefit for the health and economic growth of humans a fair justification?” It is possible that a technologist could be asked to perform a procedure that, while detailed in project and personal licences, they do not feel comfor table performing. They could feel their level of competence is not at a high enough level, or it could be that they feel the cost to the animal outweighs the benefit of the research. Legislation exists in order to ensure that experimentation is only permitted when there is no alternative means of achieving a specific set of experimental results. The expected benefits must outweigh any possible pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm that the animals may experience. The existence of this legislation is encouraging but the possibility exists for details to be confused due to differing interpretations. The legislation helps to minimise the conflict between the roles of carer and licensee. There are clearly defined severity levels for all procedures and regular monitoring of these severity levels on project licences. Likewise there are clearly defined endpoints on project licences. Good communication between researchers 50 and technologists regarding what to expect for each experiment is essential; if there is ever any question about procedures, whether an animal needs to be culled from an experiment, or whether a person is competent at a specific procedure there are always the Home Office named persons available to consult; the NACWO (Named Animal Care and Welfare Officer), the NVS (Named Veterinary Surgeon), the NTCO (Named Training and Competency Officer) and the NIO (Named Information Officer). The AWERB (Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Body) meets several times a year in order to discuss all aspects of experimental work being carried out at an establishment, considering project applications and monitoring their progress on a local scale. There needs to be conflict between the dual roles of carer and licensee, without it the whole concept of humane animal experimentation would be compromised. Minimising this conflict is essential for the wellbeing of the technicians as well as the animals. A good technologist cares deeply and strongly for their animals, it is this that makes them so genuinely thorough when considering how to approach all aspects of procedures to potentially be per formed. Technologists are fully aware of the ethics involved in what they do. There is a fine balance between caring for the animals and being able to willingly do things to them that cause them discomfort in the pursuit of medical advancement. It could be so easy to simply switch off mentally and blindly carry on performing what could be interpreted as violent procedures against animals – so many times when asked how they could do what they do, all day – every day, have technologists responded that they just try not to think about it too much. The point is that they do think about it. A good technologist will always have in the back of their mind an everlasting respect for the animals in their care, and will always be considering on some level whether or not what they are doing is justified. The balance comes when the benefits to so many are shown, the treatments and procedures we have discovered and perfected thanks to the animals that technologists have carefully performed procedures on. References 1 Animal Research.info. Timeline [online]. Animal Research.info. Available from http://www.animal research.info/en/medical-advances/timeline/ [accessed 25th June 2014].
AS-ET Special Travel Bursary 2014 essays  technologists are able to take an interest in what the researchers are trying to...
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare POSTER PRESENTATIONS Originally presented at: IAT Congress 2014 Introducing an objective animal health and welfare assessment system into the biological resources unit of Cancer Research UK London Research Institute DANIELLE COX, VALERIE BOREL-VANNIER, CLAIRE HARPER, *GARY MARTIN, MERCEDES SANCHEZ and GARY CHILDS Cancer Research UK, Clare Hall, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire EN6 3LD *Corresponding author: gary.martin@cancer.org.uk Introduction An objective system was required by staff at the Cancer Research UK (CRUK) London Research Institute (LRI) to allow the lifetime experience of an animal under procedure to be assessed. A team consisting of animal technologists, researchers and the Named Veterinary Surgeon (NVS) devised and developed a scoring system so that when assessing a sick mouse there are two specific areas to be considered; the mouse welfare and the science. The development and introduction of a scoring system has many advantages: G G G G defines patterns of individual strain phenotypes allows Health and Welfare monitoring of the mice against specific criteria provides a detailed plan of action when mice exhibit signs of ill health provides standardised data records for individual animals. How the scoring was developed The Biological Resources Unit (BRU) staff at the LRI identified a need to develop a system to evaluate observable patterns in mice with unknown phenotypes. A system was suggested that would ‘score’ the following points of concern when evaluating a sick mouse: G G G is the health and welfare of the animal being compromised? will there be any additional information gained that can benefit the research? has the humane endpoint been reached? A group consisting of a researcher, the NVS and an animal technologist looked at previous and existing scoring systems developed and practised in other establishments. A scoring system of particular interest had been developed1 using body condition scoring and behaviour to assess endpoints for sick mice. This scoring system had two levels of assessment; firstly sick mice were identified by their body condition, this however appeared to be very subjective and open to personal opinion. The second part assessed the animals’ behaviour and used numbers to determine the level of 51
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  POSTER PRESENTATIONS Originally presented at  IAT Congress 2014  Introducing an...
Poster Presentations sickness but again was deemed to be subjective. The group felt that this system had a complex scoring system and required a veterinary surgeon and two technologists to score each animal and as such was deemed to be impractical. It was therefore decided to develop our own scoring system which could be adapted for individual project licence requirements and used clinical signs that were grouped within a four tier section, each with its own action plan. Developing the scoring system Once it was decided that we would develop our own scoring system we documented the clinical signs and observations of mice that would be relevant to the study. However, some mice were of unknown phenotype and as these phenotypes became apparent they were noted and added to the list as the work progressed. We divided the signs and observations into four categories dependent on the severity of the phenotype or condition; white, green, yellow and red and produced colour coded cage tags as a visual aide for anyone working in the room. (The specifics of the four categories were tailored to the individual project licence selected for the trial). Each of the categories has its own agreed action plan which is easy to follow and allows for standardised outcomes and enhanced communication between technologists and the researcher. Using Microsoft Excel we designed a form that allowed the capture of all relevant data relating to a specific mouse. It provided information regarding the date of initial and subsequent assessments, observed signs using a tick system, allowed re-scoring of previously noted conditions and the identification and scoring of additional conditions. G G G G G G G pale extremities hyperactivity tremors agitation/aggression abnormal breathing seizures when handled loss of co-ordination (mild) It was agreed that these were mild signs and could be the early indicators of a mouse becoming sick so requiring closer monitoring. A record of how long it took a mouse to progress to a yellow level sign would be taken. The yellow level consists of the signs: G G G G G G sustained hunched posture nasal discharge lethargic significant abnormal breathing prolonged seizures weak and stiff limbs It was agreed that if any of these signs were exhibited, action should be taken and a decision made regarding closer monitoring or removal of the mouse from the experiment. The most serious signs were classed as red G G G G G G G G hind limb paralysis abdominal palpable mass visible solid mass ulcerated tumor ulcerated wound 20% weight loss ataxia (complete loss of co-ordination) unresponsive to stimuli This is the defined endpoint for a mouse and immediate action must be taken. White level The common health problems that occur in mouse strains used by this laboratory were noted and included: G G Red overgrown teeth dermatitis Yellow We felt there was a need for a separate scoring sheet for this level which linked to the main scoring sheet and specifically showed the different levels of common issues such as dermatitis thus ensuring that animal welfare is maintained. Green level signs are: G G G G G 52 unusual gait piloerection ungroomed appearance eyes become dull un-sustained hunched posture Green White
Poster Presentations  sickness but again was deemed to be subjective. The group felt that this system had a complex scorin...
