Here is an example of the decoration on the columns and walls

Ancient Egypt was a civilization that excisted over a thousand years ago in Northern Africa. Since Egypt was located in the desert, the main materials the Egyptians used were: Mud bricks from the nile river, and stones such as limestone, granite and sand stones.

 

The walls, colums and peirs were often coverd in drawings and hieroglyphics, the written language of Ancient Egypt.

Many Egyptian structures were decorated with pictures of scarabs, valtures, palm leaves or the papyrus plant. All of these had a symbolic meaning to the Egyptians. 

 

Ancient Egypt

3,050 - 900 BC

Here are the symols used to decorate

Pyramid of Giza: 2560 - 2540 BC

 

Architect: Khufu, Imhotep, Hemiunu

 Built by: Hemiunu, Khufu

 Location: Cairo

Ancient Egypt

Luxor Temple:1400 BC

 

Architects: Amenhotep III, Amenhotep II  

Location: Luxor Governorate 

Sphinx: 2558 -2532 BC

 

Location: Cairo

3,050 - 900 BC

 The classical style is mostly found in Rome and Greece.The most used materials in the classical architectural style was wood, limestone, Pentelikon marble.

 

The most known structures in the classical style are Greek temples. The parts of the temple are called column, an upright support, fireze, decorative boarder on an outside wall, capital, top of a column and pediment, triangular shaped roof.

 

These part are decorated with carvings and drawings represent things that has happened in war or fights or they have a symbolic meaning . These are usually of people and animals. Another improtant feature in the classical style was, sculptures.

 

Example of decoration on temple

850 BC - 476 AD

Classical

850 BC - 476 AD

Classical

Temple of Hephaestus

 

Architect: Ictinus

 

Built in: 450 - 415 BC 

 

Location: Athens, Greece

Byzantine was an old Empire that was founded in 330 AD and located between Europe and Asia.

 

The main materials used in the Byzantine architectural styles were timber, stone, golden mosaic, brick wood that alternate with layers of stone.

 

Most of the churces in Athenes are cross -in-square type with dome. They are a rectengular plan, while on the roof the two vaults intersect to form a cross, which is the dome so-called Athenian type, which is small, elegant and usually octagonal with one or two windows on each side.

 

Domes are triangal transition features from four massive support piers to a drum and then to the shallow done above. It is curved support shaped like an inverted triangle.

527 AD - 565 AD

Byzantine

 

Hagia Sophia was once a church made in 537 AD, later on it became a mosque but now it is a museum.

 

The architects were Anthemius of Tralles, Isidore of Miletus, Trdat the Architect.

 

Location: Istanbul, Turkey

Byzantine

527 AD - 565 AD

The Romanesque Architecture was created around the Middle Ages in 800 AD to 1200 AD. The Romanesque style spred all around europe from England to Italy.

 

The main materials used in this style was old roman bricks that were recycled and stones that were avalible locally.

Some of the main features of the Romanesque architectual style was piers, upright support for a structure, such as an arch or bridge. A pier can also be sections of a structural wall between openings. Another feature is vaults.

 

They used 3 different vaultings: barrel vault, groin vault and ribbed vault. The Barrel vault is a semicurcilar arch streched out along a single axis. The Groin vault is where two vaults meet. The Ribbed vault is many vaults put together and filling in the gaps.

Here are the three vaulting types that were used

Romanesque

800 - 1200 AD

Romanesque

 

Notredame is a cathedrial made in 1163 AD

 

The architects were Pierre de Montreuil, Jean de Chelles, Jean-Baptiste, Antoine Lassus

 

Location: Paris, France

800 - 1200 BC

Here is an example of a Luminus          Here is how a Flying Buttress works                        Here is a Pointed arch

Stained Glass Window                          The weight goes outwards and down

The Gothic architectual style was created in the 1100. The style is mostly known for being in France. The main materials used in this style was limestone, bricks and glass. 

 

Some of the main features of the gothic archetectual style was ribbed vaults, pointed arches, flying butters, a segmental arch transmitting outwards and downwards to support the main arch.

 

Some of the most known decorations was stained glass windows, Gargoyles and sculptures. On the stained glass windows, they used bright colors and they have pictures of people usually from the bible and patterns, with different shaped boarders around them. The Gargoyles were scary fantasy and monster figures such as devils.

1100 - 1450 AD

Gothic

As an example for the Gothic style, I used Notredame.

