April 12, 1861 - May 9, 1865

 

Civil Wars, War Within The Political Parties Of The Country

Battles Of The Civil War 

Union Generals

William Tecumseh Sherman

George B McClennan

Ulysses Grant

David Farragut

Ambrose Burnside

Jospeh Hooker

George Meade

Robert Anderson

 

Nathaniel Banks

George Custer

Winfield Scott Hancock

Abner Doubleday

Arthur Macarthur

Benjamin Butler

Daniel Sickles

George Thomas

Irvin Mcdowell

John Buford

John Pope

John Reynolds

Joshua Chamberlain

Philip Sheridan

Oliver Howard

William Starke Rosecrans

States In The Union

War Aims

Goals Of The Union

     (Intially) Bring back South to Union

     (Later)    Abolish Slavery

Maine

New York

New Hampshire

Vermont

Massachusetts

Connecticut

Rhode Island

Pennsylvania

New Jersey

Ohio

Indiana

Illinois

Kansas

The Union Army 

President Abraham Lincoln

  Michigan

  Wisconsin

  Minnesota

  Iowa

  California

  Nevada

  Oregon

Border States

  Maryland

  Delaware

  West Virginia

  Kentucky

  Missouri

Union Army Nickname - Yankees

 

Larger Population

More Industry

Abundant Resources

Better Banking System

     Raises Money

Control Of Ships

Larger, Efficient Railway

     Supplies, Soldiers

Strategies

Strategies To Win

      1. Blockade Southern Ports

             Prevent trade to/from South

      2. Gain control of Mississippi River

             Cut supply lines, Divide Confederacy

      3. Take control of Richmond, Virginia

             Take over capital of South

Strengths And Weaknesses

 

 Unfamiliar Terrain

 Hostile Population

      Must Cross Land

      Must Subdue

 South Support Strong

Confederate Generals

The Confederate Army

Robert E Lee

"Stonewall" Jackson

JEB Stuart

Nathan Bedford Forrest

James Longstreet

Braxton Bragg

George Pickett

Bloody Bill Anderson

Albert Sidney Johnston

John Mosby

PGT Beauregard

AP Hill

Richardd Ewill

Joseph Johnston

Jubal Early

Kirby Smith

John Bell Hood

Barnard Bee

Lewis Armistead

Porter Alexander

States In The Confederate

War Aims

Goals Of The Confederate

     Win recognition as independent nation

     Preserve tradition of life (Slavery)

Texas

Arkansas

Loisiana

Tennessee

Mississippi

Alabama

Georgia

Florida

South Carolina

North Carolina

Virginia

President Jefferson Davis

Confederate Army Nickname - Rebels

 

 High Morale

 Homeland Advantage

 Superior Military

      Strong Tradition

      (Early In War)

 Jefferson Davis

      Experienced Soldier

      Graduate of West Pt

Strategies

Strategies To Win

     Defend Territory

          Hold as much territory as possible

          Wait until North tired of fighting

          Expectation of Britain and France to

               Pressure North into ending war

          Leaders sometimes changed strategies

               Offensive to persuade North to end 

Strengths And Weaknesses

 

 Smaller Population

 Few Factories

      For Supplies

      For Weapons

 Difficulties In Supplies

      Railroads small

           Half of tracks

           Fewer trains

 

What Caused Secession?

 

Secession happened because of several reasons. For one, it was caused first by tariffs, or taxes, on imported goods. These taxes were nullified, but solved when taxes were lowered.

After this event, a proposal was made to end slavery in territories won from Mexico, during the war with them. There was protest, but ended with the Mexican territories remaining untouched.

The next problem arose when President Taylor planned to get California and New Mexico in as free US states. As a result, Southerners thought they would lose power in the Senate and considered secession. Senator Calhoun stated that if California were accepted, the South would secede. Compromises were made, and was called the Compromise of 1850, passed in 5 parts. 

Soon after this, the Kansas Nebraska act was passed, which allowed the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to vote on whether or not they would allow slavery. People from the south and north poured into these two territories and voted for themselves. As a result, two separate governments were formed within and asked for recognition from the US. These two governments broke out and attacked eachother repeatedly, earning the name Bleeding Kansas, of which the violence spread to the US Congress.