Poster Presentations                                           !       "   #        $% & " '    (  #  )*   # +  , ) $  -%(     '   .   )*      )  &   &     /    ((                    !                                          "   " !  weight loss. Please fill weight record sheet once the mouse has loss 10% it will be weighed twice a week for the 20% loss.      (  #   )*  *          &   &    #  /  &    0         &                   !                           " ! &  # (&   1 &    "   "   2  3 4 +  .  )*  "  (  5    )*  * '   /     # $             %&' (              )          "  Sick mouse assessment sheet 53
Poster Presentations                                                                                                      ...
Poster Presentations How the scoring system works All mice within the quarantine unit are checked in their home cage on a daily basis. If upon checking there is any cause for concern the cage is removed from the Individually Ventilated Cage (IVC) rack and placed in the cleaning station for further observation. If a health or welfare issue is noted with any animal, healthy cage mates are removed into a clean cage leaving the sick mouse/mice in their own environment. At this point, with the cage in the cleaning station, the assessment process begins; the mouse being observed for at least 3-5 minutes. Notes are taken during the assessment but it is very important to observe the animal before referring to the Sick Mice Assessment Sheet as you may find yourself being led by the points noted on the form and adapting the actions of the mouse to this rather than the other way round. This provides a more accurate interpretation of the observation (you may overlook a phenotype if using the form as a checklist). All information is entered onto the assessment form and given a unique case number. The form is evaluated and appropriate action as detailed below is taken: 1. If a section in white is ticked for overgrown teeth we trim them as required (up to a maximum of two occasions) and give wet mash diet. If no sign of improvement is seen, the mouse is removed from the experiment. If dermatitis is ticked the specific scoring system is used and the Named Veterinary Surgeon is contacted to discuss appropriate treatment. 2. If there are two or more boxes ticked in the green section the researcher is contacted by email, further monitoring is discussed and agreed with the animal being placed on special care on the CRUK mouse database. 3. If one or more boxes are ticked in the yellow section (either on its own or in combination). 4. With any ticks in the green section the researchers are contacted by phone and email to review the mouse immediately. At this point the appropriate action must be taken and discussed with the researcher and then recorded on the database. 5. If any box is ticked in the red section immediate action must be taken; all researchers within the team are informed by phone and email and the situation discussed but if a response is not immediately received the NACWO or NVS is informed to make the final decision. A video clip is taken and full post mortem performed. Conclusions We have successfully introduced a robust and detailed scoring system that provides a standardised method to assess mice with unknown phenotypes. Its use directly minimises the amount of pain and distress a mouse may experience whilst clearly identifying humane endpoints. 54 The system is user friendly and by placing specific phenotypes in coloured bands, each with its individual plan of agreed actions, it can be adapted to all appropriate project licences. The scoring system has been in place for a year and has been responsible for improved communication between the BRU and the research team along with improved response times for urgent issues. Following the successful trial period it is intended to adapt and use the Sick Mouse Assessment Sheets with other similar projects throughout the BRU. References 1 Paster, E.V., Villines, K.A. and Hickman, D.L. (2009). Endpoints for mouse abdominal tumor models: refinement of current criteria. Comp Med. 2009 Jun;59(3):234-41.
Poster Presentations  How the scoring system works All mice within the quarantine unit are checked in their home cage on a...
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare The development of hormone loaded diets to promote xenograft growth *ALISON RITCHIE, PAM COLLIER, NIOVI NICOLAOU and ANNA GRABOWSKA Cancer Biology, Division of Cancer and Stem Cell Sciences, School of Medicine, The University of Nottingham, City Hospital Campus, Nottingham NG5 1PB *Corresponding author: alison.ritchie@nottingham.ac.uk Introduction Materials and methods In our facility, we use several tumour models which are dependent for growth on hormone supplementation, delivered via slow release subcutaneously implanted pellets. These include prostate and breast tumours which rely on 5-a-DHT and 17-b-Estradiol (E2) respectively. Administration of E2 results in welldocumented side effects such as bladder calculi and urine scald (Figures 1 and 2). Therefore, to improve animal welfare and to avoid steroid supply problems, we developed a new way to provide hormone supplementation via the diet. Following appropriate formulation of 5-a-DHT, we initially tested this approach using the LnCap prostate cell line.1 The success of this led us to develop a further diet containing E2, using the MCF-7 breast line.2 Male and female MF-1 NuNu mice were implanted with bioluminescent and wild type cells of LnCap and MCF-7 respectively, at a concentration of 2 x 106 cells per site, males being implanted subcutaneously, females into the mammary fat pad. Pellets were implanted using a 10 gauge trochar (IRA, Figure 3). Figure 3. Implant trochar and pellet The mice were divided into the following treatment groups: Figure 1. Bladder calculi Figure 2. Urine scald 1) No hormone supplementation 2) Supplementation via slow release pellets (IRA) i) Males were implanted sub-cutaneously with 5-aDHT 0.5mg 21 day release pellets. (Only a wild type group was set up due to shortage of pellets). ii) Females were implanted sub-cutaneously with 17-b-Estradiol 0.1 mg 21 day release pellets. 3) Supplementation via diet (ssniff) i) Males were fed 5-a-DHT 2.4mg/kg ii) Females were fed 17-b-Estradiol 2mg/kg. Figure 4. 5-a-DHT diet Figure 5. 17-b-Estradiol diet 55
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  The development of hormone loaded diets to promote xenograft growth  ALISON RIT...
