Terrestrial Biomes

By Emily Chambers 

Block G

  • Tundra has unually dry and cold climate
  • It never gets warmer than 45-50 degrees 
  • Precipiatation is 6-10 inches total a year- including melted snow
  • Permafrost, under layer of soil, remains frozen at all times
  • Winter temperatures average -20 to -30 degrees

Location:

 

  • Mainly located in Northern Hemisphere in Alaska, Canada, and Siberia
  • Also in Antarctica

Biotic Factors:

  • The extremely  cold temperatures make it a difficult environment  to survive in
  • Plants and animals have a hard time coping with extra stresses and disturbances
  • Only 48 species of mammals are found in the tundra, but there are a lot of each species
  • Many of the animals adapt to the climate by growing long fur
  • Examples are: Arctic Fox, Caribou, Polar Bear, Snowy Owl
  • Shallow root plants carry out photosynthesis in cold weather, growing low to the ground and blooming quickly in summer
  • Examples are: Arctic Moss, Bearberry, Arctic Willow, Pasque flower
  • Not many different species of insects, but there are black flies, deer flies and mosquitoes

Abiotic Factors:

 

Tundra

 

 

Threats

  • Air pollution can cause smog clouds that contaminate lichen, a significant food source for many animals.
  • Exploration of oil, gas, and minerals and construction of pipelines and roads can cause physical disturbances and habitat fragmentation.
  • Oil spills can kill wildlife and significantly damage tundra ecosystems.
  • Buildings and roads put heat and pressure on the permafrost, causing it to melt.

 Solutions

  • limit tourism
  • Establish protected areas to limit human influence
  • Limit construction

 

Human Interactions

  • About 4 million people live in the arctic areas of the tundra
  • Populations are oscilated due to the cold

Tundra Cont'd

Location:

  • Some animals hibernate in winter, fly south, or endure the cold
  • Birds migrate every year to nest and feed
  • Examples are: Finches, Sparrows
  • Not a lot of plant species becuase of harsh weather
  • Examples are: lichens, mosses, pine, hemlock, evergreen
  • Biome of the needleleaf forest
  • Animals tend to be predators 
  • Exampls are: lnyx, wolverines, bobcats, snowshoe rabbits, Elk

 

  • Stretches over Eurasia and North America
  • Located near the top of the world
  • right below the tundra

 

Biotic Factors:

  • Winters very cold with only snowfall
  • Summers warm, rainy, and humid
  • Spring and Autumn very short- it is either hot and humid or freezing
  • Average temperature below freezing 6 months of the year
  • Temperature range in the summer is 20 degees to 70 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Total yearly precipitation is 12 to 33 inches
  • Soil type is mostly Spodosol, histosol, and inceptosol- they all contain very few nutrients 

 

Abiotic Factors:

Taiga

 

  • Humans live in the Taiga

Threats

  • Taiga biome in danger because of deforestation
  • Logging industries destoy habitats for animals
  • Oil and Gas exploration damages biome
  • Animals hunted close to extinction like the Siberian Tiger

Solutions

  • laws that regulate hunting
  • Organizations are working to bring awareness to conserving the forests

 

 

 

 

Human Interactions: 

Taiga Cont'd

  • Average precipition is enough to support grasses
  • soil too thin and dry for trees to survive
  • tall grass grasslands are very humid and wet
  • short grass grasslands are dry with hotter summers and colder winters
  • In the winter temperatures can be as low as -40 degrees and in the summer as high as 70 degrees.
  • Rainfall in temperate grasslands 10-30 inches a year and rainfall in tropical grasslands 25-60 inches
  • found in the middle latitudes in the interiors of continents

 

 

  • rolling terrains of grasses, flowers and herbs
  • Most common plant life are: Buffalo grass, Sunflower, Crazy Weed, Coneflowers, and Wild Indigos
  • Some common animals are: Coyotes, Eagles, Canadian Geese, Bison, and Prairie Chicken 

 

Location: 

 

Biotic Factors:

Abiotic Factors:

Grassland

Human Interactions:

  •  Humans live in the Grasslands

Threats

  • disappearing due to the division of land for farming and urban development
  • Famers illegally kill the pests such as prairie dogs
  • Reduced food source for animals due to farming
  • Overhunting and Poaching

Solutions

  • National parks have been developed to preserve land

 

 

 

 

 

Grasslands Cont'd

  • Found in the Eastern half of North America and the middle of Europe
  • Other major areas are Russia, Japan, and New Zealand

