Date: 13/11/16 UNSUSTAINABLE RESEARCH T R AV E L Name: Ben Le Brocq Student No: 13817055 Email: Belb10@uni.Brighton.ac.uk Personal Email: Ben.LeBrocq@gmail.com Course Title: Product Design Technology Module Code DP361 Module Name: Research Course Leader: Dr. Eddy Elton
Date  13 11 16  UNSUSTAINABLE RESEARCH  T R AV E L  Name  Ben Le Brocq Student No  13817055 Email  Belb10 uni.Brighton.ac....
CONTENTS 1 Introduction A description of the goal of the research and an overview to the findings 2-4 Secondary Research 5 Literature review sourcing information from various research sources Methodology Outlining and justifying the primary research and sampling methods 6-9 Primary Research 10 Research findings from primary research methods, including; focus groups, interviews and surveys Persona Using research findings to present a visualization of the target user - used through the following design process 11 Image Board 12 An image used to convey the problem space - lack of planning and the results of that URS Key points found through the research summarized and translated into key specifications required by the solution 13 References The list of references used throughout this research document
CONTENTS  1  Introduction  A description of the goal of the research and an overview to the findings  2-4 Secondary Resear...
INTRODUCTION Aim: Understand what unsustainable transport is and how it can be lessened Objectives; 1) Establish the current unsustainable travel patterns 2) Identify unsustainable commuting habits 3) Identify the reasons for unsustainable car travel 4) Understand why current sustainable alternatives are not being used 5) Understand users commuting needs 6) Translate the findings into a set of user requirements Phase one of this paper looks at the how the current transport is unsustainable. Where sustainability is defined as: meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987). Investigating into the scope of the problem area and identifying the current reasons for of using cars as opposed to more sustainable alternatives. The research highlights that active commuting is a sustainable alternative to using a car. However there are barriers to this method of transport. Phase two then looks at how active commuting can be increased by understanding the latent needs of these individuals with relation to commuting. Unsustainable Travel University of Brighton Page 3 Ben Le Brocq © 2016
INTRODUCTION Aim  Understand what unsustainable transport is and how it can be lessened Objectives  1  Establish the curre...
REVIEW ! LITERATURE The current transportation system has been identified as not sustainable for a while now (OECD, 1996). The greatest contributor to CO2 emissions in the average American household is transport (Froehlich, et al., 2009). It is estimated that by 2025, worldwide transport-related greenhouse gas emissions will be 30% higher than 2005 levels (Van Audenhove et al., 2014). Van Audenhove et al. (2014) continue to identify sustainable urban mobility as one of the major challenges for the future. energy to produce the same amount of product with the same amount of equipment. This efficiency normally leads to a product price drop. This price drop then leads to increased consumption. Thus the increased technological efficiencies are partially lost (Berkhout, et al., 2000). There is the similar Jevons Principle where it was predicted that cheaper coal would just lead to more coal use rather than less money spent (OECD, 1996). Despite these technology advancements creating a more sustainable travel solution, it will only be sustainable when meeting the current needs, usage levels and habits. ! AS NOT HAS BEEN THE Purpose of Travel When looking at the purposes for travelling, the Department for Transport (DFT) break it down Understanding why cars are used CURRENT into the following categories; commuting, After identifying that technological advancements TRANSPORT business, education/escort education, shopping, may not be the long term solution, this report SYSTEM other escort, personal business, leisure and now looks into why cars are the preferred IDENTIFIED other including just walk (Department for method of transport and how this can be SUSTAINABLE lessened. Transport, 2015). Leisure accounts for 26% of Transport for London (TFL) have travel, with shopping at 19% and commuting/ highlighted the following reasons for car use; business at 19%. Leisure travel takes place • Ease and convenience, predominately at the weekend, whereas commuting • Travel time, takes place during the week in a regular, habitual fashion • Comfort, (Department for Transport, 2015). • Encumbrance and • Trip chaining Travel by Car TFL continued with understanding the main influencers as Throughout all of these travel purposes, travelling by car is habit and availability of alternatives (TFL, 2013). The car also most frequent.Travelling by car is the most common form of provides more status and pleasure than other modes; it is transport since the 1960’s, with 64% of the UK journeys being a means of self-expression, and enables one to control a made by Car according to the Modal comparisons (TSGB01) powerful machine (Steg & Gifford, 2005). statistical data set (Department for Transport, 2015). This is a major cause of environmental pollution, traffic congestion Alternative to cars and social problems (Newman and Kenworthy, 1999 as cited With this understanding for car usage, this research now in Shannon et al., 2006). There have been advancements in turns to understand how car use can be reduced. Alternative this technology area. These include the electric cars such methods of transport include, public and active transport. as Tesla model S (Tesla, 2016) and the BMW i range (BMW, However, a problem with public transport is that it is 2016).Although technology aims at making transport “more” already overcrowded (The House of Commons, 2003) and sustainable, the mitigating effects of new technologies tend to increasing the use of public transport may cause further be overshadowed by the continuing growth of car use (Steg overcrowding issues. Whereas active transport (walking and & Gifford, 2005). This can be seen as part of the “Rebound cycling) has the scope to be increased from it’s current level Effect”: Technology efficiency is increased resulting in less of 15% (11% walk and 4% cycle) in the UK (Department for ! ! Unsustainable Travel University of Brighton Page 4 Ben Le Brocq © 2016
REVIEW    LITERATURE The current transportation system has been identified as not sustainable for a while now  OECD, 1996 ...