Poster Presentations The doses were calculated as being equivalent to that received daily from the pellets and dyes were incorporated into the diets to avoid confusion. Tumours were measured weekly using vernier calipers to calculate volumes and bioluminescent lines were imaged using the IVIS Spectrum (Caliper Life Sciences) to measure both tumour size and viability (Figure 6). C Figure 6. IVIS Spectrum Mice were also weighed daily to ensure they were eating the test diets and that their weight gain was comparable with the control diet group. Results As can be seen from both the imaging results and growth curves (Figures 7 and 8), the supplemented diet facilitated tumour growth in both cases. With the LnCap, the increase was obvious from the start but with the MCF-7, the effects were more marked from day 14 onwards. The MCF-7 growth data showed an increase with diet but not as much as with the pellets, while both the control groups showed a lower growth rate (LnCap) or no growth at all (MCF-7) However, the slower growth rate of MCF-7 could allow a longer window of opportunity for treatment effects when carrying out therapy studies. A i ii B i ii D Figure 8. Growth curves C-LnCap D-MCF-7 Conclusions Delivery of hormones, required for establishing and maintaining tumour growth, via the diet rather than via slow release pellets, is a major refinement in welfare terms by reducing the need for an invasive implant and possible removal procedure and deleterious side effects, while still promoting tumour growth. While growth was slightly slower with the E2 dietar y supplement, we are currently testing diet with a slightly higher Estrogen content to see if we can improve growth while keeping the unwanted side effects at bay. iii Acknowledgements Figure 7. Bioluminescent images: Ai. LnCap, no DHT, day 35 Aii. LnCap, DHT diet, day 35 Bi. MCF-7, no E2, day 14 Bii. MCF-7, E2 pellet, day 14 Biii. MCF-7, E2 diet, day 14 Equally importantly, we also obser ved a marked reduction in side effects in mice treated with the E2 dietary supplement compared with pellets, with only some slight urinary retention, which was eliminated by taking the mice off the supplemented diet for a few days, which is much easier and less invasive than removing a subcutaneous pellet. 56 Thanks to ssniff Spezialdiäten GmbH for their help and expertise in developing the diet. To Phil Clarke and Marian Meakin for their technical assistance and to Allan Thornhill for Figures 1 and 2. References 1 2 Horoszewicz, J.S. et al. (1983). LNCaP Model of Human Prostatic Carcinoma Cancer Research 43: 1809-1818. Nils Brunner et al. (1992). IGF-I and IGF-II expression in human breast cancer xenografts: Relationship to hormone independence. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 22:39-45
Poster Presentations  The doses were calculated as being equivalent to that received daily from the pellets and dyes were ...
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare Managing emotion in the workplace for those working with research animals ALISON HOPKINS Monkey Puzzle Training and Consultancy Ltd., The Waggon House, Dean Street Farm, Dean, Somerset BA4 4SA www.monkeypuzzletraining.co.uk Corresponding author: alison@monkeypuzzletraining.co.uk Introduction It is becoming increasingly recognised that working closely with animals par ticularly in a laborator y environment can be both physically and emotionally challenging. Because of the unique nature of the work in this area and the context, many work related issues can become exacerbated and this leads to increased levels of sickness, stress and burnout for staff. Why can we no longer ignore this? Emotions are considered to be the foundation of a person’s ability to understand themselves and relate to others. When you are in control of your emotions, you can think clearly and creatively; manage stress and challenges; communicate well with others; display trust, empathy and confidence. Without emotional control, you will spin into confusion, isolation and negativity. By recognising and harnessing your emotions you can gain control over the way you react to challenges, improve your communication skills and enjoy more fulfilling relationships. This is the power of developing emotional awareness and managing emotion particularly within the workplace. In the workplace it is harder to express emotion as we may normally do so through fear of judgment and the necessity to conform. The expectation to be emotionally ‘strong’ combined with an emotionally challenging role can lead to high levels of stress, increased sickness and burnout for staff. “What’s coming to light for the first time is that euthanasia of their charges triggers feelings of guilt, remorse and grief in many carers but most suffer in silence because the subject is taboo and they feel they have no way to unburden themselves. Few receive any formal training on how to cope with their feelings, or practical or emotional support, whether from the institutions and scientists they work for or from colleagues and family members. To add to their distress, laborator y animal technicians are often portrayed by animal rights extremists as torturers and murderers.’ Andy Coghlan New Scientist March 2008.2 There are several labels associated with positive and negative emotions. The six basic ones as identified by Paul Ekman3 are anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise. These can all be felt in varying degrees by individuals at any one time. In a research laboratory environment particularly involving the use of animals all of the above mentioned emotions could be felt in the same day creating a rollercoaster effect. How can managers and individuals better understand emotional conflict and deal with it effectively to reduce stress and burnout? Can this be as simple as creating an environment of openness and understanding? If it is, how do we do this and how do we know when we have this? What the research says There are some basic psychological techniques that can be introduced and deployed within the workplace. Such techniques can be taught and encouraged within the workplace to allow individuals to gain control over the emotion they are experiencing and deal with it positively reducing intensity and stress. It has been identified (Davis 2008) 1 that those working with animals employ coping mechanisms to deal with the emotional demands of balancing caring, with euthanasia, particularly focussing on the guilt that this may trigger. Thought re-framing is one good example. This technique helps to neutralise negative emotion by allowing the individual to experience it in a different context, one that is more empowering. 57
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  Managing emotion in the workplace for those working with research animals ALISO...
Poster Presentations Let us take guilt as an example. Dealing with guilt can be fairly complex and often the trigger for guilt is a result of a conflict in our beliefs. We are all brought up within society (rightly so) to believe that killing is wrong. However we are not taught that within this ‘belief’ there are levels of euthanasia that may be acceptable at an individual level. By putting a new frame around a context it can be seen in a different way. Do the two sentences below give you a different sense of emotion? “I had to euthanise a batch of mice today because they were not needed anymore.” “I euthanised a batch of mice today that had been bred specifically for scientific purposes and had made a significant contribution to scientific advancement.” This is just one example where a re-frame can create greater meaning and empowerment. Staff can be trained to employ these techniques for themselves and leaders can develop the ability to coach their teams to use them. What if you were proud to be doing your job, recognising the higher purpose and feeling happy to go into work each day? What if you were confident that you could cope with whatever challenges lay ahead by knowing the value of your work and its greater impact on society? Introduction With emotional understanding and the employment of some simple psychological techniques this is possible both for yourself and others within the workplace. References 1 2 3 Davis, K. (2008). Lab Animal Europe, March 2008 Coghlan, A. (2008). New Scientist, March 2008 p8-9 http://www.helpguide.org/toolkit/developing_emotional_ awareness.htm INLPTA NLP Techniques 58
Poster Presentations  Let us take guilt as an example. Dealing with guilt can be fairly complex and often the trigger for ...