On this building it has some special features:

  • Flying Buttress
  • Pointed Arch
  • Luminus stained glass

1100 - 1450 AD

Gothic

The Renaissance architecture style originated in Florence in the early 15th century, and then spread throughout europe replacing the medival Gothic style by the start of the 16th century.

 

Renaissance architecture marked the rebirth of the classical culture using many ancient rome forms including the column and round arch, the tunnel vault and the dome.

 

Italian Renaissance construction used materials like stone, marble, teracotta tiles and stucco, mix of sand, Portland cement, limestone and water.

Teracotta tile                                 Marble stone                                           Stucco

Renaissance

1400 - 1600 AD

Saint Peter´s Basilica is a church made in 1506 AD.

 

The Architects were MichelangeloGian Lorenzo BerniniDonato Bramante, Carlo Maderno, Giacomo della Porta, Antonio da Sangallo the Younger.

 

Location: Vatican City

 

 

Renaissance

 

1400 - 1600 AD

 

Baroque architecture, originated at the end of the 16th century in Italy. The architectual style has extravagant orniments, opelant paintings, bold contrast and contrast between balck and white.

 

The main features of the Baroque style are sculptures, complicated shapes, large curved forms, twisted columns, grand stairways and high domes.

 

Louis XIV (fourtheenth) decided to do a massive art campain by giving money to develope the style. Louis knew with cheap material, such as stone, canvas, bronze and paint, a skilled artist could create priceless work of art.

The Hall of Mirrors is the central gallery of the Palace of Versailles in Versailles, France.The architect was Jules Hardouin-Mansart.

1600 - 1830 AD

Baroque

Fuente de los Cuatro Rios --> 

Fuente de los Cuarto Rios is a fountain in the Piazza Navona in Rome designed in 1651 by Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

1600 - 1830 AD

Baroque

<--Trevi Fountain

The Trevi Fountain is a fountain in the Trevi district in Rome designed in 1762 by Nicola Salvi.

 

The Rococo architectual style originated in France in the middle of the 17th century. This style was meant to be a reflection of the times, meaning a time that was happy and uneventful.

 

The rococo style is known for it´s feminine curves, intercate designs, sculptures, detailed decoration and lighter colors. Rococo was much lighter style of architecture than the dark heavy Baroque style.

 

The main materials used were exspensive and elaborate materials such as: colored marbles and bronze. 

1650 - 1790 AD

Here is an example of the usage of colored marbles and bronze.

Rococo

The Catherine palace is a palace in St Petersburg. It was designed in 1717 by Johann-Fredrich Barunstein.

1650 - 1790 AD

Rococo

 

The Neoclassicalism style originated in the early 18th century. The style was influenced by Greece and Rome.

 

The two favorite building materials used were stone and bricks. These materials would need to painted or stained periodically to keep them in condition.

 

There are a few defining charecteristics clean, elegant lines, free standing columns and massive buildings.

 

The main features were columns, arches, pediments, covered enterence and capital

Neoclassicalism

1730 - 1925 AD

The Madeleine Church is a church in Paris that was designed in 1757 by Pierre-Alexandre Vigonon.

Neoclassicalism

1730 - 1925 AD

Madeleine Church

The Gothic Revival architecture style began in the middle of the 18th century in England. It´s popularity grew in the early 19th century. Some people say it should be called the French style because it became staple throughout the Catherderals in France and then spread through Europe.

 

The main materials used were bricks, lime stone and sand stone.

The main features of the Gothic style were Pointed Arches, Buttress, Flying Buttress and Gargoyles.

 

With the Pointed Arch, ceilings could now be built thinner and they didn´t require support spots. The way the ceiling was supported by the arched ribs, allowed a greater hight for the ceiling.

 

A Buttress provided support to prevent stone walls from falling. The Buttress is attached directily to the wall to keep stones from folding out.

 

In France  the Buttresess are attatched to the wall at the top but fly away from the wall and attach to the ground, this is called a Flying Buttress.

 

Another main feature was Gargoyles. The Gargoyles were grotesque figures carved in a sands stone. Gargoyles were often used as the end of a rain spout or to scare away birds.

Gothic Revival

1740 - 1870 AD

 

Washington National Cathedral is a Cathedral Church in Washington DC that was designed in 1907 by George Frederick BodleyPhilip Hubert Frohman

 

 

 

Gothic Revival

1740 - 1870 AD

Art Nouveau began at the end of the 19th century in England. Around this time period there was the industrial revolution and Art Nouveau was a movement aginst that.