The final straw was pulled when President Lincoln was elected. Southerners believed, although protested by Lincoln that he would not, that Lincoln would end slavery everywhere. This belief was founded on the distrust of the Republican Party.

As a result, the South seceded to form the Confederacy, and a war would begin. After these events, Lincoln vowed to uphold federal property in Confederate lands, and so the Civil War began, from the battle over Fort Sumter.

 

Battle Of Fort Sumter

Who Was Involved?

 

Where Did It Happen?

 

What Happened?

 

Union

80 Soldiers

Commander

Robert Anderson

The Battle of Fort Sumter happened at Fort Sumter, at the center of Charleston Harbor. Previously, under the command of Robert Anderson, the army had been positioned at Fort Moultrie, near the mouth of the harbor, but was moved to Fort Sumter.

During the four months after the secession of the South, the Union commander Robert Anderson moved his army from Fort Moultrie, at the mouth of the Charleston Harbour, to Fort Sumter, in the middle of the harbour. After this, the Confederate grew impatient and attacked the fort. Robert sent word that he was running low on supplies. However, the battle went on for the next 34 hours, and with the fort having limited ammo, they saved some by not firing the first two hours. In the end, however, the Union fort could not hold on for the supplies and surrendered at 4 AM.

 

Confederate

500 Soldiers

Commander

PGT Beauregard

When Was It?

Why did this happen?

 

The Battle of Fort Sumter happened on April 12, 1861, and ended April 13, 1861. This happened fairly recently after the secession of the South, which happened December 20, 1860. 

This battle over Fort Sumter happened because of the South's impatience after their declaration of independence from the North. The battle of Fort Sumter happened three months after the South seceded, and was stated by Robert Anderson that the South's patience was wearing thin, and their supplies were running low.

What was the outcome?

 

The outcome of the battle was that the Confederate army won. The Union army surrendered within the fort, due to a lack of supplies, and began retreating from the fort after a 100 gun salute, which was cut short to 50 when a cannon exploded and killed the gunner. Surprisingly, however, no men were killed during the assault. The men who returned were praised as heroes of the North.

Battle Of First Bull Run

Who Was Involved?

 

Where Did It Happen?

 

What Happened?

 

Union

28,450 Soldiers

Commander

Robert Anderson

On the morning of July 21, the Battle of First Bull Run happened. In this battle, two union generals devised an overly complicated plan, which was stopped due to slowdowns, scouting, and as a result of the slowdowns, a desynchronization between the two army's attacks. The first general failed to draw the Confederate's attention, and as such, only small forces were sent to deal with them, since the Confederates believed they were only a distraction.  Jackson, who would gain the nickname Stonewall for his impressive feats in slowing down the Union drastically, prevented the Union from reaching important high ground. As well as this, the Confederate sent reinforcements by train in the afternoon, which stopped the Union and sent them retreating in panic.

The Battle of First Bull Run happened at Bull Run, just north of the Manassas Junction. This battle, although Fort Sumter was the actual start of the Civil War, was the first fought in earnest. The battle was just a few miles away from Washington DC.

Confederate

32,230 Soldiers

Commander

PGT Beauregard

Joseph E Johnston

When Was It?

Why did this happen?

 

The Battle of First Bull Run happened on July 21, 1861. The morning of this day, two generals from the Union built an overly complex plan to try and flank the enemy, but was found by scouts.

The goal of the Battle of First Bull Run was to secure a passage to Virginia, open the way to the capital, and to destroy the bulk of the army, as well as the Confederacy. This battle would have effectively ended the war had it worked, but several things happened that caused this battle to fail.

What was the outcome?

 

The outcome of this battle was that the Confederate shattered the Union army, but the confusion of the Confederate disallowed their taking advantage of the Union's disarray, as they scrambled past viewers from Washington, narrow bridges, heavy artillery, and overturned wagons. This battle led to Lincoln's belief in that the war wouldn't end shortly. There was an estimated number of 16,537 casualties, with 2,691 from the union and 13,846 Confederates.

Battle Of Fort Donelson

Who Was Involved?

 

Where Did It Happen?