There are five zones

  • Tree Stratim zone contains oak, beech, maple, chestnut hickory, walnut, and sweet gum trees with heights between 60 and 100 feet
  • the small tree and sapling zone contains young and short trees
  • the shrub zone contains rhodoendrons, azaleas, mountain laurel, and hucklebarries
  • The herb zone contains herbal short plants
  • the Ground zone contains lichens, club mosses and true mosses
  • Animals hibernate and live off the land
  • Some examples are: deer, gray squirrels, mice, raccoons, salamanders, snakes, robins, frogs, and insects
  • Animals try the plants in the forests to see if they are a good supply of food
  • Animals use the trees for shelter, food,and water sources
  • plants have adapted by leaning towards the sun and soaking up nutrients in the ground

Location: 

 

Biotic Factors:

Abiotic Factors:

  • soil is very fertile
  • Average temperature is 50 degrees fahrenheit
  • Average yearly rainfall is 30-60 inches
  • All 4 seasons occur

Deciduous Forest

 Human Interactions:

  •  Humans live in the deciduous forests

Threats

  • land lost due to farms and towns
  • Poaching
  • Deforestation-deciduous forests once covered half the land on Earth but now only make up one third

Solutions

  • National Parks to preserve them

 

 

 

 

Deciduous Forest Cont'd

Location:

  • Found in the west coast of the United States, South America,  South Africa, Western Australia, and Coastal Mediterranean
  • Plants have small hard leaves that hold moisture
  • Examples are: Poison Oak, Scub oak, Yucca Wiple, sbrubs, trees, and cacti
  • Animals are mainly grassland and desert types that have adapted to the hot dry weather
  • Examples are: Coyotes, Jack rabbits, mule deer, alligator lizards, praying mantis, and honey bees.

Biotic Factors:

Abiotic Factors

  • Flat plains, rocky hills, and mountain slopes-referred to as the "Wild West"
  • Very hot and dry
  • Winter temperature is very mild- about 10 degrees Celcius
  • Summer Temperates are so hot and dry that fires and droughts are common
  • Temperatures are around 40 degrees Celcius
  • Soil can support plants that thrive on few nutrients-very dry

Chaparral

  • Human live in the Chaparral

Threats

  • Tourist attractions and buildings
  • factories and industries
  • organisms are threatened and become endangered
  • trees cut down to supplement growing human populations
  • Creation of water diversions and damming

Successes

  • restoration ecology is in progress

 

Human Interactions: 

Chaparral Cont'd

Abiotic Factors

Hot and Dry deserts

  • Temperature ranges from 20-25 degrees Celcius
  • Extreme maximum temperatures ranges from 43-49 degrees Celcius
  • Very little rainfall
  • Average is under 15 cm a year
  • Warm throughout the fall and spring, very hot during the summers
  • winters have very little rainfall
  • Vegeatation is rare

Cold Deserts

  • Temperatures in the winter range from -2 to 4 degrees Celcius and in the summer 21-26 degrees Celcius
  • Lots of snow especially in the winter
  • Rain in the spring
  • Average is 15-26 cm a year

 

 

 

 

Location:

  • Hot and dry deserts are near the tropic of Cancer
  • Cold deserts are near the arctic parts of the world
  • Cover about one fifth of the Earth's land surface

Biotic Factors:

Hot and Dry

  • do not have many plants
  • animals have the ability to burrow underground to keep cool
  • Some examples are Borrowers, Mourning Wheaters, Horned Vipers
  • plants all ground-hugging shrbus and short woody trees
  • All the leaves are filled with nutirents
  • Some examples are Turpentine Bush, Prickly pears, and Brittle bush
  • Plants have the ability to store water for long periods of time and endure the hot weather 

Cold Desert

  • snow in the winter
  • Never gets warm enough for plants to grow only a few grasses and mosses
  • Animals have to burrow to keep warm
  • Some examples are Antelope, Ground Squirrels, Jack rabbits and Kangaroo Rats
  • Plants are scattered
  • All plants are deciduous or contain spiny leaves
  • Summer and beginning of spring is barely warm enough for lichen, grasses, and mosses to grow

 

 

 

 

 

Desert

Human Influences: 

  •  Humans live in certain parts of the desert

Threats

  • Atmosphere pollution
  • drilling for fossil fules
  • Sand extraction and animal hunting
  • Erosion from off-roading vehicles and ATV's destroys plants and habitats

Successes

  • Organizations working to protect habitats

 

Desert Cont'd

Abiotic Factors

  • Savannas have warm temperature year round
  • Not enough rain falls on a savanna to support forests
  • There is a very long dry season and a very wet season
  • Average of 4 inches falls during the dry season 
  • Average of 15-25 inches falls during the wet season-In Africa this is when the monsoon begins
  • Temperatures are around 7o degrees Fahrenheit during the dry season
  •  The soil is porous to allow for fast water drainage
  • It only contains a thin layer of humus which gives the producers nutirents