 

Art Nouveau is a mix between Neoclassical and modernism. The main materials used were bricks, stone, iron and wood.

 

The words used to describe this style was curvy, complicted decoration and flowery.

 

The curves in this style are usually on windows, doors and balconies. In this style there are some complicated decorations. Many balconies have flower patterns, circules, branches and curlicues

Art Nouveau

1880 - 1910 AD

Art Nouveau

1880 - 1910 AD

Casa Batlló is a building located in the center of Barcelona. It is one of Antonio’s masterpieces designed in 1904.

Casa Batlo

 

Beaux style was influenced by the Ecole des Beaux, the French national school of architecture. It is also influenced by the Architecture of the US. The school played the most concequential role in architecture and design. 

 

The most used materials were steel, concrete, stucco smooth-faced stone and terracotta. The Beaux style proudly desplayed ornate and expensive houses.

 

The main features were rectangiular and circular pediments, balconies, exspensive devoration, flowers, garnd stairways and large arches.

Ecole des beaux: 1671–1793

Architects: Sir Edwin Lutyens's New Delhi

Location: France

 

1895 - 1925 AD

Beaux

Panoramique Grand Palais à Paris is a palace in France made in 1897 and designed by Henri DeglaneAlbert Louvet Albert Thomas and Charles Girault 

1895 - 1925 AD

Beaux

 

Gothic/ Gothic Revival/ Neo Gothic was a style wide spread in Europe during the middle ages and between the 18th and 19th century.

 

Neo Gothic/ Gothic Revival was a architectual style that began in England to receive Gothic forms, mostly in the second half of the 18th century. In the 19th century the most common features were Pointed arches and windows, irregular apperances and rich colors and decoration.

Neo-Gothic

1905 - 1930 AD

Here is an example of the usage of rich colors 

Neo-Gothic

1905 - 1930 AD

St. Patrick's Cathedral: 1910 AD

Architect: James Renwick Jr.

 

Location: New York City

 

 

 

 

 

Art Deco is an influencial visual style, creations we can look at such as drawings and paintings, that first appeared in France just before WWI and became more popular around the 1920´s before it´s popularity decreased before WWII.

 

This architectual style was founded around the Great Gatsby time. That is why the buildings are more geometric, sleek, simple and masculin.

 

The main materials used for this style was stucco, conctrete, smooth-faced stone and terracotta. Steel and alumunium were used along with glass blocks and decorative plate glass.

1925 - 1937 AD

Art Deco

<-- Chrysler Building: 1928 AD

Architect: William Van Alen

 

Location: New York City

 

 

Trump tower: 1979 AD -->

Architect: Der Scutt

 

Location: New York City

 

 

1925 - 1937 AD

Art Deco

Modernism began in Chicago when Louis Sullivan stated that "Form follows funtion." 

 

In Vienna Otto Wagner proclaimed that "The machine age should have a style of it´s own," and launched Vienna Secession.

 

Adolf Loos announced that "Ornemants are crimes."

 

Frank Lloyd Wright balanced machine with functionality with the harmony of nature.

 

In 1911, Lloyd took europe by storm and influenced Rudolph Schindler and Richard Neutra.

 

In 1920 Frank Lloyd built the Hollyhock House in California under supervision of Rudolph Schildler.

 

Richard Neutra joined Rudolph Schindler in California and, they founded Sourthen California Modernism.

 

The main materials used are brick, stones and steel.

The main features are square, rectangulars, diagonals, wierd shapes.

Modernism

1900 - to present

Hollyhock House: 1922 AD

Architect: Frank Lloyd Wright

 

Country: Los Angeles, USA

   

 

 

 

Modernism

1900 - to present

Post-modernism is an architectual style founded at the end of the 20th century.

The main materials used in this style is bold colourful stones, glass and wood.

 

The architecture in this style is colourful and has many wierd shapes, such as a red door or a circular room. An example of this is OCAD Universty in Toronto. The OCAD University has long supporting posts that looks like crayons because it´s an art school. The OCAD also has an outer layer, that has many small black and white checkers with windows squares on it, that does not support the building, it is just there as a decoration and for it to look nice.  

Post-modernism 

1972 - to present

OCAD University: 1876 AD 

Architect: Robbie Young Wright

Post-modernism 

1972 - to present

Dancing house: 1992 AD

 

ArchitectsFrank GehryVlado Milunić

 

Country: Prague