 

What Happened?

 

Union

24,531 Soldiers

Commander

Andrew Hull Foote

Ulysses S Grant

After the battles over forts Henry and Heiman, the Union army moved onto Fort Donelson. Ulysses Grant, one of two generals leading the assaults on the forts, hoped for a quick victory, of which did not happen due to several situations causing delays in the Union's movement on the forts. Andrew Hull took his ironclads to attack the forts, but his bombardment failed as the heavy guns of Fort Donelson heavily damaged the ships, and Hull himself was injured in the skirmish. Meanwhile, on the ground, Ulysses was contemplating what to do when the Confederate took a bold move of taking all troops to attack the Union and force a way of retreat open. However, though the Confederate was winning, the commander of the Confederate pulled the forces back. Ulysses, after returning to the front, urged Smith to attack the left, realizing that the heavy attack from the right meant that the left side must have been weakened.

Fort Donelson's attack happened south of the Kentucky border, along the Tenessee and Cumberland rivers. There were few points along these rivers which were suited for a fort. Before Fort Donelson, the forts Henry and Heiman were taken down.

Confederate

16,171 Soldiers

Commander

Gideon J Pillow

John Buchanan Floyd

Simon B Buckner

When Was It?

Why did this happen?

 

The Battle of Fort Donelson happened after the battles on forts Henry and Heiman. The battle began February 11 and ended the 16th of 1862.

The Battle of Fort Donelson took place because of several reasons. Firstly, these were key points of defense for the Confederate. There were few points on the rivers, that these forts were built on, which could easily be defended. These forts protected Tenessee from invasion by the Union. The forts protected the river from being used by the Union as approach avenues.

What was the outcome?

 

The Battle of Fort Donelson was a victory for the Union. Near the end of the battle, the Confederate leaders of the fort got together and discussed their options. Generals Floyd and Pillow fled, with Lieutenant Forrest fleeing, disgusted with the decision to surrender. Later that day, the Union army, prepared to attack were surprised to see white flags over the fort. Ulysses gave the option of an unconditional surrender to the former West Point friend, Buckner. This battle meant that the river could be used for the Union's purposes.

Who Was Involved?

 

Where Did It Happen?

 

What Happened?

 

Union

1,4o0 Soldiers

Commander

John L Worden

Battle Of Hampton Roads

At the battle of Hampton Roads, the area of sea bordering North Carolina and both areas of Virginia, several things transpired between the Confederate and the Union naval ships. Firstly, the CSS Virginia, which was previously the Merrimack, was a steam powered ironclad ship. This ship set out to interdict in Federal operations of the Union and sunk the USS Cumberland as well as the USS Congress in quick succession. When responding to the Congress's surrender, who had run aground, the captain of the Virginia was shot from shore, and so the ship had to retreat to attend to their captain, Franklin Buchanan. As this happened, the newest innovation, the USS Monitor, slipped into the Hampton Roads. When the Virginia set out the next day, they noticed a raft-like vessel, which was the Monitor. The battle which ensued was evenly matched, and neither ship could sink eachother, with the Monitor outmaneuvering rams from the Virginia.

 

The battle of Hampton Roads happened at a body of water, bordered by Virginia and North Carolina. The CSS Virginia took off from Norfolk to assault the USS Cumberland and the USS Congress of the Union, who were both nearby eachother and the area the CSS Virginia left port at.

Confederate

188 Soldiers

Commander

Franklin Buchanan

When Was It?

Why did this happen?

 

This naval battle, called the Battle of Hampton Roads, occured March 8, 1862, and ended the next day on March 9, 1862. This battle was the first naval battle between steampowered ironclad ships.

What was the outcome?

 

The goal of the battle of Hampton Roads was for the CSS Virginia, a Confederate ironclad ship previously known as the Merrimack, to attack and interdict Union Federal naval operations. The victory was not clear in this battle as, although the CSS Virginia sank several ships, the captain of the CSS Virginia was shot responding to a white flag.

In the end, with both ironclad ships having weaponry that was not strong enough to defeat eachother, the battle between the USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia ended in a draw. This was the first naval battle with two steam powered ironclad ships. This battle would change any future technology in naval warfare from then on. In the end, the Virginia withdrew due to the lowering tide as well as a low ammunition count. This battle was the bloodiest naval battle yet until Pearl Harbor.