Location:

  • Found between tropical rainforest and desert biome
  • Found in wide band on either side of the equator on the edges of tropical rainforests
  • In places such as East Africa, South Ameica, and Northern Australia

Biotic Factors:

  • rolling grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees
  • large herds of grazing and browsing hoofed animals 
  • Plants have long roots, thick bark to resist fires, and trunks that store water
  • Most of the animals have long legs to be able to withstand the long migrations
  • Plants and animals depend on each other to keep the environment in balance
  • Serengeti Plains of Tanzania contain animals such as lions, zebras, elephants, and giraffes
  • Grass eating animals can survive here becuase of the plentiful grass
  • Brazil's Cerrado is an open woodland with short trees
  • Contains plants and animals that don't exist anywhere else on Earth
  • Australia contians Eucalyptus trees

Savanna

Human Interaction:

  • There are people that live in the savanna

Threats

  • In Africa people are using the Savanna to graze cattle and goats
  • The grasses are soon eaten up thus turning the savanna into a desert
  • Savanna is lost to the Sahara desert yearly due to overgrazing and farming
  • Hunting and poaching

Successes

  • Tourism brings in money to fund reserves and raises awareness

 

 

 

Savanna Cont'd

Location:

  • Lie near the equator
  • Found in Central America, Africa,and Indo-Malaysia
  • Now cover less than 6% fo the Earth's land surface

Biotic Factors:

  • 70% of plants in rainforest are trees
  • More than half the worlds plants and animals live in the rainforest
  • 1/4 of the medicines we use come from rainforest plants
  • Some examples are Curae, Quinine, and rosy periwinkle
  • Many trees have staights trunks wit h smooth, thin bark

The four layers are

  • emergent- trees have small pointed leaves due to being exposed to winds
  • upper canopy- contains most of the animals
  • understory- made up of trunks of canopy trees, shrubs, and plants with little air flow and constant shade
  • forest floor- completely shaded
  • Each rain forest contains species of monkeys
  • Animals have characteristics such as bright colors, loud vocaliztations, and fruit heavy diets
  • Some examples are toucans, snakes, frogs, sloths, and jaguars
  • Some examples of insects are mosquitoes, brightly colored butterflies, and ants
  •  

 

Abiotic Factors:

  • Year round warmth
  • Average of 50-260 inches of rain falls yearly
  • Temperature rarely gets higher than 93 degrees or drops lower tahn 68 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Soil is very shallow, poor in nutrients and without soluble minerals- thousands of heavy rains have washed away minerals
  • Soil quickly becomes delpleted of all nutrients

Rainforest

Human Interactions:

  • The rainforest is home to tribal people

Threats

  • Extinction
  • Deforestation
  • Soil Erosion
  • Polution
  • Mining

Successes

  • Conservation efforts being made to protect the rainforest

 

 

Rainforest Cont'd

  • Average temperatures range from 10-15 degrees Celcius in the summer and are below freezing in the winter
  • Winter lasts from October to May and Summer lasts until September
  • Poor soil conditions due plants not decomposing quickly from the cold
  • Soil is rocky and sandy
  • Average precipitaion is 30 cm a year

Biotic Factors:

  • Plants and animals have developed adaptations to the severe climate
  • about 200 species of Alpine plants
  • Some examples are edelweiss, aplenrose, gentian, and carniolan lily
  • There is very little CO2 at high altitudes, which plants need to photosynthesize
  • most plants are small perennial groundcover plants that grow and repoduce slowly
  • Animals have to deal with the cold and too high UV wavelengths
  • There are only warmblooded animals
  • They adapt by migrating, hibernating, and insulating their bodies with fat
  • Animals tend to have shorter legs, tails,and ears to reduce heat loss
  • Some examples are Chamois, marmot, snow vole,and golden eagles
  • They have larger lungs, more blood cells, and hemoglobin because of the lack of oxygen and increase of pressure

Abiotic Functions

Location:

  • Found in moutains ranges all over the world
  • Lies just below the snow line of moutains

Alpine

Human Interactions:

  • Humans live in the alpine

Threats

  • Climate change
  • permafrost melting
  • Ski development
  • Acid Rain
  • Hunting

 

Alpine Cont'd

Blueplanetbiomes[Internet]. c2010. [Cited 2016 Nov 20]. Available from:

http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org

 

Brittanica[Internet]. c2013. [Cited 2016 Nov 20]. Available from:

https://www.britannica.com/place/Alps/Human-impact-on-the-Alpine-environment

 

Nature[Internet]. c2015. [Cited 2016 Nov 20]. Available from: 

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep02689

 

 

 

Works Cited