Transport, 2015). There does not seem to be any literature discouraging the growth of active travel. Thus active travel will be explored as an alternative to car usage. Replacing the car Looking at replacing the car with active travel, there is research from Steg and Gifford (2005) that suggests when looking at reducing or removing car usage, the individual will experience a loss of status and pleasure. Furthermore, the change is transport mode may be seen as a threat to the individuals QoL (at least initially). Steg & Gifford, (2005) list the QoL indicators as follows; • Health, • Partner and family • Social justice • Freedom • Safety Health Benefits Taking these QoL indicators into account, where “health” was highlighted as the most important, there is research which links active travel with significant health benefits (Mulley, et at., 2013; Humphreys, et al., 2013; Bopp et al., 2012). Thus these significant co-benefits of active travel due to the effect in climate change mitigation and health (Mulley, et al., 2013) may provide a sustainable route to replace the car. Active Commuting The majority of the literature refers to active travel in relation to commuting and refers to this as “Active Commuting” (AC) (Mulley, et at., 2013; Humphreys, et al., 2013; Bopp et al., 2012). Although it was highlighted that the most frequent purpose for transport is leisure (Department for Transport, 2015), this research will now focus on commuting due to the supporting literature and that most commuting happens during the weekdays in a habitual fashion. Whereas, leisure travel takes place during the weekend. Thus, AC will be researched further. Humphreys et al., (2013) also found that greater participation in AC contribute to improved health by increasing physical well-being. Current literature A more recent study Nordfjærn, et al. (2016) states that it is imperative for urban quality of life and sustainable urban development that individuals reduce their car use or shift to alternative and more pro-environmental transport, such as Unsustainable Travel University of Brighton walking and bicycling (active commuting), public transport or electric car (Nordfjærn, et al., 2016). The literature by Nordfjærn, et al., (2016) provides a synchronic approach to this problem area. Benefits of AC Bopp et al., (2012) provide key insights into the additional benefits of AC which may be essential when promoting this shift of transport mode. “There are many well-documented benefits of AC, including a reduced risk of obesity (Lindstrom, 2008), cardiovascular disease (Hamer and Chida, 2008), and all-cause mortality (Andersen et al., 2000). Additionally, AC can potentially facilitate positive environmental (e.g., less pollution) and economic (e.g., car operating costs) outcomes (Litman and Doherty, 2009)” - as cited in Bopp, et al., 2012. Further research will then be required to identify whether individuals are aware of these benefits. Individuals Priorities and Behaviour change The benefits of AC have been highlighted by Bopp et al., (2012) and Rundmo et al., (2011) highlights that individuals who prioritized health (and environmental) issues were more likely to use public or active transport. It can thus be suggested that raising awareness of these priorities may result in a rise of AC. Whereas individuals who tend to use a motorized car reported stronger priorities of travel flexibility and comfort (Rundmo et al., 2011, as cited in Nordfjærn et al., 2016). The transfer from prioritizing flexibility and comfort to health and environment may require a behavioural change. If so, the Transactional Model (TTM) Other of Behaviour can be used to identify the stages of change (Prochaska Surface Rail & DiClement, 1984). The stages of behavioural change are shown in Local Bus Table 1. In addition to the transaction model of behaviour (knowing which Walk stage the individual is) it is recommended that the following three elements must converge at the same time for a behaviour (change) to occur; motivation, ability and trigger (MAT) which can be seen in Table 2 (Fogg, 2009). As a result, behaviour may be influenced greater when the stage of which the individual is at so that the correct approach can be taken with the three converging elements. Car Barriers to AC Aside from the behavioural changes, there are the perceived barriers to AC which could prevent individuals using active Page 5 Ben Le Brocq © 2016
Transport, 2015 . There does not seem to be any literature discouraging the growth of active travel. Thus active travel wi...