Battle Of Shiloh

Who Was Involved?

 

Where Did It Happen?

 

What Happened?

 

Union

65,085 Soldiers

Commander

Don Carlos Buell

Ulysses S Grant

This battle, the Battle of Shiloh, happened at the Tenessee river, where Ulysses S Grant set up camp waiting for reinforcements. At this camp, Ulysses trained fresh recruits while awaiting Don Carlos Buell's arrival, with troops. This battle happened specifically at the Pittsburgh Landing.

With the Battle of Shiloh, several things transpired. Before this battle, however, Johnston had pulled his troops back from Kentucky to Corinth, Mississippi, a transportation center. Ulysses welcomed this and set up a training camp, awaiting reinforcements by way of Don Carlos Buell. Knowing this, Johnston planned to attack Ulysses. Johnston originally planned to attack on the fourth of April, but due to delays, this was pushed back to the sixth. The attack, catching Ulysses unaware, started with routing Union troops. By afternoon, Union troops established a defensive line known as the Hornets Nest. The rebels surrounded and bombarded Ulysses and Buell's troops, with Buell arriving around the time the defensive line was established. The defensive line, although surrounded, was anchored by heavy artillery. The battle that ensued went through dark, and in the battle, a blow was struck to the Confederate. Johnston had been mortally wounded, and command was given to Beauregard. Beauregard, unaware of Buell's reinforcements, was attacked, but immediately ordered a counter attack. Although this counterattack was successful, the Union's line stiffened and the Confederates had to fall back to Corinth.

Confederate

44,968 Soldiers

Commander

Albert SIdney johnston

PGT Beauregard

When Was It?

Why did this happen?

 

The Battle of Shiloh happened April 6, 1862 and ended April 7. This battle happened after the fall of Fort Henry and Donelson. This battle would have been on April 4, but delays caused it to be pushed back. 

What was the outcome?

 

The battle of Shiloh happened because of one major factor. This major factor was that Johnston, a Confederate general, knew that the Union Yankees would be getting reinforcements, and would be caught unaware of an attack, as they were establishing a training camp awaiting reinforcements. 

At the Battle of Shiloh, although it seemed like the Union army would be defeated, the battle's result was a victory for the Union. This victory for the Union meant that the Confederacy, or rather Beauregard of the Confederacy, would have to retreat. This battle also led to the loss of a Confederate general, namely Albert Sidney Johnston.

Battle Of Second Bull Run

Who Was Involved?

 

Where Did It Happen?

 

What Happened?

 

Union

70,000 Soldiers

Commander

John Pope

Second Bull Run took place at Rappahannock, as well as other nearby places, such as Manassas. This battle was spread over several areas as the armies fought, and chased after, eachother.

In the battle of Second Bull Run, several things happened. Firstly, Pope had been chosen to reorganize Virginia's union army, shield Washington, and take pressure off of McClennan's army. However, objectives were changed as McClennan lost to a tactical victory by Jackson, which led to a focus on Lee. Lee planned to destroy Pope's army before most of McClennan's army arrived. This was foiled when Pope moved away, but Pope was lured out of moving from Rappahannock by the bold decision to have Jackson circle around and attack supply lines. On August 30, Pope was faced with conflicting intel and decided that the Confederate was retreating. This led to his attack on the skirmishers, which led to the bulk of the Confederates. This stopped the advance. Pope decided on assaulting Jackson's line, but was stopped by artillery. Barely making it out, Union forces defended their only way out, saving time for Pope's army to retreat through Bull Run, when Lee led an incursion to the North.

Confederate

55,000 Soldiers

Commander

Robert E Lee

When Was It?

Why did this happen?

 

This battle began August 28, 1862, and ended the thirtieth of August that same year. This battle took place after Jackson's tactical victory against McClennan's army of the Union.

What was the outcome?