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare A simple solution to prevent the abdominal migration of temperature loggers and to facilitate their smooth retrieval post-study in macaques *LEO VAN GEEST, MEREI KEEHNEN, RIANNE KLOMP, JACCO BAKKER, ROBIN VAN DER SCHILT and JAN LANGERMANS Animal Science Department, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Rijswijk, The Netherlands Corresponding author: geest@bprc.nl Introduction Before being infected with an Influenza virus, 12 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were implanted with temperature data loggers. These devices are small implantable recorders that measure temperature with a high degree of accuracy and store the data in their internal memory. All measurements are in real time and can be accessed after the logger has been retrieved at the end of the study. After retrieval of the data, the logger can be reprogrammed and re-used for as long as the battery lasts. The transmitters’ upper surface is very smooth and has no ridge or other affixing possibility to attach the logger to the abdominal wall. In previous experiments, we experienced that such loggers migrated through the entire abdomen (Figure 1), which made surger y to retrieve the loggers difficult, necessitating almost an explorative laparotomy. In order to refine this retrieval surgery, a simple homemade solution was devised: a bled knot of nonabsorbable suture material with needle was created around the logger and the needle was used to attach the logger to the abdominal wall during wound closure. Five months after insertion, the temperature loggers were removed from all 12 animals. All loggers were still fixed in the position where they had initially been stitched. The retrieval surgery was scored as a minor discomfor t. All measured data was uploaded successfully into a PC. The implanted loggers did not have an adverse effect on the animal’s health, which was checked daily. After retrieval, all animals were alive. The bled knot of non-absorbable suture material with needle around the logger showed to be a simple solution to prevent the abdominal migration of temperature loggers and to facilitate their smooth retrieval post-study in macaques. Figure 1. Abdominal X-ray, lateral view: a non-attached logger that had migrated to the vertebral column is clearly visible. It is conceivable that surgery to retrieve the logger would be difficult, almost necessitating an explorative laparotomy. Materials and methods Animals, housing, and care This study included 12 adult healthy male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) that were housed at the Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC, Rijswijk, the Netherlands), aged 6-13 years and weighing 5.611.3kg. All macaques were pair-housed (same-sex couples) in the experimental facility. The monkeys had no history of abdominal surgery. The procedures performed in this study were in agreement with the regulations for animal handling as described in the EU Directive 63/2010 and in accordance with the Weatherall report (2006).2 During the study, the monkeys were kept under close veterinary supervision. The animals were fed with 59
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  A simple solution to prevent the abdominal migration of temperature loggers and...
Poster Presentations commercial monkey pellets (ssniff Spezialdiäten GmbH Soest, Germany) supplemented with fruit and vegetables and drinking water was available ad libitum. Food was removed 16 hours prior to sedation but water intake was never restricted. 2-0 and the skin incision was closed with single-knot sutures 2.0 The position of the logger is shown in Figure 4. During the course of the study, animals were checked at least twice daily for appetite, general behaviour, stool consistency and local side-effects of the surgery. Surgery Anaesthesia was achieved by means of 10 mg/kg ketamine (Ketamine 10%; Alfasan Nederland BV, Woerden, NL, 100 mg/ml) and medetomidine IM (Sedastart; AST Farma B.V., Oudewater, NL, 1 mg/ml). As analgesia, 1h prior to surger y, 0.20 mg/kg meloxicam (Metacam®, Boehringer Inhelheim, Alkmaar, The Netherlands) was administered together with 0.02 mg/kg buprenorphine (Buprecare®, AST farma B.V., Oudewater, The Netherlands). After surgery, animals received meloxicam (0.10 mg/kg PO) once daily for two days. Figure 3. The pre-op prepared logger was inserted into the abdominal cavity and the needle was then used to attach the logger to the abdominal wall during linea alba wound closure. Subsequently, the abdomen was shaved and prepared with chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine. The macaques were placed on a heated blanket in order to stabilise body temperature and were breathing room air spontaneously throughout the surgery. After pre-operative preparation, a 3cm skin incision (below the umbilicus) was made along the midline. Subsequently, the skin was separated from the abdominal muscles. The abdomen was opened, the sterile transmitter with a bled knot of non- absorbable suture material (FS 26, 18" 45cm, size 2-0) around it (Figure 2), was inserted into the abdominal cavity and the needle was used to attach the logger to the abdominal wall during linea alba wound closure (Figure 3). The abdomen was closed with a continuing suture Figure 4. Abdominal X-ray, lateral view: The logger was inserted into the abdominal cavity and the needle was then used to attach the logger to the abdominal wall during linea alba wound closure. Results The temperature loggers were removed smoothly from all 12 animals 5 months after insertion. All loggers were still fixed in the position where they had initially been stitched (Figure 5). The retrieval surger y was scored as a minor discomfor t. All measured data was uploaded successfully into a PC (Figure 6). Figure 2. The pre-operative prepared logger, with suture material and bled knot around it. 60 The implanted loggers did not affect the animal’s health, which was checked daily.
Poster Presentations  commercial monkey pellets  ssniff Spezialdi  ten GmbH Soest, Germany  supplemented with fruit and ve...
Poster Presentations Figure 5. Minor surgery to retrieve the transmitter. Figure 6. An example of part of the temperature data collected from an animal during this study. A clear night-day pattern is visible. Acknowledgements Euprim-net 2, EC grant agreement no. 262242 References 1 2 Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. Official Journal of the European Union L 276/79 The use of non-human primates in research: A working group report chaired by Sir David Weatheall FRS FMedSci. https://royalsociety.org/~/media/Royal_Society_Content /policy/publications/2006/Weatherall-Report.pdf 61
Poster Presentations  Figure 5. Minor surgery to retrieve the transmitter.  Figure 6. An example of part of the temperatur...
Animal Technology and Welfare April 2015 Welfare challenges in high disease containment: agricultural animals HUGH SIMMONS Animal Sciences Unit, APHA Weybridge, Woodham Lane, Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB Corresponding author: hugh.simmons@apha.gsi.gov.uk Infectious organisms are characterised legally in 3 ways, by the: 1) Specified Animal Pathogens Order on how contagious they are to animals. 2) COSSH/ACDP on how transmissible they are to humans. 3) Genetic Modification Order on what effect they would have on the environment. All of these pieces of legislation categorise organisms in to categories 1 to 4, with 3 to 4 being high containment. A typical design for a building which can undertake category 3 agricultural animal work is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1a. Design of cat 3/4 building – Roof Space: Air Handling Units (with HEPA filters) also controls temperature Figure 1c. Animal room: Several barriers to entry, staff entering room wear PPE These facilities are extremely expensive to build and once constructed can be impossible to modify. To try and get the best animal welfare possible when designing and managing them, it is helpful to consider the Five Freedoms as an analysis tool. Infectious organisms are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Figure 1b. Basement Effluent Treatment Plant 62 Freedom Freedom Freedom Freedom Freedom from hunger and thirst. from discomfort. from pain, injury and disease. to behave normally. from fear and distress. Even when trying to assure freedom from hunger, thirst and discomfort there is a significant interplay between
Animal Technology and Welfare  April 2015  Welfare challenges in high disease containment  agricultural animals HUGH SIMMO...