Infographic summary of literature review forms of transport. These barriers are highlighted at the “Table 3” section of the Summary literature review. Time constraints, concerns of safety (traffic), travelling somewhere after work and concerns about appearance are the significant barriers to AC (Bopp, et al., 2012). Time, distance, weather, need to travel during lunch or after work are the top barriers as highlighted by Shannon et al., (2006).The key insights from this research was that reducing actual and perceived travel time had the greatest impact on commuting patterns and improve cost effectiveness of AC (Shannon et al., 2006). A graphical representation of the key factors discovered throughout the literature review process EDUCATION / EDUCATION ESCORT PERSONAL BUSINESS OTHER ESCORT SHOPPING OTHER INCLUDING JUST WALKING PURPOSE FOR TRAVEL AVERAGE NUMBER OF ANNUAL TRIPS LEISURE MON TUE THU WED SAT FRI SUN COMMUTING AND BUSINESS SAT MON TUE WED THU FRI SUN OTHER PRIVATE TRANSPORT OTHER PUBLIC TRANSPORT MOTOR CYCLE LONDON UNDERGROUND BICYCLE SURFACE RAIL LOCAL BUS WALK CARS/VAN DRIVER/PASSENGER Target These barriers are relevant to all commuters. Taking a synchronic approach, targeting individuals who are already prioritising health and environmental issues (contemplation stage of TTM), suggests that there is potential for change (Shannon at al., 2006). Thus further research will be focused on targeting employees at businesses who prioritise sustainability (within their mission statement, ethics or corporate responsibility). c on C te in rra e ks al ew r im ce rs s fic af Tr he -C ult ffic Di y d Si of et - ot lem ob pr ts k or rw an er pp y t fe af fs sa ta ou th i th lw ve ck La of ab o ns er s tra al He te af in ra t ns co e er me Ti h ew d re ns n er er m so r ce c on ef Pr g lin STATUS AND PLEASURE on C C l ve a Tr STATUS AND PLEASURE SUSTAINABLE ACTIVE TRAVEL ? ? ? Table 3 Conclusion To conclude, the current transport system is unsustainable.Although leisure is the most common transport purpose, it predominately happens at the weekend.Whereas commuting is more habitual, where it is assumed that this will result in a greater long term effect. Commuting by car is the most common form of transport, which has been defined as a major cause for environmental pollution, traffic congestions and social problems. Thus, an alternative is required. Technological advancements provide a more sustainable solution, however the rebound effect states that these advancements will only result in greater usage. When understanding why cars are used, there is this status and pleasure attached with this vehicle that provides an easy and convenient form of comfortable transport. There are alternatives to commuting by car; public transport and active transport. However, public transport is already becoming over crowded, thus an increase in this would not be sustainable.Whereas, active travel can be increased sustainably. In this research active travel will be referred to as active commuting (AC) defined as: using a method of transport which involves physical effort such as walking and cycling. Active Commuting There are many benefits to active commuting including environmentally and physically. Creating a shift from car usage to AC may result in a loss of this status and pleasure. However, this could be accounted for by creating a behavioural change, shift in perceived priorities and awareness of the AC benefits. Together with this behavioural change, there are perceived barriers to AC which include; time distance and weather.The second phase of this research will look into the current habits of commuting with an aim of gaining an understanding to the latent needs, habits and perceived priorities of these individuals. The goal will be to identify further insights and translate these into user requirements for developing deep and meaningful solutions. Unsustainable Travel University of Brighton Page 6 Ben Le Brocq © 2016
Infographic summary of literature review  forms of transport. These barriers are highlighted at the    Table 3    section ...