 

The Battle of Second Bull Run happened because it was a defense line to hold back the Confederates from attacking Washington. Another purpose of this battle was ordered by the Union's administration to take pressure off of McClennan's army. However, due to Jackson's tactical victory, the focus of the Union shifted against Lee, so Lee hoped to destroy Pope's army before reinforcements came by McClennan.

The Battle of Second Bull Run ended in a Confederate victory, won by Robert E Lee. This meant that, for the Confederate, this would be the first time they attacked the North. The loss for the Union meant that the way to the Union capital was opened for the Confederate to attack.

Battle Of Antietam

Who Was Involved?

 

Where Did It Happen?

 

What Happened?

 

Union

87,000 Soldiers

Commander

George B McClennan

This battle, the Battle of Antietam, happened in a general location. One part of the battle happened at Dunker Church, as well as another part over Antietam Creek.

Several things had occured in the battle of Antietam. Joseph Hooker assaulted the left flank of Lee's troops, with repeated Union attacks and Confederate counterattacks. These attacks swept back and forth, while Union assaults pierced the center of the Confederate. However, due to no further advances being made, this produced no advantages. Later this day, Ambrose Burnside, a Union general, pushed across a shot up bridge over Antietam Creek, but the victory was short lived. Soon after this had happened, Confederate reinforcements arrived and pushed Burnside back. Lee continued to skirmish, in spite of his wounded, but later retreated. To Lincoln's displeasure, McClennan did not chase the wounded army. 

Confederate

45,000 Soldiers

Commander

Robert E Lee

When Was It?

Why did this happen?

 

Battle of Antietam started September 16, and ended the 18th of September, in the year 1862. This was singlehandedly the bloodiest day in American history. 

What was the outcome?

 

The Battle of Antietam happened because of Robert E Lee pushing to Maryland. To stop Robert E Lee's advance to Maryland, and to the capital of the Union, Washington DC, McClennan's Army of Potomac headed out to face them. This battle ended up being the bloodiest day in American military history. 

An inconclusive battle, the battle of Antietam had 22,717 casualties of war. Although this was not a victory for either sides, the Union claimed victory, which Lincoln used to his advantage. Lincoln used the fact of this claimed victory to build rapport for the Emancipation Proclamation.

Battle Of Fredericksburg

Who Was Involved?

 

Where Did It Happen?

 

What Happened?

 

Union

100,007 Soldiers

Commander

Ambrose E Burnside

The battle of Fredericksburg happened along the river of Rappahannock, and into the city of Fredericksburg, in Virginia, where the first urban combat had occurred in the Civil War.

At the battle of Fredericksburg, the first urban battle in the Civil War, many things occurred. For one, Ambrose Burnside attempted a river crossing over Rappahannock, one of the first majorly opposed river crossing in American history. At the river crossing, there had been no other battle that contained such a concentration of soldiers, with almost 200,000 beginning the war. Originally, Burnside planned to crush the right flank of the Confederates. Although it was promising that they would destroy it, a lack of reinforcements and a powerful counterattack by Jackson prevented them from doing so, with no tactical advantages gained, but men lost. While this was happening, a so called diversion was happening, where waves of soldiers surged forth to attack a stone wall with veteran Rebels. At the end of the battle, it was clear the Confederates had won, as 13,300 union soldiers laid on the ground, dead, while as many as 4,500 in comparison Confederate troops were dead. After the battle, Burnside was removed from command by Lincoln.

Confederate

72,497 Soldiers

Commander

Robert E Lee

When Was It?

Why did this happen?

 

This battle took place from December 11, to December 15, of the year 1862. One of the largest and deadliest battles of the war, this battle took place after the battle of Second Bull Run.

What was the outcome?

 

The Battle of Fredericksburg occured when Burnside proposed, after being appointed commander of the Army of Potomac in November, to circle around Robert Lee's army and move the Union army to Falmouth, across Rappahannock river, through Fredericksburg, and make an attack on the capital of the Confederate, which was Richmond, Virginia. This battle, however, was fought when Burnside first planned to assault the Confederate's right flank.

The outcome of this disastrous battle for the Union was that the Confederate army won, as Ambrose Burnside repeatedly threw men at the enemy, in last ditch attempts to make ends meet. About six weeks after this battle, Burnside was removed from command of the Army of Potomac. This meant that the battle would still go on, and there wouldn't be an easy victory for the Union.