Poster Presentations biosafety and animal welfare. For example long stem fibre is key to good ruminant digestion and bedding is a traditional way of providing comfort for all animals. If the building effluent treatment plant cannot deal with any solids these cannot be used and alternative approaches must be found. In the field of high containment disease research, freedom from pain, injury and disease is the main conflicting freedom due to the nature of the work. To minimise the conflict there needs to be a whole team approach involving animal care staff, the NVS, the NACWO, the PIL and associated scientists. The AHVLA experience with Classical Swine Fever has shown that with this team the management of adverse effects can move on from welfare score charts and humane endpoints (originally based on field experience from the 2000 outbreak in the UK) to the use of real time white blood cell (WBC) count and PCR for viraemia for predictive endpoints (group D Figure 2). Experiment AJ: White blood cell counts 65536 Group Group Group Group Cells/ l 32768 16384 A B C D 8192 4096 -10 -5 0 Days post-challenge 5 Figure 2. White Blood Cell counts after CSF challenge The freedom to behave normally should not differ between low and high security containment as the ASPA minimum space allocations do not distinguishing between the two. It should be possible to provide environmental enrichment. The freedom from fear and distress is more of a challenge in this environment due to reduced staff contact, therefore it is important to develop the emotional resilience of the animals through temperament selection, acclimatization and training to maintain this freedom. The aim of this work is to develop the 4Ps Positive (cultural attitude toward identifying issues-use of pre-start and wash-up meetings-facility user group). Proactive (ongoing development of: welfare score sheets, pre-emptive endpoints, comfort. Biosafety involved from the beginning). Preventative (design of buildings, design of experiments, developing emotional resilience in animals). Productive (Good animal welfare = good science). 63
Poster Presentations  biosafety and animal welfare. For example long stem fibre is key to good ruminant digestion and bedd...
Animal Technology and Welfare April 2015 Choosing a system for managing training records ANGELA KERTON1, *ALISON HOPKINS2 and ANDREAS STAUBI2 1 2 CBS Department, South Kensington Campus, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London SW7 2AZ a-tune software AG, Julius-Reiber-Strasse 15, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany *Corresponding author: ahopkins@a-tune.com Introduction There is no question that well trained, competent personnel are key to a successful laboratory animal research establishment and exceptional animal welfare. Within the European Union (EU), the directive 2010/63/ EU1 aims to harmonise regulations and puts emphasis on the management of training and competence to the Establishments. In the UK, the concept of the Procedure Individual Licence (PIL) has been modified but generally maintained and combined with the requirement for appropriate training and record management programmes internal to the establishment. Functional and non-functional requirements Decision makers have a great range of tools and systems to choose from when looking at data management systems for managing training records. Therefore it is ver y impor tant to identify core requirements for any training management system. 1. Logging – The data to be recorded is reliant on legal requirements and organisational policies. This can be simple information (name and degrees achieved) or information about authorisations (PIL details, training courses and lists of procedures/ techniques, etc.). The latter type of data requires the system to support “complex” data types which combine techniques or procedures, with species, competence levels and anaesthesia codes. It is important to know all data requirements (legal, organisational, operational) before assessing any system. 2. Tracking – Training records are not static. Information should be recorded and tracked. This is especially true for reminders and expiration dates 64 relating to training, as well as, competence checks for internal and external courses. A system should show the impor tant deadlines and send notifications to the people involved. “Only with a complete set of data is it possible to check whether an individual is properly trained and respectively competent to per form a cer tain procedure for a species required under a given protocol.” 3. Linking and checking – It is insufficient to simply name the procedure/technique. The training record is only complete with a reference to the species and the personal and project licenses under which the individual is approved to work. Additional information about competency level is required by law as well as the identity of the trainer, date and expiration date. 4. Repor ting – The retrieval, transformation and presentation of information. The system has to deliver any legally required annual statistics, operational reporting needs including accounting and controlling aspects such as charges for trainings and management of licences. 5. Security – Controlling access, encrypting data and communication channels. 6. Consistency – Provision of mechanisms to minimise error e.g. drop down menus. 7. Validity/Audit trail – Demonstrating the change history including the old/new value, timestamp and record of the person performing the amendment.
Animal Technology and Welfare  April 2015  Choosing a system for managing training records ANGELA KERTON1,  ALISON HOPKINS...
Poster Presentations 65
Poster Presentations  65
Poster Presentations Conclusion Domain specific systems combine all the advantages of central databases with the possibility to model the complex relationships between species, techniques/ procedures, competencies and (if applicable) Personal Licences. Training administrators, supervisors and principal investigators and any member of the research staff then have the opportunity to check personal training records and ask questions on the availability of cer tain competencies within the team or the organisation. If the system also manages Project Licences/Protocols, it is possible to have a quick, automated cross-check helping all individuals involved to contribute to compliance. Domain specific systems combine all the advantages of central databases with the possibility to model the complex relationships between species, techniques/ procedures, competencies and (if applicable) Personal Licences. Training administrators, supervisors and principal investigators and any member of the research staff then has the opportunity to check personal training records and ask questions on the availability of cer tain competencies within the team or the organisation. If the system also manages Project Licences/Protocols, it is possible to have a quick, automated cross-check helping all individuals involved to contribute to compliance. Considerations There are more aspects to be considered like technical infrastructure requirements and the financial and timemanagement costs for initial implementation and operation. Within the different categories, the bandwidth of solutions and their impact is massive. Nevertheless we hope that this over view, has provided a basic framework for the assessment and selection of the right tool for the job within your establishment. 66 Reference 1 Ar t. 23, Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes.
Poster Presentations  Conclusion Domain specific systems combine all the advantages of central databases with the possibil...