ETHODOLOGY TARGET POPULATION Individuals commuting to work prioritising health and environmental issues. Both car commuters and active commuters are targeted to give comparisons. SAMPLING NON-PROBABILITY Access to the whole target population is not feasible in this given project scope. As a result a non-probable sample will be taken form the target population. The following sampling methods were used to create the target sample; • Convenience - as a result of time constraints and location, the sample consists of individuals in Brighton or already part of the known network. • Snowball - Asking current contacts to ask their contacts to participate in the study. This may skew the results if their friends have similar commuting habits. • Quota - This will be split across two or more organisations to Compare multiple organisations. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY All research methods have been piloted. Usage of multiple methods allowed for comparisons of findings and ensured triangulation. The research begun with an online questionnaire, selected applicants were then invited to take part in a Dairy study. An interview was then complete to step further into the active commuters mindset and habits.With all the knowledge in mind, a focus group with individuals who commute by car was held to ask specific questions around their wants and needs. • Online questionnaire AIM: Gain quantitative data and pre-screen potential diary study participants. Using the online questionnaire tool; Google forms and shared on social media to collate data (convenience sampling). One of the limitations is that only written responses can be analysed (not the way they are said or how the user acts). • Diary studies AIM: Step into a week of a active commuter and car driver to uncover their current habits and feelings. After screening the applicants from the online questionnaire, individuals were selected using the Quota method; one car driver and one active commuter. Participants were sent an online form to make it easy for user data entry. A limitation was the ability to complete the study daily around the busy commute - which may have caused the incomplete diary studies. • Interview with Directed Story AIM: Outline the current habits, feelings and reasons of active commuters. An interview based around a directed story allowed the habits and feelings to be explored in greater detail. The selected individual is a regular active commuter with a high level of planning. This allowed for a deeper understanding into the mind of active commuters • Focus Group AIM: understand why car drivers are not actively commuting and how their habits differ to active commuters, using the insights from the active commuter interview. Semi-structured questions as shown in the diagram on page 11, was used to direct the flow of the group discussion. The sample for this focus group was created with a snowball sample, derived from a convenience sample. There was a total of 6 participants who drove to work. Unsustainable Travel University of Brighton Page 7 Ben Le Brocq © 2016
ETHODOLOGY  TARGET POPULATION  Individuals commuting to work prioritising health and environmental issues. Both car commut...
Online Survey Questions based on the literature review findings to understand the users needs. 30 respondents resulted in the following findings. PRIORITY COMPARISONS Health Car drivers within the sample do prioritise health over comfort 150 120 90 60 30 Comfort Flexbility AC % Car % Environment 31 mins AVERAGE COMMUTE TIME 10 9 8 11 12 1 7 6 5 2 3 4 AVERAGE TIME BEGINNING JOURNEY Thoughts of AC POSITIVE NEGATIVE MIXED Unsustainable Travel University of Brighton 6 Key Insights • “Flexibility” may translate to lack of planning. Resulting in driving, opposed to active travel, overtime this then becomes habit. Result 7 selected “flexibility” as a priority. However, when compared with the comparisons, health and comfort were more important. Page 8 Ben Le Brocq © 2016
Online Survey Questions based on the literature review findings to understand the users needs. 30 respondents resulted in ...
Easy solution to lack of planning Instant gratification Diary Study AIM: gain a greater understanding to the habits around commuting by car and actively Although a limited number of participants and responses, the following insights were highlighted from the diary study. Recurring theme - Planning Active commuters are well planned - Their clothing is prepared, lunch packed, check equipment and bike, then begin commute. It may be that this planning is key to commute actively. The car commuter completes chores, meets a friend and then gets ready for work before leaving. There is no planning involved - resulting in the need for a quick flexible commuting solution, where driving provides instant gratification. Active commuters are feeling energetic “Sweaty and buzzin[g]” is the description given by the active commuter. Which could be the result of the endorphins released during exercise, resulting in positive therapeutic benefits, often experienced as a “high” similar to that of morphine(Grossman, 1984) .The release of endorphins may result in this feeling which could act as a positive behavioural change for car drivers as they may not currently experience this in relation to commuting. Car drivers feel too lazy to walk “Would like to walk but I’m either feeling to lazy or don’t have time” • A perceived lack of time • There is the desire to walk there. • Lack of planning results in driving, which gives a “in the moment” solution • Instant gratification - at the cost of long term goals. EASY Unsustainable Travel University of Brighton Page 9 Ben Le Brocq © 2016
Easy solution to lack of planning Instant gratification  Diary Study  AIM  gain a greater understanding to the habits arou...