Battle Of Chancellorsville

Who Was Involved?

 

Where Did It Happen?

 

What Happened?

 

Union

97,382 Soldiers

Commander

Joseph Hooker

This battle occured at Chancellorsville, in the thickets surrounding it, and ended in the retreat to the river crossing across Rappahannock river.

In the battle of Chancellorsville, several major events took place. some of which bigger than others. Firstly, Burnside was removed from the position of commander from the Army of Potomac and replaced with Joseph Hooker, who enthusiastically retrained the army. This showed in the battle through Hooker's maneuvers that he enacted to get around Lee. However, Hooker never managed to get through the 70 square mile thickets surrounding Chancellorsville, which was aided by the fact that Jackson swung around to attack Hooker's rear and right with the bulk of Lee's forces, while about 15,000 men held the line with Lee, which was done by feigning attacks with skirmishers against Hooker. During Jackson's attack, however, he was shot and killed mistakenly by his own men. Soon after, the long battles transformed into a brute-force match between the two armies. Hooker was knocked unconscious by artillery, and awoke 30 minutes later to stop a commander from using the strength of the army. Although they gave ground, a rear guard broke through the Confederate lines. This was short lived, however, as Lee quickly dispatched them and coralled the rest of Hooker's army.

Confederate

57,352  Soldiers

Commander

Robert E Lee

When Was It?

Why did this happen?

 

The battle of Chancellorsville took place April 30 through May 6 of 1863. The battle occurred after Burnside's removal from the position of commander, and after Hooker's vigorous retraining of the army, which was visible in the battle.

What was the outcome?

 

Occuring after the battle of Fredericksburg, in which Ambrose Burnside was removed from the position of the commander of the Army of Potomac, Joseph Hooker was selected as the new commander. Hooker energetically reorganized the army of Potomac and set forth to accomplish what Burnside couldn't at Chancellorsville. 

This outcome was a Confederate victory, but the losses were great, with the Confederate's somewhat greater. In this regard, this was due to the fact that Stonewall Jackson was caught in crossfire and killed at the battle of Chancellorsville, through his maneuver attempting to flank the Union army. In the end, however, 18,000 Union and 13,000 Confederate troops died in this battle.

Assault On Vicksburg

Who Was Involved?

 

Where Did It Happen?

 

What Happened?

 

Union

77,000 Soldiers

Commander

Ulysses S Grant

The campaign began at Vicksburg, Virginia, which was a strategic river fortress, or town, that had some of the most harmful terrain nearby.

At the Assault of Vicksburg, several things had happened. Firstly, Ulysses S Grant, not wanting to have any more casualties, decided to assault Vicksburg, a strategical fort of the Confederacy which controlled the Mississippi river. Grant went about this by a bold mood, where he conducted a surprise landing at Bruinsburg, Mississippi. Grant quickly moved inland, pushing away threats such as Joseph E Johnston's army near Jackson. After securing the rear, Grant turned towards Vicksburg. Victories along the way weakened John C Pemberton's forces, leaving no option but to retreat to Vicksburg. Grant was repulsed at the fort, but pushed on. The battle took 47 days, of which both soldiers and civilians were trapped in the fort, before Pemberton surrendered. 

Confederate

33,000  Soldiers

Commander

John C pemberton

When Was It?

Why did this happen?

 

The Assault on Vicksburg began on May 18, and was a hard fought battle that lasted through to July 4, in the year of 1863. In previous attempts, Confederate maneuvers and terrain prevented the assault from succeeding.

What was the outcome?

 

The Assault on Vicksburg, under command of Ulysses S Grant, ended due to Ulysses S Grant. He was to siege the stronghold, and although Grant suffered a huge loss throughout the battle, he pushed forward so as not have any further losses. Overall however, the main reason that the campaign began was to get the strategic fort away from the Confederates.

This outcome was a Union victory, and was a telling blow for the Confederacy. The victory for the Union meant that the Union controlled the Mississippi River, which would seal the fate of the Confederacy. Overall, the total amount of casualties from the Assault on Vicksburg estimated to be about 37,402, with both soldiers and civilians suffered from being held up in the fort. Almost 5,000 Union and more than 32,000 Confederacy soldiers were casualties of the war.