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare Experimental and husbandry procedures impact results and animal well-being *LAURA-ANNE ROBERSON, ANNA-KARIN GERDIN, NATALIA IGOSHEVA, OZAMA ISMAIL, NATASHA KARP, MARK SANDERSON, CARL SHANNON, EMMA CAMBRIDGE, DAVID SUNTER, RAMIRO RAMIREZ-SOLIS, JAMES BUSSELL and JACQUELINE K. WHITE1 Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK *Corresponding author: lr4@sanger.ac.uk Purpose The minimisation of variability through standard experimental procedures is an important part of optimising animal use, given that the quality of experimental results translates to improved data quality, statistical power and reduced animal use. In this study we investigated the impact of standard animal husbandr y and common experimental procedures on data variation and the well-being of laboratory mice to describe the effect of relatively simple procedures on data variation. Methods All procedures were performed under the prevailing principles and authority of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986. Male and female C57BL6/NTac mice underwent – Telemetry Implantation: surgical implantation of a radiotelemetry transmitter with a weight of 1.4g (TA11PA-C10, Data Sciences International, USA) was performed under anaesthetic by inhalation of isofluorane and oxygen and eyes were protected from dr ying with ointment. Analgesia was administered (Buprenorphine, 0.1 mg/kg s.c.) immediately after anaesthesia. Further doses of buprenorphine were given immediately and 24 h post surgery. Post-operatively, mice were placed in a recovery rack pre-heated to 30˚C for 2h. When mice were fully ambulant they were housed in their individual cages. In addition to normal food and water, a dietary supplement (Complan, Complan Food Ltd, UK) was given for 14 days to support recovery. Visual examination of the overall condition of all mice and body weight checks were performed daily for 14 days post surgery. – Cage changing. – Individual housing. – Overnight fasting. – Blood sampling via tail tip excision. – Body temperature measurement using a rectal probe. – Intraperitoneal injection. – Body weight, cardiovascular activity, blood glucose and body temperature were measured as parameters that reflect stress and physiological responses to it. Results Blood pressure, heart rate, locomotor activity, body temperature and blood glucose were elevated in response to a range of experimental procedures. This has impor tant implications for the design and implementation of multi-component experiments, such as phenotyping pipelines, where the lasting effects from previous tests may modify the outcomes of subsequent ones and also on long term animal health and welfare. This study describes simple refinements to working practices which minimise method related stress, to reduce data variability and the numbers of animals required in an experimental protocol in accordance with the 3Rs. Cage Changing Both sexes (♂n=6, ♀n=7): ↑ locomotor activity ↑ blood pressure ↑ heart rate 67
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  Experimental and husbandry procedures impact results and animal well-being  LAU...
Poster Presentations More prolonged response than was elicited by more invasive procedures. Blood Sampling Both sexes (♂n=6, ♀n=7): ↑ blood pressure ↑ heart rate Repeat measurement = response to the same magnitude as the first. Female response more prolonged than male response (50 min vs. 40 min). ↑ blood glucose & ↑ body temperature >1 hour post sampling. 72hr Individual housing ↓bodyweight, both sexes ♂ 3% loss ♀ 6% loss During recovery from surgical procedures, this weight loss was more profound. Upon return to group housing, weight loss was reversed. ↑ blood glucose & ↑ body temperature >1 hour after separation Recommendations  Group house animals whenever possible. To aid rehousing and minimise aggression: individually house all animals from the group when one is removed G seed individual cages with olfactor y cues (nesting material from group cage) G daily transfer of olfactor y cues between individual cages (aspen bedding substrate) G rehouse animals with original cage mates G rehouse animals into original group cage G  Do not perform cage clean before experimental procedures. Female response more prolonged than male response (105 min vs. 75 min). Reference 1 68 Gerdin, A.K., Igosheva. N., Roberson, L.A., Ismail, O., Karp, N. et al. (2012). Experimental and husbandry procedures as potential modifiers of the results of phenotyping tests. Physiol Behav 106: 602–611.
Poster Presentations  More prolonged response than was elicited by more invasive procedures.  Blood Sampling Both sexes   ...
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare An evidence based approach to determine the environmental requirements for animal holding rooms *STEVEN CUBITT, FINTAN LYONS, PETER BARRINGTON and GENE MURRAY CCTECH, St John’s Innovation Centre, Cowley Road, Cambridge CB4 0WS Corresponding author: info@cctech.eu Introduction The standardisation of scientific animal model physiological processes such as growth, maturation and reproduction are influenced by environmental factors such as temperature, relative humidity and ventilation rates This can effect: G G G G For these reasons modern animal facilities are designed to meet high standards of control and stability in order to minimise any possible adverse influence on experimental investigations. Research has shown that Biomedical buildings in the UK are not energy efficient. Fertility, lactation and teratogenesis Variation of food and water intake Variation of drug activity Incidence of disease Building performance optimisation Each building has its own unique profile: G G G G G G Figure 1. Biomedical Facility Total Energy Usage G building design age of building type of mechanical ventilation building management type of research housing systems species, sex, strain, age etc. 69
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  An evidence based approach to determine the environmental requirements for anim...
Poster Presentations Process 1. Detailed survey of all the services. 2. Fingerprint commissioning survey. 3. Evidence based modelling using environmental data on the environment for both animals and people. 4. For example: ammonia, carbon dioxide, temperature, humidity, sound, lab animal allergens. 5. Monitor how changes in the Building Performance effect the environment energy and water consumption. Understanding how your building works is vital for research outcomes Summary Biomedical research is very important to the UK. We need to maintain standards of welfare, quality, competitiveness and sustainability, whilst improving or maintaining environmental quality. Utilising the highly skilled resources we have within the UK, we can meet these challenges. Outcome From the Evidence Based Model optimise the buildings performance to provide the best environment for the research, animals, people, maintenance and energy. Identify target savings and share opportunities for success. Establishing a representative team helps to secure active support for change. It is the essential prerequisite to develop low carbon, cost effective animal facilities 70 This will help maintain the UK as one of the global leaders for biomedical research into the future. We have shown significant savings in energy, carbon and cost are possible whilst maintaining a high standard of environment for research, animals and people.
Poster Presentations  Process 1. Detailed survey of all the services. 2. Fingerprint commissioning survey. 3. Evidence bas...