DIRECTED STORYTELLING INTERVIEW SAMPLE: A experienced, frequent active commuter Aim: understand the current habits of frequent active commuters PREPARATION 01 2030 - Tomorrows lunch - Tomorrow breakfast - Ask wife if she will be joining for breakfast - Check and set alarm ALARM - Awake - Take a shower - Get dressed - Say good-bye checking the schedule for after work - Grab all the bike gear (as planned the night before) - Begin commute on planned route 0720 2200 SLEEP Read a book and relax knowing all is planned for the next day 04 05 LEAVE FOR WORK NIGHT BEFORE PLANNING - Route - Check the bike - Layout commuting clothes - Pack work clothes dependant on weather 02 03 0645 2000 0700 06 EAT & CHECK - Eat breakfast - Check all items required are packed - Spend breakfast with the wife Key finding summary An active individual who enjoys physical activity. Being well planned provides a sense of productivity, with a focus on long term goals. The users attention was not distracted by short term, instant-gratification, long-term Unsustainable Travel University of Brighton goals are of priority to this individual. The overall theme is a well thought-out and clearly planned schedule. Often in physical form, such as the train timetable taken with the individual to this interview destination Page 10 Ben Le Brocq © 2016
DIRECTED STORYTELLING  INTERVIEW  SAMPLE  A experienced, frequent active commuter Aim  understand the current habits of fr...
FOCUS GROUP SAMPLE: 6 participants who currently commute to work by car. AIM: To understand why individuals are driving and why they are not actively commuting. Frustrations? • Other drivers • Traffic • Infrastructure (bus lanes) • Traffic delays are by far the biggest frustration. Well planned? Well planned but chaotic - children can cause a plan to be ruined. No physical means of supporting plan, just a vision in their heads. Ready to work, confident, in control are themes highlighted. Their feelings ultimately depended on the commute, good days went as planned with little to no stress, bad days incurred stress, traffic and time related worries. How do you want to feel? Arriving at work is not a How do you feel problem - however delays, when you arrive accidents or road-rage can at work? have a knock on effect to a users work day. Most participants have young children and their morning appeared to be based around them - a “planned” but busy start to the day. Often not having breakfast “Does coffee count as breakfast”. Most couldn’t recall a set routine but could remember being stressed and busy. Does planning help? of tra nsp or t Focus Group Planning is key - there seems to be the knowledge that planning does help - however it seems that the plan is not comprehensive and live only in the individuals mind. The pain point is that it would take too long (too much effort) to create a comprehensive/physical plan - “you would need a day of the week to plan everything”. Who goes to the gym? Mo de Describe the commute Jump in the car, not too much traffic arrive and start work. There was a week or so of accidents a few months back which made me late for work most days - that was a tough week What’s your morning routine? Two people go to the gym 2-3 times a week. The other 3 other participants complete other physical activty, also 2-3 times a week. Being a few minutes late can cause stress and result in a having to catch up on work. Why Drive? Quick and flexible - the job role of the individuals in the focus group entails them travelling to clients. A car is required to efficiently fit these needs. However, there may be 1-2 days in the week where active commuting is an option. There would need to be a lot of planning to make this work. Unsustainable Travel University of Brighton GYM2-3/WEEK Physical activity2-3/WEEK Why AC? A good way to make use of the current commute - “You get back 2-3 hours of your week”. Productive - making phone calls - gave the perception of enjoyment to a commute. The desire to be productive. Describe the perfect commute Helicopter or roll out of bed. When discussing the commute, the current emotions attached are negative, and that the perfect commute would be no commute at all. Therefore, developing a way to enjoy the journey to work with out the connotations of commuting may be key to the success of promoting AC. Page 11 Ben Le Brocq © 2016
FOCUS GROUP SAMPLE  6 participants who currently commute to work by car. AIM  To understand why individuals are driving an...