Battle Of Gettysburg

Who Was Involved?

 

Where Did It Happen?

 

What Happened?

 

Union

93,921 Soldiers

Commander

George G Meade

The Battle of Gettysburg was fought at Gettysburg, Pennysylvania, where Lincoln would later give his Gettysburg Address, commemorating the fallen.

In the Battle of Gettysburg, many events occurred. Firstly, after learning Meade's army was in Pennsylvania, Lee surrounded and grouped his army around Gettysburg. The armies collided at the west and north July 1, and although cavalry slowed down the Confederates, reinforcements had arrived. 30,000 rebels defeated 20,000 yankees, who retreated through hills south of the town. The second day, the two armies clashed at a range of hills and ridges, with the Union having 90,000 soldiers, wrapped around with 70,000 Confederate soldiers. Although they gained ground, the Union still secured strong positions by the end of the day. On July 3, fighting resumed, with 12,000 Confederates charging, called Picketts Charge, repulsed by Union fire and atrillery. In the end, Lee led a painful retreat back to Virginia. Lincoln used the battle to commemorate the battle and redefine the war.

Confederate

71,699  Soldiers

Commander

Robert E Lee

When Was It?

Why did this happen?

 

The Battle of Gettysburg happened after Robert E Lee's victory in the battle of Chancellorsville. It began July 1, and ended July 3, of the year 1863.

What was the outcome?

 

This battle, started by Robert E Lee, aimed to accomplish several goals. For one, Robert E Lee aimed to ravage the abundant Pennsylvanian farmland for supplies, as well as take the battle away from Virginia. Second, Lee wanted to threaten Northern cities and win a major battle in the North so that peace groups would push harder to end the war. This was met by Meade's army, who had been ordered by Lincoln to protect the capital.

The Battle of Gettysburg, which was the Union's victory, had several effects on the future. First of all, there was an estimated 51,112 casualties from both sides in the war. As a result, Lincoln gave the famous Gettysburg Address. This speech redefined the Civil War, while commemorating the fallen soldiers of the battl.e. Another effect was that Robert E Lee was pushed away from the capital, securing its safety for a while.

Surrender At Appomattox

Who Was Involved?

 

Where Did It Happen?

 

What Happened?

 

Union

63,285 Soldiers

Commander

Ulysses S Grant

Robert E Lee's surrender, the final few armies of the Confederacy, happened at Appomattox river, where he was pushed back from a village. 

Before the surrender of Appomattox, a few things had occurred. An attack was made by Robert E Lee, to open up a way in a weakpoint of cavalry. The outnumbered cavalry had fallen back, but their place was filled by Union infantry from the west and south. This completed Lee's encirclement and cut off Lee's retreat. Not wanting to face the inevitable, Lee retreated to Appomattox River, where he sent out groups that resisted against the Union. This continued until he sent out a flag of truce, between 10 and 11 AM. Lee decided to surrender to North Virginia, not wanting to sacrifice the soldier's lives without purpose.

Confederate

26,000  Soldiers

Commander

Robert E Lee

When Was It?

Why did this happen?

 

Robert E Lee's surrender took place on April 9, 1865, after Ulysses pushed forward to end the war.

What was the outcome?

 

There was one major goal to this battle, and this was by Ulysses S Grant. Ulysses's goal in this battle was to cut off Robert E Lee's army from escape and to destroy it. This final battle would be the first step towards reuniting the two separated pieces of a country.

Although the battle was not a big one, it was a major one in terms of its effects on the future to come. First of all, this meant that the Confederate didn't have many more armies. The Union offered very lenient terms when they surrendered to the Appomattox court house. These terms were that they were paroled, sent home, while the Union were to not overly celebrate or taunt. This served as a blueprint for the rest of the Confederate armies' surrendering. Although a formal treaty wasn't signed, submission ended the war and began reunification.