April 2015 Animal Technology and Welfare The Siberian hamster-breeding and husbandry techniques MELISSA BEAN University of Nottingham, Biomedical Services Unit, Medical School, Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH Corresponding author: melissa.bean@nottingham.ac.uk Abstract For the animal technologist who wishes to learn more about the animals they work with, there is limited information available on the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). At Nottingham University we have a breeding colony of Siberian hamsters that have been with us for several years. The stock animals are used primarily for studies involving photoperiodism and the colony is maintained on a continuous ‘tick over’ breeding system which consists of six breeding pairs. improved so that fewer breeding pairs were needed. This would save the researcher money and reduce the numbers of animals being used thus promoting the 3Rs. Most textbooks covering laboratory animals group the different breeds of hamster into one. The guidelines and advice that they give is aimed more at the Syrian hamster so it is difficult to find accurate breeding data on the Siberian hamster. Husbandry information on the Siberian that can be found on the internet indicates that “The young become sexually mature soon after weaning or at a couple of month’s age, which helps to give this species an impressive capacity for reproduction” (Macdonald 1984, Nowak 1991, Parker 1990). Yet this is not what we were seeing at Nottingham. Origins and husbandry Figure 1. Siberian hamsters Photo: Gregory Demas, Indiana University A new pair will typically take 2-3 months before the first litter is produced. Often, they lose this litter, usually due to cannibalism. There was a desire for the breeding performance of the Siberians at Nottingham to be – The Siberian hamster originates from Mongolia, Siberia. – They are dark brown in colour with a thick dorsal stripe. – Coat changes to near white during winter months. – In the wild they dig burrows of up to 1m where they build a nest and raise young. – Hamsters at Nottingham housed in conventional small rat cages (RB3’s – NKP). – Given sawdust, sizzle nest, chew stick and cardboard tube. – Full clean out every other week, breeding cages left longer between clean outs. – Room temperature 19-23˚C as per Home Office guidelines. Humidity around 55%. Filtered water using long spouted bottles. – Can be difficult to handle as very active (wriggly!!) To handle scoop hamster between both hands. – Hands can be swivelled to expose underside (to check sex). Method 9 breeding pairs were observed. These animals varied in starting age from 30 days (weaning age) to 120 days. Some pairs were given standard enrichment 71
April 2015  Animal Technology and Welfare  The Siberian hamster-breeding and husbandry techniques MELISSA BEAN University ...
Poster Presentations which includes sizzle nest, chew stick and cardboard tube while the others were also given a cardboard house. Stock animals were also given cardboard houses. All houses were given after the animals had been placed in clean cages. Equal amounts of sizzle nest was placed inside the house and outside. The following day the hamsters were observed to see if they had built a nest under the house or under the hopper. This method was repeated each time the hamsters were cleaned out. The breeding pairs were observed for how long it took them to have their first litter and number of pups born within the first four months. Below are examples of the old style cage with sizzle, chew stick and tube and the new cage with cardboard house. Figure 4. New ‘fully furnished’ cage Observations and results Graphs 1, 2 and 3 show hamster preferences and breeding data. Figure 2. Old style cage with sizzle, chew stick and tube Graph 1. Nest building prefrence in stock Siberian hamsters Figure 3. New cage with cardboard house 72 Graph 2. Days to First litter: House v No House
Poster Presentations  which includes sizzle nest, chew stick and cardboard tube while the others were also given a cardboa...
Poster Presentations Graph 3. Pups born: House v No House Discussion It is clear from the data in Graph 1 that the hamsters enjoy the house as a form of enrichment. By the second clean out, 90% of the stock animals had chosen to build a nest under the house rather than under the food hopper which clearly indicates their preference. The breeding hamsters all chose to build a nest under the house. Graph 2 shows that those hamsters with a house took an average of 43 days to have their first litter and those without a house took an average of 64 days. This would indicate that the presence of the house does encourage the animals to breed more quickly. Graph 3 shows that an average number of 11 pups were born within the first 4 months from those pairs with no house and an average number of 5 pups were born to the pairs with a house. This would indicate that the presence of the house does not result in more pups reaching weaning age and may indicate that it does not reduce the number of pups being cannibalised. It can be concluded that the cardboard house is a beneficial source of enrichment for the Siberian hamster but more research needs to be undertaken to confirm whether breeding efficiency is improved by the presence of the house. The house shall continue to be used regularly at Nottingham. Observations will continue to be recorded in the future. Figure 5. Siberian Hamsters 73
Poster Presentations  Graph 3. Pups born  House v No House  Discussion It is clear from the data in Graph 1 that the hamst...
Animal Technology and Welfare April 2015 Instructions to Authors Subjects considered for publication may include original articles, technical notes and reviews pertaining to all aspects of animal science and technology, management and education. The Editorial Board wishes to offer particular encouragement to papers leading to improvements in environmental enrichment, the general care and welfare of the animals used, in particular those species and strains exhibiting harmful genetic defects, and papers describing refinements in techniques, a reduction in the number of animals that need to be used or alternatives to animal use. Papers describing experimental procedures will only be accepted for publication if authors clearly state that the procedures conform to the prevailing principles and Codes of Practice of the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986. Papers submitted from outside the U.K., should state what legislation and/or ethical approval the work has been carried out under. In addition, authors who describe surgical techniques with recovery should include details of post-operative care and any analgesic therapy provided. All submissions should follow the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) guidelines (Kilkenny C, Browne WJ, Cuthill IC, Emerson M, Altman DG (2010) Improving Bioscience Research Reporting: The ARRIVE Guidelines for Repor ting Animal Research. PLOS Biol 8(6): e1000412. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000412) The Editorial Board reser ves the right to seek independent advice on any aspect of the content of an article but the final decision on acceptance or rejection remains with the Board. Submission Material submitted for publication will be considered provided that it is contributed exclusively to Animal Technology and becomes the property of the Institute of Animal Technology. The relevant ar ticle must clearly indicate where photographs and/or graphs are to be inserted. Address for submission: atw@iat.org.uk Hard copy The original manuscript plus two copies should be sent to the address below together with a copy on disk (CD or DVD). All sheets should be typewritten on one side in double spacing and serially numbered. Any photographs or graphs should be supplied as originals and conform to the format in 4) below. Address for submission: Journal Editorial Board Chairman, 5 South Parade, Summertown, Oxford OX2 7JL. No responsibility will be accepted for loss or damage to such articles. Electronic files of submissions are required together with separate files of photographs and any graphics that appear in the manuscript. Electronic submissions should be sent via email via atw.iat.org.uk alternatively, manuscript plus two copies may be sent as hard copy to the address below. All sheets should be typewritten on one side in double spacing with 4 cm margins and serially numbered. Additionally, a copy on disk should be provided or sent by email via atw@iat.org.uk Articles for submission should be sent to: Journal Editorial Board Chairman, 5 South Parade, Summertown, Oxford, OX2 7JL. No responsibility will be accepted for loss or damage to such articles. Format Articles may be submitted either electronically or by hard copy as follows: 1). The first sheet of the article should contain the following: Electronic i. the full title of the paper ii. the initials and last name of the author(s) iii. the full address of the depar tment(s) and institution(s) where the work was carried out. iv. the address for correspondence if different to above. Articles should be submitted in Word format with double spacing to the lines and all pages serially numbered. Any photographs or graphs must be submitted as separate files and conform to the format in point 4) below. 74 2). For the remainder of the paper, the text should be
Animal Technology and Welfare  April 2015  Instructions to Authors Subjects considered for publication may include origina...