“I could get back 2-3hrs of my week by walking to work” Age: 26 Occupation: Digital graphic designer Working Hours: Mon - Friday // 9am - 5pm // ±1hr Location: Outskirts of Brighton City centre Pains Everyday is busy Not having time to workout Wasting time Motivators Social Productivity Achievements Self development and growth Goals Become great at his job Get that promotion Training for a marathon FLEXIBILITY COMFORT HEALTH ENVIRONMENT Unsustainable Travel University of Brighton BIO As a young professional with high ambitions, Gregory wants to make a change. However, to reach these ambitions, a lot of his spare time is spent working. This perceived lack of time often results in Gregory feeling tired. In attempt to catch up with rest, the “snooze” button is sometimes pressed a few too-many times. Which starts the day with a bit of a morning rush to get to work. The morning rush Most mornings are a rush, where even the basics of brushing his teeth, having a shower and getting changed are a struggle to fit in. Often forgetting his lunch or having to skip breakfast to jump in the car and rush off to work. Health and fitness Health and fitness is a key priority for Gregory. Travelling to the gym 3-4 times a week after work. However, staying behind after work to impress the boss may result in only 1-2 visits to the gym. Weeks like this will be more productive, but at the cost of his fitness, especially when training for a marathon. Ideal morning Clear and calm followed by a walk/run to work. Arriving at work with a sense of energy to start the day. Being a key voice in the morning meetings with an aim of being noticed by the boss. Page 12 Ben Le Brocq © 2016
   I could get back 2-3hrs of my   week by walking to work    Age  26 Occupation  Digital graphic designer Working Hours  ...
R E H S U E Z OO FEELING LAZY SN Unsustainable Travel University of Brighton D E R PA E R P UN Page 13 Ben Le Brocq © 2016
R  E H S U E  Z OO  FEELING LAZY  SN  Unsustainable Travel University of Brighton  D E R PA  E R P UN  Page 13 Ben Le Broc...
USER REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATIONS Insight Reference User Requirement User Requirement Specification Number i1 A1 The product must communicate elements which affect the users commute, such as; weather, time, traffic, clothing, equipment checks i4 A2 The product must communicate a leaving time to arrive on work on time (taking into consideration, live traffic and delays) i5 A3 The product must provide comparisons of historic physical activity levels of the user – comparing active commuting to driving i5 A4 The product must make the user aware of the potential time for physical activity i5 A5 The product must incentivize users to activity commute at least twice a week i2 B1 The product should communicate the planned commute in a clear, instantly comprehensible format i3 B2 The product should provide a weekly commuting challenge with a reward scheme at the end of each week which build up over time. i6 B3 The product should communicate the number of kcal’s burnt, time spent active and amount of CO2 saved (carbon footprint lessened) i7 B4 The product should provide at least one motivator, ability and trigger i1 C1 The product could remind the user of 3 main work topics at the beginning of their commute i3 C2 The product could plan the users morning, communicating a “to-do list” INSIGHTS Unsustainable Travel University of Brighton Active commuters are planned and prepared for their journey (the night before) - Car drivers can be well planned but the reality is more chaotic – due to a lack of depth with regards to their plan i1 Driving meets the demand of instant gratification i2 Individuals want to feel; ready to work, confident, in control and productive i3 Being a few minutes late to work can cause a stressful day, having to catch-up on work all day, or even all week. i4 People aren’t currently active commuting but would like and believe it is feasible 1-2 times a week - Car drivers want to actively commute but do not, due to a perceived lack of time/plan - People go to the gym or participate in physical activity 2-3 times a week - Active commuting means the individual “gets back 2-3 hours of their week” i5 Making the commute productive brings value to the commute, which lessens the perceived effort (brings value to the effort) of commuting i6 Behavioural change requires the following; motivator, ability and trigger i7 Page 14 Ben Le Brocq © 2016
USER REQUIREMENT  SPECIFICATIONS Insight Reference  User Requirement User Requirement Specification Number i1  A1  The pro...
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REFERENCES Berkhout, P. H., Muskens, J. C.   Velthuijsen, J. W.,  2000 . Defining the rebound effect. BMW.com.  Online ,  ...