Ulysses S Grant

About Ulysses S Grant

Ulysses S Grant was born as Hiram Ulysses Grant in Point Pleasant, Ohio, with his name changed due to an error with the records, during his first days at the US Military Academy at West Point. Known as Sam by his friends, he graduated 21st out of 39. Although he didn't have the best record, he served well as a captain in the Mexican war. In the Civil War, his triumphs in 1862, through the attacks of Fort Henry and Donelson, won him the name "Unconditional Surrender" Grant. Lincoln received several demands to remove Grant from service, but Lincoln said that he had to have Grant, saying "I can't spare this man. He fights." The next day, aided with Buell's men, he won a battle, stopping the Confederate advances. After this, Grant also won a strategic victory at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, which were the turning points in the war. In March, 1864, Lincoln promoted him to the rank of Lieutenant General  and general-in-chief of the Armies of the United States. After the Civil War, the new president named Grant Secretary of War, and elected the 18th president, but unfortunately, his administration was riddled with corruption. Grant toured the world , but lost his entire savings to a corrupt bank. To make money back, he wrote about his war experiences, which were found popular, and eventually wrote his autobiography, before dieing of cancer at the age of 63. Grant is now buried in NYC, in the largest mausoleum of the US, which became a national memorial.

Robert E Lee

About Robert E Lee

Robert E Lee, born by Revolutionary War hero Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee in Stratford, Virginia, Robert Edward Lee was destined for greatness. Although his father had financial problems, he secured a position at West Point Academy, and married two years after graduating to Mary Anna Randolph Curtis, a descendant of Washington. He hadn't been in a war yet, but this changed when he went to the Mexican War, and left with the rank of Colonel. From 1852 to 1855, he served as superintendent of West Point, and was responsible for educating both his future allies and his future enemies. He refused Lincoln's appointment, stating that he couldn't go against his people, being Virginia, and served for the Confederacy. He served as military advisor to Jefferson Davis, until June 1862 where he was given command of Johnston's army. Lee's army would be known as the most famous and successful of the Confederate army, with some of the most inspiring figures such as Stonewall Jackson. Lee, with his plans leaked, stalemated with McClennan at Antietam, and defended against the attacks on Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. He then fought, with great confidence that he could win, at Gettysburg, but retreated and took full responsibility. He wrote Davis his resignation, which Davis refused to accept. In April 9, 1865, Ulysses S Grant, who used to be an acquaintance of Lee, forced Lee to surrender, which Lee did, understanding that the Confederacy would soon fall, and it would be useless to send his men to their deaths for a dying cause. Lee returned home on parole and eventually became Washington College's, in Virginia, president. He stayed in this position until his death in Lexington, Virginia, on October 12, 1870.

Children 

Soldier

Woman

Life During The Civil War

Active, enthusiastic, and critical part of society

Much bigger population percentage 1860 than today

Supported war effort; future invoked as reason to fight and win

Took up arms with elders to fight

     ~48 under 18 given Congressional Medal of Honor

Not Easy; At first, volunteers rushed, but didn't last
     Camps
          Pleasant moments

               Songs, stories, letters, baseball
          Unpleasant
               Boredom, discomfort, sickness, fear, horror
     Drilled constantly, bad food, marches, rain, hunger
     1 in 8 in Union ran away, 1 in 11 in Confederate ran away

          Hunger, Fear, Sickness

African Americans not accepted at first

 

Not Easy; At first, volunteers rushed, but didn't last
     Camps
          Pleasant moments

               Songs, stories, letters, baseball
          Unpleasant
               Boredom, discomfort, sickness, fear, horror
     Drilled constantly, bad food, marches, rain, hunger
     1 in 8 in Union ran away, 1 in 11 in Confederate ran away

          Hunger, Fear, Sickness

African Americans not accepted at first

 

 Results Of The War

 Victory For The Union

After the Surrender at the Appomattox Court House, essentially the Union won. The guidelines had been set for future surrendering of the remainding Confederate forces, and the war had unofficially ended. An official peace treaty, however, had not yet been signed. Reconstruction of the country was still yet to come in the tenuous bond between the country. Terms, however, were very lenient in the armies' surrenders as the Union was not to excessively brag about their victory, nor jeer at the Confederate. As well as this, Confederate soldiers were sent home, with only parole, and some of which had lenient terms, such as keeping their horses for their crops.