Instructions to Authors clear and concise and, where appropriate, sub-divided under the following headings: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Summary Introduction Methods Results Discussion Acknowledgements References 3). Measurements should be given in metric units – see The use of S.I. Units (1969) British Standards Institution publication and spelling should follow that of the Oxford English Dictionary. Abbreviations must be defined in full at their first appearance in the text. The 24 hour clock should be used for times. Words to appear in italic type should be underlined. Designation of inbred strains should be in accordance with the International Index of Laboratory Animals, 6th edition, compiled, edited and published by M.W. Festing, 1993. 4). Photographs should have clear and well contrasted tone values and be in colour. All illustrations, charts (e.g. histograms and graphs) and photographs should be submitted separately and bear on the reverse side the author’s name, a number corresponding to the order in which it appears in the text e.g., Figure 1, and an arrow pointing to the top. Journals:- Surname and initials of author(s) (date), title of article. Name of journal in full, volume number, first and last page numbers. e.g. Saigeman, S. (1998). Environmental enhancement of cats – what? why? how? Animal Technology, Vol 49, No.3, 145-154. Books:- Surname and initials of author(s) (date), title of book. Name of publisher, Town of publisher. e.g. Flecknell, P.A. (1987). Laborator y Animal Anaesthesia. Academic Press, London. Chapter from a multi-author book:- Surname and initials of chapter author(s) (date), title of chapter. In: title of book (surname and initials of book editors). Name of publisher, Town of publisher, first and last page numbers of chapter. e.g. Gregory, J.A. (1985). Principles of Animal Husbandry. In: Laboratory Animals – An Introduction for Experimenters. Second Edition. (Tuffrey, A.A.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, 87-105. Papers accepted for publication but not yet published should be included in the list of references followed by ‘(in press)’. Papers in preparation, personal communications and unpublished observations should be referred to as such in the text only. Illustrations, charts and photographs supplied on disk should be in JPEG, TIFF or EPS formats and have a resolution of no less than 300dpi. Content The captions for illustrations, charts and photographs should be typed in double spacing in numerical order on a separate sheet of paper. Papers describing procedures involving the use of animals should always include full details of the animals and husbandry conditions used. These would be as follows: 5). References: Only essential references should be included. Authors are responsible for verifying them against the original source material. ATW uses the Vancouver referencing system: references should be identified in the text by superscript Arabic numbers e.g. 12 after any punctuation and numbered and listed at the end of the paper in the order of when they are first cited in the text. Automatic numbering should be avoided. References should include the names and initials of up to six authors. If there are more than six authors, only the first three should be named, followed by et al. Publications for which no author is apparent may be attributed to the organisation from which they originate. Simply omit the name of the author for anonymous journal articles – avoid using ‘Anonymous’. References should be set out as follows: Animals Species Breed or strain Sex Age and weight at start of procedure Genetic status: inbred; outbred; hybrid; mutant Source Microbiological status: conventional; specified pathogen free (define which pathogens animals are free from); gnotobiotic (define which microorganisms are present) Quarantine or acclimatisation period Husbandry during procedure Type of housing: material; size; cage type if relevant Number of animals per cage or unit Bedding: type; quality; any pretreatment 75
Instructions to Authors  clear and concise and, where appropriate, sub-divided under the following headings  i. ii. iii. i...
Instructions to Authors Type of system: conventional; barrier; ventilated rack; isolator Environmental temperature (°C ± range) Relative Humidity (% ± range) Lighting: natural; artificial (state hours of light and dark) Ventilation: number of air changes per hour Period of acclimatisation before start of procedure Feed: type; composition; any pretreatment; amount; frequency Water: type; quality; any pretreatment; amount; frequency Scientific procedure Number of animals and any pretreatment Time of day of procedure(s) Quantity and frequency of any samples Statistics Tests used should be named Reprints Free reprints are no longer provided but the ATW Editorial Board are happy to provide PDF files of articles after publication. Use of these files is subject to Copyright restrictions. 76
Instructions to Authors  Type of system  conventional  barrier  ventilated rack  isolator Environmental temperature    C  ...
Attention ALL NACWOs We are pleased to announce the launch of two exciting initiatives for Named Animal Care and Welfare Officers (NACWOs): NACWO section on IAT website www.iat.org.uk A dedicated NACWO section on the members’ area of the IAT website will be available soon. Folders containing information and references relating to: Enrichment, Training and CPD, Experimental procedures, Surgical procedures, Animal behavioural information and NACWO exchange documentation (see below) will be available. Access to this area of the website can be requested through the IAT Website Co-ordinator website@iat.org.uk NACWO exchange programme In order to provide NACWOs with opportunities to develop strong networks, learn about different facilities and programmes of work, share best practice and gain valuable Continuing Professional Development, the IAT is keen to promote a NACWO exchange programme. Information on the initial pilot visits for the NACWO exchange programme were presented at the IAT Congress in March and the RSPCA Rodent Welfare Group meeting in October. The programme gives interested NACWOs and Institutions the opportunity to host and arrange visits to other facilities. Checklists are provided as a guide to the visits and a flow chart on the process has been prepared. The exchange programme provides a great opportunity for people to meet and talk about their own experiences and to develop a network of NACWOs to support and learn from each other and further enhance the wellbeing of animals in our care. CPD points will be allocated for both visiting and hosting NACWOs. The Institute would also like to use information from these visits to feed into the Council Animal Welfare group. If you are interested please contact Andy Cunningham (ac572@le.ac.uk) for further details.
Attention ALL NACWOs We are pleased to announce the launch of two exciting initiatives for Named Animal Care and Welfare O...
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS April 2015 3Rs Bedding........................................................................................................................xx AAALAC Fellowship Award 2015 ............................................................................................xi Allentown Inc ...................................................................................................................OBC Bell Isolation Systems..........................................................................................................xv Harlan Laboratories............................................................................................................IFC Institute of Animal Technology...........................................................................xiv, xvi, xviii, xix IPS Product Supplies Ltd .............................................................................................xvii, IBC LBS ......................................................................................................................................v PFI Systems .........................................................................................................................iv ssniff Spezialdiäten GmbH....................................................................................................iii SCANBUR............................................................................................................................xii Special Diets Services ........................................................................................................viii Surrey Diagnostics ...............................................................................................................vi Sychem Ltd...........................................................................................................................x Tecniplast UK .....................................................................................................................xiii Vet-Tech Solutions ...............................................................................................................vii xx
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS  April 2015  3Rs Bedding................................................................................