The American Revolution was the war in which the 13 colonies fought to try and win their independence. Everything started to fall apart after the French and Indian War. The British lost a lot of money from this war and was now looking to the colonists for help. The colonists were then forced to pay tax called the Stamp Act. They paid taxes on legal papers, newspapers, and other printed items. Colonists were mad; they thought that without representation there should be no taxation. This led to Great Britain sending troops to the colonies to make sure that they pay their taxes which led to the Bloody Massacre or the Boston Massacre. This made the colonists even angrier. This was followed by the Boston Tea Party where they dumped tons of tea into the Boston Harbor. This all led to the Intolerable Acts which were harsh laws to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party. This was a hard fight for the colonists to fight. But they never gave up which gave them some chance of winning. All of this led up to the Revolutionary War.
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War was a continuation of a series of events that led to the American Revolution. The French controlled the Mississippi river and claimed the Ohio river valley as well. Both the French and the British began to make forts. The French expanded into areas the British had already claimed. In 1754 Major George Washington was sent by Virginia’s governor to evict the French from fort Duquesne. Washington ordered his men to open fire which killed 12 people and wounded 22. The war had started. During the first two years of the war the French and Indian allies defeated the British numerous times. The tide of the war changed in 1756 when William Pitt became the British secretary of state. Slowly they captured the French forts. 1759 they won the war of Abraham which allowed them to occupy Quebec. The war officially ended on February 10, 1763. The French moved and stayed west of the Mississippi river. The cost of the war was very high which made the British look to the colonists for help.
This shows what the French and Indian war most likely looked like.
Great Britain passed a law called the Stamp Act in 1765 which led to the first American colonists to protest. People in the colonies had to use stamp on newspapers and legal documents. The colonists had to buy these stamps from the British government. Colonists protested about this. The colonists refused to do this and held violent demonstrations. The colonists thought that they shouldn't have to pay taxes with no representatives in the British government. They thought that they should only obey their own legislatures. Because of all this commotion representatives from 9 colonies held a meeting and wrote down their complaints about the British government. They asked Great Britain to repeal this law. The colonists agreed to help make sure that Great Britain did it. They agreed to not import goods from Great Britain. As a result the manufacturers lost money. Manufacturers asked Parliament to repeal this law. Soon Parliament did repeal the law in 1766. Great Britain later passed other taxes to the colonists. This all led to protests and WAR!
This picture shows a stamp that the colonists probably used during the Stamp Act.
The Bloody Massacre
In 1770 the Boston Massacre or the Bloody Massacre occurred. In 1767 Parliament passed a law called the Townshend Acts. This law placed tax on goods such as tea, paper, and glass. All of this angered the colonists. They thought that is was unfair that they were being taxed without any representatives. They chanted in the streets and in protests, "No taxation without representation." In 1768 Great Britain sent soldiers to keep order and make sure that the colonists paid their taxes. On March 5, 1770 British soldiers were trying to quiet down an angry mob. The colonists were throwing and shouting things at the soldiers. They told the soldiers not to shoot but in all the confusion they did. One of the men that got shot was a man named Crispus Attucks. Crispus Attucks is remembered as a man that died for our freedom. Two of the soldiers were found guilty of the shootings that killed the five men. The colonists started to get angrier and angrier as the Revolution came closer and closer. All this caused the colonists to speak out against rule by Great Britain.
This shows a picture of the Boston Massacre which historians say is not accurate. They say that the colonists were throwing rocks at the British troops which started the Boston Massacre.
The Boston Tea Party
The Boston Tea Party was one of the many events that caused the Revolutionary War. The Boston Tea Party occurred in 1773. For many years the American colonists complained about the way that they were treated by the British government. One of these complaints was that the British government made the colonists pay taxes on the goods that were shipped to the colonies. Most of the taxes were gone when Parliament repealed them but some were still there like the tea tax, however. Colonists in New York and Philadelphia refused to let to allow the ships to let of the tea. In Massachusetts however they stayed loyal to the British. On the night of December 16, 1773 a group of people with about 60 people wanted to protest against the tea tax. They disguised themselves as Native Americans and bordered the ships in Boston Harbor. They dumped 300 crates of tea into the harbor. Parliament made several new laws that punished the colonists for that. One of the laws closed Boston Harbor until they paid for the tea that was ruined. Representatives from the 13 colonies came together to protest against these laws in Philadelphia in September 5, 1774. The meeting became what is called the First Continental Congress.
This picture shows colonists that were dressed up as Native Americans on a boat dumping crates of tea into Boston Harbor. This event is now called the Boston Tea Party.
The Intolerable Acts
After the Boston Tea Party Parliament and Great Britan made harsh laws called the Intolerable Acts. One of these laws said that Boston Harbor would stay closed and not be reopened until the colonists paid for all the tea that they threw into Boston harbor during the Boston Tea Party. The second law was that the British put Massachussets under millatary rule. The third law protected British officials when they were accused of crime in the American colonies. The fourth law said that British soldiers could to be housed in the colonists homes. Another law was that part of the land west of the 13 colonies was given to Quebec. The colonists decided to call the laws intolerable which gave its name the Intolerable Acts. The British thought that these laws would keep the colonies under control. The colonists however wanted to get vengeance so they did this by setting up the Continental Congress. In 1776 the Contenental Congress created the Decleration of Independence which was written by Thomas Jefferson. This document held all of the complaints that the colonists had that the Continental Congress had came up with and written down. This was an important cause of the American Revolution.
This shows the colonists being told about the Intolerable Acts.
This is a timeline of the Revolutionary War.
In 1776 most of the colonies did not want to break away from Great Britain, they just wanted them to do something about their complaints. But as more fighting spread the colonies wanted to break away more and more. On July 4 the Continental Congress approved the Declaration Of Independence. With this document the 13 colonies became their own country; the United States of America. The Americans were now struggling against the highly equipped British army. In 1776 the British army forced George Washington's troops out of New York. The Americans were being pushed back trough New Jersey into Pennsylvania. On Christmas night the Americans crossed the Delaware bridge and entered back into New Jersey. George Washington had 2,400 troops with him which won them important wars in Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey. These battles helped keep the battle of Independence alive. The Americans came back and started won an important war in Saratoga, in New York. On October 17 1777 General Horatio Gates led the Continental army to a win over the British. The victory helped to bring France into the war with the Americans, France sent ships and they also sent soldiers. The winter of 1777-78 was a very hard time for the Americans. Washington and his troops camped at Valley Forge, near Philadelphia. They suffered terribly from hunger and illness. But they emerged in the spring with a stronger fighting force. The Americans defeated the British Monmouth, New Jersey, on June 28, 1778. In the final years of the war the fighting was mostly in the South. In 1780 the British won battles in South Carolina. But in 1781 the British trapped General Cornwallis in Yorktown, Virginia. Cornwallis surrendered on October 17, 1781. The war was over. The Patriots had won. The peace treaty was signed on September 3, 1783; it was called the Treaty of Paris. Great Britain now agreed that the 13 colonies were now an Independent Country meaning that the British king: King George lll now had no control over the American colonists!
This shows George Washington escaping across the Delaware river and later winning the Revolutionary War.